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American Colonization A. Colonial Policies - Colonial policies are made to make the colonization of the Philippines easier. 1. The Benevolent Assimilation - Issued on December 21, 1898 by US President William McKinley. - It extends US sovereignty of the US over the entire Philippines, even by force, if necessary. Manifest Destiny -> Future, Prediction, Fate, Planned Plan -> for the US to be a powerful country and for the Philippines to be a colony to the US - It is not difficult to instill peace and order through friendly or kind means. - Commissions -> They report the state of the Philippines to US President William McKinley US President William McKinley sent commissions to the Philippines to see if the Philippines is ready for self governance. The commissions advised the Philippine government what to do. 2. The Spooner Amendment - Issued on March 16 1900 - The Spooner Amendment was created after the Taft Commission when they saw that the Philippines was already peaceful. Hostilities did not stop and the Philippines was not pe aceful. - Confirmed the presidential power to establish a military government in the Philippines - Reiterated the power of the President to establish a civil government if the conditions in the country warranted it. B. Independence Policies - Independence policies are made to help prepare the Philippines for self-governance. - Positions were little by little given to Filipinos 1. The Philippine Bill of 1902 - Also known as the Cooper Act of July 1 1902 - First law passed by the congress - Establishment of a bicameral Philippine Legislature composed of a Philippine Commission (upper house) and Philippine Assembly (lower house). - It provided for a bill of rights for the Filipinos . - Created provisions on citizenship, declaration of rights, protection of natural resources and valuable minerals, conferment of the power of eminent domain to the Governments, improvement of public utilities, taxes and coinage. - Appointment of two Filipino commissioners to represent the Philippines in the US Congress but without voti ng rights.

Establishment of a Philippine Assembly after the following conditions were met 1. Full restoration of peace and order 2. Completion and publication of a nationwide census 3. Two years of continued peace and recognition of the authority of the United States after the publication of the census. The Philippine Assembly composed to representatives of different districts. They were Filipinos. The Philippine Commission composed to 3 Americans chosen by the US Congress and 2 Filipinos elected by the Philippine Assembly. Because of the composition of the Philippine Commission, the independence of the Filipinos in the government was limited or controlled. The Americans in the Phil. Commission out voted the Filipinos. This prevented the passing of laws may benefit the Philippines but otherwise to the US.

2. The Jones Law of 1916 - Also known as the Organic Law - Derived from organ, which gives a person life. It gives life to independence - An Organic law is a law or system of laws, which forms the foundation of a government. - It formally declares the intention of the United States to withdraw their sovereignty over the Philippines after the establishment of a stable government in the Philippines. - It provides for a framework for the creation of an autonomous government, whereby Filipinos can exercise a large amount of control over their domestic affairs in preparation for the complete grant of independence by the United States. - It created a bicameral Philippine Legislature composed of a Senate (upper house) and a House of Representatives (lower house). - The executive department remained under American control 3. Hare-Hawes Cutting Act - It was brought by SergioOsmena and Roxas - Quezon urged the Philippine Commission to reject the bill, which they did. His principal reason was because of the provision, which leaves the naval bases under US hands. - The law promised Philippine independence after 10 years under US supervision, but reserved several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. - It also requires the Philippine Senate to ratify the law. 4. Tydings McDuffie Law - Brought by Quezon - The law promised Philippine independence after a 10-year transitional period.

The US President was granted the power to call into military service all military forces of the Philippine government.

5. Filipinization - I DON T KNOW. C. Economic Policies 1. Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909 - The Tariff Act provided for free trade between the US and the Philippines - It allowed free entry of somePhilippine products into the US market - It limits Philippine export but not on American export - The free flow of US imports was a powerful deterrent to the Philippine industrial growth - By 1915, tobacco exports from the Philippine to the US had increased as a result of the bill 2. Simmons-Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 - It is also known as the United States Revenue Act of 1913 or the Simmons-Underwood Act - It provided for a FAIR free trade - It removed the restrictions to Philippine export - It lowered taxes in the US