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# Introduction

## Heat transfer is commonly encountered in engineering systems and other aspects of life

r deals in general with two types of problems: Rating problems – calcul ating rates of heat transf er a t a specific temperature difference for an existing problem Sizing problems – deter mination of the size of a syst e m in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specif i ed temperature difference What is the condensation rate of steam at a given flow rate of cooling water which is availabl e at certain temperature in a given heat exchanger? What should be the thickens of insulation to prevent a worker’s injury on accidental contact with a pipe surface? University of Ottawa, CHG 2314, B. Kruczek 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-2" src="pdf-obj-2-2.jpg">

# Introduction

## Engineering heat transfer deals in general with two types of problems:

### Sizing problems – determination of the size of a system in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specified temperature difference

r deals in general with two types of problems: Rating problems – calcul ating rates of heat transf er a t a specific temperature difference for an existing problem Sizing problems – deter mination of the size of a syst e m in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specif i ed temperature difference What is the condensation rate of steam at a given flow rate of cooling water which is availabl e at certain temperature in a given heat exchanger? What should be the thickens of insulation to prevent a worker’s injury on accidental contact with a pipe surface? University of Ottawa, CHG 2314, B. Kruczek 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-40" src="pdf-obj-2-40.jpg">

What is the condensation rate of steam at a given flow rate of cooling water which is available at certain temperature in a given heat exchanger?

r deals in general with two types of problems: Rating problems – calcul ating rates of heat transf er a t a specific temperature difference for an existing problem Sizing problems – deter mination of the size of a syst e m in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specif i ed temperature difference What is the condensation rate of steam at a given flow rate of cooling water which is availabl e at certain temperature in a given heat exchanger? What should be the thickens of insulation to prevent a worker’s injury on accidental contact with a pipe surface? University of Ottawa, CHG 2314, B. Kruczek 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-47" src="pdf-obj-2-47.jpg">

What should be the thickens of insulation to prevent a worker’s injury on accidental contact with a pipe surface?

# Nomenclature

## DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of Thermal Energy, Temperature and Heat Transfer

### Units

Thermal Energy

Energy associated with microscopic behavior of matter

## Uoru

### J or J/kg

Temperature

Heat Transfer

A means of indirectly assessing the amount of thermal energy stored in matter

Thermal energy transport due to temperature gradients

 Heat Amount of thermal energy transferred over a time interval t > 0 Heat Rate Thermal energy transfer per unit time Heat Flux Thermal energy transfer per unit time and surface area

2

# Modes of heat transfer

Conduction
Convection

### Radiation: Energy that is emitted by matter due to changes in the electron configurations of its atoms or molecules and is transported as electromagnetic waves (or photons).

NB1: Conduction and convection require the presence of temperature variations in a material medium.

Heat flux

# q ′′ = − kT ∇

Thermal conductivity

x

2

1

x

1

2

## q = qA ′′ ⋅

x

x

A is perpendicular to the vector of heat flow

L is parallel to the vector of heat flow

# Heat transfer rates

## Convection

Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development of velocity and thermal
boundary layers:
Newton’s law of cooling:
q ′′
=
h
(
TT − ∞
)
s

b

4

s

2

E
b

-8

2

4

abs

2

2

sur

4

sur

b

s

r

s

surr

s

4

4

sur

r

ssurrs

2

2

surr

# )

NB: h r is a very strong function of temperature

conv

s

r

s

sur

st

in

out

g

st

in

out

st

g

in

g

out

in

g

out

2

2

in

out

# Open systems

• V 2

• V 2

u + pv

+
⎟ − ⎜ u + pv +
m

in

⎟ + q − W
out

## enthalpy, i = u + pv

i in i out = c p (T in -T out )

p

out

in

in

out

cond

conv

"

# Summary – Part 1

## Heat transfer occurs between systems at different temperatures

Three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, radiation
Heat flux determined by rate equations specific to each mode