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# BASIC GENERATOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES

Electromagnetic Induction: Faradays law states that the emf induced in a circuit by the linked magnetic field is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages. For engineering purposes the expression is used in the form d e = T . dt where T is the turns and is the flux. The ve sign is indicative of the direction of the emf as specified by Lenzs law. Generation:

R O n oit at o R n oit at o R

S S
Figure 1: Consider a 1-turn coil, i.e. 2-coil sides, 2-pole machine From Figure 1 it is seen that the flux linkage will vary from a maximum when = 0 and 180 to a minimum when = 90 and 270. Using Faradays law for a 1-turn coil, the induced voltage is d (cos ) e = m . dt If the angular speed is kept constant, = t, and
e = m. d (cos( ) t dt

= m . sin( ) . t = 2 .m . sin( ) f t

## Basic Generator Operating Principles

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If we arrange for this simple machine to have three single turn coils, arranged symmetrically round the armature as shown in Figure 2, the generated voltages become:

ea = E m . sin ( t + )
2 eb = E m . sin t + 3 4 ec = E m . sin t + 3

'c
N

'a
s

'b

Figure 2 These voltages have the same frequency but different phase angles. The armature coils are known as phases and the voltages are phase voltages. Figure 3 shows the phasor diagram and the voltages.

Figure 3a

Figure 3b

## Basic Generator Operating Principles

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The same result can be obtained by using the flux cutting law, i.e. E = BLu Where B is the flux density (Tesla), L is the length of the conductor in the magnetic field (m) and u is its velocity (m/s). This approach leads to the following observations: a). b). the longer the coil (machine length) the greater the terminal voltage the higher the rotational speed (u = r) the greater the terminal voltage.

Restating the voltage equation for a 1-turn, constant speed, 2-pole machine
e = 2.. f . . sin( 2.. f .t ) volts m

## For a 1-phase machine with Z conductors per phase

e = 2.. f . .Z ph . sin 2.. f .t ) volts ( m

## and the RMS voltage per phase is

E= 1 .2.. f .m .Z ph volts 2

## The output, S, for a three-phase machine = 3.Epn.Iph

S = 3 .2.. f .m .Z ph .I ph 2

Consider: 1) 2)

frequency , f = N/60 for a 2-pole machine (N rpm) maximum flux: the average flux density, Bav, over the whole air gap is

Bav =
3)

m Tesla .D.L

the product Zph.Iph :- if we define the number of ampere-conductors per unit length of the gap-surface circumference as

g=

Z ph .I ph

.D

then Z ph .I ph =.D.g

## The output equation of the machine now becomes

S = k .Bav .g .D 2 .L.N VA
Bav - is limited by saturation and losses in teeth g affects the I2R loss and armature reaction which in turn affects heating and cooling.

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