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Biology notes Chapter 1.1 y y y y y y y y y y y y The environment of an organism is its surroundings.

An ecosystem is any environment containing living organisms interacting with each other and with non-living parts to. Abiotic means non living. (temp, rainfall, soil, salinity) Biotic means living Distribution shows where an organism can/may be found Habitat of an organism is the place where it lives Abundance is the number of individuals of a species in a ecosystem/given area. Numbers are affected by an increase in birth/death rates, more/less predators and emigration/immigration. Terrestrial environmentsare environments on land Aquatic environmentsare water environments A group of similar organisms living in a given area at the same time is known as a population A transectcan be used to represent the distributions of a species by using a narrow strip through an area A quadratis used to estimate the abundance of plants and animals; used to sample an area of an ecosystem. Abundance= number captured x number recaptured divided by number marked in recapture y Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells capture energy from sunlight and use it to combine Carbon dioxide and water to make sugars and oxygen. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 602

Carbon Dioxide + water Glucose + Oxygen y

Respirationis the process by which cells obtain energy. Organic molecules, particularly sugars, are broken down to form/produce carbon dioxide and water and energy is released. Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy The energy in glucose can be extracted by plants and animals by a process called aerobic respiration and used to power other chemical reactions. There are two stages Stage one: (anaerobic) occurs in the cytoplasm of the cells and produces C3 called pyruvate molecules and molecules of ATP (energy) Glucose + 2 pyruvic acids (C3) 2 lactic acids Stage two:

(Aerobic) occurs in the mitochondria of cells and produces energy. It uses oxygen and results in the breakdown of pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water and produces 36 ATP (energy) molecules. 2 Pyruvic acid + 6 oxygen 6 carbon dioxide and 6 water ATP provides energy for immediate use y the cell for cellular activity

Chapter 2.2 - Cell membranes: Form and Function y y y All substances are either organicor inorganic. Living things are composed of organic substances, but they also contain inorganic substances. Organic molecules ALWAYScontain carbon atoms. The major groups of organic molecules found in cells are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Inorganic Substances 1. Na+ 2. Ca2+ 3. Zn+ Some have structural components in some molecules 1. Fe2+ - haemoglobin 2. Mg2+ - Chlorophyll

Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Carbohydrates(C,H& O) general formula (CH^2O)^n y y y Fuel for organisms stored as starch (plants) or glycogen (animals) Monosaccharide s: Simplest carbohydrates, consists of single units of sugar. They include glucose, the instant energy in many sports drunks. All monosaccharide s are soluble in water, and are the basic building blocks of more complex carbohydrates. Disaccharide s: More complex than monosaccharide s but is still considered simple carbohydrates. They consist of double units of sugar. They include sucrose (table sugar) which consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together. Lactose (milk sugar) which contains one molecule of glucose linked with one molecule of galactose; maltose contains two linked molecules of glucose. Polysaccharide s: Complex carbohydrates consisting of multiple sugar units condensed to form huge molecules. Starch which is the main food store in plants such as potatoes and beans. One starch molecule contains 2000-3000 condensed glucose molecules. Cellulose, the main component of plant cell

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walls, contains more than 2000 condensed glucose molecules. Polysaccharide s are insoluble in water. Condensation: The reactionwhen two organic molecules link up and a water molecule is produced.

Lipids (C, H & O but never in the ratio of 2:1 for H and O) (3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol) y y y y Fats, solid at 20oC Stored fuel Oils, liquid at 20oC Steroids, some hormones play a structural role in membranes Waxes, waterproof waxy cuticle of sclerophyll leaves

Proteins (C, H, O and N) Body growth and repair Amino acids joined together by peptide bonds to form polypeptide The structure and function of a protein is determined by the sequence in which the following 20 amino acids are arranged in, these 20 are: 1. Alanine y Forms basic structure of cells and tissue 2. Aspartic acid y Form enzymes which catalyze chemical reactions 3. Glutamine 4. Isoleucine y Form some hormones. E.g. Insulin 5. Methionine Nucleic Acids (Organic molecules linked with sugar 6. Serine 7. Tyrosine Molecules, nitrogen bases, and phosphate groups.) 8. Arginine 9. Cysteine y Stores the chemical code for the synthesis of 10. Glycine y Proteins 11. Leucine 12. Phenylalanine y Controls cell function (Chromosomes = DNA + 13. Theronine Protein) 14. Valine 15. Aspaagine Vitamins 16. Glutamic acid 17. Histidine y Co-enzymes that help enzymes to function more 18. Lysine Efficiently. 19. Proline y Needed in small amounts 20. tryptophan y Are specific metabolic processes y Vitamin B s- Metabolism. E.g. Cellular Respiration y Vitamin C Tissue strength and the immune system y y Water y y y Most organisms contain at least 50% and up to 70% water E.g. Humans Act as solvent of chemicals before they can react Participates in some chemical reactions. E.g. Photosynthesis and respiration

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Keeps plant cells swollen Regulate body temperature Movement of molecules y The cell membrane regulates the flow of substances into and out of the cell. It is selectively permeable (allows the passage of some substances but not others.) y Phospholipid is a molecule containing a lipid and a phosphate group. Phospholipids are components of cell membrane. y Diffusion is the passive movement of moleculesfrom a region where the concentration of those molecules is high to a region where the concentration is low. It occurs whether or not a membrane exists. y Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from a dilute solution (where the number of water molecules is high) to a more concentrated solution (where the number of water molecules is lower). y Facilitated Diffusion is a type of passive diffusion across cell membranes involving carrier proteins. y Active Transport is the movement of substances across membranes, requiring the expenditure of energy. It occurs through selective protein channels. Chapter 1.2 A local Ecosystem

Population explosion When the numbers in a population increase dramatically and rapidly. Usually due to more food, less predators etc Types of relationships: y y Predation: One kills and eats another eg: Dingoes eat Wallabies Allelopathly: One organism directly hinders the growth or development of another by releasing toxins. E.g. Some eucalypts release chemicals from leaves to the ground to prevent germination of other seeds nearby/around the tree. Parasitism: one organism live in or on another organism and feeds from it. The host may be harmed in some way, e.g. Tapeworm living in intestines of mammals or flas and ticks on animals. Symbiosis: One organism benefits and the other organism isn t disadvantaged E.g. the clownfish and sea anemones Commensalism: One organism benefits and the other organism is unaffected E.g.the remora fish and the shark. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit from each other, usually one cannot survive without the other, e.g. the algae and fungus which together make up lichen. Organisms of the same type are often found in groups. It can increase chances of survival, finding a mate etc. E.g. Magpie geese

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Decomposers: They cause decay and absorb nutrients from dead organisms or waste materials and return organic matter to the soil. Eg: bacteria and fungi Detritus: Is dead organic matter derived from plants, animals or other organisms

Food chains and Food webs A food chain represents the flow of energy from one thing to another. Food chains usually begin with producers (algae etc) then the primary consumer (usually herbivore/omnivore) then the secondary consumer (carnivore) and finally the tertiary consumer.

E.g. Green plant Plant Eater Animal eater Food chains in aquatic environments are usually longer E.g. Phytoplankton Zooplankton Small fish Bigger fish Even bigger fish Shark Food chains begin with producers which are usually plant or algae. There are herbivores, carnivores & omnivores within the food chain. The first consumer in a food chain (a herbivore) is called primary consumer. It is eaten by a secondary consumer which in turn is eaten by a tertiary consumer and the cycle of life goes on. Scavengers are consumers that eat dead animals Decomposers are organisms such as fungi and bacteria which cause decay Key : eaten by Detritus detritivore predator Or Detritus decomposers Scavengers: Are consumers that eat dead animals Food webs

In most ecosystems there is more than one primary consumer, and animals often eat more than one thing. To show the complex feeding interactions in an ecosystem, we use a food web. The role of an organism in a series of relationships is its Niche.

Biomass is the amount of living material in an organism or group of organisms at one time. y Biomass pyramids are used to illustrate the total amount of organic mass at each trophic level y The amount of energy shown at each trophic level can be shown by an Energy pyramid. The higher an organism is in the food chain, the less energy is available to it. y An adaptation is a feature of an organism that makes it suited to its environment and helps it survive and reproduce. Adaptations can be: 1. Structural Physical characteristics relating to structure of the body 2. Physiological Related to the way an organism functions. 3. Behavioral How an organism responds to its environment y Competition in an ecosystem is the struggle between organism for the same resource. y The impact of humans on ecosystems is very bad. Species become threatened, or even extinct due to human activity. Impacts include: 1. Land clearing 2. Habitat loss 3. Soil erosion 4. Salinity 5. Introduced species 6. Pollution 7. Increasing carbon dioxide emissions y The accumulation of pesticides and heavy metals in the environment results in a process called biomagnifications. E.g. the cane toad has now become a very bad pesticide. y

Patterns in nature Cell notes 1 In 1839, German biologists Matthias Schiedamnand Theodor Schwann stated the cell theory. 1. Cells are the smallest units of life 2. All living things are made up of cells 3. All cells come from pre existing cells (Stated by Rudolf Virchow, 1858) y Robert Hooke: Developed the compound light microscope in 1665 and described what he saw when using it as pores or cells y Robert Brown: Identified cell structure inside plant cells. In 1831 he was the first to identify the nucleus found inside cells. y Unicellular: Composed of one cell

Multi - cellular: Composed of many cells, specialized to form specific functions for the survival of the organism e.g. Nerve, muscle, connective tissue.\

Difference between plant and animal cells: Plant cells y y y Cell walls made of cellulose The cell has a definite outline and regular shape due to the cell wall Although there is wide variation in size, plant cells tend to be larger than animal cells on average. Chloroplasts present in many plant cells Usually contain a large vacuole. No centrioles Animal cells y y y y y y No cell walls The cell has a more flexible and variable shape Tends to be smaller than plant cells. Chloroplasts never present Vacuoles not usual; if present, vacuoles are smaller and often temporary Centrioles present

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Main Cell Structures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nucleus Contains chromosomes, most animals/cells die without one Cellmembrane forms boundary between cytoplasm and outside environment Cytoplasm Contains many organelles where most activities carried out CellWall Gives protection, support and shape part of ALL plant cells Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis in plants, contain green chlorophyll Vacuoles Store water and other substances large + important in plants

Patterns In Nature Cell Notes 2 y Parts of plant and animal cells 1. Cell membrane Contains cytoplasm and controls movement of substances into and out of the cell. 2. Cytoplasm Fluid content of cell. More than 90% water and contains ions, salts, enzymes, food molecules and organelles. 3. Nucleus Large organelle that is surrounded by a double layer of membrane. Looks dark in prepared slides. Contains genetic material and controls cellular activities control center of the cell.

4. Mitochondria Organelle composed of many folded layers of membrane Are involved in the energy transformation that take place in cells 5. Ribosomes Tiny organelles (look like dots) that are sites of the production of proteins 6. Golgi body Stack of flat membrane sacs where final synthesis and packaging of protein in membrane bound vesicles occurs before secretion 7. Vacuoles Membrane bound structures found in most cells. They may contain food, enzymes or fluid. Plant cells typically have large fluid filled vacuoles that provide support. 8. Chloroplasts - Green organelles, found in those plant cells in which photosynthesis takes place. They are composed of many folded layers of membrane. Organelles and their function: y y y y y Procaryotic cells have NO membrane bound organelles. E.g. bacteria, cyanobacteria Eucaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles E.g. protozoa, fungi, plants, animals. Cells have specialized structures called organelles which have a specialized function. Together they co-ordinate the activity of the living cell. The nucleusis the cell organelle that contains the genetic material (in chromosomes) and controls the activities of the cell by controlling which proteins are made in the cell. The chromatinis a darkly stained material in the nucleus of cells that is a combination of DNA, RNA and protein. When a cell is going to divide, the chromatin becomes compacted to form the chromosomes (composed of DNA, protein), which contain genes (the inherited information that determines whether proteins are made or not) At the end of each chromosome is a cap called a telomere that prevent the loss of DNA from the chromosome The mitochondria are organelles which cellular respiration occurs they are composed of many layers of folded membrane. Ribosomes are tiny organelles often attached to the endoplasmic reticulum composed of protein and RNA and are the site of protein synthesis The liposome is a spherical structure covered with a selectively permeable membrane (allows certain types of substances in or out), which absorbs organic molecules from water. They are formed from complex organic molecules called phospholipids Peroxisomes are a small organelle that contains enzymes which use oxygen to break down toxic materials in plant and animal cells. Microtubules are tiny hollow tubes that help control the shape of the cell and assist with movement. Cytoplasmic extensions such as cilia(haw like structures on surfaces of some eukaryotic cells) and flagella(long fine motile organelle) consist of microtubules. Patterns in nature Cell notes three

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Centrioles are a pair of organelles found in animal cells, consisting of hollow cylinders of fibres used in spindle formation in mitosis. They are made up of microtubules(during mitosis). The endoplasmic reticulum are layers of intracellular, membranes that provide an internal surface for many of the chemical reactions in a cell. They can be rough endoplasmic reticulum (has tiny grains of ribsomes attached) or smooth (no ribosomes). A transport vesicle is a membrane enclosed material that is moved around the cell. Transport vesicles move materials from the endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus The Golgi body (A.K.A Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex) is a cell organelle that is involed in the secretion of cellular products. Chloroplasts are green organelles containing chlorophyll (present in some plant cells) in which photosynthesis takes place. It is composed of many folded layers of membrane. Thylakoids in plants are a structure containing photosynthetic pigments, forming part of the chloroplast in green plants. Also contain enzymes needed for photosynthesis, ribosomes and DNA