Dimensioning and Optimization Strategies of GSM Control Channels By: Bhishma Bhardwaj Head, RF Planning ConvergeLabs Anuj Kumar RF Planner

ConvergeLabs Sanjay Thakur RF Planner ConvergeLabs

Abstract:“The paper deals with a detailed analytical overview of GSM frame
structure and their dimensioning. The channel structure and frames in GSM have been discussed. The concept of bursts used in GSM has been elaborated. Effect of Rayleigh fading and frequency hopping has been dealt with. Optimization of configuration of channel structure has been discussed as applicable to particular types of service areas. Impact of various timers & counters on network performance, Computation of paging loads and location area planning under various traffic mobility scenarios and optimization of the same are also discussed .” 1. Introduction: The mobile station (MS) of a GSM public land mobile network (PLMN) communicates with the serving & adjacent base stations (BSS) subsystem via the radio interface Um, the Base Trans Receivers Stations (BTS) communicate with the Base Station Controller (BSC) through the Abis Interface while the BSC communicates with the Network Switching Sub – System (NSS) through the A interface ( Figure 1 presents the basic architecture of the GSM Network) Um
Abis Interface

MS

BTS BTS

EIR
F Interface

E Interface The Home Location Register (HLR) Um assists MS the mobility management by storing part BTS G-MSC VLR MSC of MS’s location information and routing incoming calls to the visitor location register VLR in charge of C Interface the B Interface area where the paged MS roams. The authentification center BTS of HLR and helps in authentification of the MS through its AuC is implemented as a part Um VLR HLR international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI). Stolen, fraudulent or faulty mobile stations MS are identified with the help of equipment identity register (EIR). D Interface The BTS BSC is principally in charge of handovers initiation, frequency hopping, channel allocation, link quality, power budget control, signaling and broadcast traffic control etc. The MSC’s Figure 1 : Basic GSM Architecture functions include paging, MS location updating, handover control etc. The GMSC is often implemented in the same machines as the MSC. The VLR

A Interface

F Interface

The GMSC represents the gateway to other networks like public switched telephone network (PSTN), Integrated services digital network ISDN etc. is always implemented together with a MSC; so the area under the control of MSC is also the area under control of the VLR. 2. Channel Structure:

1

A channel corresponds to the recurrence of one burst every frame. It is defined by its frequency and the position of its corresponding burst within a TDMA frame. In GSM there are two types of logical channels:  The traffic Channels used to transport encoded speech and data information. Full rate traffic channels TCH/F are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26 multiframe. The 26 multiframe lasts 120ms and the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by three bursts. As a consequence the mobiles will not need to transmit and receive at the same time which simplifies considerably the electronics of the system and preventing high level transmitted power leakage back to the sensitive receiver. Half rate traffic (TCH/H) double the capacity of the system are also grouped in a 26 mutiframe. The net bit rate, block length, block recurrence for full rate and half rate traffic channels are 13Kbps, 260 bits, 20ms and 5.6 Kbps, 112 bits, 20 ms. For full rate speech the block is divided into two classes according to the importance of the bits (182 bits for class I and 78 bits for class II). For half rate speech, the block is divided into two classes as 95 bits for Class I and 17 bits for class II. The TCH/F consists of one time slot in each TDMA frame i.e one slot every 4.615ms.  The control Channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks. These can be subdivided into BCH ( Broadcast Channel ), CCCH ( Common Control Channel), SDCCH ( Stand alone dedicated Control Channel), ACCH ( Associated Control Channel) An associated control channel is for down link and uplink and always associated in conjunction with, either a TCH or an SDCCH. Two types of ACCH for circuit switched connections are defined: continued stream (Slow ACCH) and burst stealing mode (fast ACCH). The FACCH carry the same information as the SDCCH channels. The SACCH can be of four types - SACCH/TF (associated with TCH/F), SACCH/TH (associated with TCH/H), SACCH/C4 (associated with SDCCH/4), SACCH/C8 (associated with SDCCH/8). The FACCH is used for signaling over TCH itself to indicate call establishment progress, to command handover etc. during transmission of fast associated signalling on a traffic channel before a call actually commences and for handover commands. The SACCH is used for measurement report. The broadcast channels are down link channel and of three types: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) which gives the mobile station the parameters needed in order to identify & access the network, Frequency Correction Channel (FCH), which supplies the mobile station with the frequency reference of the system in order to synchronize it with the network and Synchronization Channel (SCH) which gives the mobile station the training sequence needed in order to demodulate the information transmitted by the base station. The common control channel helps to establish the calls from the mobile station or the network and are used to allocate an SDCCH to the mobile station. The SDCCH allocated is used for signaling between the mobile station and the network and is used to allocate a Traffic Channel (if required) to the mobile station, for location updates, authentification of the MS etc. After Traffic Channel is allocated to the MS, the SDCCH channels are released. Three types of CCCH can be defined – The paging Channel (Downlink only) , PCH, which is used to alert the MS of an incoming call; The Random Access Channel (RACH), Uplink only, which is used by the MS to request access to the network i.e. for allotment of an SDCCH. The Access Grant Channel (AGCH), down link only, which is used by the base station to inform the MS about which channel i.e SDCCH it should use. This channel is the answer of a base station to a RACH from the mobile station. The 2

e. This means that except for SDCCH. The carrier separation is 200KHz.e. The net bit rate.e. AGCH) or for uplink only (RACH).SDCCH can share a physical channel with a BCH or CCCH but not with a TCH. All other control channels are either for downlink only (BCCH. A physical channel is therefore defined as a sequence of TDMA frames. PCH and AGCH must be assigned to the BCCH carrier only on any even numbered time slot. block length and block recurrence time of the control channels is summarized below in Table 1. SCH. The control channels FCH and SCH are always sent on Time Slot 0 of the BCCH carrier which for this reason does not follow frequency hopping. The principle of frequency hopping is that each TDMA frame is transmitted over a different frequency except the BCCH (beacon ) frequency.615ms. The logical channels are mapped on to a physical channel i. on to a particular time slot of the TDMA frame which repeats after every 4. 3060/13 ms One 26 frame multiframe lasts 15/26*8*26 i. Time Division Multiple Access and Time Slot Structure: Eight basic physical channels per carrier i. a time slot number and a frequency hopping sequence. SACCH carries about 2 messages per second SACCH (with SDCCH) 299/765 168 + 16 6120/13 ( after every two 51 multiframe) SDCCH BCCH AGCH 598/765 598/765 n*598/765 184 184 184 3060/13=235.6 184 184 20 40 Note: One 51 frame multiframe lasts 15/ 26 * 8* 51 i.2 4.38 (after every 51 Multiframe) 3060/13 (after every 51 Multiframe) 3060/13 (after every 51 Multiframe) PCH P*598/765 184 3060/13 (after every 51 Multiframe) RACH V*26/765 8 3060/13 (after every 51 Multiframe) The total number of blocks and per recurrence period is adjustable on a cell by cell basis & depends on parameters broadcast on the BCCH The total number of blocks and per recurrence period is adjustable on a cell by cell basis & depends on parameters broadcast on the BCCH The total number of blocks and per recurrence period is adjustable on a cell by cell basis & depends on parameters broadcast on the BCCH FACCH/F FACCH/H 9. SACCH carries about 2 messages per second 16 bits are resaved for control information on layer 1. RACH. FACCH and SACCH. 168 bits are used for higher layers. all other control channels have to be on the BCCH carrier frequency only. 168 bits are used for higher layers. The SDCCH can be assigned to any carrier and only time slot. PCH. 120ms 3. Table 1: Control Channel Block Structure Control Channel SACCH (with TCH) Net Bit Rate Kbps 115/300 Block Length (bits) 168 + 16 Block Recurrence (ms) 480 (after every four 26 multiframe) Remarks 16 bits are resaved for control information on layer 1. Thus we see from the above that the only channels that are for both downlink and uplink are the associated control channels (FACCH & SACCH). eight time slot are used to make up a TDMA frame.e. The control Channel BCCH. The TCH are 3 . FCH.

ISDN. The actual data transmission takes place only during the period of 147 bits which is 542. in particular. Each burst ends with a guard period to prevent burst overlapping due to propagation delay fluctuations and 4 .3Khz.5769ms) and transmitting information at a modulation rate of 1625/6 Kbits/sec which is the input to the GMSK modulator. The bandwidth B of the Gaussian filter in the GMSK modulator is 81.HyperFrames 3. SACCH and FACCH ( if required) . Thus we have two types of multiframes:  A 26 multiframe with a duration of 120 msec=(15/26)*8*26 in which TCH/F bursts are sent for 24 frames.615ms. TS is called a burst. This means that one time slot.mapped in a 26 frame multiframe and the control channels in a 51 frame multiframe. interval respectively.3 KHz6/1625*1/1000= 0. Figure 1 gives the schematic arrangement of TDMA frames. The remaining time in the time slot is used for power ramp up and down.25 bits. Hence the duration of Superframe is the same for Traffic Channels and Control Channels. There are five types of bursts each having 15/26ms and having 156. Figure 3: Burst Used in GSM The effective transmission power is constant over the entire transmission period. Hence the BT product comes out to 81.8ms long. The basic radio resource is thus a time slot lasting 15/26 ms (.51 TDMA frames which is used to carry control channels.12 seconds and contains either 51 numbers of 26 multiframe or 26 numbers of 51 multiframe.76 seconds. both the channel induced and intentional controlled inter symbol interference.1 From Multiframe to Hyperframe: One multiframe consists of either 26 TDMA frames (each TDMA frame consisting of eight time slots) used to carry Traffic Channels.SuperFrames .  A 51 multiframe with a duration of 235. One hyperframe contains 2K superframe and lasts 3hrs 28mins 53. The frame number FN thus can have 26*51*2048 values from 0 to 2715647.38ms = (15/26)*8*51ms A TDMA frame with eight time slots is of duration (15/26)*8= 4.3KHz Tbit= 81. 3. It must be noted that the power ramp and down envelope at the leading and trailing edges of the transmission bursts is attenuated by 70dB during a 28and 18 micro sec.or . MultiFrames .2 Bursts: The physical content of a Time Slot . Each burst has tail bits added at both ends to reset the memory of the Viterbi Channel Equalizer (VE) which is responsible for removing. including guard time is 156.25 bits duration (15/20 * 1625/6). A schematic representation of burst in power over time presentation is given in Figure 2.3 A time slot may be pictured in a time/frequency diagram as a small rectangle 15/26ms long and 200KHz wide. SACCH bursts – on one frame with one slot vacant. The 26 multiframe lasts for 120ms which was chosen as a multiple of 20ms in order to obtain some synchronization with fixed networks. Figure 2:Frames . This FN is transmitted by base station as a part of Synchronisation burst. multiframes. This leads to the value of TDMA frame as 120/26 and that of one TS as 120/(26*8)= 15/26ms. A Super frame lasts for 6. superframes and hyperframes.

The stealing flag indicates whether a 57 bit packet actually contains user data ( set to 0) or FCCH information (set to 1). where T3=(10*T3’)+1.25 GUARD BITS The training sequence of 64 bits is identical for all BTS. The autocorrelation function of the eight training sequences calculated between the central 16 bits and the whole 26 bit sequence has a central correlation peak surrounded by 5 zero’s on each side. TN increments when QN changes from count 624 to 0 . the value of TN is set to 0 . RXQUAL levels characterize speech quality and dropped calls .25 Bits) T : 3 TAIL BITS .25 Bits) 3. FN is determined by the relation FN=51((T3-T2) mod(26)) +T3+51*26*T1.2048).QN increments every 12/13 micro seconds. G: 8. RXQUAL is the Bit Error rate BER derived from the 26 bit midamble from the TDMA burst.51.624) counting the quarter bit intervals in burst. The 26 bit training sequence is placed in between the two packets of 57 bits each. The MS sets up its time base counters after receiving a synch burst by detecting QN (Quarter Bit Number = 0.T3’ being contained in the 25-SCH bits The synch burst is the first burst that the mobile station needs to demodulate in the downlink direction. In the absence of transition the modulated signal is shifted towards higher frequencies and the interference created by ramping outside the frequency slot would be greater then with a bit transition . TN (Time Slot Number= 0-7) and FN (TDMA frame number= 026. The tail bits are not set to 1 as the transition from ‘1’ to the first ‘0’ bit of the burst and from the last ‘0’ bit of the burst to ‘1’ fall exactly in the ramping portion of the burst amplitude profile. F: I STEALING BIT G: 8. T PAYLOAD 57 BITS F TRAINING SEQUENCE 26 BITS F PAYLOAD 57 BITS T G Figure 4 : Normal Burst (156. This means that the receiver has to memorize the first packet 57 bits before being able to demodulate it.for multiple path echoes.Every normal burst contains 114 bits of useful encoded data sent in two packets of 57 bits each.2 T : 3 TAIL BITS . T1 SCH SEQUENCE 41 BITS RACH DATA 36 BITS T2 GUARD BAND 68. The BS sends synchronization burst on timeslot 0 of the BCCH carrier. where 0 indicates the highest quality and 7 the worst .25 GUARD BITS Synchronization Burst: T SCH DATA 39 BITS EXTENDED TRAINING SEQUENCE 64 BITS SCH DATA 39 BITS T G Figure 5 : Synchronization Burst (156.FN increments whenever TN changes from count 7 to 0. BN is the integer part of QN/4. The 26 bit training segment is constructed by a 16 bit Viterbi channel equalizer training pattern surrounded by five quasiperiodically repeated bits on both sides . The 78 encrypted bits are decoded to arrive at the 25-SCH control bits.2.25 BITS 5 .Quality of the received signal RXQUAL is a key parameter for evaluating network performance. These 25 control bits contain the PLMN color code and BS color code (BSIC) and the TDMA frame number.T2. The value of QN is determined from the 64 bit training sequence. BN (Bit Number= 0156). There are eight different training periods & for neighboring base stations one of the eight different training patterns is used associated with the so called BS colour codes which assist in identifying the BS’s. T1.

25 Bits) T: 3 TAIL BIT. The BTS determines the actual propagation delay when the access burst arrives at the BTS and calculates the distance of an MS from the BTS and provides the offset time as a 6 bit number (Timing Advance) to the MS which in turn advances its time base over the range 0-63 bits to transmit its signal earlier to enable the normal burst to fit in the receiver window of the BTS. The access burst has longer guard period of 68.25 Bits) T: 3 TAIL BITS.REQ or an HND-ACC message. The exact shift between downlink & uplink as seen by the mobile station is 3 Burst Period minus TA. G:8. The 36 bit contain among other parameters the encoded 6 bit BSIC (BS Identifier Code) and contains either a CHAN.7 KHz above the BCCH carrier frequency. dummy bursts are inserted into otherwise empty time slots on the BCCH frequency.e.G:8. 2.2. The dummy burst are coded with a predefined pseudo random bit 6 . 4. Thus the MS on receiving this fixed frequency signal fine tunes to the BCCH frequency and waits for the synch burst to arrive after one TDMA frame i.25 bits to ensure that the access burst fits in the receiver window of a BTS.25 Bits) T1: 8 TAIL BITS .2. For a connection setup from idle state wherein a CHAN-REQ message is sent using access burst. 3.25 GUARD BITS AlI 148 bits (142+6) are coded with 0.5 Dummy Burst T PREDEFINED BIT SEQUENCE 142 BITS T G Figure 8: Dummy Burst (156. 3. T2: 3 TAIL BITS The access burst is used only for the initial access by the MS to the BTS which applies in two cases: 1. This allows a maximum cell distance of 35kms. For handover wherein it sends HND-ACC message.4 Frequency Correction Burst: T ALL ZERO 142 BITS T G Figure 7: Frequency Correction Burst (156. The access burst arrives at the base station with a time error of twice the propagation delay compared to the reception window.Figure 6 : Access Burst (156.615ms. We must note that the MS has already synchronized with the network.25 GUARD BITS To enable the BCCH frequency to be transmitted with a constant power level. The output of GMSK modulator is a fixed frequency signal exactly 67. The access burst is the first burst that a base station needs to demodulate in the uplink direction. The access burst always starts with the bit sequence 00111010 followed by 41 bit synchronization sequence allows the BTS to recognize the access burst.

mobile receive Allowed Frequencies = 124 with 200khz spacing b. Easy formulas to describe the actual frequency of an ARFCN are (n=ARFCN):  Primary Band: Fuplink (n) = (890 + 0. base receive 1930.1800: Fuplink (n) = 1710 MHz + 0. With frequency hopping all the bursts containing the parts of one code word are transmitted on different frequencies and are hence not damaged in the same way by Rayleigh fading. a TCH ARFCN has bursted transmission with power levels that can be different in different time slots . base receive (including standard GSM 900 band) 925-960 MHz: base transmit. A key difference between BCH and TCH ARFCN is that a BCH ARFCN has continuous transmission at a constant power level on all time slots . When the mobile station moves at high speed. For DCS 1800 there are three power classes of 4W peak output power.2 (n-1024) 975 ≤ n ≤ 1023 Fdownlink (n) = Fuplink (n) + 45 MHz  DCS. mobile receive Allowed Frequencies = 194 with 200khz spacing c.25W peak output power. The sum of a lot of phase shifted signals with a random distribution of phases has an envelope following the Rayleigh distribution. base receive 935 – 960 MHz: base transmit. The fading is frequency dependent. 1W and 0. PCS 1900 Band: 1850-1910 MHz: mobile transmit. and the minimum having 0.2n) MHz Fdownlink (n) = Fuplink (n) + 45 MHz 1 ≤ n ≤ 124  Extended GSM: Fuplink (n) = (80 + 0. Frequencies Available: The following frequency bands are specified in GSM : a. The transmission frequency remains the same during the transmission of a TDMA burst having eight time slots.1990 MHz: base transmit. Extended GSM 900 Band: 880. the 7 .25W peak output power. mobile receive Allowed Frequencies = 374 with 200khz spacing d.2 (n.2n) MHz 0 ≤ n ≤ 124 Fuplink (n) = 890 MHz + 0. Primary Band: 890. DCS 1800 Band: 1710-1785 MHz: mobile transmit.8W peak output power. For PCS 1900 there are three power classes of 2W.915 MHz mobile transmit. whereas.511) Fdownlink (n) = Fuplink (n) + 95 MHz 512 ≤ n ≤ 885 The radio interface of GSM uses slow frequency hopping. In most cases. mobile receive Allowed Frequencies = 299 with 200khz spacing For GSM 900 different categories of mobile there are four power classes with the maximum power class having 8W peak output power and the minimum having 0.915 (MHz) mobile transmit. 1W peak output power. base receive 1805-1880 MHz: base transmit. 4. the emitting and receiving antennas are not within direct line of sight and the received signal is a sum of a number of copies of one signal with different phases due to multipath propagation and reflection.sequence to prevent accidental confusion with frequency correction bursts.

GSM allows 64*n different hopping sequences to be built. SFH allows the transmission to reach the level of performance of high speeds (around 6.615ms) is sufficient to decorrelate Rayleigh fading. In cells of smaller capacity the operator may choose to let the channels other than those on the beacon frequency to hop only on as many frequencies as there are TRXs . the MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) which may take as many values as the number of frequencies in the set and the HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) which may take 64 different values. or. This results in an even load at the base station. T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 T 7 T 8 T 9 T 10 T 11 T 12 S 13 T 14 T 15 T T T 18 T 19 T 20 T 21 T 22 T 23 T 24 T 25 I 26 16 17 Figure 9: TCH/F FRAME (120 ms=26 Frames) T:TRAFFIC . AGCH. 480ms. In distant cells using the same frequency set. but bearing different HSN. The BCCH Carrier frequency (Beacon Frequency) is not hopped i. 12*8 plus the difference of one time slot). Two channels bearing the same HSN but different MAIO never use the same frequency on the same burst.e. In this case.5 dB gain). They are described by two parameters. slow frequency hopping does no harm but it does not help much either. However. different HSN should be used to gain from interferer diversity. 4. even. 8*26*4 burst periods i. a cell is equipped with exactly as many TRXs as allocated frequencies. even with non-identical frequency sets. Usually channels in one cell bear the same HSN and different MAIO’s. the cycle of two SACCH using successive time slots are separated by 97 bursts periods (i. Cycles 5.1 TCH/F and its SACCH: A TCH/F is always allocated together with its associated slow rate channel (SACCH). It is best to avoid HSN=0 which leads to poor interferer diversity.e. For a set of n given frequencies. though they are separated by three burst period in time domain. However. Coding follows cycles based on the grouping of four successive bursts.difference between its position during the reception of two successive bursts of the same channel (i.e. 5. In most applications. SCH. when the MS is stationary or moves at slow speeds. the full cycle lasts four 26-multiframes i. On the opposite two channels using the same frequency list and the same TN. S: SACCH. In order to spread the arrival of SACCH messages at the base station. PCH must use a fixed frequency to ease initial synchronization acquisition and reduce system complexity. FCH.615ms.e. the channels BCCH. for the SACCH. on as many frequencies as available . A mobile station transmits (or receives) on a fixed frequency during one time slot (≃577µm) and then must hop before the time slot on the next TDMA frame after 4. For the TCH/F. The second advantage of frequency hopping is “Interferer Diversity” where due to different hopping sequences of neighboring interfacing cells using the same frequencies. It is important to note that slots of one channel bear the same time slot number in both uplink and downlink directions. The sequences are pseudo random except for the special case of HSN=0.e. a cycle contains 6 times 4 bursts in the 26-multiframe of 120 ms. RACH.I: IDLE 8 . the quality improves as the received interfering signal follows a different hopping pattern than that of the cell where the MS is receiving the signal.where the frequencies are used one after the other in order. interface I/n th of the bursts.

f s bcc h ccc h f s ccc h ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccc h ccc h i 9 . SDCCH/4 are grouped by 4 along with its associated SACCH/C4 and combined with common channels to form an equivalent of TCH/F and its SACCH/F. Only one SDCCH/4 combination can be defined for each cell. a group of four slots separated by 4.5.615ms (8 bursts periods) every 51-multiframe.s2: their SACCH/Hs 5.1 FCCH and SCH: (Down link) One SCH slot follows each FCCH slot 4. The SDCCH/ 4 can be combined with common control channels and sent on TS0. Each of these two channels use 5 slots in each 51-multiframe of TS0 of the beacon frequency.38 ms) D0 – D7 : EIGHT SDCCH/8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS S1-S4 : FOUR SACCH/C8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS . of surrounding base stations.615ms (8 bursts periods) every two 51-multiframe. This dedicated table can contain the same list of ARFCNs as the idle mode table or a different list . D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S1 S2 S3 S4 I I I Figure 11 (51 MULTIFRAME=235.615ms later. In the idle mode .4. All SDCCH follow a cycle of 102*8(two 51-multiframe) burst periods i. FCCH. s1.3 SDCCH SDCCH are of two types: SDCCH/8 and SDCCH/4 SDCCH /8 are grouped by 8 along with its associated SACCH/C8 to form the equivalent of a TCH/F & its SACCH/F. 5.e. A BCCH Allocation (BA) Table or list is a set of ARFCNs broadcast to the mobile in the idle and dedicated modes for monitoring as potential neighbor cells .4 Common Control Channels: The cycles of traffic channels (26frames) and control channels (51 frames) do not have a common divider. this list is broadcast on the BCCH in a System Information type 2 message . in the dedicated mode on the SACCH in System Information Type 5 message . The mobile station recognizes the time slot as TS0 whenever it receives FCCH and SCH.2 TCH/H A TCH/H in time domain is described as one slot every 16 burst periods( two TDMA Frames) in average. These are combined with 4 slots for SACCH separated by 4. SCH. There are maximum 16 different scheduling for mobile stations in connection with a SDCCH/8.t2: two half rate TCHs . This allows the mobile station in dedicated mode to listen to synchronization channel. t1 1 t2 2 t1 3 t2 4 t1 5 t2 6 t1 7 t2 8 t1 9 t2 10 t1 11 t2 12 s 1 13 t1 14 t2 15 t1 t2 t1 18 t2 19 t1 20 t2 21 t1 22 t2 23 t1 24 t2 25 s2 26 16 17 Figure 10: TCH/H FRAME t1.ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/8 I : IDLE FRAMES 5. Thus during the cycle of SDCCH two blocks of 4 slots are used for SDCCH/8 and one block of 4 slots for its SACCH/C8. and frequency correction channel.

multiframe i. AGCH: (Down link) A BCCH together with PCH + AGCH uses 40 slots per 51-multiframe on the same TN of the beacon frequency.3 RACH (Uplink ) Two combinations exist: RACH/F and RACH/H.38ms. SACCH/C4 (4 frames). PCH + AGCH (36 frames) all on TS0. In the Uplink direction: RACH/H (27 frames). RACH /F ON ALL 51 FRAMES RACH (ACCESS BURST) RACH / F: RACH IS SENT ON THE UPLINK FOR ALL THE 51 MULTIFRAMES D3 R R SA2 SA3 RACH FROM 14 TO 36 FRAMES D0 D1 R R I RACH/H :RACH IS SENT ON THE UPLINK FOR 27 FRAMES D0-D3 : SDCCH/4 FOUR TIME SLOTS SA : SACCH /C4 FOUR TIME SLOTS I : IDLE FOUR TIME SLOTS . SACCH/C4 (4 frames) c) Large Capacity Cells: 10 . SCH (5 frames). i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) Figure 12(51 MultiFrames=235. SDCCH/4 (16 frames).2 BCCH. BCCH then uses the first block of four slots and PCH +AGCH the remaining three. In both cases the BCCH information can be sent only once every 51. ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH . The RACH/F uses one slot every TDMA frame of 4.4.38ms) 5. only once every 235.e. 5. In the Uplink direction: RACH/F on TS0 b) Small Capacity Cells: In the downlink direction: FCCH (5 frames). This allows seven time slots for TCH in each TDMA frame . BCCH . BCCH (4 frames) .38ms) 5. BCCH (4 frames) . bcch ( 4 time slots ) .4. SDCCH/4 (16 frames). a) Medium Capacity Cells: In the downlink direction: FCCH (5 frames).615ms and its organization is similar to TCH/F with its SACCH/F in the uplink direction. A RACH/H fits in the burst left free uplink by 4 numbers of SDCCH/8. The RACH/H uses only 27 slots in the 51-multiframe. the four slots of first group are used by BCCH and the remaining nine by PCH + AGCH.f : FCCH (1 time slot) . PCH. These 40 slots are built into 10 groups of 4. R : RACH 1 TS Figure 13(51 MultiFrame=235.4 Common Channel Combinations: Every cell broadcasts one single FCCH and one single SCH on TS0 of the Beacon frequency. PCH + AGCH (12 frames). This allows seven time slots for TCH and SDCCH in each TDMA frame . SCH (5 frames).4. s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . The other combination is that BCCH with PCH + AGCH uses 16 slots per 51multiframe all on the same TN of the beacon frequency. The common channels are always arranged in three combinations to make a 51-multiframe.

4 then the CBCH can use the same time slot 0 and frequency as the common channels . or 3.5 CBCH A Cell Broadcast Channel CBCH follows a cycle of 8*51*8 burst periods i. In each multiframe the CBCH can be seen as a part of SDCCH/4. f bcc ccc f s ccch ccch f s D0 D1 f s CBCH D3 f s SA0 SA1 i h h f s bcc ccc f s ccch ccch f s D0 D1 f s CBCH D3 f s SA2 SA3 i h h TSO : DOWN LINK (two 51 frames shown to show cycle of SACCH/C4 ) f : FCCH (1 time slot) . s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . The CBCH reduces the number of available SDCCH’s.multiframe cannot be used for paging. It then replaces one of the four SDCCH/4s (b) The CBCH can use TS0 (but not on the beacon frequency). D0-D3 : SDCCH/4 . ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH .2.4. each channel corresponding to a given Time Slot number. 1. Channel Organisation in a cell: In order to optimize implementation costs in a base station we must choose channels so that they form groups where at most one burst is emitted at any one time. (a) except FCCH and SCH ( which are only on TS0). and to fill the time slots within these groups as much as possible. Table 2 gives the possible combinations of channels on a particular time slot. SA0-SA3 :SACCH/C4 ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/4 (requires two 51 multiframes ) s Figure 14: CBCH used in place of D2 6. Every TRX is able to cope with 8 channels. In this case the MS in idle mode has to listen regularly to bursts of different time slot numbers. the first block of PCH + AGCH in the 51. BCCH appears on the extension set to enable the mobile to listen to bursts on one TS only since BCCH contains information about RACH of that particular Time Slot. Table 2 Channels TCH/F with SACCH/F 2 numbers of TCH/F with SACCH /H 8 numbers of SDCCH/8 FCCH + SCH+BCCH+PCH+AGCH In down Link RACH/F in uplink BCCH +PCH+AGCH In downlink BCCH +PCH+ AGCH+ SDCCH/4 In downlink Unused Slots 1 out of 26 none 3 out of 51 1 out of 51 None 11 out of 51 3 out of 51 11 . i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) . When CBCH is used.4.For large capacity cells combination (a) is used along with up to three extension sets on even time slots only. 8 numbers of 51-multiframe. An extension set contains the same channels as combination. bcch ( 4 time slots ) . 5. There are two combinations possible: (a) If the common channel configuration is that of case (b) in para 5. BCCH .e. It is allowed to stop the termination of the CBCH incase of congestion and then these resources can be used by SDCCH during such periods.

S: SACCH. SA0-SA3 :SACCH/C4 ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/4 (requires two 51 multiframes ) D3 D3 R R R R SA2 SA0 SA3 SA1 RACH FROM 14 TO 36 FRAMES RACH FROM 14 TO 36 FRAMES D0 D0 D1 D1 R R R R I I TS O UPLINK :RACH + SDCCH/4 ( two 51 multiframe shown to show complete cycle of SACCH/C4 D0-D3 : SDCCH/4 FOUR TIME SLOTS SA : SACCH /C4 FOUR TIME SLOTS I : IDLE FOUR TIME SLOTS . D0-D3 : SDCCH/4 . A small capacity cell with a single TRX can typically be organized as TS0: Downlink: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+PCH+AGCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/C4 Uplink : RACH/H+ SDCCH/4 TS1 to 7: Downlink : TCH/F + SACCH/F Uplink: TCH/F + SACCH/F f bcc ccc f s ccch ccch f s D0 D1 h h f s bcc ccc f s ccch ccch f s D0 D1 h h TSO : DOWN LINK (two 51 frames shown to show cycle of SACCH/C4 ) s f f s s D2 D2 D3 D3 f f s s SA0 SA2 SA1 SA3 i i f : FCCH (1 time slot) . bcch ( 4 time slots ) . i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) RACH /F ON ALL 51 FRAMES RACH (ACCESS BURST) TS O UPLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon frequency D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S0 S1 S2 S3 I TWO SUCH GROUPS OF 51 MULTIFRAME ON ANY TS OTHER THAN TS0 OF Beacon Frequency:DOWNLINK D0 – D7 : EIGHT SDCCH/8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS S0-S3 : FOUR SACCH/C8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS . s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH .RACH/H+ SDCCH/4 In uplink none A TRX may combine eight such groups with restrictions on time slots as discussed earlier. s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH . BCCH . A. bcch ( 4 time slots ) .ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/8 I : IDLE FRAMES EACH OF ONE SLOT S1 S2 S3 I I I D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 TWO SUCH GROUPS OF 51 MULTIFRAME ON ANY TS OTHER THAN TS0 OF Beacon Frequency:UPINK f s ccc h i I I S0 12 . R : RACH 1 TS T 1 T 2 T 3 T T T T T T T T T S T T 15 T 16 T 17 T 18 T T T T T T T I 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TS 1 TO TS 7 ( DOWNLINK & UPLINK ) ( one 26 multiframe shown ) 13 14 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 T:TRAFFIC . i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) . A medium capacity cell with 4 TRX’s may typically be organized as One group on TS0: Downlink: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+PCH+AGCH Uplink : RACH/F Downlink: SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 Two groups of SDCCH Uplink : SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 on two time slots Remaining 29 Time Slots: Downlink: TCH/F+ SACCH/F Uplink : TCH/F + SACCH/F bcc ccc f s ccc ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccc h h h h TS 0 DOWNLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon Frequency f : FCCH (1 time slot) . BCCH .I: IDLE Figure 15 :Channel organization for a small capacity cell B.

bcch ( 4 time slots ) .ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/8 I : IDLE FRAMES T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T 18 T T T T T T T I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Remaining 29 Time Slots ( DOWNLINK & UPLINK ) ( one 26 multiframe shown for single time slot ) 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 T:TRAFFIC . An important factor is the average and maximum loads that are expected for BTS and how the load is shared between signaling and pay load. s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . bcch ( 4 time slots ) . S: SACCH. to optimize the configuration. ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH . A large capacity cell with 12TRXs may include : ( A BS may typically have maximum 16 TRXs) One group on TS0: Downlink: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+PCH+AGCH Uplink : RACH/F Downlink: BCCH+PCH+AGCH One group on TS2. BCCH .2.TS4 & TS6 DOWNLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon Frequency f : FCCH (1 time slot) .I: IDLE Figure 16: Channel Capacity for a medium capacity cell C.4.4. s : SCCH ( 1 time slot) . a network operator has to consider the peculiarities of a service area and the frequency situation.D0 – D7 : EIGHT SDCCH/8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS S0-S3 : FOUR SACCH/C8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS . i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) RACH /F ON ALL 51 FRAMES RACH (ACCESS BURST) TS O UPLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon frequency i i f s ccc h i bcc ccc i i ccc ccch i i ccch ccch i i ccch ccch i i ccc ccc h h h h h ONE GROUP EACH ON TS 2.ASSOCIATED WITH SDCCH/8 I : IDLE FRAMES i T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T 18 T T T T T T T I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Remaining 87 Time Slots ( DOWNLINK & UPLINK ) ( one 26 multiframe shown for single time slot ) 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 T:TRAFFIC . For cells having several carriers and with a large amount of expected traffic on 13 . BCCH .I: IDLE Figure 17: Channel capacity for a very large capacity cell While configuring a cell.6 OF Beacon Frequency:DOWNLINK & (one 51 multiframe shown ) UPLINK D0 – D7 : EIGHT SDCCH/8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS S0-S3 : FOUR SACCH/C8 CHANNELS EACH OF FOUR SLOTS . one group Uplink: RACH/F On TS4 & one group on TS6 Five groups of SDCCH: Downlink : SDCCH/8 +SACCH/8 One five time slots Uplink : SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 Remaining 87 time slots: Downlink : TCH/F +SACCH/8 Uplink : TCH/F + SACCH/F bcc ccc f s ccc ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccch ccch f s ccc h h h h TS 0 DOWNLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon Frequency f : FCCH (1 time slot) . S: SACCH.6 UPLINK ( one 51 multiframe shown ) of Beacon frequency D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S0 S1 S2 S3 I I I FIVE SUCH GROUPS OF 51 MULTIFRAME ON ANY TS OTHER THAN TS0. i : IDLE ( 1time slot ) RACH /F ON ALL 51 FRAMES RACH (ACCESS BURST) TS 2. ccch (4 time slots ) : PCH + AGCH .

SDCCH congestion. Maximum value 15 sec. For cells having one or two carriers the combination A is most likely to be used with SDCCH’s combined with Common Control Channels on time slot 0. stops when LOC. Dimensioning of Logical Channels: SDCCH load is affected by the following events:  Mobility management Procedures like location updates. Maximum 4 attempts can be made.615ms). we must note the position of the SDCCH’s in the uplink and downlink direction. & on SDCCH time slots of combination B & C. starts when IDENT-REQ is sent and stops when IDENT-RSP is received Starts when SDCCH is allotted. Starts when SDCCH is allotted at expiry provides release indication Mobile Originating Call Timer T3230 in ms Authentification Timer 3240 in ms Timer T 3260 in the network At expiry it releases the SDCCH On expiry releases SDCCH Identification Timer T3270 in the network On expiry releases SDCCH 14 . Supplementary Services. location updates etc.UPD. The values of holding time of SDCCH is determined by several timers whose maximum values and functions are defined briefly as under: Table 3 PROCESS TIMER MAXIMUM VALUE REMARKS Location Updating Timer T 3210 in ms Maximum value is 10 sec. channel requests. IMSI detach  Call Setup. Periodic Registration. location update is acknowledged by the network. Thus the command response cycle is reduced to one multiframe.e. allotment of Traffic Channel is done after which SDCCH is released Maximum value 10 sec starts when the ms receives an AUTH-REJ message Maximum value 12 sec.Common Control Channel eg. TCH load and TCH congestion . Here the paging capacity of the cell is lower as only three paging blocks are sent as compared to nine in combination B. channel assignments.e. The signaling needs for mobiles like those for call setup.ACC message is received by the ms i. If the base station manages a huge amount of transreceivers it is probable that the number of Common Control Channels provided by combination B is not enough to handle the work and in such cases combination C is preferred wherein additional Common Control Channels are allotted. At expiry it starts timer T 3211 at whose expiry location update is restarted.e authentification is successful. IMSI attach. It stops when CM-SERV-ACC or CM-SERVREJ or AUTH. are then taken care by the SDCCH’s. If the base station commands the MS to authenticate itself the response can be sent only 15 frames later (i. Short Message Service point to point.REJ is received i. Paging. the combination B discussed above is most likely to be used.e after 15*4. starts when AUTH-REQ is sent and stops when AUTH-RSP/AUTH-REJ is received by the network Maximum value 12 sec. The CBCH if used is always mapped on to the second subslot of SDCCH i. on TS0 of combination A. An optimum Configuration of SDCCH depends on Cell statistics like SDCCH load. 7.

SDCCH Configuration when no TCH is used for signaling with TCH-GOS as 2% and 1% can be selected as below for combination A.e. B and C discussed under para 6 earlier.5%. However. SDCCH use the physical channels more effectively than TCH. SDCCH/4 is generally not used incase of high paging load in the location area. combination ‘B’) b) The number of TRX’s limits the possible number of SDCCH/8s in a cell. combination ‘A’) or eight paging blocks (for non combined i. Table 4 15 . starts when TMSI-REAL-CMD is sent and stops when TMSI-REAL-COM is received On expiry releases SDCCH a) The Common Control Channel. If the number of SDCCH are increased the SDCCH GOS improves but the capacity of TCH reduces . it is possible to add an SDCCH/4 even if the number of SDCCH/8s equals the number of TRX’s in the cell. each multiframe contains two paging blocks (for combined i. So the SDCCH dimensioning is a compromise between TCH capacity and SDCCH Grade of Service . CCCH ( consisting of PCH+AGCH) in the downlink can work in stealing mode which means replacing paging blocks with Access Grant Blocks if required. In this technique we can reduce the number of time slots reserved for SDCCHs. It is not possible to have more SDCCH/8s in a cell than the number of TRX’s.e. Other combinations are also discussed. The Figure in parenthesis are those for 1% GOS of TCH .Timer T3250 in the network Maximum value 12 sec. d) When all SDCCHs are occupied additional call setup signaling can be performed on TCH whenever more TCHs are available. c) A connection for speech or data requires an SDCCH for call setup signaling and a TCH for the remaining of the call. This means that the traffic load on TCH increases since a TCH instead of SDCCH is allotted on IMM-ASS-CMD message.25 respectively times the blocking rate for TCH which means that for a 2% GOS of TCH the GOS of SDCCH/8 should be less than 0. If dedicated blocks are used. As a general rule we can say that blocking rate (GOS) for SDCCH/4 & SDCCH/8 should be less than 0.5 & 0.

22%) 24.62% (28.32% (17.7012) 5.31%) 56.0095 (7.7807) 0.06% (34.003) 2.4037) 8.8778) 6 2.730 (2.51% (4.896 (13.22% (56.4037) 0.99% (1.31% (36.191) 21.7299 (2.4555 (0.84%) 18.89% (2.108) 8.8694 (0. the same table applies to different values of GOS for TCH.534 (25.3755 (6.761 (14.95%) 2 SDCCH/8 (When paging signaling load is higher and SDCCH/8 are configured on other than TS0) SDCCH/4 (On TS0) SDCCH/4+ SDCCH/8 (SDCCH/4 on TS0.2789 (4.2789 (4.02%) 5.49%) 8 7 2.1533) 15 14 9.18%) 26.29% (32.935 (2.3490) 2.730 (2.e.2003 (7.7606) 4.No.61%) 3.51%) 36.47% (125.31%) 12.07% (23.055% (4.3490) 7 2.64%) 64.932 (20.337) 21. It is important to note that for TCH GOS 1% and 2% the ratio of SDCCH/TCH remains about the same i.181) 14 8.8694 (0.932 (20.7807) 27.349) 4.730 (2.41%) 14.4555 (0.18% (35.54%) 2.6104 (4.48% (13.501) 29.91%) 94.7012) 0.909) 119.49% (38.337) 75.7012) 2.36%) 4 12 3 11 0.64% (8.8778) 0.6104 (4.8694 (0.03%) 3 SDCCH/4 4 3 23 SDCCH/8 4 SDCCH/4 8 4 7 3 22 31 SDCCH/8 2* SDCCH/8 (combination B) 8 16 7 15 30 29 SDCCH/4 + SDCCH/8 12 5*SDCCH/8 (combination C) 12 11 30 40 39 87 The SDCCH/TCH ratio given in the above table indicates the SDCCH configuration required for a given Grade of Service of the TCH .0096 (8.158 (1. of TRX SDCCH type Number of SDCCH Sub Channels without CBCH Number of SDCCH Sub Channel with CBCH Capacity SDCCH in Erla ngs Number of TCH TCH Capacity Erlangs SDCCH/TCH ratio Without With CBCH Without CBCH With CBCH 1 SDCCH/4 ( Combination A) 4 3 0.4475) 5.31% (25.76%) 1.039 (19.81% (98.489) 21.83% (9.4037) 0.3517) 15.51% (13.02% (20.4037) 2.382 (26.24%) 35.7012) 2.69%) 21.158 (1.47) 14.65%) 9.415 (71.827 (21.3490) 2.8778) 0.1533) 26.4555 (0. This means that the same table can be applied for different grades of service of the TCH and that the SDCCH configuration does not depend on the GOS of TCH and instead only on the relationship between TCH-GOS and SDCCH-GOS The same is shown in Figure 18 16 .2003 (7.8778) 7.42%) 35.158 (1.3517) 9.44% (11.8694 (0.651) 22.69%) 5.1575 (1.881) 33.37% (65.4555 (0.82%) 38. SDCCH/8 on any other TS) SDCCH/8 (On any TS other than TS0) 8 7 2.03%) 15.81% (3.276 (1.

for smaller cells whenever CBCH is used the SDCCH resources are more severely constrained . subscriber behavior. size of location area and service provided in the network. Cell Broadcast not used Estimated SDCCH load= 5 mE/ subscriber Estimated TCH load= 20 mE/subscriber SDCCH/TCH ratio= 5/20 = 25% From the above table we can select the configuration which gives SDCCH/TCH ratio of at least 25%. Contributions from each procedure added together give the total SDCCH load per subscriber . the number of performances per busy hour by holding time of the channel (in sec) and dividing the result by 3. This leads us to the combination: 2*SDCCH/8.e. It has been assumed that the limit capacity is reached when 0. SDCCH configuration when TCH is allotted for signaling when all SDCCHs are occupied with TCH GOS 2% and 1% can be selected from Table 5 below. IMSI attach/detach. 17 .The above table also tells us that the reduction in SDCCH/TCH ratio due to use of CBCH is maximum for smaller cells i. for each type of procedure. A margin for traffic peaks of 15% can be added to the estimated SDCCH load .6 . SDCCH traffic in mErlang per subscriber for each type of procedure ( location update. Figure 18 The above table can be used for choice of SDCCH configuration B: Number of TRX’s= 4. The SDCCH/TCH ratio depends on parameter setting . Periodic registration.5 Erlang of signaling traffic is served by the TCH. However if the paging load is less the combination SDCCH/4 + SDCCH/8 can also be used as it is ≃25%. Call set up etc )can be calculated by multiplying.

8 2.93 2.8 5.166 29.1 12.93% 13. of TRX SDCCH type Number of SDCCH Sub Channels without CBCH Number of SDCCH Sub Channel with CBCH 3 7 3 7 3 7 11 3 7 11 15 7 11 15 Capacity SDCCH Number of TCH TCH Capacity E SDCCH/TCH ratio Without 1 SDCCH/4 Combination A SDCCH/8 2 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 3 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 + SDCCH/8 4 SDCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4+SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 Combination B SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 +SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 8 12 4 8 12 16 8 12 16 5.22% 327.761 14.95% 41.166 28.1 12.99% 17.8 With CBCH (Er) 2.6% 32.0 8.932 21.0 5.0 5. A paging message must be sent to all cells belonging to the LA where the MS is registered. Figure 19 (e) Whenever location updates are increased.48% 23.37% 20.8 9.32% 18.8 9.039 29.45% 60.8 9.896 22.5 5.3 11.43% 5 Thus we see that using the Immediate Assignment Command of TCH when all SDCCH’s are busy leads to higher SDCCH/TCH ratios.0 8.009 8.2003 15.28% 63.932 21.9% 75.3 11.1% 34. the demand for SDCCH resources increases.8 5.827 21.Table 5 No.4 4 8 4 8 4 2.44% 28. Too large LA may lead to a paging load in the BTS that is too high resulting in congestion and lost pages.5 7 6 15 14 23 22 22 31 30 30 29 38 38 37 2.0 5.27 9. The situation is depicted graphically in Figure 19 below.23% 31.54% 27.0 2.8 5.34% 40. Dimensioning of the location area depends on the paging load.896 14.72% 55.3 2.4 5.21% 12.95% 23.0 2.8 2.06% 42.3% 282.0 8.65% 8.73% 57.67% With CBCH 82. The 18 .5% 64.32% 38.74% 44.1 2.254 Without CBCH 115. The BTS broadcasts all incoming paging messages.0 5.

4TMSI paging requests or 1IMSI+2TMSI paging requests.e. it only monitors the paging channel belonging to its paging group depending on the setting of the cell parameter BS_PA_MFRMS which informs the MS after how many multiframes ( ranging from 1 to 9) the same paging group is repeated . (g) The paging messages are controlled by timer T3113 which starts when the paging message is sent by the network..e. Smaller LAs means larger number of border cells in the network and hence larger updating load. (j) The MS’s Down Link Signaling Counter (DSC) is initialized to the integer that is nearest to the value of 90/BS_PA_MFRMS when the mobile camps on to a cell.whether the second page. paging load is reduced as the network more or less knows the location of the MS. load on SDCCH. If the number of paging groups (to which an MS belongs) is large the paging time increases as the time before which the right paging block arrives is longer. something that leads to an increase of the average time for a paging response. This counter decrements by 1 when a mobile is not able to decode a paging message and increments by 1 when a mobile successfully decodes a message. Use of TMSI reduces paging load but at the same time use of IMSI has a better chance of successful second paging message. or. either 2 IMSI paging requests.upper boundary of a LA is set by the paging load and the lower boundary by the location updating load. Once the DSC reaches a value of 0. If there are too many paging messages increases the queuing time at the BTS. The value of timer T3212 can vary from 1 deci hour i. The number of attempts is a network dependent choice. 25. This means that a mobile paging block can occur at intervals ranging from 470 ms to 2. A shorter time period reduces the paging load but increases the location updating load i.1 seconds . On expiry. To save battery a MS does not monitor all the paging channels in a multiframe . (f) Each paging block can fit up to four page requests i. 6 minutes to 255 deci hour i. a radio link failure is declared and the mobile 19 .5 hours.e. the network may repeat paging message and start T3113 gain. (i) If IMSI/ attach/detach and periodic location update are successfully and regularly carried out. The initial recommended setting can be for periodic location update every third hour.e. (h) Paging load is also affected by the strategy followed in paging. Timer T3212 controls the periodicity of regular location update. The LA border cells should not be in high mobility areas such as highways etc and instead should be in low subscriber density areas to reduce the load on SDCCH due to location updates and number of handovers. Paging load is also affected by whether TMSI or IMSI is used for paging. is a local page in the same cells or in all the cells under the same MSC area as the former reduces the paging load but the latter has a better chance of successful paging. Time T3113 stops when PAG-RSP message is received by the network. If the number of paging groups in a cell is small than call set up time reduces but the MS power consumption increases at its paging group arrives more frequently. after no response to the paging message in the cell where the ms is registered. If the paging message is global (when LA is not known in the VLR) its is recommended that IMSI must be used.

This leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 20 . In this case. so the DSC will range between 45 and 10 . Case I : Thus for each mobile terminated call 1.e. the Access Grant will work in stealing mode which means that paging blocks are replaced with Access Grant blocks if required . The number of paging attempt per paging block is: 4/ (1+2*25%)= 2. A.89=42. Case II . two cases are considered : Case I . periodicity of periodic location update i.25*33. [(9-(number of paging blocks per multiframe reserved for AGCH))0.89 paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 1.66*3/(0.it is assumed that all second pages use IMSI to identify the MS. that typically 25% of the pages of an MS result in a second page.2354 paging blocks /second and for the non combined case as 9/0. setting of timer T3113.2354)= 33.66 .does a cell reselection. and that the BTS is able to retransmit all the paging requests. paging strategy. There are no global pages in a properly dimensional VLR. and . The paging block capacity of a BTS can be defined as:  For combined case when SDCCH/4 is combined with common control channels resulting in reduced paging blocks availability: [(3-( number of paging blocks per mulitframe reserved for AGCH))/ 0. Paging Attempt/ Paging Block (Paging attempt = 1 TMSI + ¼ IMSI) (since one fourth IMSI equals one half TMSI) Thus the maximum paging capacity in the BTS for case (i) above is SDCCH Combined Case : 2.It is assumed that no second pages are sent . and .2354 paging blocks /second.To calculate the paging capacity of a BTS.2354] Paging Blocks/ Second If no blocks are reserved for AGCH the paging capacity becomes for the combined case as 3/0.it is assumed that all second pages use TMSI to identify the MS. type of paging request used. BS_PA_MFRMS can have value in the range of 1 to 9 multiframes. that typically 25% of the pages of an MS result in a second page Case III . It is reasonable to assume that the maximum allowed paging load is 50% of the maximum paging capacity in the BTS to ensure that no pages are lost due to paging queue in the BTS being full.25 paging commands are issued which contain 1 TMSI and 1/4th IMSI. Thus for a BS_PA_MFRMS=1 it needs 45 bad consecutive messages ( 90 multiframes) to declare a radio failure and for BS_PA_MFRMS =9 it needs 10 such messages (90 multiframes) (k) Paging Capacity of BTS: The paging capacity depends on all the above factors viz the dimensioning of control channels.2354] Paging Blocks/Second  For the non combined case when SDCCH/8 is used on a separate time slot resulting in increased paging blocks availability. size of LA.36 paging commands/ second when no blocks are reserved for AGCH. efficiency of the location updates which reduce paging load.

39=25.97 paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 50. This leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 61.25 paging commands are issued which contain 1 TMSI and 1/2th TMSI. SDCCH Non Combined Case 4*9/(0.97 paging commands/second.69=127.17=76.93paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 152. This leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 50.25*20.92 paging commands/ second.48 paging commands/second. Case II : Thus for each mobile terminated call 1.2354)= 101.17 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 1.97 paging commands/ second when no blocks are reserved for AGCH This leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 20.25*101.84 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 1. The number of paging attempt per paging block is: 4.25*16.2*3/(0.2354)= 122.2354)= 40.25*50.25*40.39 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 1. SDCCH Non Combined Case : 2.93 paging commands/ second when no blocks are reserved for AGCH 21 .2*9/(0.11 paging commands/ second when no blocks are reserved for ACH.55 paging commands/second. B.34=152.34 paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 1.16. SDCCH Non Combined Case : 3.94 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 1.97 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 50.66*9/(0.78=50.25*61. Paging Attempt/ Paging Block (Paging attempt = 1 TMSI + ¼ IMSI) Thus the maximum paging capacity in the BTS for case (ii) above is SDCCH Combined Case : 3.97 paging commands/ second.69 paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 1.2 .84=63.2354)=152.17 paging commands/second. Assuming that the maximum allowed paging load is 50% of the maximum paging capacity in the BTS leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 50. Paging Attempt/ Paging Block (Paging attempt = 1 TMSI ) Thus the maximum paging capacity in the BTS for case (ii) above is SDCCH Combined Case 4*3/(0.94=21.46 paging commands/second Case III : Thus for each mobile terminated call one paging commands are issued which contain 1 TMSI .2354)= 50.78 paging attempts/second The number of paging commands the BTS can handle hence comes out to= 1.25*122. The number of paging attempt per paging block is: 4/ (1+25%)= 3.

9 33.39 108. b.84 61. Case I Case II Case III 0 0 0 38. Also the above table tells us that using AGCH in a stealing 22 . when no second page is sent .93 paging commands/second.92 152. c.97 Maximum Paging Capacity Paging attempts per second 16. b.17 25.93 127. After that comes the paging capacity when TMSI is used for second page i.e.This leads to maximum paging attempt/ second capacity in the BTS as 152. c.5 8. If strategy of Case III is adopted then.98 SDCCH/8 a.93 paging attempts/ sec and the number of paging commands therefore comes out to 152.92 135.39 50.69 122. the risk of unsuccessful paging increases and in the first case the paging capacity reduces although the pages are more likely to be successful .98 28. Similar calculations have been carried out for the cases when one block is reserved for AGCH .93 We can see from the above that the paging capacity for Case III is the highest i.97 50.48 50.59 33. The most important rule is that the maximum paging capacity of a BTS should not be exceeded. In this case if MS has the wrong TMSI in the VLR.7 12.97 Paging Commands per second 21.98 33. c. Case I Case II Case III O O O 12.93 56.36 50.37 135.2 38.98 14.93 50.34 152. Table 6 : Type of SDCCH used Number of paging blocks reserved for AGCH Paging blocks/ Second Paging Capacity Maximum Theoretical Paging Capacity Paging Paging Attempt/ Commands Second per second SDCCH/4 a.The third in terms of capacity is the case when IMSI is used for second page .74 135.93 45. Case I Case II Case III 1 1 1 33.18 33.94 20. b. c.9 90. In areas where paging load is smaller then strategy of case I is suitable .2 38.e.93 SDCCH/8 a.17 152.97 42.11 16. the page may be unsuccessful .19 54.89 40.e.11 152. Hence the recommended strategy is that of Case II i.98 11.9 33.5 8.59 27.55 76.48 67. a second page is sent using the TMSI in areas where paging load is large .97 SDCCH/4 a. A summary of results is shown as under in Table 6.29 13.24 33.7 12.2 101.7 33. b. Case II .49 152.93 112.93 63.98 33.99 135.78 50. Case I Case II Case III 1 1 1 8.98 135.5 22.

24 14.98 98.86 42.29 8.For a combination using Case I i.24 14.935 2.29 8.12 127.44 Traffic Load as per Erlang Table 2.18 57.22*1.mode increases the paging capacity by about 50% for SDCCH/4 and by 12.11 112.76 14.44 16.86 42.36 Maximum paging Load .36 28.36 28.935 Er.44 16. mEr 0.019 0.2 15.The maximum paging capacity and hence maximum paging load depends on the type of SDCCH combination used and the number of blocks reserved for AGCH .276 2. SDCCH/4 the maximum load in mErlang comes out to 24.e. Now for a BTS with one TRX the traffic load at 2% GOS as per Erlang B table comes out to 2.12 127. Assuming an average call duration of 150 seconds the average number of call in an hour comes out to 70.04 24.035 0. Impact of Paging Load on Dimensioning of Location Areas: Base on the earlier calculations of maximum paging capacity of a BTS .36 28.98 98.9 14.86 42.007 0.76 15.037 0.007 mE which is much less than the maximum paging load .276 2.037 0.035 0.005 0.9 22.035 0.021 0.34 65.25*0.11 112.935 2.2 8.021 0.14 73.98 98.021 0.005 0.019 0. 8.83 Paging Load as per Erlang calculations.053 23 3 4 .577/3600 mE ( assuming 25% second pages are sent) =0.007 0.44 mE .04 24. we can arrive at the maximum size of a LA in terms the TRXs a LA can serve .14 73. Similar calculations have been done for 2% GOS for various combinations of TRX and SDCCH and the results are tabulated in Table 7 below for Case I where IMSI is used for second page Table 6: TRX Type of No of SDCCH Blocks Used Reserved for AGCH 1 SDCCH/4 0 SDCCH/4 1 SDCCH/4 2 SDCCH/8 0 SDCCH/8 1 SDCCH/8 2 2 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 Maximum Paging Commands per second 42.2 8.34 65.18 57.18 57.44 .5% for SDCCH/8.276 9.019 0.12 127. mEr 24.01 9. Assuming that 50% of these calls are mobile terminating calls the paging traffic comes out to 35.44 16.34 65.007 0.14 73.01 8.037 0.29 8.01 9.76 15.005 0.11 112.935 2.9 14.04 24.24 14.

34 65.11 112.04 22.24 14.83 21. Control Channel Configurations under various traffic scenarios has been detailed. 8. has been done . the Paging capacity is much greater than the paging load . We have seen that the SDCCH configuration required comes out to be independent of the TCH-GOS.We see that for Location Area dimensioning the requirement of SDCCH resources is the deciding factor as paging capacity exceeds the required paging load.052 The above table tells us that for 2% GOS of TCH channels . Also the above indicates that even if two blocks are reserved for AGCH the paging capacity is adequate . Various factors that affect SDCCH load and Paging Load have been dealt in detail.035 0.035 0. 25% second pages using IMSI for second pages .052 0. Ok10 24 .The dimensioning of SDCCH channels under various GOS has been done .93 21. Calculations for SDCCH configuration for estimated traffic and SDCCH loads has been given . Effect of frequency hopping has been discussed especially for slowly moving users under Rayleigh Fading .29 8.Bursts Structures and their usage has been elaborated. Even if we configure our systems for retransmission of all pages then also the paging capacity exceeds the paging load. Paging Strategies and their comparisons have been described .18 57.83 22. Hence it is the requirement of SDCCH resources that decides the location area dimensioning and the limit due to SDCCH/ TCH ratio requirements will be reached earlier . Calculations for Paging capacity of BTS for various SDCCH configurations has been done under static and dynamic allotment conditions of AGCH .SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 1 2 0 1 2 28.93 0.in particular. Dynamic Allotment of TCH for signaling in case all SDCCHs are busy has been discussed and the trunking gain as a result thereof has been tabulated.98 98.86 16.93 21. Conclusions : In this paper an analytical analysis of GSM frame structure in general and Control Channels .12 127.052 0. Effect of various timers and counter on network performance has been described .14 73.

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