1.9K views

Uploaded by cloobpsp

- Short Circuit Calculations in 60 Seconds
- Short Circuit Calculation
- Bussman - How to Size a Fuse
- Transformer protection guide - Basler
- Short-Circuit Current Calculations
- Short-Circuit Protective Device Coordination & Arc Flash Analysis
- Generator protection guide
- Arc_Flash
- Generator Protection
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalance
- Ch 11 - Generator Protection
- MVA Method Short Circuit ABC
- Synchronous Generators
- Dynamic Line Rating in the world - Overview
- IEEE Color Books Power Pack
- bs7671 iee on site guide
- CABLE
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply
- Transmission Line Parameter Calculation
- CAL-00-E-0004 Rev-1 ELECTRICAL CABLE SIZING

You are on page 1of 10

Basic Point-to-Point Calculation Procedure

Step 1. Determine the transformer full load amps (F.L.A.) from either the nameplate, the following formulas or Table 1:

At some distance from the terminals, depending upon wire size, the L-N fault current is lower than the L-L fault current. The 1.5 multiplier is an approximation and will theoretically vary from 1.33 to 1.67. These figures are based on change in turns ratio between primary and secondary, infinite source available, zero feet from terminals of transformer, and 1.2 x %X and 1.5 x %R for L-N vs. L-L resistance and reactance values. Begin L-N calculations at transformer secondary terminals, then proceed point-to-point.

Step 5. Calculate "M" (multiplier) or take from Table 2. 1 1 +f Calculate the available short circuit symmetrical RMS current at the point of fault. Add motor contribution, if applicable. M= I S.C. sym. RMS = IS.C. x M Step 6A. Motor short circuit contribution, if significant, may be added at all fault locations throughout the system. A practical estimate of motor short circuit contribution is to multiply the total motor current in amps by 4. Values of 4 to 6 are commonly accepted.

Step 2.

Find the transformer multiplier. See Notes 1 and 2 100 Multiplier = *% Z transformer Step 6.

* Note 1. Get %Z from nameplate or Table 1. Transformer impedance (Z) helps to determine what the short circuit current will be at the transformer secondary. Transformer impedance is determined as follows: The transformer secondary is short circuited. Voltage is increased on the primary until full load current flows in the secondary. This applied voltage divided by the rated primary voltage (times 100) is the impedance of the transformer. Example: For a 480 Volt rated primary, if 9.6 volts causes secondary full load current to flow through the shorted secondary, the transformer impedance is 9.6/480 = .02 = 2%Z. * Note 2. In addition, UL (Std. 1561) listed transformers 25kVA and larger have a 10% impedance tolerance. Short circuit amps can be affected by this tolerance. Therefore, for high end worst case, multiply %Z by .9. For low end of worst case, multiply %Z by 1.1. Transformers constructed to ANSI standards have a 7.5% impedance tolerance (twowinding construction). Step 3. Determine by formula or Table 1 the transformer letthrough short-circuit current. See Notes 3 and 4. Note 3. Utility voltages may vary 10% for power and 5.8% for 120 Volt lighting services. Therefore, for highest short circuit conditions, multiply values as calculated in step 3 by 1.1 or 1.058 respectively. To find the lower end worst case, multiply results in step 3 by .9 or .942 respectively. Note 4. Motor short circuit contribution, if significant, may be added at all fault locations throughout the system. A practical estimate of motor short circuit contribution is to multiply the total motor current in amps by 4. Values of 4 to 6 are commonly accepted. Step 4. Calculate the "f" factor. 3 Faults 1 Line-to-Line (L-L) Faults See Note 5 & Table 3 1 Line-to-Neutral (L-N) Faults See Note 5 & Table 3 1.732 x L x I 3 f= C x n x E L-L 2 x L x I L-L f= C x n x EL-L 2 x L x I L-N f= C x n x EL-N

Use the following procedure to calculate the level of fault current at the secondary of a second, downstream transformer in a system when the level of fault current at the transformer primary is known.

MAIN TRANSFORMER

IS.C. secondary

IS.C. primary

IS.C. secondary

Step A. Calculate the "f" factor (IS.C. primary known)

3 Transformer (I S.C. primary and I S.C. secondary are 3 fault values) 1 Transformer (I S.C. primary and I S.C. secondary are 1 fault values: I S.C. secondary is L-L) I S.C. primary x Vprimary x 1.73 (%Z) 100,000 x V

transformer

f=

Where: L = length (feet) of conductor to the fault. C = constant from Table 4 of C values for conductors and Table 5 of C values for busway. n = Number of conductors per phase (adjusts C value for parallel runs) I = Available short-circuit current in amperes at beginning of circuit. E = Voltage of circuit. Note 5. The L-N fault current is higher than the L-L fault current at the secondary terminals of a single-phase center-tapped transformer. The short-circuit current available (I) for this case in Step 4 should be adjusted at the transformer terminals as follows: At L-N center tapped transformer terminals, IL-N = 1.5 x IL-L at Transformer Terminals.

f=

transformer

Step B.

Step C.

Calculate the short-circuit current at the secondary of the transformer. (See Note under Step 3 of "Basic Point-toPoint Calculation Procedure".) I S.C. secondary = Vprimary Vsecondary x M x I S.C. primary

193

Three-Phase Short Circuits

System A

Available Utility Infinite Assumption 1500 KVA Transformer, 480V, 3, 3.5%Z, 3.45%X, .56%R If.l. =1804A 25' - 500kcmil 6 Per Phase Service Entrance Conductors in Steel Conduit 2000A Switch One-Line Diagram

Fault X1

Step 1. If.l. = 1500 x 1000 = 1804A 480 x 1.732

Fault X2

Step 4. Use IS.C.sym RMS @ Fault X1 to calculate f f= 1.732 x 50 x 49,803 = .4050 22,185 x 480 1 = .7117 1 + .4050

Step 2. Step 3.

Multiplier = 100 = 28.57 3.5 IS.C.=1804 x 28.57 = 51,540A IS.C. motor contrib = 4 x 1,804* = 7,216A Itotal S.C. sym RMS = 51,504 + 7,216 = 58,720A Step 5. Step 6.

M=

IS.C. sym RMS = 49,803 x .7117 = 35,445A Isym motor contrib = 4 x 1,804* = 7,216A Itotal S.C. sym RMS = 35,445 + 7,216 = 42,661A

(fault X2)

Step 4.

Step 5. Step 6.

M=

IS.C.sym RMS = 51,540 x .9663 = 49,803A IS.C.motor contrib = 4 x 1,804* = 7,216A ItotalS.C. sym RMS = 49,803 + 7,216 = 57,019A

( fault X1)

*Assumes 100% motor load. If 50% of this load was from motors, IS.C. motor contrib. = 4 x 1,804 x .5 = 3608A

System B

Available Utility Infinite Assumption 1000 KVA Transformer, 480V, 3, 3.5%Z If.l.= 1203A

One-Line Diagram

Fault X1

Step 1. If.l. = 1000 x 1000 = 1203A 480 x 1.732 Multiplier = 100 = 28.57 3.5

Fault X2

Step 4. f = 1.732 x 20 x 33,215 = .1049 2 x 11,424 x 480 M= 1 = .905 1 + .1049

Step 2. Step 3.

Step 5. Step 6.

Step 4.

Fault X3

1600A Switch KRP-C-1500SP Fuse Fault X1 400A Switch LPS-RK-350SP Fuse 1

M=

1 = .9664 1 + .0348

RMS

Step A.

f=

30,059 x 480 x 1.732 x 1.2 = 1.333 100,000 x 225 1 = .4286 1 + 1.333 480 x .4286 x 30,059 = 29,731A 208

I S.C.sym

Step C.

194

Single-Phase Short Circuits

Short circuit calculations on a single-phase center tapped transformer system require a slightly different procedure than 3 faults on 3 systems.

1. It is necessary that the proper impedance be used to represent the primary system. For 3 fault calculations, a single primary conductor impedance is only considered from the source to the transformer connection. This is compensated for in the 3 short circuit formula by multiplying the single conductor or single-phase impedance by 1.73. However, for single-phase faults, a primary conductor impedance is considered from the source to the transformer and back to the source. This is compensated in the calculations by multiplying the 3 primary source impedance by two. 2. The impedance of the center-tapped transformer must be adjusted for the halfwinding (generally line-to-neutral) fault condition. The diagram at the right illustrates that during line-to-neutral faults, the full primary winding is involved but, only the half-winding on the secondary is involved. Therefore, the actual transformer reactance and resistance of the half-winding condition is different than the actual transformer reactance and resistance of the full winding condition. Thus, adjustment to the %X and %R must be made when considering line-to-neutral faults. The adjustment multipliers generally used for this condition are as follows:

A B C Primary Secondary

Short Circuit

1.5 times full winding %R on full winding basis. 1.2 times full winding %X on full winding basis. Note: %R and %X multipliers given in Impedance Data for Single Phase Transformers Table may be used, however, calculations must be adjusted to indicate transformer kVA/2.

3. The impedance of the cable and two-pole switches on the system must be considered both-ways since the current flows to the fault and then returns to the source. For instance, if a line-to-line fault occurs 50 feet from a transformer, then 100 feet of cable impedance must be included in the calculation. The calculations on the following pages illustrate 1 fault calculations on a singlephase transformer system. Both line-to-line and line-to-neutral faults are considered.

a. The multiplier of 2 for some electrical components to account for the single-phase fault current flow, b. The half-winding transformer %X and %R multipliers for the line-to-neutral fault situation, and c. The kVA and voltage bases used in the per-unit calculations.

L1 N Short Circuit L2

50 Feet

195

Single-Phase Short Circuits

196

Impedance & Reactance Data

Transformers Table 1. Short-Circuit Currents Available from Various Size Transformers

(Based upon actual field nameplate data or from utility transformer worst case impedance)

Full % Short Load Impedance Circuit k VA Amps (Nameplate) Amps 25 104 1.5 12175 37.5 156 1.5 18018 120/240 50 208 1.5 23706 1 ph.* 75 313 1.5 34639 100 417 1.6 42472 167 696 1.6 66644 45 125 1.0 13879 75 208 1.0 23132 112.5 312 1.11 31259 150 416 1.07 43237 120/208 225 625 1.12 61960 3 ph.** 300 833 1.11 83357 500 1388 1.24 124364 750 2082 3.50 66091 1000 2776 3.50 88121 1500 4164 3.50 132181 2000 5552 4.00 154211 2500 6940 4.00 192764 75 90 1.00 10035 112.5 135 1.00 15053 150 181 1.20 16726 225 271 1.20 25088 300 361 1.20 33451 277/480 500 602 1.30 51463 3 ph.** 750 903 3.50 28672 1000 1204 3.50 38230 1500 1806 3.50 57345 2000 2408 4.00 66902 2500 3011 4.00 83628 * Single-phase values are L-N values at transformer terminals. These figures are based on change in turns ratio between primary and secondary, 100,000 KVA primary, zero feet from terminals of transformer, 1.2 (%X) and 1.5 (%R) multipliers for L-N vs. L-L reactance and resistance values and transformer X/R ratio = 3.

** Three-phase short-circuit currents based on infinite primary.

Suggested Normal Range Impedance Multipliers** X/R Ratio of Percent For Line-to-Neutral kVA for Impedance (%Z)* Faults 1 Calculation for %X for %R 25.0 1.1 1.26.0 0.6 0.75 37.5 1.4 1.26.5 0.6 0.75 50.0 1.6 1.26.4 0.6 0.75 75.0 1.8 1.26.6 0.6 0.75 100.0 2.0 1.35.7 0.6 0.75 167.0 2.5 1.46.1 1.0 0.75 250.0 3.6 1.96.8 1.0 0.75 333.0 4.7 2.46.0 1.0 0.75 500.0 5.5 2.25.4 1.0 0.75 * National standards do not specify %Z for single-phase transformers. Consult manufacturer for values to use in calculation. ** Based on rated current of the winding (onehalf nameplate kVA divided by secondary line-to-neutral voltage).

Note: UL Listed transformers 25 kVA and greater have a 10% tolerance on their impedance nameplate. This table has been reprinted from IEEE Std 242-1986 (R1991), IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems, Copyright 1986 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. with the permission of the IEEE Standards Department.

. Impedance Data for Single-Phase and Three-Phase TransformersSupplement

kVA 1 10 15 3 %Z 1.2 1.3 75 1.11 150 1.07 225 1.12 300 1.11 333 1.9 500 1.24 500 2.1 These represent actual transformer installations. Suggested X/R Ratio for Calculation 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.7 1.5 5.5 nameplate ratings taken from field

UL listed transformers 25 KVA or greater have a 10% impedance toler ance. Short-circuit amps shown in Table 1 reflect 10% condition. Transformers constructed to ANSI standards have a 7.5% impedance tolerance (two-winding construction). For example, a 10% increase in system voltage will result in a 10% greater available short-circuit currents than as shown in Table 1.

Note: UL Listed transformers 25kVA and greater have a 10% tolerance on their impedance nameplate.

197

Conductors & Busways "C" Values

Table 4. C Values for Conductors

Copper AWG Three Single Conductors or Conduit kcmil Steel 600V 5kV 15kV 14 389 12 617 10 981 8 1557 1551 6 2425 2406 2389 4 3806 3751 3696 3 4774 4674 4577 2 5907 5736 5574 1 7293 7029 6759 1/0 8925 8544 7973 2/0 10755 10062 9390 3/0 12844 11804 11022 12543 4/0 15082 13606 13644 250 16483 14925 14769 300 18177 16293 15678 350 19704 17385 16366 400 20566 18235 17492 500 22185 19172 17962 600 22965 20567 18889 750 24137 21387 19923 1,000 25278 22539 Aluminum 14 237 12 376 10 599 8 951 950 1472 6 1481 1476 2333 2319 4 2346 2928 2904 3 2952 3670 3626 2 3713 4575 4498 1 4645 5670 5493 1/0 5777 6968 6733 2/0 7187 8467 8163 3/0 8826 10167 9700 4/0 10741 11460 10849 250 12122 13009 12193 300 13910 14280 13288 350 15484 15355 14188 400 16671 500 18756 16828 15657 600 20093 18428 16484 750 21766 19685 17686 1,000 23478 21235 19006 Three-Conductor Cable Conduit Steel 600V 5kV 389 617 982 1559 1557 2431 2425 3830 3812 4820 4785 5989 5930 7454 7365 9210 9086 11245 11045 13656 13333 16392 15890 18311 17851 20617 20052 22646 21914 24253 23372 26980 25449 28752 27975 31051 30024 33864 32689 237 376 599 952 1482 2351 2963 3734 4686 5852 7327 9077 11185 12797 14917 16795 18462 21395 23633 26432 29865 951 1480 2347 2955 3719 4664 5820 7271 8981 11022 12636 14698 16490 18064 20607 23196 25790 29049

Nonmagnetic 600V 5kV 389 617 982 1559 1555 2430 2418 3826 3789 4811 4745 6044 5926 7493 7307 9317 9034 11424 10878 13923 13048 16673 15351 18594 17121 20868 18975 22737 20526 24297 21786 26706 23277 28033 25204 29735 26453 31491 28083 237 376 599 952 1482 2350 2961 3730 4678 5838 7301 9110 11174 12862 14923 16813 18506 21391 23451 25976 28779 951 1479 2342 2945 3702 4632 5766 7153 8851 10749 12343 14183 15858 17321 19503 21718 23702 26109

15kV 2407 3753 4679 5809 7109 8590 10319 12360 14347 15866 17409 18672 19731 21330 22097 23408 24887 1476 2333 2929 3673 4580 5646 6986 8627 10387 11847 13492 14955 16234 18315 19635 21437 23482

15kV 2415 3779 4726 5828 7189 8708 10500 12613 14813 16466 18319 19821 21042 23126 24897 26933 29320 1478 2339 2941 3693 4618 5717 7109 8751 10642 12115 13973 15541 16921 19314 21349 23750 26608

Nonmagnetic 600V 5kV 389 617 982 1560 1558 2433 2428 3838 3823 4833 4803 6087 6023 7579 7507 9473 9373 11703 11529 14410 14119 17483 17020 19779 19352 22525 21938 24904 24126 26916 26044 30096 28712 32154 31258 34605 33315 37197 35749 237 376 599 952 1482 2353 2966 3740 4699 5876 7373 9243 11409 13236 15495 17635 19588 23018 25708 29036 32938 952 1481 2350 2959 3725 4682 5852 7329 9164 11277 13106 15300 17352 19244 22381 25244 28262 31920

15kV 2421 3798 4762 5958 7364 9053 11053 13462 16013 18001 20163 21982 23518 25916 27766 29735 31959 1479 2344 2949 3709 4646 5771 7202 8977 10969 12661 14659 16501 18154 20978 23295 25976 29135

Note: These values are equal to one over the impedance per foot and based upon resistance and reactance values found in IEEE Std 241-1990 (Gray Book), IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Systems in Commerical Buildings & IEEE Std 242-1986 (Buff Book), IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. Where resistance and reac tance values differ or are not available, the Buff Book values have been used. The values for reactance in determining the C Value at 5 KV & 15 KV are from the Gray Book only (Values for 14-10 AWG at 5 kV and 14-8 AWG at 15 kV are not available and values for 3 AWG have been approximated).

Ampacity Busway Plug-In Feeder Copper Aluminum Copper 225 28700 23000 18700 400 38900 34700 23900 600 41000 38300 36500 800 46100 57500 49300 1000 69400 89300 62900 1200 94300 97100 76900 1350 119000 104200 90100 101000 1600 129900 120500 134200 2000 142900 135100 180500 2500 143800 156300 3000 144900 175400 204100 4000 277800 Note: These values are equal to one over the impedance in a survey of industry. High Impedance Aluminum Copper 12000 21300 31300 44100 56200 15600 69900 16100 84000 17500 90900 19200 125000 20400 166700 21700 23800 188700 256400 impedance per foot for

198

Ratings of Conductors and Tables to Determine Volt Loss

With larger loads on new installations, it is extremely important to consider volt loss in mind, otherwise some very unsatisfactory problems are likely to be encountered.

The actual conductor used must also meet the other sizing requirements such as full-load current, ambient temperature, number in a raceway, etc.

NEC Tables 310.16 through 310.19 give allowable ampacities (currentcarrying capacities) for not more than three conductors in a conduit, cable, or raceway. Where the number of conductors exceeds three the allowable ampacity of each conductor must be reduced as shown in the following tables:

Installation in Conduit, Cable or Raceway per 310.15(B)(2)(a)

The Number of Conductors In One Conduit, Raceway Or Cable 4 to 6 7 to 9 10 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 and over Percentage of Values In Tables 310.16 And 310.18 80% 70% 50% 45% 40% 35%

Multiply distance (length in feet of one wire) by the current (expressed in amps) by the figure shown in table for the kind of current and the size of wire to be used, by one over the number of conductors per phase. Then, put a decimal point in front of the last 6 digitsyou have the volt loss to be expected on that circuit. Example 6 AWG copper wire in 180 feet of iron conduit3 phase, 40 amp load at 80% power factor. Multiply feet by amperes: 180 x 40 = 7200 Multiply this number by number from table for 6 AWG wire threephase at 80% power factor: 7200 x 745 = 5364000 1 1 Multiply by 5364000 x = 5364000 #/phase 1 Place decimal point 6 places to left. This gives volt loss to be expected: 5.364V (For a 240V circuit the % voltage drop is 5.364 x 100 or 2.23%). 240 These Tables take into consideration reactance on AC circuits as well as resistance of the wire. Remember on short runs to check to see that the size and type of wire indicated has sufficient ampere capacity.

The voltage loss is increased when a conductor is operated at a higher temperature because the resistance increases. If type RH, RHW, THW, or THWN wire (75C wire) is loaded to near its full rating, or if room temperature is 15C higher than normal, add the following percentages to get the volt loss.

Conditions Causing Higher Volt Loss

Direct Single Or Three PhasePower Factor Wire Size Current 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 14 to 4 AWG 5.0% 5.0% 4.8% 4.7% 4.7% 4.6% 2 to 3/0 AWG 5.0% 5.0% 4.2% 3.8% 3 5% 3.3% 4/0 AWG to 500 kcmil 5.0% 5.0% 3.1% 2.6% 2.4% 2.0% 600 kcmil to 1000 kcmil 5.0% 5.0% 2.5% 2.2% 1.6% 1.3% If type RHH, THHN or XHHW wire (90C. wire) is loaded to near its full rating or if room temperature is 30C higher than normal, add twice the above percentages to get the volt loss.

Multiply distance (length in feet of one wire) by the current (expressed in amps), by one over the number of conductors per phase.

Divide that figure into the permissible volt loss multiplied by 1,000,000.

Look under the column applying to the type of current and power factor for the figure nearest, but not above your result you have the size of wire needed.

Example Copper in 180 feet of steel conduit3 phase, 40 amp Ioad at 80% power factorVolt loss from local code equals 5.5 volts. Multiply feet by amperes by 1 180 x 40 x 1 = 7200. #/phase 1 Divide permissible volt loss multiplied by 1,000,000 by this number: 5.5 x 1,000,000 = 764. 7200

The ampacities (carrying capacities) of conductors are based on a room temperature of 86F or 30C. If room temperature is higher, the ampacities are reduced by using the following multipliers; (for 0-2000 volt, insulated conductors not more than 3 conductors in raceway or direct buried, Table 310.16).

Room Temperature Affects Ratings

Room Temperature C 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-70 71-80 TW F 87-95 96-104 105-113 114-122 123-131 132-140 141-158 159-176 Ampacity Multiplier THW, THWN THHN, XHHW* (60C Wire) (75C Wire) .91 .94 .82 .88 .71 .82 .58 .75 .41 .67 .58 .33

Select number from Table, three-phase at 80% power factor, that is nearest but not greater than 764. This number is 745 which indicates the size of wire needed: 6 AWG.

Line-to-Neutral

For line to neutral voltage drop on a 3 phase system, divide the three phase value by 1.73. For line to neutral voltage drop on a single phase system, divide single phase value by 2.

(90C Wire) .96 .91 .87 .82 .76 .71 .58 .41

Open Wiring

The volt loss for open wiring installations depends on the separation between conductors. The volt loss is approximately equal to that for conductors in nonmagnetic conduit. 310.15 offers a method to calculate conductor ampacity.

199

Copper Conductors Ratings & Volt Loss

Conduit Wire Size Ampacity Type T, TW (60C Wire) Type RH, THWN, RHW, THW (75C Wire) 20* 25* 35* 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 475 545 20* 25* 35* 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 475 545 Type RHH, THHN, XHHW (90C Wire) 25* 30* 40* 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 535 615 25* 30* 40* 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 535 615 Direct Current Volt Loss (See explanation prior page.) Three-Phase (60 Cycle, Lagging Power Factor.) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Single-Phase (60 Cycle, Lagging Power Factor.) 100% 90% 80% 70%

60%

Steel Conduit

NonMagnetic Conduit (Lead Covered Cables or Installation in Fibre or Other NonMagnetic Conduit, Etc.)

14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 250 300 350 400 500 600 750 1000 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 250 300 350 400 500 600 750 1000

20* 25* 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 335 400 455 20* 25* 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 335 400 455

6140 3860 2420 1528 982 616 490 388 308 244 193 153 122 103 86 73 64 52 43 34 26 6140 3464 2420 1528 982 616 470 388 308 244 193 153 122 103 86 73 64 52 43 34 26

5369 3464 2078 1350 848 536 433 346 277 207 173 136 109 93 77 67 60 50 43 36 31 5369 3464 2078 1350 848 536 433 329 259 207 173 133 107 90 76 65 57 46 39 32 25

4887 3169 1918 1264 812 528 434 354 292 228 196 162 136 123 108 98 91 81 75 68 62 4876 3158 1908 1255 802 519 425 330 268 220 188 151 127 112 99 89 81 71 65 58 51

4371 2841 1728 1148 745 491 407 336 280 223 194 163 140 128 115 106 99 90 84 78 72 4355 2827 1714 1134 731 479 395 310 255 212 183 150 128 114 103 94 87 77 72 65 59

3848 2508 1532 1026 673 450 376 312 264 213 188 160 139 129 117 109 103 94 89 84 78 3830 2491 1516 1010 657 435 361 286 238 199 174 145 125 113 104 95 89 80 76 70 63

3322 2172 1334 900 597 405 341 286 245 200 178 154 136 128 117 109 104 96 92 88 82 3301 2153 1316 882 579 388 324 259 219 185 163 138 121 110 102 94 89 82 77 72 66

6200 4000 2400 1560 980 620 500 400 320 240 200 158 126 108 90 78 70 58 50 42 36 6200 4000 2400 1560 980 620 500 380 300 240 200 154 124 104 88 76 66 54 46 38 30

5643 3659 2214 1460 937 610 501 409 337 263 227 187 157 142 125 113 105 94 86 79 72 5630 3647 2203 1449 926 599 490 381 310 254 217 175 147 129 114 103 94 82 75 67 59

5047 3281 1995 1326 860 568 470 388 324 258 224 188 162 148 133 122 114 104 97 91 84 5029 3264 1980 1310 845 553 456 358 295 244 211 173 148 132 119 108 100 90 83 76 68

4444 2897 1769 1184 777 519 434 361 305 246 217 184 161 149 135 126 118 109 103 97 90 4422 2877 1751 1166 758 502 417 330 275 230 201 167 145 131 120 110 103 93 87 80 73

3836 2508 1540 1040 690 468 394 331 283 232 206 178 157 148 135 126 120 111 106 102 95 3812 2486 1520 1019 669 448 375 300 253 214 188 159 140 128 118 109 103 94 90 83 77

* The overcurrent protection for conductor types marked with an (*) shall not exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, and 30 amperes for 10 AWG copper; or 15 amperes for 12 AWG and 25 amperes for 10 AWG aluminum and copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied. Figures are L-L for both single-phase and three-phase. Three-phase figures are average for the three-phase.

200

Aluminum Conductors Ratings & Volt Loss

Conduit Wire Size Ampacity Type T, TW (60C Wire) Type RH, THWN, RHW, THW (75C Wire) 20* 30* 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 385 445 20* 30* 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 385 445 Type RHH, THHN, XHHW (90C Wire) 25* 35* 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 150 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 435 500 25* 35* 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 150 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 435 500 Direct Current Volt Loss (See explanation two pages prior.) Three-Phase (60 Cycle, Lagging Power Factor.) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Single-Phase (60 Cycle, Lagging Power Factor.) 100% 90% 80% 70%

60%

Steel Conduit

NonMagnetic Conduit (Lead Covered Cables or Installation in Fibre or Other NonMagnetic Conduit, Etc.)

12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 250 300 350 400 500 600 750 1000 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 250 300 350 400 500 600 750 1000

20* 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 320 375 20* 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 320 375

6360 4000 2520 1616 1016 796 638 506 402 318 259 200 169 141 121 106 85 71 56 42 6360 4000 2520 1616 1016 796 638 506 402 318 252 200 169 141 121 106 85 71 56 42

5542 3464 2251 1402 883 692 554 433 346 277 225 173 148 124 109 95 77 65 53 43 5542 3464 2251 1402 883 692 554 433 346 277 225 173 147 122 105 93 74 62 50 39

5039 3165 2075 1310 840 668 541 432 353 290 241 194 173 150 135 122 106 95 84 73 5029 3155 2065 1301 831 659 532 424 344 281 234 186 163 141 125 114 96 85 73 63

4504 2836 1868 1188 769 615 502 405 334 277 234 191 173 152 139 127 112 102 92 82 4490 2823 1855 1175 756 603 490 394 322 266 223 181 160 140 125 116 100 90 79 70

3963 2502 1656 1061 692 557 458 373 310 260 221 184 168 150 138 127 113 105 96 87 3946 2486 1640 1045 677 543 443 360 296 247 209 171 153 136 123 114 100 91 82 73

3419 2165 1441 930 613 497 411 338 284 241 207 174 161 145 134 125 113 106 98 89 3400 2147 1423 912 596 480 394 323 268 225 193 160 145 130 118 111 98 91 82 75

6400 4000 2600 1620 1020 800 640 500 400 320 260 200 172 144 126 110 90 76 62 50 6400 4000 2600 1620 1020 800 640 500 400 320 260 200 170 142 122 108 86 72 58 46

5819 3654 2396 1513 970 771 625 499 407 335 279 224 200 174 156 141 122 110 97 85 5807 3643 2385 1502 959 760 615 490 398 325 270 215 188 163 144 132 111 98 85 73

5201 3275 2158 1372 888 710 580 468 386 320 270 221 200 176 160 146 129 118 107 95 5184 3260 2142 1357 873 696 566 455 372 307 258 209 185 162 145 134 115 104 92 81

4577 2889 1912 1225 799 644 529 431 358 301 256 212 194 173 159 146 131 121 111 100 4557 2871 1894 1206 782 627 512 415 342 285 241 198 177 157 142 132 115 106 94 85

3948 2500 1663 1074 708 574 475 391 328 278 239 201 186 168 155 144 130 122 114 103 3926 2480 1643 1053 668 555 456 373 310 260 223 185 167 150 137 128 114 105 95 86

* The overcurrent protection for conductor types marked with an (*) shall not exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, and 30 amperes for 10 AWG copper; or 15 amperes for 12 AWG and 25 amperes for 10 AWG aluminum and copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied. Figures are L-L for both single-phase and three-phase. Three-phase figures are average for the three-phase.

201

Glossary

Common Electrical Terminology

Ohm

The unit of measure for electric resistance. An ohm is the amount of resistance that will allow one amp to flow under a pressure of one volt.

Semiconductor Fuses

Fuses used to protect solid-state devices. See High Speed Fuses.

Short-Circuit

Can be classified as an overcurrent which exceeds the normal full load current of a circuit by a factor many times (tens, hundreds or thousands greater). Also characteristic of this type of overcurrent is that it leaves the normal current carrying path of the circuit it takes a short cut around the load and back to the source.

Ohms Law

The relationship between voltage, current, and resistance, expressed by the equation E = IR, where E is the voltage in volts, I is the current in amps, and R is the resistance in ohms.

Generic term used to describe a Class H nonrenewable cartridge fuse, with a single element.

The maximum short-circuit current an electrical component can sustain without the occurrence of excessive damage when protected with an overcurrent protective device.

Overcurrent

A condition which exists on an electrical circuit when the normal load current is exceeded. Overcurrents take on two separate characteristics overloads and shortcircuits.

Single-Phasing

That condition which occurs when one phase of a three-phase system opens, either in a low voltage (secondary) or high voltage (primary) distribution system. Primary or secondary single-phasing can be caused by any number of events. This condition results in unbalanced currents in polyphase motors and unless protective measures are taken, causes overheating and failure.

Overload

Can be classified as an overcurrent which exceeds the normal full load current of a circuit. Also characteristic of this type of overcurrent is that it does not leave the normal current carrying path of the circuit that is, it flows from the source, through the conductors, through the load, back through the conductors, to the source again.

Threshold Current

The symmetrical RMS available current at the threshold of the current-limiting range, where the fuse becomes current-limiting when tested to the industry standard. This value can be read off of a peak let-through chart where the fuse curve intersects the A - B line. A threshold ratio is the relationship of the threshold current to the fuses continuous current rating.

The instantaneous value of peak current let-through by a current-limiting fuse, when it operates in its current-limiting range.

A fuse in which the element, typically a zinc link, may be replaced after the fuse has opened, and then reused. Renewable fuses are made to Class H standards.

Time-Delay Fuse

A fuse with a built-in delay that allows temporary and harmless inrush currents to pass without opening, but is so designed to open on sustained overloads and short-circuits.

Resistive Load

An electrical load which is characteristic of not having any significant inrush current. When a resistive load is energized, the current rises instantly to its steady-state value, without first rising to a higher value.

Voltage Rating

The maximum open circuit voltage in which a fuse can be used, yet safely interrupt an overcurrent. Exceeding the voltage rating of a fuse impairs its ability to clear an overload or short-circuit safely.

RMS Current

The RMS (root-mean-square) value of any periodic current is equal to the value of the direct current which, flowing through a resistance, produces the same heating effect in the resistance as the periodic current does.

Withstand Rating

The maximum current that an unprotected electrical component can sustain for a specified period of time without the occurrence of extensive damage.

Electrical Formulas

To Find Single-Phase Two-Phase Three-Phase Direct Current

Amperes when kVA is known Amperes when horsepower is known Amperes when kilowatts are known Kilowatts Kilovolt-Amperes Horsepower Watts

kVA 1000 kVA 1000 E2 E 1.73 HP 746 HP 746 E 2 % eff. pf E 1.73 % eff. pf kW 1000 kW 1000 E 2 pf E 1.73 pf I E 2 pf I E 1.73 pf 1000 1000 IE2 I E 1.73 1000 1000 I E 2 % eff. pf I E 1.73 % eff. pf 746 746 I E 2 pf I E 1.73 pf Energy Efficiency = Load Horsepower 746 Load Input kVA 1000 Power Factor = pf = Power Consumed = W or kW = cos Apparent Power VA kVA

kW = Kilowatts pf = Power Factor kVA = Kilovolt-Amperes

Not Applicable HP 746 E % eff. kW 1000 E IE 1000 Not Applicable I E % eff. 746 EI

I = Amperes HP = Horsepower

216

- Short Circuit Calculations in 60 SecondsUploaded bycoolcreative
- Short Circuit CalculationUploaded bygraduadoesime
- Bussman - How to Size a FuseUploaded bySJS68
- Transformer protection guide - BaslerUploaded byheri_fauzi
- Short-Circuit Current CalculationsUploaded byMaximo Gomez Guerrero
- Short-Circuit Protective Device Coordination & Arc Flash AnalysisUploaded byconstellana
- Generator protection guideUploaded byeciceran
- Arc_FlashUploaded byJulio Perez Rodriguez
- Generator ProtectionUploaded byMohammad Ibnul Hossain
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalanceUploaded byHans De Keulenaer
- Ch 11 - Generator ProtectionUploaded bysotany
- MVA Method Short Circuit ABCUploaded bycoolcreative
- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bySyed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
- Dynamic Line Rating in the world - OverviewUploaded byDalibor Kladar
- IEEE Color Books Power PackUploaded byjuacolin
- bs7671 iee on site guideUploaded bymigzx
- CABLEUploaded bykcdhiman
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power SupplyUploaded byHans De Keulenaer
- Transmission Line Parameter CalculationUploaded byksg9731
- CAL-00-E-0004 Rev-1 ELECTRICAL CABLE SIZINGUploaded bytceterex
- USER´S MANUAL Power FactoryUploaded by马俊
- Electrical System Studies for Large Projects Executed at Multiple Engineering CentresUploaded bygtgreat
- TechRef Overhead Line Models[1]Uploaded byLalo Pato
- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bychinnarao
- Transient Analysis Two Induction Motors StartingUploaded byMarko Istenic
- Short Circuit Current Level ControlUploaded bymshahidshaukat
- List of IEC StandardUploaded byVinoth Kumar Somasundaram
- Calculation for Short Circuit Current Calculation using IEC / IEEE StandardUploaded byibmmoiz
- Street Light Poles Indian Standard 2713Uploaded byuddinnadeem
- Applications of Line Model of EmtpUploaded byMarin Rivera Granados

- Airbus Commercial Aircraft AC A320 Feb18Uploaded bycloobpsp
- 7 - teeam_residual current devices rcd in electrical insta.pdfUploaded bycloobpsp
- Ms 761 1982 Code of Practice for the Storage and Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Ics 75.080-709618Uploaded bycloobpsp
- ADB TechCorner AGL Lightning ProtectionUploaded bycloobpsp
- Allen Bradley Class Division Hazardous LocationUploaded bycloobpsp
- APC White Paper - Comparison of Static and Dynamic UPSUploaded bycloobpsp
- Discrimination StudyUploaded bycloobpsp
- SKMM Comm Infra GuidelinesUploaded bycloobpsp
- EarthingUploaded bymamoun_hammad7917
- MENNEKES 5 Pin 2009 Full Line Catalog International EditionUploaded bycloobpsp
- AWG Metric ConversionUploaded bycloobpsp
- Useful Electrical FormulaUploaded bycloobpsp
- APPLYING DEMAND & DIVERSITY FACTORUploaded byanchak99
- Hills Borough Country Aviation Authority Design Criteria ManualUploaded bycloobpsp

- MPX2010DUploaded byTaTa Arroyave
- reteachchapter7Uploaded byapi-261104653
- msoUploaded byShashank Mani Tripathi
- US Army: Oct15Uploaded byArmy
- ManualUploaded byCamiloNogueraRiascos
- Blommaert_from_mobility_to_complexity-libre.pdfUploaded byMegan Kennedy
- Message IntramsUploaded byliezl Cm
- syllabus tmbi v2finalUploaded byapi-135338693
- Ccme With VbUploaded bySanja Lektorić Ex Đurić
- Fire Standard 11-11-2013newUploaded bySadkatul Bari
- BTS I and CUploaded byDiwakar Mishra
- Mpc03lv_lh User ManualUploaded byTran Tien Dat
- CFD Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger creating Triangular Fin on the TubesUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- PMM07 - A Unified Strategic View of Organizational MaturityUploaded bySuhail Iqbal
- CSTR FinalUploaded byMuhammad Yar Khan
- Vector QuantizationUploaded byRafael Andrade
- Sumner and Savigny (1)Uploaded bySteven Mathew
- STM_2edUploaded bynoncompete
- THDC SUMMER TRAININGUploaded byabhilash
- slides1_1Uploaded byMohamed Ashraf
- latex exampleUploaded byPartha Surve
- Course Book Matlab TMMI IntroductionUploaded bygantayat
- Bac 2016 Pondichery Lv1 TechnologiqueUploaded byResultatsExams
- Tools Presentation strategic marketingUploaded byMurnizahayati Aripin
- Modular Advanced Construction and Building Technology for SocietyUploaded byJoão Diogo Afonso
- Senior Executive Administrative Assistant in Frisco TX Resume Carrie DeBordUploaded byCarrieDeBord
- 10.1.1.79Uploaded bykrinunn
- UniversalUploaded byYuvraj Chaubey
- 416 f CambioUploaded byJefMoreno
- There Are Hidden Variables in QuantumUploaded bymohdfaudzi