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For the, see province and Sulu. The Sultanate of Sulu Dar al-Islam [note 1] (Arabic: ) was an Islamic Tausg[note 2]state that ruled over many of the islands of the Sulu Sea, in the southern Philippines and several places in northern Borneo. The sultanate was founded in 1457.[note 3] by a Johoreborn Arab explorer and religious scholar Sayyid Abu Bakr Abirin[note 4] after he settled in Banua Buansa Ummah (ummah is an Arabic term for "settlement" or village), Sulu. After the marriage of Abu Bakr and local dayang-dayang (princess) Paramisuli, he founded the sultanate and assumed the title Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-Hshim. Sharif ul-Hshim was a direct descendant of Islamic prophet Muhammad.[4] Currently the issue of who would be the legitimate Sultan of Sulu is disputed by several branches of the Royal Family, although the line of succession fell on the Kiram branch of the royal family from 1823.

Royal Sultanate of Sulu Dar al-Islam 14571917

Borneo Sultanate

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Flag Capital Language(s) Jolo Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Islam Monarchy Sharif ul-Hashim of Sulu Jamal ul-Kiram I 1457 1917 Palawan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Zamboanga City Sabah

Table of Contents
1 History 1.1 Pre-establishment 1.2 Islamization and establishment 1.3 Spanish and British annexations 1.4 Fall 2 The Social class system 2.1 Datu 2.2 Maharlika 3 North Borneo (Sabah issue) 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 External links 7 Citations 7.1 References 8 Bibliography

Religion Government Sultan - 1457-1480 - 1884-1899 History - Established - Annexed by USA Today part of

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The earliest known settlement in the areas soon to be occupied by the sultanate was in Maimbung, Jolo. During these times, Sulu was called Lupah Sug.[5] The Principality of Maimbung, populated by Buranun people (or Budanon, literally means "mountain-dwellers"), was first ruled by a certain rajah who assumed the title Rajah Sipad the Older.

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According to Majul, the origins of the title rajah sipad originated from the Hindu shri paduka, which symbolizes authority.[6] The Principality was instituted and governed using the system of rajahs. Sipad the Older was succeeded by Sipad the Younger.

During the reign of Sipad the Younger, a mystic [7] named Tuan Mashikha[note 5] arrived in Jolo in 1280 AD.[note 6] Little is known to the origins and early biography of Tuan Mashikha, except that he is a Muslim "who came from foreign lands" at the head of a fleet of Muslim traders, [9] or he was issued from a stalk of bamboo and was considered a prophet, thus well respected by the people. [10] Other reports, however, insisted that Tuan Mashikha together with his parents, Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga, were sent to Sulu by Alexander the Great (who is known as Iskandar Zulkarnain in Sejarah Melayu).[6] However, Saleeby dismisses this fact by concluding that Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga were mythical names.[10] According to tarsila, during the coming of Tuan Mashikha, the people of Maimbung worship tombs and stones of any kind. Philippines Portal After he preached Islam in the area, he married Sipad the Younger's daughter, Idda Indira Suga and bore three children:[11] Tuan Hakim, Tuan Pam and 'Aisha. Tuan Hakim, in turn, begot five children. [12] From the genealogy of Tuan Mashikha, another titular system of aristocracy called "tuanship" started in Sulu. Apart from the Idda Indira Suga, Tuan Mashikha also married into another "unidentified woman" and begot Moumin. Tuan Mashikha died in 710 A.H. (equivalent to 1310 AD), and was buried in Bud Dato near Jolo, with an inscription of Tuan Maqbl. [13] A descendant of Tuan Mashikha named Tuan May also begot a son named Datu Tka. The descendants of Tuan May did not assume the title tuan, instead, they started to use datu. It is the first time datu was used as a political institution. [11][14] During the coming of Tuan Mashikha, the Tagimaha people (literally means "the party of the people") coming from Basilan and several places in Mindanao, also arrived and settled in Buansa. After the Tagimaha came the Baklaya people (which means "seashore dwellers") and believed to be originated from Sulawesi, and settled in Patikul. After these came the Bajau people (or Samal) from Johor. The Bajau were accidentally driven towards Sulu by a heavy monsoon, some of them to the shores of Brunei and others to Mindanao.[15] The population of Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya in Sulu created three parties with distinct system of government and subjects. At least in 1417, according to Chinese annals, three kings (or monarchs) ruled three civilized kingdoms in the island. [16] Patuka Pahala (Paduka Batara) ruled the eastern kingdom, he was the most powerful; the west kingdom was ruled by Mahalachi (Maharajah Kamal ud-Din); and the kingdom near the cave (or Cave King) was Paduka Patulapok.[17] The Bajau settlers were distributed among the three kingdoms. [18] Moumin's descendants, the son of Tuan Mashikha populated Sulu. After some time, a certain Timway Orangkaya Su'il was mentioned by the second page of tarsila, that he received four Bisaya slaves from Manila (presumably Kingdom of Tondo) as a sign of friendship between the two countries. The descendants of Timway Orangkaya Su'il then inherited the title timway, which means "chief". On tarsila's third page, it accounts the fact that the slaves were the ancestors of the inhabitants in the island to Parang, Lati, Gi'tung, and Lu'uk respectively. The fourth page then narrates the coming of the Buranun (addressed in the tarsila as "the Maimbung people") Tagimaha, Baklaya, then the drifted Bajau immigrants from Johor.[19] This is the situation of Sulu before Islam came in the area. The island is inhabited by several cultures, and is reigned over by three independent kingdoms ruled by the Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya people. Similarly, the socio-political system is functioned by the rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship. The coming of Tuan Mashikha hence established a core Islamic community in the island.

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Islamization and establishment

At the end of 14th century, a notable Arab judge and religious scholar named Karim ul-Makhdum[note 7] from Mecca arrived in Malacca. He preached Islam to the people, the reason why many citizens, including the ruler of Malacca, converted to Islam. [20] In 1380 AD,[note 8] Karim ul-Makhdum arrived in Simunul island from Malacca, again, with Arab traders. Apart from being a scholar, he is a trader and believed to be a Sufi missionary whose origin is from Mecca.[21] He preached Islam in the area, and was thus accepted by the core Muslim community. He was the second person who preached Islam in the area, since Tuan Mashikha. To facilitate easy conversion of nonbelievers, he established a mosque in Tubig-Indagan, Simunul, which became the first Islamic temple to be constructed in the area, as well as in the Philippines. This was later known as Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque.[22] He died in Sulu, though the exact location of his grave is unknown. In Buansa, he was known as Tuan Sharif Awliy. [6] On his alleged grave in Bud Agad, Jolo, an inscription was written as "Mohadum Aminullah Al-Nikad". In Lugus, he is referred to Abdurrahman. In Sibutu, he is known to as his name.[23] The different of beliefs on his grave locations is due to the fact that Karim ul-Makhdum travelled to several islands in Sulu Sea to preach Islam. In many places in the archipelago, he was beloved. It is said that the people of Tapul built a mosque honoring him and that they claim descent from Karim ulMakhdum. Thus, the success of Karim ul-Makhdum of spreading Islam in Sulu threw a new light in Islamic history in the Philippines. The customs, beliefs and political laws of the people were changed and customized to adopt the Islamic tradition. [24]

Spanish and British annexations

In the 18th century, Sulu's dominion covered most of northeastern part of Borneo. However area like Tempasuk and Abai had never really shown much allegiance to its earlier ruler, Brunei, subsequently similar treatment was given to Sulu. Dalrymple who made a treaty of allegiance in 1761 with Sulu, had

to make a similar agreement with the chiefs of Tempasuk and Abai on the north Borneo coast in 1762.[25] The territory ceded to Sulu by Brunei initially stretched south to Tapean Durian (now Tanjong Mangkalihat) (another source mentioned the southern most boundary is at Dumaring), [26] near the Straits of Macassar (now Kalimantan). However by 1800-1850, these area had been effectively controlled by the Sultanate of Bulungan in Kalimantan, reducing the boundary of Sulu to a cape named Batu Tinagat and Tawau River.[27] The island of Sulu and its dependencies (excluding North Borneo) were annexed to the Spanish crown on 19 April 1851.[28] Sultan of Sulu "granted and ceded" to Alfred Dent and Baron von Overback on 1878, all his rights and powers over:


all the territories and lands being tributary to [him] on the mainland of the Island of Borneo, commencing from the Pandassan River on the west coast to Maludu Bay, and extending along the whole east coast as far as Sibuco River on the south,..., and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco River, ..., [9 nautical miles] of the coast. [27]

Further information: Moro Rebellion, First Battle of Bud Dajo, and Second Battle of Bud Dajo

The Social class system

Among the people of Sultanate of Sulu, the title of nobility could be acquired only by lineage, a "close system" whereby the titled persons inherit their offices of powers and prestige. There are two main social classes in Royal Sultanate of Sulu: [29]

The ruling class
Datu (su-sultanun), which is acquired purely by lineage to the sultanate. Whereas, all male members of the Royal House of Sulu should hold this hereditary title and should hold the style: His Royal Highness or His Highness, according to the traditional customs of Royal House of Sulu.

Whereas, their spouses should automatically hold the title of Dayang Dayang (princess of the first degree) and should hold the style: Her Royal Highness or Her Highness.
Datu Sadja, which may be acquired through confirming the titles (gullal) on the middleman of the Sultan. The gullal is made if a commoner has achieved outstanding feats or services in line of duty through display of bravery, heroism, etc. Datu Sadja is life title of nobility and the title holders should hold the style: His Excellency.

Whereas their spouses should hold the title of Dayang and should hold the style: Her Excellency.

The commoners The commoners are those who do not trace their descent from royalty. The Wakil Kesultan's, Panglimas, Parkasa's and Laksaman's who are commoners hold responsible positions involving administrative matters.
Wakil Kesultanan - region representative outside Royal Sulu Sultanate Panglima - region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate Parkasa - aid-de-camp of region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate Laksaman - sub region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate

The males who hold offices above shall be addressed by the title of nobility Tuan (the title is directly attached to the office), followed by the rank of the office they hold, their given name, surname and region. The females who hold offices above shall be addressed by the title of nobility Sitti (the title is directly attached to the office), followed by the rank of the office they hold, their given name, surname and region.

North Borneo (Sabah issue)

In 1865, the United States Consul to Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, obtained a ten-year lease for the territory of North Borneo from the Brunei. However, the post-Civil War United States wanted nothing to do with Asian colonies, so Moses sold his rights to the Hong Kong-based American Trading Company. Besieged with financial difficulties, the company had to its right on North Borneo Consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Hong Kong, Baron Von Overbeck. Von Overbeck managed to get a ten-year renewal of the lease from the Temenggong of Brunei.

On 22 January 1878 the ruler of Sulu, His Majesty Sultan Jamalul A'Lam, signed a treaty, under what he leased the territory of North Borneo to Gustavus von Overbeck, an Austrian who was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire's consul-general

Sultan of Sulu and Suite

in Hong Kong and to his British partner Alfred Dent, residing in London, as representatives of the British North Borneo Company , without giving away his sovereign rights, and for as long as they desire to use these coastlines. Von Overbeck procured the necessary firearms and also promised to pay to His Majesty Jamalul A'Lam, his heirs and successors the sum of 5,000 dollars rental a year payable every year.

To finance his plans for North Borneo, Overbeck found financial backing from the Dent brothers Alfred and Edward Dent. However, he was unable to interest his government in the territory. Von Overbeck withdrew in 1880, leaving Alfred Dent in control. Dent was supported by Sir Rutherford Alcock, and Admiral Sir Harry Keppel.[30] In July 1881, Alfred Dent and his brother formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd and obtained an official Royal Charter November 1 the same year. In May 1882, the British North Borneo Chartered Company replaced the Provisional Association. Sir Rutherford Alcock became the first president, and Alfred Dent became managing director. [30][31] In spite of some diplomatic protests by the Dutch, Spanish and Sarawak governments, the British North Borneo Company proceeded to organize settlement and administration of the territory. The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei, expanding the territory under control to the, Putatan river in May 1884, the Padas district in November 1884, the Kawang river in February 1885, the Mantanani Islands in April 1885 and additional minor Padas territories in March 1898.[30] In 1888, North Borneo together with Sarawak and Brunei became a protectorate of Great Britain. Its administration however remained entirely in the hands of the British North Borneo Company, with the crown reserving only control of foreign relations. [citation needed] A January 7, 1883, letter from the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Granville confirms the position that the takeover of the British of Sabah, a Sulu property was a lease, not a purchase.[citation needed] It states: "The British Charter [representing the British North Borneo Company] therefore differs essentially from the previous Charters granted by the Crown... in the fact that the Crown in the present case assumes no dominion or sovereignty over the territories occupied by the Company, nor does it purport to grant to the Company powers of government thereover; it merely conveys upon the persons associated the status and incidents of a body corporate, and recognizes the grants of territory and the powers of government made and delegated by the Sultan in whom the sovereignty remains vested. It differs also from previous Charters in that it prohibits instead of grants a general monopoly of trade.[citation needed] "As regards the general features of the undertaking, it is to be observed that the territories granted to the Company have been for generations under the government of the Sultanate of Sulu and Brunei, with whom Great Britain has had Treaties of Peace and Commerce." [citation needed] In retrospect, the British Foreign Affairs communique conceded that the matter of sovereignty remained vested in the Sultan of Sulu and could not be delegated to any party because the Deed of 1878 expressly prohibited it.[citation needed] Perhaps the thorniest item in the Sabah / Sulu agenda was whether the Overbeck-Dent pact with the Sultan of Sulu was a lease or sale (Padjak=Lease? or locally in north Borneo mean buy or lease ALL, and not part of something, paying rental of $5000 per year is the clear evident of lease and not sale). Scholarly sources, including those officially issued by Britain and the US, pointed out that the sovereignty over Sabah, as stipulated in the Philippine claim, was never, at any time in the past and present, relinquished in favor of any person, organization, or entity. Legally and technically, it remained to this day as the exclusive property of the heirs of the sultanate of Sulu. This statement confirms the observation that the transfer of rights made by the lessees to the British North Borneo Company was ab initio flawed and illegal.[citation needed] In 1963 when a negotiation was made in London with Britain for the recovery of North Borneo. The British, in defense of their own argument, insisted the covenant entered into by Overbeck and Dent with Sulu Sultan Hadji Mohammad Jamalul Kiram was a sale, not a lease. [citation needed] What came out as a strong proof in favor of the sultanate was when US Governor General Francis B. Harrison, on February 27, 1947, furnished Philippine vice-president and foreign affairs secretary Elpidio Quirino a photostat copy of the lease document, which was later translated from Malay language and the Arabic script by Professor Henry Otley Bayer of the University of the Philippines. [citation needed] Moreover, Overbeck and Dent, in a statement before the Royal Colonial Institute on May 12, 1885, admitted that the deal they forged with the rightful owners of Sabah did not forfeit the sovereign rights of the Sultan of Sulu and Brunei over the territories administered by the British Borneo Company.[citation needed] Dent declared openly: "As to the Charter, some friends of the enterprise seem to believe that the enormous powers we hold were given by Her Majesty the Queen. It is not so at all. All our powers were derived entirely from the Sultan of Brunei and Sulu, and what the British Government did was simply to incorporate us by Royal Charter, thus recognizing our powers, which recognition is to us, of course, of vital importance."[citation needed]

The Japanese invasion in December 1941 was a water-shed in Borneo's history. Although the island was primarily strategic importance to the Japanese, they rebuild the oil fields at Miri and Balikpapan (which had been sabotaged by the Allied Forces) for the use of their Navy, and extracted large quantities of timber from the forests. There was little interference with people of the interior. By contrast, the Chinese population was treated

with suspicion and sometimes extreme cruelty and rebellions against the Japanese at Jesselton and Pontianak were put down with savage brutality.
The surrender by the Japanese Army was taken by the Commander of Australia's 9th Division on 12th September 1945. In the meantime, Colonial Office officials in London had been deciding the future of British Borneo (Sabah). Sarawak and North Borneo (Sabah) were to be ceded to the British Crown by the Rajah of Sarawak and The Chartered Company, and a new Treaty of protection negotiated with the Sultan of Brunei. By July 1946, new colonial governments had been established in both Kuching and Jesselton. The people of North Norneo (Sabah) happily accepted the new colonial regime.

Although a referendum sanctioned by the United Nations brought the part of North Borneo called Sabah into Malaysia in 1963, its status is disputed by the heirs of the Kiram branch as well as by the Philippine government; meanwhile attempts to resolve the issue at the International Court of Justice is blocked by unwillingness of the Malaysian government. [32][33]


The official greater national coat of arms of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu under the guidance of Raja Muda Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu.

The official flag of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu under the guidance of Raja Muda Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu.

Flag of Sulu Sultanate according to Pierre Sonnerat.

War flag of the Sulu Sultanate at the end of 19th century.

Modern flag of Jamalul Kiram III.

See also
Sabah dispute Sultanate of Malacca Sultanate of Maguindanao List of Sultans of Sulu John C. Bates List of Sunni Muslim dynasties North Borneo dispute

External links
Philippine Provincial Government of Sulu - The official list of Sultans The official website of Royal House of Sulu under the guidance of Raja Muda Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu

1. Sometimes known as the Royal Sultanate of Sulu or Sultanate of Sulu Darul Islam. 2. According to W.H. Scott, even though the sultanate was ruled by Tausg people, the subjects of the kingdom were mixed of Bajau, Butuanon, Malay Muslim, Samal, Yakan ethnicity. [1] 3. The generally accepted date of the establishment of the sultanate by modern historians is 1457. However, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines disambiguate the date by "around 1450", or simply 1450s for uncertainty. On the other hand, independent Muslim studies marked the day to a more exact date November 17, 1405 (24th of Jumada al-awwal, 808 AH). [2][3] 4. Abu Bakr may be interchanged to Abubakar. Though his birth name was Sayyid Abu Bakr Abirin, he is also known as Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr; Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-Hashim became his full regnal name, with shorter name Sharif-ul Hashim or Shariful Hashim. 5. Mashikha is an Arabic term which originated from mashikh, which means "an intelligent or pious man".

6. The generally accepted date for the coming of Tuan Mashikha is 1280 AD, however, other Muslim scholars dated his coming only by "the end of 13th century", or "second half of the 13th century".[8] 7. May be interchange to Karimul Makhdum, Karimal Makdum or Makhdum Karim among others. Makhdum came from the Arabic word makhdmn, which means "master". 8. Another uncertain date in Philippine Islamic history is the year of arrival of Karim ul-Makhdum. Though other Muslim scholars place the date as simple as "the end of 14th century", Saleeby calculated the year as 1380 AD corresponding to the description of the tarsilas, which Karim ulMakhdum's coming is 10 years before Rajah Baguinda's. The 1380 reference originated from the event in Islamic history when a huge number of makhdmn started to travel to Southeast Asia from India. See Ibrahim's "Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia."

1. Scott 1994, p. 177 2. Usman, Edd (10 February 2010). "Heirs of Sulu Sultanate urged to attend general convention". Retrieved 21 December 2010. 3. Cavendish 2007, p. 1178 4. Ibrahim 1985, p. 52 5. Julkarnain, Datu Albi Ahmad (30 April 2008). "Genealogy of Sultan Sharif Ul-Hashim of Sulu Sultanate". Zambo Times. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ibrahim 1985, p. 51 7. Tan 2010, p. 85 8. Larousse 2001, p. 39, footnote 51 9. Decasa 1999, p. 321 10. 10.0 10.1 Saleeby 1908, p. 155 11. 11.0 11.1 Tan 2010, p. 86 12. Saleeby 1908, p. 149 13. Ibrahim 1985, p. 54 14. Tan 2010, p. 88 15. Saleeby 1908, pp. 4142 16. "Paduka Batara (d. 1417)". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 17. Tan 2010, p. 128 18. Tan, Samuel. "Filipino Muslim Perceptions of Their History and Culture As Seen Through Indigenous Written Sources". UP CIDS Mindanao Studies Program. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 19. Saleeby 1908, pp. 152153 20. Saleeby 1908, pp. 158159 21. Larousse 2001, p. 40 22. Mawallil, Amilbahar; Dayang Babylyn Kano Omar (3 July 2009). "Simunul Island, Dubbed As 'Dubai of the Philippines', Pursues Ambitious Project". The Mindanao Examiner. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 23. Gonda 1975, p. 91 24. Saleeby 1908, p. 159 25. Saunders 2002, p. 70 26. Majul 1973, p. 93 27. 27.0 27.1 United Nations Publications 2002, p. 638 28. United Nations Publications 2002, p. 639 29. Bruno, Juanito A. "The Social World of the Tausug, 1973, p 146". 30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Owen Rutter: British North Borneo - An Account of its History, Ressources and Nativer Tribes, Constable & Company Ltd, London, 1922 31. Britisch North Borneo Compagny: Views of British North Borneo with a brief history of the Colony, London, 1899 32. Ruben Sario; Julie S. Alipala; Ed General (17 September 2008). "Sulu sultans heirs drop Sabah claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 33. Aning, Jerome (23 April 2009). "Sabah legislature refuses to tackle Philippine claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Asia News Network. Retrieved 26 October 2010.

Ang, Josiah C., Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples, Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, htm Campbell, Lawrence Dundas (2007), The Asiatic Annual Register: or, A View of the History of Hindustan, and of the Politics, Commerce and Literature of Asia, 6, University of Michigan, Cavendish, Marshall (2007), World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, 9, Cavendish Marshall Corporation, ISBN 0761476423, ISBN 9780761476429 Council of Regents (2010), Primer in the Matter of Assertion of Independence of the State of Sulu Sultanate Darul Islam on 17 November 2010, Sultanate of Darul Islam, Decasa, George C. (1999), The Qur'nic Concept of Umma and its Function in Philippine Muslim

Society, Editrice Pontificia Universit Gregoriana, ISBN 8876528121, id=hYNqz-1ayssC ISBN 9788876528125 Gonda, Jan (1975), Religionen: Handbuch der Orientalistik: Indonesien, Malaysia und die Philippinen unter Einschluss der Kap-Malaien in Sdafrika, 2, E.J. Brill, ISBN 9004043306, ISBN 9789004043305 Ibrahim, Ahmad; Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain (1985), Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 9971988089, ISBN 9789971988081 Keppel, Henry, The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Didio for the Suppression of Piracy, Reprinted by The Forgotten Books, ISBN 1440075476, ISBN 9781440075476 Larousse, William (2001), A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in MindanaoSulu, Philippines : 1965-2000, Editrice Pontificia Universit Gregoriana, ISBN 8876528792, ISBN 9788876528798 Majul, Csar Adib (1973), Muslims in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press, Saleeby, Najeeb Mitry (1908), The History of Sulu, Bureau of Printing, id=FKETAAAAYAAJ Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A History of Brunei, Routledge, ISBN 070071698X, ISBN 9780700716982 Scott, William Henry (1994), Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Ateneo de Manila University Press, ISBN 9715501354, ISBN 9789715501354 Tan, Samuel K. (2009), A History of the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 9715425682, ISBN 9789715425681 Tan, Samuel K. (2010), The Muslim South and Beyond, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 9715426328, ISBN 9789715426329 United Nations Publications (2002), Case concerning sovereignty over Palau Ligitan and Palau Sipidan (Indonesia/Malaysia). Judgment of 17 December 2002. International Court of Justice Series. Issue 858 of Recueil des arrts, avis consultatifs et ordonnances. Reports of judgments, advisory opinions and orders, United Nations Publications, ISBN 9210709640, ISBN 9789210709644
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Sultanate of Sulu

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