Lebanese University Faculty of Engineering (III) Civil Department Semester VII



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Ibrahim Elshar 3323 Joseph Hamad 3324

Lighting is the application of light. What we do with lights, where we place them, how much area we light with them, what color ³white´ light we choose, what shadows we cast, or which artwork we accent±±the effects we create±±this is lighting. As we get older we need more light, but it must be more shielded, balanced, and uniform light. Lighting that is the most effective for an application while using the least amount of energy can be considered energy-efficient. Lighting for universal design is lighting that grows and shrinks as we do; it lives with us, and adapts to our needs.

An important property of light fixture is the luminous efficiency. the higher efficiency.Electric Lighting I INTRODUCTION Electric Lighting. illumination by means of any of a number of devices that convert electrical energy into light. On the other hand a general and localized lighting is required in places where a dim or weak lighting is best needed. An intense lighting system may be required for recreational areas that involve task functionality operations which in turn inquire a good lighting system. 2) Ornamental lighting: is mainly for decorative purposes. often used to bounce indirect light of the ceiling and back down. intended to highlight pictures. meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy. Although it is easy to design it. and light-emitting diodes. The more transparent the lighting fixture is. usually measured in lumen or watt. II Lighting Designation: Lighting designation differs with the aim functionality of the illuminated area. it has dramatic problems with glare and excess energy consumption due to large number of fitting 2) Indirect lighting: is less common. for purposes such as reading or inspection materials. with fixtures on or recessed in the ceiling casting light downward. 3) General lighting: fills in between the two and is intended for general illumination of an area. The types of electric lighting devices most commonly used are the incandescent lamp. 1) Intense lighting: is mainly functional and is usually the most concentrated. III Methods of Lighting: 1) Direct lighting: is the most common. the various types of arc and electric-discharge vapor lamps. It is commonly used in lighting application that requires minimal glare and uniform general luminance levels. the fluorescent lamp. plants or other elements of interior design. Indirect lighting can create a LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 2 . Shading the light will normally decrease the efficiency but increase the directionality and visual comfort probability.

but tends to make the subject looks flat as it casts almost no visible shadows.500K ± 2.700K) Lamp Life ± 1-2. it will not stop evaporation. selectively emitting radiation. As filament fracture is the normal end of lamp lifeit would not be convenient for sub circuits fuses to fail. i. with most of itoccurring in the visible region. so low conductivity is important. With an inert gas filling. Although this stopsoxidation of the tungsten filament. It can be regarded as uneconomical lighting principle. the more successful it willbe. The bulb contains a vacuum or gas filling. Features Efficacy ± 18 lumens/Watt Color Rendering Index ± 1A Color Temperature .000 hours LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 3 .Krypton or Xenon is only used in specialized applications such as cycle lamps where the smallbulb size helps to offset the increased cost. theevaporation will be suppressed. The darkening of bulbs is due toevaporated tungsten condensing on the relatively cool bulb surface. Gas filledlamps normally incorporate fuses in the lead wires. and the heavier the molecular weight. 3) Front lighting: it is also quite common. IVTYPES OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS This section describes the various types and components of lighting systems.Warm (2. which can draw very high currents. For normal lamps an argon nitrogen mixture of ratio 9/1 is used because of its low cost.Gas filling can conduct heat away from the filament. A small break can cause an electricaldischarge.diffused and shadow free light effect. Incandescent (GLS) Lamps An incandescent lamp acts as a µgrey body¶. and where performance is critical.

this coating will provideadditional electrons to help start the discharge. which is a poor transmitter of UV. The latest lamps are using a mercury amalgam.000 hours LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 4 .000 hours Tri-phosphor Efficacy ± 90 lumens/Watt Color Rendering Index ±1A-1B Color Temperature ± Any Lamp Life ± 7-15. and will emit a smallamount of blue/green radiation. but the majority will be in the UV at 253. aslamp life will be reduced. The fluorescent tube has a low pressure of mercury vapor. This emissive coating must not be over-heated.7nm and 185nm. This enables the optimum mercury pressure to be sustainedover a wider temperature range. 50% efficient. Features Halophosphate Efficacy ± 80 lumens/Watt (HF gear increases this by 10%) Color Rendering Index ±2-3 Color Temperature ± Any Lamp Life ± 7-15. typically 12mg. since the cathodes are heated as part of the starting process. When heated.which enables doses closer to 5mg. This process is approx. Passing electricity through a gas or metallic vapour will causeelectromagnetic radiation at specific wavelengths according to the chemical constitution and thegas pressure. This is useful for exterior lighting as well as compact recessedfittings. The lamps use a soda lime glass.The inside of the glass wall has a thin phosphor coating. Fluorescent Lamps Fluorescent Lamps are about 3 to 5 times as efficient as standard incandescent lamps and can lastabout 10 to 20 times longer. The cathodes aretungsten filaments with a layer of barium carbonate. selected to absorb the UV radiation andtransmit it in the visible region. Fluorescent tubes are µhotcathode¶ lamps.The amount of mercury is small.ii.

The following Table gives the performance characteristics of the commonly used luminaries: 1 VDESIGN OF LIGHTING SYSTEM The prime objectives behind the design of a lighting system are as follows: the safety and comfort of occupants the nature of a task or process performed in a space will dictate the illuminance level which must be provided by the lighting system (lx or lm/m2). LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 5 . this can be achieved by selecting high efficiency equipment and making use of available daylight. theminimisation of energy consumption minimisation of energy consumption involves the development of the most energy efficient lighting systems which is suitable for the task. Tasks involving high degrees of visual acuity will require higher lighting levels.

Its values are between 0. These are as follows: 1) Identification of the requirements for the lighting system. through selection of appropriate switching mechanisms and daylight responsive controls. Alternatively. avoidance of glare with a minimum expenditure of energy.UF is the utilisation and is a function of the luminaire properties and room geometry. (%)-MF is known as the maintenance factor. lamps. illuminance levels.colour rendering or the creation of a specific atmosphere the colour characteristics of a lighting scheme will affects tasks performed when the lighting system is create a warm atmosphere in a restaurant requires the selection of lights skewed to the red end of the spectrum. The most rudimentary form of lighting design is done using a manual calculation the lumen method. (%).. For example tasks which require the accurate representation of colour require a light with the spectral characteristics of daylight.85. this is a simplified design approach to enable the designer to achieve an even light distribution in spaces of reasonably simple geometry (i.e. 2) Selection of the required luminance (lux) its value is related to the place to be the area to be lit. which is a combination of three factors. colour requirements. Method Of Calculation: A simple means of designing lighting systems is achieved by means of the lumen method. which influence the lighting level. etc. luminaires: lighting systems consist of numerous components.. available space. colour characteristics and efficiency of the lighting system. rectangular). The basis of the lumen method is the following equation: J lum ! Ev A YvQ (1) E . It is the efficiency LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 6 . the two most important of which are: lamps. A lighting design has several stages. A . luminaires affect the efficiency with which the light is distributed and so affect lighting efficiency and uniformity 3) Design of the lighting system: lighting systems are designed to achieve a reasonably uniform distribution of light on a particular plane (usually horizontal). 4) System control: once a lighting system has been designed it can be controlled in such a way as to make maximum use of available daylight.65 and 0.

it mainly depends on the color of the surface and its intensity.8lum =10679 lum= ( E.8W h  s W=width of surface L=length of surface hsis the height of luminaire above the working plane.79 =0.  u= E x S (lum) J lu ! v ...8*4.2 L v 0.95m..2*9. width W = 4.Special tables are used in order to determine the utilization factor which requires us to find the following parameters: (%): it represents the average factor of reflection of any surface (wall or ceiling).75 (ceiling)=70 % & (walls)=50 % Method of lighting: direct. It can be determined by the following formula: K! 0.1m K= (0. From given table we read = 0.39 u=E*S=75*23.83m Surface area of kitchen=48m2 E (kitchen) =65 lux hs= 3-0.(lu ) YvQ The First Floor Salon (Living) will be studied as an example: y y y y y y y y y y y y Length L = 9.95)/ 2.9 = 2. ) Use2 incandescent lamps of 200W & 2 of 100W of =18 (lum/watt) (2x200+2x100) x18 =10800 ( lum ) 10800>10679 OK   ¡ ¢ £ LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 7 .83 + 0. Form of lighting: incandescence.1 =2. K:Room Index.5=3123..S)/ ( .

522727 3. I x Diminishing Factor (0.Installation Circuit Breaker panel Calculation Method Design Procedure for the Lamps Wiring For a given lighting circuit in each floor the loads of the lamps are calculated as follows: P = power of the lamps in a given circuit I = Power/ (220x0.511364 LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 8 .988636 Load A 4.875 2.818182 7.8) = Load in A.079545 6.36364 Load A 0.806818 6.784091 11. LGF circuit # 1 3 5 11 GF circuit # 1 3 5 7 FF circuit # 1 9 11 13 Power w 100 1240 1148 618 Power w 846 1200 1370 2000 Power w 1246 1210 520 350 Load A 7.568182 7.75) = Diminished Load A.045455 6.954545 1.

511364 Diminishing Diminished circuit wire size factor Load A Breaker mm2 0.5 0.58 10A 2.75 8.5 0.52 10A 2.5 0.ALL Floors circuit # 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 power 2192 2410 1890 2000 1240 1498 618 load in A 12.95 6A 1.5 0.5 LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 9 .36364 7.45455 13.045455 8.34 10A 2.7 4.5 0.75 9.7 9.7 5.63 6A 1.511364 3.73864 11.75 2.75 8.93 6A 1.5 0.69318 10.05 10A 2.

3 4.40909 0.5 5. LGF Circuit # 0 2 4 6 10 12 14 20 GF Power Circuit Power watt # watt 5000 2 1000 6030 4 1850 1450 6 1450 2230 8 5950 1000 22 2000 500 630 1000 FF Circuit Power # watt 10 1650 12 2250 14 2000 16 1650 22 600 18 1000 ALLFLS Circuit # 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 18 22 Power watt 5000 7030 3300 3680 5950 2650 2750 2630 1650 1000 1000 2600 Diminishing Diminished circuit wire Load A Breaker sizemm2 Load in A factor 28.451705 10 4 15.625 0.3 4.3 4.80682 0.75 0.482955 5 2.3 6.3 8.5 20.5 LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 10 .3 2.522727 10 4 39.5 9.5 14.25 8.272727 5 2.Circuit Breaker panel Calculation Method Design Procedure for the SocketWiring For a given Socket circuit in each floor the loads of the Sockets are calculated as follows: P = power on the sockets in a given circuit I = Power/ (220x0.77273 0.545455 5 2.90909 0.431818 5 2.985795 10 4 18.8125 5 2.681818 0.625 5 2.375 0.5 14.6875 5 2.05682 0.5 33.5 15.25 9.94318 0.8 4.75) = Diminished Load A.517045 5 2.3 5.3 4. I x Diminishing Factor (0.5 5.545455 5 2.8) = Load in A.8 4.94318 0.681818 0.

A main circuit breaker of 50A will be used. LIGHTING AND INSTALLATION Page 11 .