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Erjhon C.

Dinglasan y Computer

First Year College-B.S. in Customs Administration

A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally a computer consists of some form of memory for data storage, at least one element that carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control element that can change the order of operations based on the information that is stored. Peripheral devices allow information to be entered from an external source, and allow the results of operations to be sent out. A computer's processing unit executes series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditional instructions change the sequence of instructions as a function of the current state of the machine or its environment. The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (19401945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous. y 1. Generation of computer First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.


Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-

generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. 3. Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. 4. Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controlson a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. 5. Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and selforganization. y Computer Softwares

Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched".Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. I. Application software,

also known as an application or an "app", is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be published separately. Some users are satisfied with the bundled apps and need never install one. Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but typically do not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user. Similar relationships apply in other fields. For example, a shopping mall does not provide the merchandise a shopper is seeking, but provides space and services for retailers that serve the shopper. Rail tracks similarly support trains, allowing the trains to transport passengers. Application software applies the power of a particular computing platform or system software to a particular purpose. Some apps such as Microsoft Office are available in versions for several different platforms; others have narrower requirements and are thus called, for example, a Geography application for Windows or an Android application for education or Linux gaming. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform, increasing the desirablity of that platform. This is called a killer application. Different Types of Application Software Word Processing Software: This software enables the users to create and edit documents. The most popular examples of this type of software are MS-Word, WordPad, Notepad and some other text editors. Database Software: Database is a structured collection of data. A computer database relies on database software to organize the data and enable the database users to achieve database operations. Database software allows the users to store and retrieve data from databases. Examples are Oracle, MSAccess, etc. Spreadsheet Software: Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 and Apple Numbers are some examples of spreadsheet software. Spreadsheet software allows users to perform calculations. They simulate paper worksheets by displaying multiple cells that make up a grid. Multimedia Software: They allow the users to create and play audio and video media. They are capable of playing media files. Audio converters, players, burners, video encoders and decoders are some forms of multimedia software. Examples of this type of software include Real Player and Media Player. Presentation Software: The software that is used to display information in the form of a slide show is known as presentation software. This type of software includes three functions, namely, editing that allows insertion and formatting of text, methods to include graphics in the text and a functionality of executing the slide shows. Microsoft PowerPoint is the best example of presentation software.

Examples of Application Software Enterprise Software: It deals with the needs of organization processes and data flow. The customer relationship management or the financial processes in an organization are carried out by means of enterprise software. Information Worker Software: Individual projects within a department and individual needs of creation and management of information are handled by information worker software. Documentation tools, resource management tools and personal management systems fall under the category of this form of application software. Educational Software: It has the capabilities of running tests and tracking progress. It also has the capabilities of collaborative software. It is often used in teaching and self-learning. Simulation Software: Used to simulate physical or abstract systems, simulation software finds applications in both, research and entertainment. Flight simulators and scientific simulators find a place in the list of simulation software. Content Access Software: It is used to access content without editing. The common examples of content access software are web browsers and media players. II. System software

is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software. The most basic types of system software are: y y The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), which allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software. Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer.

In some publications, the term system software is also used to designate software development tools (like a compiler, linker or debugger). In contrast to system software, software that allows users to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or surf the web is called application software. Types of System Software Boot Firmware: Also known as boot loaders these programs are the first ones to run when a PC is started. A boot loader loads and runs the main operating system on the computer when it starts. This system software component is also known as BIOS on IBM compatible computing devices. Database Management Systems: This is a set of programs that manage and regulate the user database right from creation to maintenance and extending to the use of such database. The DBMS is responsible for allowing different user applications to access a single database at the same time. This set of programs is what lies at the base of all computer network models that enable users to retrieve data from an integrated collection in a structured manner and does away with the user having to write complex programs in machine language to extract information from the data pool.

Output Interface: This program determines whether the desktop environment will be in the form of a character user interface (CUI as seen on DOS and older OS versions) or if it will be in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI as seen from latest OS, a norm made common by Windows). Also, besides determining the desktop environment, these programs also provide various options that allow the user to access other features of the OS from the desktop. Virtual Machine Monitors: Also known as hypervisors, these programs allow multiple operating systems to run on a single host computer system simultaneously. These other computer systems that access the host are known as guests and the host is able to allow multiple operating systems to run simultaneously under the hardware virtualization process. Link Editors: Commonly known as linkers, link editors collect multiple object files that the compiler programs, generate and put them together as an executable program which is capable of performing desired tasks as instructed by codified instructions. Loaders: A loader is an inbuilt component of the operating system that loads programs onto the computer memory and makes them ready for execution. This process involves loading the program text from the executable file onto the computer memory and preparing the executable file to run. This is one of the various initial stages involved in running any program on the operating system. Shell: Shells are programs that make the interaction between the kernel of the OS and the user possible. It is the outer layer of a computing interface that makes information interchange between the OS and the user possible. Utility Software: These programs offer the various maintenance and performance evaluation utility tools to configure and optimize the various processes that influence the performance of your computer. Disk cleaners, anti virus softwares, data compression programs, disk drive partition utilities, storage, backup and archiving programs are some of the common examples of utility softwares. III. Program Software

A programming tool or software development tool is a program or application that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs that can be combined together to accomplish a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object. Types of Programming Software Software development tools can be roughly divided into the following categories: y y y y y y y Performance analysis tools Debugging tools Static analysis and formal verification tools Correctness checking tools Memory usage tools Application build tools Integrated development environments

 Programming Language A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.

The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many more being created every year. Most programming languages describe computation in an imperative style, i.e., as a sequence of commands, although some languages, such as those that support functional programming or logic programming, use alternative forms of description. A programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard), while other languages, such as Perl, have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference. Examples of Programming Language Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968/9 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.A derivative known as Object Pascal was designed for object-oriented programming. Fortran (previously FORTRAN; both blends derived from IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose,[note 2] procedural,[note 3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM at their campus in south San Jose, California[1] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continual use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics and computational chemistry. It is one of the most popular languages in the area of high-performance computing [2] and is the language used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with previous versions. Successive versions have added support for processing of character-based data (FORTRAN 77), array programming, modular programming and object-based programming (Fortran 90 / 95), and object-oriented and generic programming (Fortran 2003). COBOL is one of the oldest programming languages. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programming and other modern language features. y Computer Hardware

A personal computer is made up of multiple physical components of computer hardware, upon which can be installed a system software called an operating system, and a multitude of software applications to perform the operator's desired functions. Though a PC comes in many different forms, a typical personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop), containing components such as a motherboard.  Mother Board In personal computers, a motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many of the crucial components of the system, providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board.[1] It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.

oooooooooParts of the Mother Board Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot Normally, the number of PCI slots on the motherboard could be anywhere between 1 and 6. The peripherals like graphics cards, sound cards, ethernet cards, modems and DVD recorders are attached here, and the slots are 32 bit slots. Central Processing Unit (CPU) socket This socket is the home for your computer's processor. There are 2 types of sockets that are commonly used by the major processors (Intel and AMD), these are Pin Grid Array (PGA) and the Land Grid Array (LGA). The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. Components directly attached to the motherboard include: y y y The central processing unit (CPU) performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan. The chip set mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory. RAM (random-access memory) stores resident part of the current running OS (OS core and so on) and all running processes (application parts, using CPU or input/output (I/O) channels or waiting for CPU or I/O channels). The BIOS includes boot firmware and power management. The Basic Input Output System tasks are handled by operating system drivers. Internal buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for graphics and sound. o Current  The north bridge memory controller, for RAM and PCI Express  PCI Express, for expansion cards such as graphics and physics processors, and high-end network interfaces  PCI, for other expansion cards  SATA, for disk drives  ATA o Obsolete  AGP (superseded by PCI Express)  VLB VESA Local Bus (superseded by AGP)  ISA (expansion card slot format obsolete in PCs, but still used in industrial computers) External bus controllers support ports for external peripherals. These ports may be controlled directly by the south bridge I/O controller or based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus. o USB o FireWire o eSATA o SCSI

y y

Motherboard Battery Compartment When you shut your system down, your data is stored in a battery on the motherboard. This computer motherboard battery is placed inside the battery compartment that is present on the surface of your motherboard. RAM slots (DIMM and SIMM) These are the slots that hold the RAM chips of your computer. They are usually of two types - DIMM (Double Inline Memory Module) and SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module). Memory chips of different sizes can be attached here. Power Connector The motherboard requires the power to function properly and this power supply comes from the main power connector. There are usually two main types of connectors - 20 + 4 pins (when there are two connectors on the same motherboard), and the 24 pins. Apart from these computer motherboard components, the following are computer motherboard parts that have specific purposes for connecting to hardware devices. These connectors show up on the back panel of the computer, once the entire machine is assembled and mounted. PS/2 Connectors Every motherboard contains two PS/2 connectors, one for the keyboard and one for the mouse. USB (Universal Serial Bus) Port There are many of these ports across the back panel. They are used for connecting external devices like USB flash drives, external hard disks, ipods, mp3 players and cameras. Game Port This port is mostly used to connect the devices that are used for gaming purposes, like joysticks. Display Connector This port is used to connect the computer monitor of the machine to the back panel. Sound Card Connector Your sound devices like headphones and mics are connected here.  Power Supply A power supply unit (PSU) supplies DC power to the other components in a computer. It converts generalpurpose alternating current (AC) electric power from the mains (110V to 120V at 60Hz [115V nominal] in North America, parts of South America, Japan, and Taiwan; 220V to 240V at 50Hz [230V nominal] in most of the rest of the world) to low-voltage (for a desktop computer: 12V, 5V, 5VSB, 3V3, -5V, and -12V) direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer. Some power supplies have a switch to select either 230 V or 115 V. Other models are able to accept any voltage and frequency between those limits and some models only operate from one of the two mains supply standards. Most modern desktop computer power supplies conform to the ATX form factor. ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard. They also provide a signal to the motherboard to indicate when the DC power lines are correct so that the computer is able to boot-up. While an ATX power supply is connected to the mains supply it provides a 5V stand-by (5VSB) line so that the standby functions on the computer and certain peripherals are powered. The most recent ATX PSU standard is version 2.31 of mid-2008.  Removable Media Device

In computer storage, removable media refers to storage media which is designed to be removed from the computer without powering the computer off. Some types of removable media are designed to be read by removable readers and drives. Examples include: y y y y y Optical discs (Blu-ray discs, DVDs, CDs) Memory cards (CompactFlash card, Secure Digital card, Memory Stick) Floppy disks / Zip disks Magnetic tapes Paper data storage (punched cards, punched tapes)

Some removable media readers and drives are integrated into computers, others are themselves removable. Removable media may also refer to some removable storage devices, when they are used to transport or store data. Examples include: y y USB flash drives External hard disk drives

CD (compact disc) - the most common type of removable media, suitable for music and data. o o CD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a CD. CD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a CD.

DVD (digital versatile disc) - a popular type of removable media that is the same dimensions as a CD but stores up to 12 times as much information. It is the most common way of transferring digital video, and is popular for data storage. o o o DVD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a DVD. DVD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a DVD. DVD-RAM Drive - a device used for rapid writing and reading of data from a special type of DVD.

Blu-ray Disc - a high-density optical disc format for data and high-definition video. Can store 70 times as much information as a CD. o o BD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a Blu-ray disc. BD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a Blu-ray disc.

HD DVD - a discontinued competitor to the Blu-ray format. Floppy disk - an outdated storage device consisting of a thin disk of a flexible magnetic storage medium. Used today mainly for loading RAID drivers. Iomega Zip drive - an outdated medium-capacity removable disk storage system, first introduced by Iomega in 1994. USB flash drive - a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface, typically small, lightweight, removable, and rewritable. Capacities vary, from hundreds of megabytes (in the same ballpark as CDs) to tens of gigabytes (surpassing, at great expense, Blu-ray discs). Tape drive - a device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape, used for long term storage and backups.

 Secondary Storage device Secondary storage, sometimes called auxiliary storage, is all data storage that is not currently in a computer's primary storage or memory. An additional synonym is external storage. In a personal computer, secondary storage typically consists of storage on the hard disk and on any removable media, if present, such as a CD or DVD Hardware that keeps data inside the computer for later use and remains persistent even when the computer has no power. y y y Hard disk - for medium-term storage of data. Solid-state drive - a device similar to hard disk, but containing no moving parts and stores data in a digital format. RAID array controller - a device to manage several internal or external hard disks and optionally some peripherals in order to achieve performance or reliability improvement in what is called a RAID array.

 Parts of the computer INPUT DEVICES In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer and a scanner or 6DOF controller. Many input devices can be classified according to: y y y modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.) the input is discrete (e.g. key presses) or continuous (e.g. a mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is fast enough to be considered continuous) the number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional traditional mice, or three-dimensional navigators designed for CAD applications)

Pointing devices, which are input devices used to specify a position in space, can further be classified according to: y Whether the input is direct or indirect. With direct input, the input space coincides with the display space, i.e. pointing is done in the space where visual feedback or the cursor appears. Touchscreens and light pens involve direct input. Examples involving indirect input include the mouse and trackball. Whether the positional information is absolute (e.g. on a touch screen) or relative (e.g. with a mouse that can be lifted and repositioned)

Direct input is almost necessarily absolute, but indirect input may be either absolute or relative. For example, digitizing graphics tablets that do not have an embedded screen involve indirect input and sense absolute positions and are often run in an absolute input mode, but they may also be set up to simulate a relative input mode where the stylus or puck can be lifted and repositioned. Mouse o The mouse is a basic input device of the computer. Mice were an enhancement to the keyboard, which is the main input device of a computer. Mice allow the user to click on a button or interact with the computer without using both hands for typing. It is also an integral part of a Windows

machine. Although most Windows forms have alternate key functions, the use of a mouse is more intuitive for end-users. Joystick o The joystick is used mainly for playing games. Joysticks were first used in console gaming, such as the Atari and Commodore 64. When computers began to be a part of every home, video games flooded the market. To improve on gamers' experiences, the hardware manufacturers developed joysticks that connected to computers. Joysticks give video games commands, so they are a part of the input device category.

Keyboard o The keyboard is the main input device for computers. For instance, boot up a computer without a keyboard and it stops, warning the user that no keyboard is attached. The keyboard is the only tool available at the command prompt, so it is a necessity for a computer. It is also used in almost every application like spreadsheets, email, word processing documents and coding.

Scanner o Scanners are devices that receive images from documents like images or paper. The scanner runs over the colors and writing on the paper, and the device sends it to the computer. Users normally have custom software that is included with the scanner. This software displays the images that were taking from the scanner's surface.

Cameras o Two types of cameras are used for input on a computer. The digital camera is a device that takes digital images and saves them to memory. The user then connects the camera to the computer where images are uploaded and saved. Web cams are the other type of camera that connects to the computer. Web cams are ways for people to take images from the computer and communicate visually with other users on the Internet.

OUTPUT DEVICES Any peripheral that receives or displays output from a computer. In the picture to the right, is an inkjet printer and a good example of an output device that can make a hard copy of anything on a computer. Below is a listing of all the different computer output devices found on a computer. y y y y y y y Flat panel Monitor Printer Projector Sound card Speakers Video card

An output device is a part of the computer that receives the processing from the computer. An output device comes in several forms, including sound, visual effects like the display and print jobs. Output devices are distinguished from input devices in that they display output for the user. Input devices are the parts of the computer that give the machine instructions. This difference is important for users to understand different computer components.

Display/Monitor o The display is how you see the output of the computer. The display is the external monitor on a desktop or the attached monitor on a laptop. Although displays used to be made with CRT tubes, flat-screen panels have replaced that technology. Flat-screen LCD monitors are lighter and have better display quality than older CRT monitors.

Cathode ray Tube Liquid Crystal Display Light Emitting Diodes Printer o A printer is a device that prints output to a page. Printers come in color or simply black and white. Inkjet and laser printers are the most common home devices. Most businesses have laser printers since the quality is better. Printers can be connected to the computer or networked using a print server.

Dot Matrix printer Inkjet printer Laser printer Thermal printer LED printer o Speakers o Speakers are attached to computers for the output of sound. Sound cards are required in the computer for speakers. Speakers come in simple two-speaker output devices. They can also be surround sound and be expensive. Surround-sound speakers come with two front speakers, a subwoofer and two small speakers that sit behind the computer user. Surround-sound speakers are great for gamers.

DVD or CD-ROM o A DVD or CD-ROM is a media device on which the user can write data and information. DVDs have replaced CD-ROMs since they hold more information than legacy discs. DVDs are normally used as storage backups to save documents and applications in case of a hard drive failure. They are also used to create installation discs for software development.

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order with a worst case performance of constant time. Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are therefore not random access, as data is read in bursts, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense. RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where its stored information is lost if the power is removed. Many other types of non-volatile memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. The first RAM modules to come into the market were created in 1951 and were sold until the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, other memory devices (magnetic tapes, disks) can access the storage data in a predetermined order, because mechanical designs only allow this. Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates).

In its strictest sense, ROM refers only to mask ROM (the oldest type of solid state ROM), which is fabricated with the desired data permanently stored in it, and thus can never be modified. Despite the simplicity, speed and economies of scale of mask ROM, field-programmability often make reprogrammable memories more flexible and inexpensive. As of 2007, actual ROM circuitry is therefore mainly used for applications such as microcode, and similar structures, on various kinds of digital processors (i.e. not only CPUs). Other types of non-volatile memory such as erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM or Flash ROM) are sometimes referred to, in an abbreviated way, as "read-only memory" (ROM), but this is actually a misnomer because these types of memory can be erased and re-programmed multiple times[1]. When used in this less precise way, "ROM" indicates a non-volatile memory which serves functions typically provided by mask ROM, such as storage of program code and nonvolatile data.

Headsets o Headsets are a combination of speakers and microphone. A headset is used mostly for gamers, but it is a great tool for communicating with family or friends over the Internet using software. Headsets retrieve sound just like speakers, but the attached microphone, which is an input device, can be used for recording sound.

 Computer Virus is a kind of malicious software written intentionally to enter a computer without the users permission or knowledge, with an ability to replicate itself, thus continuing to spread. Some viruses do little but replicate others can cause severe harm or adversely affect program and performance of the system. A virus should never be assumed harmless and left on a system. Most common types of viruses are mentioned below: Direct Action Viruses the main purpose of this virus is to replicate and take action when it is executed. When a specific condition is met, the virus will go into action and infect files in the directory or folder that it is in and in directories that are specified in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file PATH. This batch file is always located in the root directory of the hard disk and carries out certain operations when the computer is booted. Resident Viruses This type of virus is a permanent which dwells in the RAM memory. From there it can overcome and interrupt all of the operations executed by the system: corrupting files and programs that are opened, closed, copied, renamed etc. Examples include: Randex, CMJ, Meve, and MrKlunky. Overwrite Viruses Virus of this kind is characterized by the fact that it deletes the information contained in the files that it infects, rendering them partially or totally useless once they have been infected. The only way to clean a file infected by an overwrite virus is to delete the file completely, thus losing the original content. Examples of this virus include: Way, Trj.Reboot, Trivial.88.D.

Boot Virus This type of virus affects the boot sector of a floppy or hard disk. This is a crucial part of a disk, in which information on the disk itself is stored together with a program that makes it possible to boot (start) the computer from the disk.The best way of avoiding boot viruses is to ensure that floppy disks are write-protected and never start your computer with an unknown floppy disk in the disk drive. Examples of boot viruses include: Polyboot.B, AntiEXE. Macro Virus Macro viruses infect files that are created using certain applications or programs that contain macros. These miniprograms make it possible to automate series of operations so that they are performed as a single action, thereby saving the user from having to carry them out one by one. Examples of macro viruses: Relax, Melissa.A, Bablas, O97M/Y2K. Directory Virus Directory viruses change the paths that indicate the location of a file. By executing a program (file with the extension .EXE or .COM) which has been infected by a virus, you are unknowingly running the virus program, while the original file and program have been previously moved by the virus. Once infected it becomes impossible to locate the original files. Polymorphic Virus Polymorphic viruses encrypt or encode themselves in a different way (using different algorithms and encryption keys) every time they infect a system.This makes it impossible for anti-viruses to find them using string or signature searches (because they are different in each encryption) and also enables them to create a large number of copies of themselves. Examples include: Elkern, Marburg, Satan Bug, and Tuareg. File Infectors This type of virus infects programs or executable files (files with an .EXE or .COM extension). When one of these programs is run, directly or indirectly, the virus is activated, producing the damaging effects it is programmed to carry out. The majority of existing viruses belong to this category, and can be classified depending on the actions that they carry out. Companion Viruses Companion viruses can be considered file infector viruses like resident or direct action types. They are known as companion viruses because once they get into the system they "accompany" the other files that already exist. In other words, in order to carry out their infection routines, companion viruses can wait in memory until a program is run (resident viruses) or act immediately by making copies of themselves (direct action viruses). Some examples include: Stator, Asimov.1539, and Terrax.1069 FAT Virus The file allocation table or FAT is the part of a disk used to connect information and is a vital part of the normal functioning of the computer. This type of virus attack can be especially dangerous, by preventing access to certain sections of the disk where important files are stored. Damage caused can result in information losses from individual files or even entire directories.

Worms A worm is a program very similar to a virus; it has the ability to self-replicate, and can lead to negative effects on

your system and most importantly they are detected and eliminated by antiviruses. Examples of worms include: PSWBugbear.B, Lovgate.F, Trile.C, Sobig.D, Mapson. Trojans or Trojan Horses Another unsavory breed of malicious code are Trojans or Trojan horses, which unlike viruses do not reproduce by infecting other files, nor do they self-replicate like worms. Logic Bombs They are not considered viruses because they do not replicate. They are not even programs in their own right but rather camouflaged segments of other programs..Their objective is to destroy data on the computer once certain conditions have been met. Logic bombs go undetected until launched, and the results can be destructive. Multipartite Virus While some viruses are happy to spread via one method or deliver a single payload, Multipartite viruses want it all. A virus of this type may spread in multiple ways, and it may take different actions on an infected computer depending on variables, such as the operating system installed or the existence of certain files. Web Scripting Virus Many websites execute complex code in order to provide interesting content. Displaying online video in your browser, for example, requires the execution of a specific code language that provides both the video itself and the player interface.Of course, this code can sometimes be exploited, making it possible for a virus to infect a computer or take actions on a computer through a website. Although malicious sites are sometimes created with purposely infected code, many such cases of virus exist because of code inserted into a site without the webmasters knowledge.

Address: Payapa St. Brgy. 8-Galicia 3 Mendez-Nunez, Cavite Contact number: 09303558978 / 09323176058 Email address:

Date of Birth Place of Birth Height Weight Sex Religion Marital Status Citizenship Fathers Name Occupation Mothers Name Occupation : : : : : : : : : : : : June 24, 1995 Mendez, Cavite 57 56 kg Male Roman Catholic Single Filipino Ernie R. Dinglasan none Leogina C. Dinglasan Tutor

I am computer literate, I gathered some knowledge about computer programming and other applications on it. I am also good in dealing with business arguments and in settling market conversations.

Tertiary Emilio Aguinaldo College Present Tagaytay City National High School 2007-2011

High School


Mendez Central School 2006-2007

Hon. Celso De Castro Mrs. Nelia A. Descallar Vice Mayor of the City of Tagaytay Tagaytay City National High School

I hereby proven that all the information above are certified true with all the knowledge that given to me.

ERJHON C. DINGLASAN Signature over Printed Name