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Project in Science


Fiona Felice P. Massalang Grade 5 Section 4

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung, especially of the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lungs) associated with fever, chest symptoms, and consolidation on a chest radiograph. While typically caused by an infection there are a number of non infectious causes. Infectious agents include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Non infectious causes include chemical burns, physical injury, drug reactions and vascular complications. Typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause with presumed bacterial pneumonia being treated with antibiotics. The prognosis depends on the type of pneumonia, the treatment, any complications, and the person's underlying health. Pneumonia is a common disease that occurs in all age groups. It is a leading cause of death among the young, the old, and the chronically ill.

Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia People with infectious pneumonia often have a productive cough, fever accompanied by shaking chills, shortness of breath, sharp or stabbing chest pain during deep breaths, confusion, and an increased respiratory rate. In the elderly confusion may be the most prominent symptom. The typical symptoms in children under five are fever, cough, and fast or difficult breathing. Fever however is not very specific as it occurs in many other common illnesses and may be absent in those with severe disease or malnutrition while a cough is frequently absent in those less than 2 months of age. More severe symptoms may include: central cyanosis, decreased drinking, convulsions, persistent vomiting, or a decreased level of consciousness. Findings from physical examination of the lungs may be normal, but often show decreased expansion of the chest on the affected side. Harsher sounds from the larger airways transmitted through the inflamed lung are heard as bronchial breathing on auscultation with a stethoscope. Rales (or crackles) may be heard over the affected area during inspiration. Percussion may be dulled over the affected lung, and increased rather than decreased vocal resonance distinguishes pneumonia from a pleural effusion. Because some of these signs are subjective, physical examination alone is insufficient to diagnose or rule out pneumonia.

II. Bronchitis
Inflammation - bronchi; Acute bronchitis

Bronchitis is inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. Bronchitis may be short-lived (acute) or chronic, meaning that it lasts a long time and often recurs. Acute bronchitis generally follows a viral respiratory infection. At first, it affects your nose, sinuses, and throat and then spreads to the lungs. Sometimes, you may get another (secondary) bacterial infection in the airways. This means that bacteria infect the airways, in addition to the virus. The following things can make bronchitis worse:
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Air pollution Allergies Certain occupations (such as coal mining, textile manufacturing, or grain handling) Infections

The symptoms of either type of bronchitis may include:

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Chest discomfort Cough that produces mucus; if it's yellow-green, you are more likely to have a bacterial infection Fatigue Fever -- usually low Shortness of breath worsened by exertion or mild activity Wheezing

Asthma (from the Greek "panting") is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma attack may be set off by an allergy, infection, overexertion, inhaling cold air, or stress. The asthmatics difficulty in breathing is caused by sensitivity of the bronchioles that brings about constriction or clogging of the tubes so that spent air cannot be properly expelled, hindering the inhalation of fresh air. Asthma attacks are unpredictable: they may last for a few minutes to a week or more; they may occur regularly or only once in a few years; they may be mild or extremely severe.

1V. Lung cancer

Cancer - lung

Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the lungs. The lungs are located in the chest. They help you breathe. When you breathe, air goes through your nose, down your windpipe (trachea), and into the lungs, where it spreads through tubes called bronchi. Most lung cancer begins in the cells that line these tubes. There are two main types of lung cancer:
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer makes up about 20% of all lung cancer cases.

If the lung cancer is made up of both types, it is called mixed small cell/large cell cancer. If the cancer started somewhere else in the body and spread to the lungs, it is called metastatic cancer to the lung. Lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Lung cancer is more common in older adults. It is rare in people under age 45. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk of lung cancer. There is no evidence that smoking low-tar cigarettes lowers the risk. However, lung cancer has occurred in people who have never smoked. Secondhand smoke (breathing the smoke of others) increases your risk of lung cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 3,000 nonsmoking adults will die each year from lung cancer related to breathing secondhand smoke. The following may also increase one's risk of lung cancer:
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High levels of air pollution High levels of arsenic in drinking water Radon gas Asbestos Family history of lung cancer Radiation therapy to the lungs Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust

Early lung cancer may not cause any symptoms. Many times, lung cancer is found when an x-ray is done for another reason. Symptoms depend on the specific type of cancer you have, but may include:
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Cough that doesn't go away Coughing up blood Shortness of breath Wheezing Chest pain Loss of appetite Losing weight without trying Fatigue

Additional symptoms that may also occur with lung cancer, often in the late stages:
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Weakness Swallowing difficulty Nail problems Joint pain Hoarseness or changing voice Shoulder pain Swelling of the face or arms Facial paralysis Eyelid drooping Bone pain or tenderness

V. Pulmonary tuberculosis
TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). You can get TB by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. This is called primary TB. Most people who develop symptoms of a TB infection first became infected in the past. However, in some cases, the disease may become active within weeks after the primary infection.

The following people are at higher risk for active TB:

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Elderly Infants People with weakened immune systems, for example due to AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or certain medications

Your risk of contracting TB increases if you:

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Are in frequent contact with people who have TB Have poor nutrition Live in crowded or unsanitary living conditions

The following factors may increase the rate of TB infection in a population:

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Increase in HIV infections Increase in number of homeless people (poor environment and nutrition) The appearance of drug-resistant strains of TB

The primary stage of TB usually doesn't cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they may include:
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Cough (usually cough up mucus) Coughing up blood Excessive sweating, especially at night Fatigue Fever Unintentional weight loss

Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:

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Breathing difficulty Chest pain Wheezing