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Electromagnetic Induction: Faradays law states that the emf induced in a circuit by the linked magnetic field is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages. For engineering purposes the expression is used in the form d e = T . dt where T is the turns and is the flux. The ve sign is indicative of the direction of the emf as specified by Lenzs law. Generation:

R O n oit at o R n oit at o R

Figure 1: Consider a 1-turn coil, i.e. 2-coil sides, 2-pole machine From Figure 1 it is seen that the flux linkage will vary from a maximum when = 0 and 180 to a minimum when = 90 and 270. Using Faradays law for a 1-turn coil, the induced voltage is d (cos ) e = m . dt If the angular speed is kept constant, = t, and
e = m. d (cos( ) t dt

= m . sin( ) . t = 2 .m . sin( ) f t

Basic Generator Operating Principles


If we arrange for this simple machine to have three single turn coils, arranged symmetrically round the armature as shown in Figure 2, the generated voltages become:

ea = E m . sin ( t + )
2 eb = E m . sin t + 3 4 ec = E m . sin t + 3




Figure 2 These voltages have the same frequency but different phase angles. The armature coils are known as phases and the voltages are phase voltages. Figure 3 shows the phasor diagram and the voltages.

Figure 3a

Figure 3b

Basic Generator Operating Principles


The same result can be obtained by using the flux cutting law, i.e. E = BLu Where B is the flux density (Tesla), L is the length of the conductor in the magnetic field (m) and u is its velocity (m/s). This approach leads to the following observations: a). b). the longer the coil (machine length) the greater the terminal voltage the higher the rotational speed (u = r) the greater the terminal voltage.

Restating the voltage equation for a 1-turn, constant speed, 2-pole machine
e = 2.. f . . sin( 2.. f .t ) volts m

For a 1-phase machine with Z conductors per phase

e = 2.. f . .Z ph . sin 2.. f .t ) volts ( m

and the RMS voltage per phase is

E= 1 .2.. f .m .Z ph volts 2

The output, S, for a three-phase machine = 3.Epn.Iph

S = 3 .2.. f .m .Z ph .I ph 2

Consider: 1) 2)

frequency , f = N/60 for a 2-pole machine (N rpm) maximum flux: the average flux density, Bav, over the whole air gap is

Bav =

m Tesla .D.L

the product Zph.Iph :- if we define the number of ampere-conductors per unit length of the gap-surface circumference as


Z ph .I ph


then Z ph .I ph =.D.g

The output equation of the machine now becomes

S = k .Bav .g .D 2 .L.N VA
Bav - is limited by saturation and losses in teeth g affects the I2R loss and armature reaction which in turn affects heating and cooling.

Basic Generator Operating Principles