Introduction to Metal Casting | Casting (Metalworking) | Foundry

Introduction to Metal Casting

Principle of Metal Casting On it's most basic level, when reduced to the most essential elements, molten metal is poured into a cavity called a mold, the mold forms a pre-determined shape, the metal cools to the point of solidification, after which it can be called a casting. A Brief History of Metal Casting

500 AD

The timeline above has the high points, and only includes most favorite characters and events, below will be several other players that would have made the chart too messy... 1 - Gold (Au) is speculated to be the first metal to be cast, due to it's naturally occurring state in metallic form, there is evidence that dates back as far as 4000BC of this in the Eurasiatic Steppe Belt also known as the Russian Black Sea area. Between 4000BC and 2000BC there was much development in the art of metal casting, including the use of Copper (Cu) and eventually by 2000BC the smelting of Iron (Fe). The dates are fuzzy and unimportant with regard to passing this modules examination. But the prevailing theory is that droplets of copper were discovered in the ashes of firepits, formed from the stone that circled or lined the fire. Humans, being the clever organisms that we are eventually determined that this too, was a metal like gold, and could be extracted from specific types of stone materials... An excellent BBC audio file exists on this theory under the programme heading "Material World" and the episode is "Mining Great Ormes Head"... it may not be exact but that should be close enough to get you there... 2 - 2000BC is a nice marker that defines the discovery of Iron, similar to Copper (Cu) it is not a naturally occurring metal, but as a species we applied similar methods to extract it as were developed for Copper (Cu). 1000BC too should have been included, on the timeline as it is significant in that as populations grew and migrated the above skills moved with them. The Chinese are credited with developing a significant body of casting technology over that period that included Lost-Wax casting. 3 - By 600BC the Chinese had also discovered Iron (Fe) and were developing methods to smelt and cast it.

4 - This date of 500AD is curious, in that cast crucible steel was first being used in India at that time, what is surprising is that the technology was lost for a considerable period and did not get rediscovered until 1200 years later in 1750 by Benjamin Huntsman in England. 5 - Huntsman likely could not have developed his process if not for Abraham Darby of Coalbrookdale in England. Darby is credited as the first foundry man to use Coke as a fuel for firing his Iron (Fe) foundry in 1730. It's also of some significance that an energy crisis was afoot in the 1800's due to all the wood being burnt into charcoal, ship building and the general need of growing populations, empires and our drive towards advancing our collective life styles through innovation... The move to Coke (not pepsi) cut the cost of Iron (Fe) production to 1/3rd what it was... 6 - 1855AD is the year Sir Henry Bessemer, one of my favorite figures in history filed a patent on the Bessemer process. Bessemer is best remembered for developing a method of decarborizing Iron (Fe) into steel... The jist of it has to do with blowing air through the molten Iron (Fe) in the hopes that the oxygen gathers some of the Carbon out of the liquid metal, eventually reducing it to less than 2% carbon content... The demarcation between Steel & Iron (Fe)... Do not take the last statement as gospel yet, as that will be dealt with in far more detail under the categorization of Ferrous metals later... For more information on Sir Henry Bessemer, again I direct you to the BBC radio 4 series called "Inventors Imperfect" Sir Henry had an entire 30min episode on his life, the Bessemer process and some of his other legacies, that landed him as an Inventor Imperfect. There are so many other great minds that have contributed to the advancement of casting technology that an entire course on just them would be required... This is largely due to the evolution of the patent office and the general trend toward recorded history... If such offices and practices existed in 500AD we would never have lost the first process of making crucible steel in India, and just think how far along we'd be now... 7 - Today, All this rich history has been driving toward one purpose, one goal, one objective, and that is, by knowing where we've been, I hope to have a better sense of where I will go. Key Metals in the Foundry or Metal Casting Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr) Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) Nickel (Ni), Silicon (Si), Tin (Sn), Zinc (Zn) The above are identified with their Elemental names as found in the periodic table, the only thing to note at this time is that Silicon (Si) is grouped as a semi-metal in the periodic table and not as a pure metal. Key Nonmetals in Metal Casting Carbon (C), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P) Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O)

Take note, the last three elements listed (Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O)) are typically encountered in a gaseous state and will reflect a different elemental symbology as shown below Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2) Key oxides (in the form of ceramics) Alumina (Al2O3), Silica (SiO2), Magnesia (MgO) and Calcium Oxide (CaO) The compounds listed in this section are the primary constituents of Slag or Dross encountered in the process of melting metals and their reaction to Oxygen (O) found in the atmosphere An effort has been made to list the Elemental symbol alongside of the name or compound, this is a practice that should continue... Even if the word Iron (Fe) is used 5 (Five) times within a single sentence... Provided the symbols are accurate to the names, it should aid in the process of internalizing their symbol... I'm not saying that this will be on the final Exam, but I'd be quite surprised if it wasn't there just as a "Gimme" mark... and if you don't know these cold, you have no business passing the exam... Classification of Foundries In general terms Foundries can be grouped by the type of metals that they cast, the primary groupings are "Ferrous" and "Non-Ferrous". The term Ferrous relates to the presence of Iron (Fe) in the metal being poured. A Ferrous foundry would typically pour cast iron in it's various forms including but not limited to the various grades of steel. A Non-Ferrous foundry would typically pour alloys of metal that are NOT Iron (Fe) based, these would include, but are not limited to Aluminum (Al) and all it various alloys, Copper (Cu) and it's alloys of brass and bronze, as well as the Magnesium (Mg) based alloys. If pressed further I would divide the above categories into 2 (two) other sub-groupings called Jobbing and Captive foundries. Captive foundries are typically a division of a larger corporation or business, they are considered "Captive" in that they only make castings for the parent company. A good example of a captive foundry would be the engine block division of an automotive manufacturing facility. One of the advantages of creating a captive foundry would be consistency of production and greater control of product development and retention of intellectual property relating to the castings, and proprietary techniques developed for their production. The Jobbing Foundry is one that is an open shop that produces castings for other companies, personally I would think that Jobbing Foundries would employ a broader skill-set and be more flexible to meet the constant changes that influence the casting market. Similarly Jobbing Foundries would have the potential to be more dynamic due to the ever changing types of work performed, and would be able to offer staff greater challenges. Parts Integration

. Metal Alloy Type Zinc Aluminum Magnesium Copper Cast Irons High Manganese Steel Monel (70N. The very idea of metal casting is such that it evokes the tenets of the Taoist "Un-carved block". my many relatives and friends have suggested ideas for object. as like the un-carved block it holds all possibilities within it's bounds. sitting on the bench before the carver. In it's virgin state it holds the myriad of possibilities. parts. but the true potential of a foundry operation is that it is not constrained to a particular line or market. The choice of furnace type is based on these 4 factors. art pieces etc that I could cast with the idea that it has business potential. The trend specifically in the automotive market is the creation of complex castings that are replacing similarly complex parts that had previously been stamped.. The transformation of metal from solid to molten is accomplished in a variety of ways through the use of various types of furnaces.. And such is the mound of molders sand before it takes the shape of the casting that is to into a full fledged foundry.The final sub-section of Module 1 deals with the ideology of casting. the list below should illustrate this point. I agree that all of their suggestions hold promise. Melting of Metals A prerequisite to casting is the use of metal in a molten state. Over the course of the last 8 or 9 months that I've been letting the idea of extending theworkshop.30Cu) Nickel Based Super Alloys High Alloy Steels High Alloy Irons Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Temp Range (Fahrenheit) 650-850 1150-1350 1150-1350 1650-2150 2450-2700 2550-2650 2500-2800 2600-2800 2700-2900 2800-3000 2850-3100 Temp Range (Celsius) 345-455 620-735 620-735 908-1180 1340-1480 1400-1455 1370-1540 1430-1540 1480-1600 1540-1650 1565-1700 . it can be anything and everything that is imaginable that would fit within it's volumetric dimensioning. machined or fabricated by a combination of both. tools. it's tremendous potential. • • • • Alloy Type Metal Quality Production Demands Economics Alloys have a wide spectrum of temperatures that they melt at. and the current trend towards parts integration. A block of wood..

well as it turns out it isn't really a blast furnace. Pictured to right is another of theworkshop. but is a Crucible Furnace. This is an oil-fired furnace that can melt a broader range of alloys with higher heat capabilities. Production demand can range from small batches under 100lbs through to 100 ton/hr continuous pour furnaces that run for days and weeks at a time uninterrupted. or have a tilting mechanism with a fixed position crucible in the original designs. Crucible furnaces are also well suited to Jobber type foundries as a selection crucibles can easily be established to meet the requirements of the various alloy types encountered. this one is fired with Hardwood or Charcoal. .. These furnaces can be stationary as pictured above. Crucible furnaces are used in smaller foundry operations that melt non-ferrous alloys. The basic premise is that the heat. Though Propane/LPG. which can adversely effect the chemical properties of the alloy being melted.. The economics of furnace selection relate to factors of capital depreciation. Similarly the types of refractory used are matched to the basicity or acidity of the metal and/or its resultant (Dross or slag). is absorbed by the crucible and transferred to the metal until it eventually melts.Titanium Zirconium 3100-3300 3350-3450 1700-1820 1845-1900 as transcribed from AFS "Technology of Metalcasting" Metal Quality is effected by oxidization and losses due to vaporization. as well as the fuel and power consumption.. Oil and electricity are other ways to fire the furnace.. The Crucible Furnace is one of the oldest methods of meting's original "Fat-Boy Blast Furnace". Furnace Types Crucible Furnaces Pictured to the right is theworkshop.. maintenance and operating labour.

That's fuckin' hot!!! With such extreme heat comes the requirement of cooling with water jackets. These include (but are not limited to. These units are typically Monsters and can be several hundred feet long with melt capacities topping 75 Tons. The heat of the sustained arc can be in excess of 7232F or 4000C.. Arc Furnaces can be configured with "Ultra-HighPowered" (UHP) transformers that can supply 600900KVa/ton. The furnace can have a pivoting point with a hydraulic actuator to tilt the furnace backward to skim of the dross/slag or forward to pour off the metal. with issues resulting from gas pickup and excessive dross formation due to the exposed flame on the charge.. Electricity or a combination of the three... heat exchanges and recirculation systems.. Oil.. Reverbs are typically found in High production Aluminum foundries. A typical "Direct Arc" furnace.Reverberatory Furnaces To the right is my interpretation of a DryHearth Sloping Reverb Furnace. As with all furnaces there is a variety of refractory compounds that range from basic to acidic that can be used to match the pH characteristics of the metal and resultant dross/slag. continuous runs. There are number of various orientations and styles of reverbs. Front Charging. They can be fired either with Gas.. Dry Hearth. Advantages are High capacity. Construction is typically of High Alumina Fire brick (85% Alumina) and structural steel (from what I can see in the text illustrations). The electrodes strike an arc with the metal charge. 3 electrodes are used that are tied to a 3 phase electrical source. Well Fired. Tower-Type Jet Melter or Stack and the regenerative/recuperative burner system furnaces.) Single Chamber. I believe the lower case "a" is a typo in the text and should be an "A" as in Amps. ..

The metal charge held in the crucible acts as the core and develops heat through "Eddy Currents" induced by the EMF (Electro-Magnetic-Force) that is concentrated in the centre of the circular primary coil. But like all things the drawback is the potential for drawing dross or surface impurities into the melt if the stirring action is excessive.The high temp capacity of this furnace lends itself better toward ferrous casting than non ferrous.Core/Channel or Coreless To the right is a basic Coreless Induction furnace. with the Orange depicting the heavy copper coils that surround the Crucible & Charge. Also the Coil that surrounds the crucible is not a thin AWG #12 or 14 copper wire that you'd find in your house wiring.. as the Titanium IS THE Electrode... As an aside my gut feeling is that the term should be "Chromium Oxide" rather than "Chrome Oxide" but I defer to the venerable Bible (AFS Technology of Metalcasting). The In-Direct furnace also can be a sealed unit that operates under a reduced atmosphere for specialty metals that are sensitive to oxidization or atmospheric contamination. Titanium is a good example of a vacuum process arc furnace.. Alumina is a personal point of interest. or the Coil/shell assembly can be lifted up & away from the crucible..... There are some unusual properties of the coreless furnace that are worth noting.. specifically that the metal undergoes a circulatory action or stirring once molten... The electrodes can be either graphite or carbon. or is it??? The In-Direct Arc furnace is similar in principle. and are selected to match the type of metal being melted. It is a heavy Copper tube that usually requires active cooling by passing a flow .. and so is reflected in this sentence.. but curiously it can't be considered an In-Direct Arc.. The neutral refractories are typically Alumina (Al2O3) and the less common Chrome Oxide (Cr2O3). Just so you know. as I have a significant qty of Aluminum Dross to refine for the remaining metal trapped in it and to extract the Alumina for future uses within the foundry. The illustration is a "Cross-Section" view. The Crucible can be either pushed up and out of the core via a ram. This is beneficial in uniform distribution of temperature and alloy chemistry through the melt. or the crucible can be fixed inside the coil and a tilting mechanism employed for the pouring process. Induction Furnaces . Acidic Refractories are Silica Dioxide (SiO2) based & Base type refractories can be either Calcium Oxide (CaO) or Magnesium Oxide (MgO). This furnace is beyond the typical home or hobby foundry. The considerations of pH matching refractories is stressed in the text more so with Arc furnaces. but the arc is struck above the metal charge and is typically just one electrode.

No specifications are given for the Wall thickness or inner diameter of the copper tubing. In closing the Induction Furnace section here are some cool equations and data. This implies that the furnace is a "Continuous Melt" class unit and does not lend itself well to "Batch Melt Processing like it's Coreless counter-part. The typical issues of Metal solidification within the Channel (Loop that forms the Secondary Coil) are of considerable concern if the Alloy being processed has a high thermal expansion co-efficient as it may potentially damage the channel upon solidification. The illustration to the right is of the most basic "Core/Channel" Furnace. not the least of which is the requirement of a molten heel of metal to completely encircle the core. The distinction for the less mentally adroit is the addition of a "Core". . completing the "Secondary Coil" circuit.. the Coreless Induction furnace is capable of utilizing various frequencies to accommodate different Alloy to employs "Cored/Channel" induction furnaces in the near future. or the general hassle of dis-assembling the furnace should such a quantity of metal freeze in the channel that it can't be returned to a molten state. and conversely High Density = Low Freq. before the primary can be energized. For these reason's there are no plans for theworkshop.) There are issues. Sweeping generalization.. Core/Channel Induction Furnaces are typically employed to hold Volumes of molten metals at a molten state for continuous pour operations.. and the maintenance of the Primary Coil is more accessible. Lastly. while lighter Alloys such as Aluminum are more efficiently processed at frequencies ranging from 150 thru 700Hz depending on the density of the alloy. or I'd be out building one now rather than summarizing these notes. The size and shape of the metal containment area is more flexible. The core acts as a transfer medium for the EMF or Flux (electro-magnetically speaking NOT Chemometallurgically).. Copper based alloys are more efficiently melted with AC voltage frequencies between 60 and 100Hz (Hertz). Low Density = High Freq.of water through it.. The practice of pre-melting and holding between 2 (two) different furnaces is called "Duplexing" (that little bastard will be on the exam.

A door is provided to remove the slag. mileage may vary. .. and is blasted into the base. lastly 19Kwh will raise 1 ton or iron 100F..And if that's not enough. up through the mixture.. But essentially it is an ER type with a different element....000Watts = 1KWatt=3. The fuel is ignited by an oxygen enriched atmosphere. with the unlined variety requiring water-cooling along the entire body of the steel shell. fuel and refining minerals.. There are lined and unlined Cupola's. Of minor note is the "Glo-Bar" furnace that uses a Silicon Carbide rod in place of Ni-Chrome elements placed at the top of the furnace. A less exciting way to melt metal than the Electric Resistive Furnace.. Unlike the Core/Channel Induction furnace ER type systems can take solid charge material. As well as Water cooled tuyere assemblies that extend their life considerably... The illustration to the right shows a "Rear-Slagger". Without seriously violating the Copyright of the AFS text.. Open Hearth Furnace Since these furnaces are no-longer in use (since late 1960's early 1970's) there is no illustration. or supporting narrative..... Key points are to angle Tuyere slightly to 15 degrees off horizontal to get a more central blast to the center of the charge... but they are typically used in Duplexing processes for consistent holding of molten metal.. flames or potential for disaster.. The basic premise is the same through out.. and a tap is provided to tap-off the molten metal. I'd love to have included the numerous other Cupola photo's sectional views and diagrams that are in the book. fumes.413BTU. Wow... No noise. A series of Ni-Chrome elements are energized around the crucible and the radiant energy is absorbed by the Crucible and the metal.. The charge material becomes molten and flows to the base with the expected Slag. I think it would be prudent to not use the above for extended extrapolations due to such variables as heat losses and ambient temperature variables that could influence extended calculations. 1. Cupola Furnaces Basically a steel tube with racks for holding a mixture of charge material.. and 1KW continuous power for a duration of 1 hour is 1Kwh.

Yielding a ratio of 25 Parts Scrap to 1 part Flux to 3. . The Flux is Limestone (or Dolomite) and is added in specific proportions to the Coke (fuel) and the metal in the charge. These would be considered hobby or low volume units by comparison.. with my personal favorite being the "Divided-Blast" cupola that has 2 (two) wind-boxes and 2 rows or tuyere's with an optimal spacing of 30 to 42" one above the other. The theory is that Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) + Heat = Calcium Oxide (CaO) and Carbon Dioxide CO2) This process is referred to as Calcination. a source of Calcium Oxide when heated. and it's not that important.. 25 : 1 : 3.. I'm hesitant to start firing off it's equations as I just don't have the data at hand. The Limestone (or Dolomite) produce oxide(s) that are pH "Basic"... this mixture enters through a "Charging Door"... There is a lower limit to diameter size that will be a function of "Critical Mass of Charge or Burden" but I'm almost positive I've read about Cupolas having inner diameters as low as 6" on other websites. The Limestone is essentially Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). the resultant slag will have better fluid properties for removal when this balance is achieved.. The text notes production rates up to 100tons per hour as opposed to the 30 tons per hour previously noted. From the time cupola is fired-up to the time it is shut down or "Dropping Bottom" is called a "Campaign".8% carbon and a production capacity of over 30 tons per hour.. While the molten metal is taken off from a hole called a "Tap".) is 2000lbs scrap.. Dolomite is similar in that it is a source of Calcium Oxide (CaO) but also is a source of Magnesium Oxide (MgO). there is a slight discrepancy between the text and the lecture notes. Both may appear on a test or exam. The balance is determined by the ratios of Metal to Flux to Fuel.. or (%CaO +% MgO) over (%SiO2+%Al2O3) The importance of balancing the pH of the impurities has to do with their otherwise high melting points in an Acidic Oxide state.. this is a mixture of Coke..4% to 3. Other enhancements that you can incorporate are exhaust heat exchangers to preheat the incoming air. A typical charge (according to the Lecture notes.. 80lbs lime stone and 250lbs of Coke. but my lawyer advises me that I have a case if either is marked wrong. and each tuyere fed off of a common wind-box.. scrap Iron (or possibly Iron Ore) and a Fluxing agent (Limestone) to aid in removing impurities in the Iron.125. while the impurities of the scrap Iron and steel are Silica SiO2 and Alumina Al2O3 and some sulphur (S) which all tend to be pH "Acidic" the ratio of Acidic to Basic should be 1:1.The tuyere's typically encircle the base with 6 or more nozzles facing inward. The approximate dimensioning for commercial Cupolas is determined by the inside diameter ranging from 18" up thru 160".125 parts fuel. The materials entering the top of the cupola is called a "Charge or Burden". this is limited to approx 700-800F for conventional refractory lined Cupolas and extended to 1000-1200F on the water cooled Tuyere models.... Rust and sand from the initial charge.. it likely will not have a 1 ton capacity.. Ash. The materials removed in a properly formed slag are Coke.... I want this basic ratio to be included beyond the scope of the study notes should I ever decide to build such a furnace. A campaign can run for several weeks on larger Cupolas.. unless answered out of context. These units typically are used for Cast Iron production with a carbon content level of 2...

Upon exposure to the air after opening the ovens Coke typically cracks or fractures.. The Oxygen acts as the catalyst in the decarburizing process." and you're left to make your own Cast Iron.. and an inlet port at the top where Oxygen is piped in and ignited. The oxygen is injected into the melt via a series of tuyeres with a mixture of the neutral elemental gas Argon. Very much the sort of thing a Metal-Casting Specialty channel would carry. Argon Oxygen Decarburization Process Similar to the Blast Oxygen Furnace in process... The injection of the gas mixture results in a vigorous agitation of the melt that improves the removal of unwanted elements such as sulfur to the specifically formulated slag that covers the melt. but the material in the video clips is the best so far in the course. the Blast Oxygen process can be classed as a decarburizing process... Blast Oxygen Furnace This furnace is a high capacity. with production rates up to 100 tons per hour. (though this seems vague..Coke Production All of the "Cupola" related information is meaningless in the absence of COKE. The charge can tolerate only up to 30% scrap content with the majority as molten Cast Iron. . Since steel is essentially Cast Iron with a carbon content below 2%. The resultant Coke is 92% pure Carbon with the remainder classified as Ash. fast Cycle-time steel production furnace. I think any size would do.. but in the PAE. So when "the shit goes down. while the Argon aids in the retention of precious alloy elements such as chromium... Mold Types & Methods This section will largely be a text based listing of General Mold types and the various methods associated with each. The Charge is held in a monstrous Egg shaped vessel with an exhaust port at the back.. The Text is a fair reference. I've opted to not make . this process can be termed "Destructive Distillation". but Argon Oxygen Decarburization is considered a secondary process in refining specific alloys such as Stainless Steel... you'll want to know a bit about Coke production.this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB70. The basics are that the Coke is derived from "Metallurgical Coal" that is crushed to less 1/8" material and fed into sealed ovens that bake the impurities out at well above 2000F for a period of 24 hrs. as well as the advantages and disadvantages found with them.. The oxygen passing through the molten metal picks-up a high percentage of the free carbon from the melt and leaves as Carbon Dioxide CO2. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3. The typical size grade for commercial Cupola furnaces is 6" to 8". I believe that this is the modern equivalent of Sir Henry Bessemer's method of steel production. it's what is listed from the lecture notes) and hopefully will be of use in the Post Apocalyptic Era (PAE).

Binder types . Part tolerances and dimensional accuracy may be lower than other types/methods requiring additional labour costs for finishing/machining of castings. where a re-usable pattern is placed in a flask. and likely wouldn't come close to the videos.illustrations for this Module as it would be a few days of work..Again a diversity of Metal types can be cast. Conventional Molding .High-Density Molding This method employs mechanical ramming of bonded sands with either hydraulic or air pressure into the flask over the pattern. the other flask half is applied. but with closer dimensional accuracy while improving surface finish over the previous method. The other benefit is higher production rates realized by the mechanization of the ramming process.The complexity of the casting is limited by the requirement of draft.. The objective of these synthetic binders is to achieve greater binding strength. parting lines and the ability to position cores.a wide range of metals can be cast with this method. Advantages . rammed with sand. Conventional Molding . Alternative Sands This section describes the family of No-Bake or Quick-Set binders. the flask is rolled.Higher capital cost of equipment. strength and shake-out to be discussed later • • • • • • Alkyd Urethane Furan Sodium Silicate Acid Cured Phenolic Phenolic Urethane Phenolic Ester Skin-Dried & Dry Sand Molding . sand is rammed up. Disadvantages . Disadvantages .Each has unique properties relating to pH. Advantages . split and the pattern extracted to leave a cavity into which the molten metal is poured. higher labour cost associated with maintenance and training of staff and tighter quality control. the process is scalable to higher production run requirements and the molding material (bonded Sand) is easily recycled. lecture note images or the text. The binder or Bonding material is a Polymer or Silica Gel that replaces the Clay & water combination found in the Green Sand family.Green Sand This is the traditional Cope & Drag Flask method. appropriate selection for alloy type. By using sand with a lower moisture content higher densities and mold hardness are achieved. The Ramming process can be termed either as a Jolt or Squeeze method. the cost of materials and patterns is comparatively lower than other methods/types of mold making.

ie porosity/pinhole gas defects. Copper or aluminum (mold material selection is based on the metal type to be cast) for repeated usage. This process is employed for medium to heavy castings such as gears. Disadvantages . The Surface can be dried with either Hot Air. The metals to be cast generally are restricted to lower Melting Temp alloys due to the issues inherent in the handling and mechanization of high temp alloy handling. reduced production rates due to drying process of molds. This method is employed for medium to Heavy and Heavy castings.Reduced Gas and Moisture .The primary purpose of Skin Dried molds is to reduce moisture and gas forming materials at the surface of the mold where the metal sand junction occurs. Gas or Oil Flame and the mold face can be washed with as refractory coating (so that's a refractory coating on a refractory type material???) Advantages .Gravity feed This class of mold is typically made of tool steel. cast iron. tighter dimensional accuracy. The sand typically has special bonding agents applied prior to drying such as GM Bond (presumably a proprietary agent developed by General Motors???) The Mold face exhibits superior mechanical strength.are the capital cost of Bake Ovens. Zinc and Magnesium family of alloys. graphite. Shell Molding or Croning Process This process uses a heat activated Resin/Catalyst combination with silica sand. and a stronger mold. . The pre-coated sand is applied to a heated pattern plate where the resin hardens to form a shell that is approx 3/4" to 1" in thickness. and higher casting complexity..are Labour and material costs compared to Green Sand molding. and better surface finishes due to the reduction mold moisture and/or the application surface coats. housings etc. and reduced production relative to Green Sand.. while retaining comparible "Shake-out" characteristics to Green Sand molds... this is the end of the "Conventional Molding types Precision Molding and Casting Permanent Mold .Capital and labour costs. Advantages . Disadvantages . the baking process allows for greater mechanical strength. as well as reduced productivity due to the process being relatively slow. Disadvantages . but with the addition of heat to bake the mold at 400 to 600F.are Superior dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Advantages . This process is well suited to the Aluminum. Dry Sand Molding This is the Green Sand process.The mechanical strength of the mold. The 2 halves of the mold are glued together with an appropriate adhesive. cost of operation.

are typically the capital cost of equipment and Mold production. It should be noted that an Aluminum casting with a wall thickness of 5/32" or greater is achievable with this method. Low Pressure Mold This method employs a feed mechanism that exerts a 5 to 15 PSI head on the molten metal forcing it into the mold. . The Metal is injected into the mold at pressures up to 5000PSI (5. this semi-rotational action allows for more complex mold creation then possible with a static mold. stringent Mold Design requirements and the Very High cost of tooling and equipment that must be extended across high volume production runs to recover the initial costs.The mold is stationary along a fixed plane while the molten metal is poured into a sprue.This type of process is further divided into 2 (two) variants Static and Tilt Pouring. This process also exhibits superior dimensional accuracy and surface finish over the Shell process just discussed. Advantages . Tilt Pour . as well as the restriction of alloys that can be cast. Investment Casting This class of molding describes the process of "Investing" a pattern in a suitable molding material. High Pressure Molding This is a High Volume casting process for low-temp alloys that offers superior dimensional accuracy and complexity of castings.The mold is placed into a machine that can tilt back once the receiving cups/reservoirs are filled with molten metal.Low cost of castings when extended across very large production runs with part complexity. The Pattern is typically burned out of the mold leaving a cavity that molten metal can then be poured into. Disadvantages . This class also can be divided into 2 (two) classes Cold Chamber & Hot Chamber processes.000PSI that's high!!!) with such pressures the susceptibility of porosity defects is increased. Lost Wax Process A wax duplicate of the desired casting is created to be invested into a "Ceramic Slurry". the slurry covered investment can be dipped into alternating coatings of sand & slurry until a suitable thickness of shell is achieved that can hold the molten metal after the investment is burnt out.Good dimensional accuracy and casting complexity compared to previous methods discussed and better economy of scale on a per casting basis (beyond the initial tooling cost recovery) Disadvantages . surface finish and dimensional accuracy at a high level. Advantages . Static Pour .Castings are limited to typically 75lbs and require additional QC procedures to avoid Porosity defects.

or invested into a ceramic slurry. the metal is poured into the sprue.. The vibratory motion creates a degree of fluid movement within the surface of the sand that is able to completely fill all crevices. and is a great process that has served me well. Castings with wall thickness of 120 thou" that's 5 thou less than an 1/8" are possible. under-cuts. but especially when handling sand that has burnt EPS covering the grains.. simplified shakeout. The last item applies to all loose sand handling with regard to the hazards of Silicosis. Once the pattern (and refractory coating) is completely held in a container of sand. Evaporative Pattern Casting This is it. The slurry is air dried or in a low temp oven (but the foam pattern is retained). Of note is that the Lecture notes. the pattern receives a sprue or feeder system (also of EPS) and can be either placed directly into loose dry sand.. very high casting complexity. comparatively low capital and operating investment.Pattern coating requires additional labour and material costs.. The vapourized EPS is vented into the loose sand through the refractory coating (if used). text and videos all specify the use of a refractory coating.) coreless molding. The heat of the molten metal evaporates the foam in it's path and accurately fills in behind the foam as it advances down through the pattern. just fantastic.are (but not limited to. Patterns are produced in EPS (Encapsulated Polystyrene).High level of accuracy and flexibility of design due to no draft.The "Burn-Out" process requires that the investment and coating are inverted in an oven that is fired to 1800F so that the investment can flow out and be recovered. LFMC (Lost Foam Metal Casting) where it all started for me. patterns require care as they can be fragile due to construction. but I know for a fact that it can be omitted with a minor degradation in surface finish and complexity of casting. The refractory coating is also cured in this procedure. Advantages . The Video and notes reflect this as a relatively environmentally benign process.. Once the investment is lost. and the Refractory is cured the mold is removed and poured immediately while it is still hot.include a physical limitation on the size of the casting as determined by the strength of the cured ceramic slurry (even when backed by sand) and a higher material and labour cost (which can be offset by savings in finishing and machining).120" wall thicknesses. (I have concerns to the contrary) Disadvantages . The strong chemical stench of the sand screams of future respiratory ailments if caution is not exercised (personal observation & belief) . Advantages . ease of sand recovery and as mentioned 0.... openings and orifices thus removing the requirement of otherwise complex cores. In either case the pattern is surrounded by loose dry sand that is being constantly agitated by a vibratory mechanism as the sand is added to the container that holds the pattern. parting lines and the ability to mold under-cuts previously impossible with other techniques. Disadvantages . The process is scalable from small to high production requirements and offers reduced finishing costs with exception surface quality. Strict safety procedures to be followed when handling loose sand post pouring.

. When a metal is poured a similar energy transfer occurs between the metal mold interface.. and obviously 0% Lead (Pb) & 100% Tin (Sn). Solidification of Metals. Water is a classic example... Beyond the lecture notes. eutectic solder paste has a composition of 63% tin (Sn) and 37% lead (Pb). through a series of transitions. I think a legitimate concern. and Steve Chastain's Sand casting Manual Vol 1 & 2 is yet another perspective. The idea of a solid Solution Alloy would be every other combination of Lead (Pb) and Tin (Sn) that is not the Eutectic with exception of 100% Lead (Pb) & 0% Tin (Sn). which would be pure metals.. Properties of Thermal Transfer within a Casting The application of thermal energy transfer theory to metal casting requires consideration in the following properties. . Assigned Text (Chapter 13 Not 7 as noted in the course notes). 144BTU of energy transfer occurs to change 1 pound of water into 1 pound of ice at 32F. The process of solidification. with enough variation in presentation to make the idea's less vague. presumably on a much larger scale... The metal being poured can be considered in terms of a.. Metals in Solid Solution type alloys: A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species The definitions above are far from useful. but I fear that more practical information will be based on a sound understanding of this. an eutectic alloy would be the alloy of 2 or more elements that combines to a lower melting point than any of the constituent elements For example. Pure Metal: Single element metal with a clean phase transition between liquid and solid Eutectic Alloy: The alloy which has the lowest melting point possible for a given composition. Google is proving to be fantastic. earth what ever. for the context of alloying. similarly Eutectic alloys exhibit finer grain sizes than the pure metal and precipitate 2 or more phases simultaneously (this will be revisited)... please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 4... This chapter is primarily concerned this what happens after that metal actually is poured into a mold.. and how the alloy being poured impacts the process as well as the mold material's affect. Ipso Facto Ergo Sum. This following level of detail is not required to make castings.. and has a eutectic temperature of 183ºC (straight from google). Eutectic being a particularly difficult concept for me to fully understand.this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB70.. The transition of phase (from Liquid to Solid) is called the "heat of fusion" and is represented as unit measure energy as a function of unit measure weight (of element or solution) released at transition unit measure temperature (s) of solidification... The energy is transferred from the Liquid water to the air.

there is an expectation that the casting will be proportionally smaller than the pattern from which it was cast. sprue. as the volume of metal is decreasing in relation to the percentage of metal that has solidified. the energy transfer continues through the layer of solid metal toward the mold material. mold. and the weight of the metal remains constant. In closing the process of "Directional Solidification" is accomplished by orienting the Sprue. shape. Logically. The manner in which the casting solidifies (as determined by the alloy. thin sections of castings will solidify before thick sections of the casting. runners. unlike water that has a lower density when Solid (frozen) than in it's liquid state (Ice Floats). gate. As density is a function of weight and volumetric displacement. As molten metals typically have a lower density. The shape and complexity of a casting influences the efficiency with which the thermal transfer occurs. Directional Solidification The solidification process begins at the mold-metal interface. Metals typically have a lower density when molten then when solid. Molding Material is the recipient of the energy being transferred. This is accomplished by gate and runner placement such that the thinnest sections cool first and the placement of the risers ensure a source of molten metal. runner and riser system combine to either yield a dimensionally correct casting or one that has defects such as gross shrinkage cavities (pipe) or dispersed porosity. meaning the entire outer skin of the casting. size. gates and risers) determines the amount of energy that must be transferred to complete the phase transition from liquid to solid. . as it is related to the surface area of the metal-mold interface. but the idea is to position the defect in the riser not the casting itself. The "Pattern-Maker's Ruler" is found in most every pattern shop to accurately scale the pattern for a given alloy to the required solidified dimensions.The shape and size of the casting. Essentially there will always be a cavity defect. As the energy is traveling in one direction the solidification process is traveling in the opposite direction. Physical Dimensioning through the Phase Transition. the volumetric displacement must be reduced to raise the density of a specific qty of metal. gates. so the composition. runners. This is a predictable result and the percentile increase in pattern size to achieve an accurate cast size is a prerequisite to useful castings. The source of liquid metal is from the Risers that act as reservoirs to feed the casting during the solidification phase. pattern and risers such that the thinnest sections through thickest are forming a wedge that ends with the riser(s) being the thickest section The image to the right certainly is overly simplistic but illustrated the basic idea. a source of liquid metal has to be drawn upon to keep the casting dimensionally accurate. thermal characteristics and density of the material also influence the solidification process of a given casting. The size of the casting (including sprue.

. and the freeze wave propagates over a continuum in a semi-linear fashion. as it solidifies it shrinks during the phase transition to solid and reflects a new volume "B". but the minor variations in volumetric displacement are negligible compared to the variances that occur from "A" to "B" and lastly to "C".. B & C are for illustration. and lastly the solidified casting further contracts (shrinks) through the cooling process (Starting at Temperature of solidification through to ambient temperature) settling on Volume "C". The ideal in the illustration to the right is that over time the wave grows from the right toward the left. The right most end of the cross-section has a greater surface of mold/metal interface and is not only growing inward from the top and bottom but also from the right. and does not have such exaggerated demarcation points. subsequent section(s) takes this conceptual idea and illustrates it in more accurate detail.More complex castings would require additional risers and supporting runners and gating. . with the understanding that the left section continues on toward an even thicker section... The liquid Metal has a Volume "A". Lastly The concept of a Freeze Wave is allegorical in nature only. Also of note is that the points in time (when will it end???) The basic concept is the formation of crests and troughs within the leading edge of the solidifying metal as it propagates through the liquid metal. Three Stages of Contraction (Shrinkage) This is a complex time in the life of a casting. Obviously the world around us is in constant dimensional change as the ambient temperature is always in a state of transition. So the inequities of the college system of Ontario again falls on the shoulders of theworkshop. Progressive Solidification Although the lecture notes clearly state that this term must be understood. the Glossary of terms simply refers to directional solidification.

. we can influence the speed at which solidification occurs..... This is mathematically a function of the casting thickness (assuming a flat surface) against the sq root of time as well as the introduction of a Constant "K".In Consideration of Pure Metals Although the vast majority of castings produced are alloys of varying elemental composition. through the use of molding material. Curiously the area between Liquidus & Solidus has a rather mundane name "Mushy Zone". as well as a new issue "Segregation". Shrinkage and associate defects. mold materials etc.. The lower right illustration is of an alloy. The speed of solidification has a direct bearing in such issues as grain size within the solid casting. .. and orientation of casting components. the individual elements potential can solidify at varying rates creating concentrations or isolated pockets of that element within the liquid solution during the phase transition. or Soliqus. I personally would have preferred Zonis Indeterminus. As an Alloy has 2 or more constituent elements... the point to start at is with a pure elemental composition. Pure metals exhibit ideal solidification characteristics and introduce a point of reference when consideration of solidification is turned to alloyed compositions. such as risers etc.. The blue line shows the point of fusion with a predictable dissipation of energy with no drop in temperature until the solidification process has completed. The illustrations to the upper right depict a pure metal and the flat thermal property of solidification. The solidification rate can be graphed for various alloys.. and the point of fusion has been expanded to cover a range of temperature drop over the energy dissipation.. Control of the Solidification Rate By understanding the factors associated with the solidification process. Two new terms are introduced "Liquidus & Solidus" that denote the points in the graph where phase transition begins and ends for the solidification process.. I've opted to pass on the diagrams and the math as it's not an essential building block (or so I hope)..

in the center are longer "Columnar" grains that form directionally in opposition to the energy flow of the point of fusion. toward the top are smaller random "Equiaxed" grains that form at a slower rate. gates. have a smoke and review the disjointed factoids presented thus far.. At this point get a beer. At the base of the structure to the right are fine grains that formed very quickly at the metal-mold interface.. Grain Structure and Growth The illustrations are getting looser and dirtier as we go along here.Solidification Modeling The illustration on the right has 5 steps shown A thru E. runners and Risers.. but at least I know what I'm trying to depict.. This cross-section is supposed to illustrate the region of solidification from the mold wall upward to the liquid/solid interface. .. Since the majority of castings are alloys (2 or more elemental constituents) the dendrite growth will be displacing higher point of fusion elements into the liquid or mushy center. This segregation of constituents impacts grains size and composition. So.. If directional solidification is encouraged though proper placement of Sprue. The energy transfer between the liquid and solid interface is conducted through this dendrite structure toward the metal mold interface. we know that the nucleation of dentrites will form and grow in opposition to the energy flow inward making a mushy zone that is being impregnated by dendrite growth. B) is the extension of the Primary axis into the molten metal C) is the formations of secondary axes at right angles to the primary Axis D) is the extended growth of the now complete dendrite with ever thickening branches and trunks as seen in E. A) is the initial nucleus that forms on the smallest scale as the outermost skin of molten metal enters the Mushy Zone by the energy transfer between the moldmetal interface. The crystalline or lattice structure is growing by the solidification of the molten metal. millions of nucleus form near simultaneously. and this is the freeze wave discussed earlier...

. .. lecture text & audio (No video) This is a helluva way to start Module 5. . The generalization that wide mushy zones (slow phase transitions) promote Equiaxed Grains and micro segregation. But I'm going to just put my shoulder to the yoke and bull through in the hopes that it makes sense before I'm done the module. (as this is being repeated it has to be on the final exam) Mold-Metal interface is the chill zone with fine grain structure. or using a solid such as chlorine with an inverted cup that will plunge the chlorine to the bottom of the melt. In summary the faster the better. I think that this is what Metallurgy & Heat treating will be based upon. The elemental nucleation and dendritic growth displaces molten elements and results in micro porosity. The most obvious porosity defects are caused by the entrapment of gases within the molten solution. Design of Risers and Feeding of Castings References . As the chlorine turns to a gas it will form hydrogen chloride. Since any given alloy has a static Mushy Zone based upon it's composition and the mass of the casting... the only variable that can influence grain formation and reduce elemental segregation is the time required to transfer the point of fusion energy. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 5. Since Hydrogen is highly soluble in molten metal. Google.this is the end of Course notes for Module 4 MATL MTB70. To reduce the absorption of gases from the atmosphere leave any slag or dross cover over the molten metal until just prior to pouring into the mold.. the third is the equiaxed zone of small random grains in the center of the casting. such as introducing wet charge materials into the melt. The next is the columnar zone that are longer directional grains that grow toward the liquid metal. it is best to avoid. super-heating metals beyond their melting temperature. Typically hydrogen precipitates into melts by contact with the atmosphere.AFS Text Chapter 16 (not 8). Chastain's Foundry manual Vol 2. or poor foundry practices. Porosity Defects The most subtle of the porosity defects is caused by alloyed melts that have a wide mushy zone transition phase to solid.. except that columnar grains are stronger and contain a better elemental distribution through the alloy. and to avoid holding the metal in a molten state any longer than is required.The Alloy composition is impacted by the thermal gradient of the mold-metal interface and the efficiency with which it can transfer the energy released by the point of fusion of the elemental constituents. And again. scavenging the hydrogen in the process. Gases can be scavenged from the molten metal by introducing either an inert gas such as argon or nitrogen and bubbling it through the melt. while narrow mushy zones (fast phase transitions) promote columnar grain structures is still somewhat meaningless.

and I'm not changing the diagram..math2.. The link below hopefully will be a good start for finding specific molds and especially Risers. while a high SA:V Ratio would make a poor Riser.Volume Ratio (VR) (Y Axis) VR=Y=Riser Vol/Casting Vol* *Note the riser volume is the actual poured vol.1887*r3 .ca has to haul their bacon out of the fire. Surface Areas. Note: All shapes have a common volumetric displacement of 1 cubic foot=1728 Cubic inches Shape #1 .. There are relationships between all these items and values that will help in designing a complete mold that controls progressive solidification.0* *Note: Don't ask where the constants are from. EQ#1 . This is largely accomplished by ensuring that the riser(s) are the last to solidify.. It would stand to reason that the lowest SA:V Ratio would have the slowest cooling rate (a desired attribute for a Riser).htm The Surface Area to Volume Ratio is an important consideration when designing patterns. Castings and Risers. The underlying theme here is Volumes. so again theworkshop. and influences directional solidification to produce castings with minimal porosity and shrinkage defects. I'm hoping that we both know before this page is finished.Sphere Volume=(4/3) [pi] r3 1728=(4/3)*3. EQ#4 .I've simplified the diagram to the right by putting in references to the equations (EQ 1.12/y-0. The following Exercise hopefully illustrates the SA:V Ratio of some basic geometric shapes.. The College's link to a library of mathematical equations is down. http://www.05 + 1.Freeze Point Ratio (FPR) FPR=X=(Casting Surface/Casting Volume)/(Riser Surface/Riser Volume) EQ#2 .1415 *r3 1728=4..(FPR) Steel (from the lecture) X=0. 2 & 4) there is no Equation 3..... but would make for a fast cooling casting (if that flexibility exists for a pattern design).

8379 r=6.44422 Surface Area =93.html Surface Area =4 [pi] r2 Surface Area =4 * 3.4620 SA:V for a 12" tall Cylinder .1415 * r2 * 12 1728/3.4442 The link below should offer an on-line Cube/Cube Root Calculator www.csgnetwork.csgnetwork.1415 * 6.1728/4. www.1415* 6.0541 SA:V for a sphere Shape #2 .5438/1728=0.1887=r3 412.7703) * 12 Surface Area =798.html Surface Area = 2(pi r 2) + (2 pi r)* h Surface Area = 2(3..Cylinder of Height 12" Volume=[pi] r2 h 1728=3.5384 r=7..8379 = r2 again I believe that r = the square root of inches 2 And Finally the Cylindrical SA:V Ratio (with height 12") 798.7703 2) + (2 * 3.1415 * 12= r2 45.7703 As an aside the generic Windows calculator does not perform Sqrt function (or as far as I found)...5438 Inches2 And Finally the Spherical SA:V Ratio * 7.5384=r3 At this point I believe that r = the cubed root of 412. the calculator at the link below does.

..1415 * 23.4529 And still the generic Windows calculator does not perform Sqrt function (or as far as I found)..4529 2) + (2 * 3. the calculator at the link below does.Cube of 12" Volume= L * W * H Volume = 12 * 12 * 12 Volume = 1728 Area= 6 a 2 Area= 6 * 12 2 Area= 864 inches 2 And again the Cubic SA:V Ratio (with height 12") 864//1728=0. the exercise calls for a plate that is 1" thick.1415 * 1= r2 550. but we both know a plate is just a very squat cylinder Volume=[pi] r2 h 1728=3.4529) * 1 Surface Area = 3603.html Surface Area = 2(pi r 2) + (2 pi r)* h Surface Area = 2(3.1415* 23.0394 r=23..csgnetwork.0394 = r2 again I believe that r = the square root of 550.Shape #3 .Cylinder of Height 1" Now don't get all wrapped-up in semantics. www..3528 inches 2 And Finally the Cylindrical SA:V Ratio (with height 1") ..1415 * r2 * 1 1728/3.5000 SA:V for a 12" Cube Shape #4 .com/csgscicalc.

5000 SA:V for a 12" Cube 2.Risers are attached to the heaviest sections of the casting 2 . I decided to revisit the math and the relationship between SA.. V. Below are 4 points about the Riser/Casting Relationship 1 . I would guess that if the diameter was equal to or greater than the section it is connecting to the riser. where t (riser) > t (casting) If you're not paying attention (like me) you assume that Solidification Time and SA:V are synonymous. it should be noted that the contact point between the riser and the casting must be of sufficient diameter that it doesn't freeze before the casting and leave the riser performing no function. as it is a practical shape for molding... we must consider where we will place riser(s) to ensure proper directional solidification and dimensioning the riser to hold an adequate volume of liquid metal to feed the casting as it solidifies.. All of the above is in support of directional solidification.0852 SA:V for a 1" tall Cylinder Below are the SA:V's of the 4 shapes to be compared 0.4620 SA:V for a 12" tall Cylinder 0.. As I'm generally as lazy as the next guy. Geometric shape and dimensioning.. Put yet another way SA:V(Riser) < SA:V (Casting) The point above must be underscored as the lecture reflects an extrapolated rule of Solidification Time (t)...0541 SA:V for a sphere 0. or email me and I'll send it as an attachment. low SA:V's cool slowly and make good Risers. Right click on the link and select "Save As. I kinda like the cylinder.... Proper Riser Positioning and Dimensioning With the knowledge of low SA:V riser geometry. they are inversely proportional (in an ideal world)." the file is created with Excel sa-v calculator.A casting that has more than one heavy section requires at least one riser per heavy section . After writing the test and scoring rather poorly.3603.Risers are the last to solidify 3 . one would think that a spherical riser would be the best (though somewhat impractical to implement). while a 1" tall cylinder would be somehow lacking in desirable riser properties.0852 SA:V for a 1" tall Cylinder Given the generalization that opened the SA:V dialog. below is a link to the spread sheet that far better illustrates what's going on above numerically as well as in a graphical format. it would be safe.3528/1728=2..xls If the link doesn't work give me a couple of days I've never done this before.

4 - Occasionally the thermal gradient is modified at the mold-metal interface by the introduction of a "Chill" that can better conduct the heat away from the casting and lower the solidification time for that section. On the Subject of Thermal Gradients... Thermal gradients can be increased to facilitate faster, directional solidification, or lowered to allow sections to remain molten to reduce micro porosity within captive regions that can't be practically fed by risers otherwise. Thin sections of castings that have the potential to develop captive pools can be "Padded" to keep a path for directional solidification to follow. "Padding" is the result of thickening a pattern area for the sole consideration of Directional Solidification. Areas that are "Padded" may add machining costs to return the finished casting to it's original dimensional specification. Also thermal gradients can be modified through the use of "Chills", a chill is a material that becomes part of the mold either internally or externally (referring to the physical casting). External Chills - these can be a variety of materials with a greater ability to facilitate the energy transfer associated with the solidification process, relative to the molding material used through out the mold. The materials commonly used are (but not limited to) Iron, Steel, Graphite, Chromite and copper... these materials typically are inserted in to the mold and lay at the mold-metal interface. Internal Chills - are typically oriented to become part of the physical casting with a portion extending outward into the molding material to act as a path for thermal energy to rapidly move through, thereby facilitating the solidification process. Internal chills have issues associated with them that range from appropriate positioning through fusion with the casting material. The internal chill material must be compatible with the alloy being cast. Exothermic and Insulating Applications The last discussions in this module that relate to Riser Design and Feeding of Castings relates to the application of exothermic and insulating materials. These compounds are the opposite of the chill's previously discussed. Similarly they are NOT applied to the casting, but rather to the top of the riser. Insulation - As the name implies this material does not promote energy transfer, but inhibits it. This reduction of thermal energy transfer out the top of the riser, helps to maintain the riser as a source of molten metal to feed the casting for a longer duration. Exothermic - This compound goes one step further than insulation. The exothermic material generates heat that can maintain the riser at a molten state even longer than an insulation. The Exothermic material is placed on the top of the riser and is ignited by the molten metal as it contacts the Exo-material... ...this is the end of Course notes for Module 5 MATL MTB70, please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 6.

The Feeder Network
Now this is cool stuff, if you've been following along, A) I credit you with "Tenacity", upon rereading my notes, (Prep for the final Exam starts on Day One...) I personally think it's all interesting content, but I doubt that I'd have hung-on this long (especially the more theoretical parts like dendretic growth and nucleation sites etc...) But this is the meat of what I signed-up for... Gating / Runner Design With an overview of the solidification of metal(s) done, we can look at the flow characteristics of the metal as it enters the mold and how it fills the casting. Of the flow characteristics fluidity/viscosity plays a role as well as velocity, gravitational acceleration & vortex, pressure zones, molten alloy aspiration from the mold and the momentum or kinetic energy of a fluid. Although the lecture notes introduce these terms and their consideration over the duration of this module, it seems easier for me to group them at the start. Laminar Flow The factors and issues noted above are all related in some way to the property of "Laminar Flow." This is my Ideal "Laminar Flow" reference. The lake is fed from a water fall at one end and flows through a dam at the other. A drop of 30 to 40ft total with the lake sitting somewhere in the center. While drift fishing, your boat glides gently from one end of the lake to the other over the course of 5 or 6 hours. Though while passing through the narrows off in the horizon, the boat's drift may be up to 4 (four) times the velocity experienced at the widest portion of the lake.

I just thought this made a nice picture 20 years ago, but now I realize that this is "Turbulent Flow". The violent foaming bubbling action of the water is the result of "Aspiration" of the water. Perhaps on a smaller scale the forces that create this effect work identically in liquid metal and it's flow through the mold.

And after considerable searching I found this picture (taken with my first camera)... This illustrates "Severely Turbulent Flow". The water is cascading down a ladder of rocks, similar to a staircase with 6' to 7 ft' steps through a constrained chasm along the Niagara Escarpment. (though located a few hundred miles north east of Niagara Falls)

In summary Liquid Flow can be identified as Laminar, Turbulent or Severely Turbulent, just think of the images above if the names don't strike you as intuitive. The identification of the flow types has a mathematical component that removes the subjectivity of the names. The mathematical formula is known as the "Reynold's Number" . A Google "Define: Reynold's Number" yielded these links... The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces, as described by Newton's second law of motion, to viscous forces. If the Reynolds number is high, inertial forces dominate and turbulent flow exists. If it is low, viscous forces prevail, and laminar flow results.

(After Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), English scientist.) A non dimensional parameter representing the ratio of the momentum forces to the viscous forces in fluid flow.

the dimensionless ratio of fluid acceleration and accelerations induced by viscosity typical of a particular flow regime.

The dimensionless ratio used to determine whether the flow in a certain system is turbulent or laminar. Reynolds number is as follows: Rd = (Velocity x Diameter x Density)/Absolute viscosity I edited the list to show a consistent definition, as this law (of sorts) covers far more physics than the metal casting industry.

Flaws??? Issues??? beyond dimensional (over) compensation on the first pattern for the feeder network.. I would ensure that there was at least one chunk to be saved after shaking out the castings and cutting away the feeder network. The pouring cup is simply a larger target when pouring out of the crucible. I think it would work. The Dross-Dams that I'm thinking about would be Sections of runners or gates from previous castings (of the same alloy). but the idea is that the basin acts as a point for the liquid metal to enter the gating system in a laminar fashion. "Runners" and the "Gates" that feed the casting. and core with a Dross Dam. Basic Components of a Gating System The basic components of a gating system are "Pouring Basin". with the idea that it would be the physical pattern for subsequent molds Plus a dross dam (to be cut away).. The area I call "Crucible-Mold Interface" is where the metal from the crucible first contacts the mold surface. The metal flows through the system in the order that they are listed. while skimming or holding back any dross from the crucible or what accumulated through the act of pouring. As the lower portion fills and the metal is skimmed the clean(er) metal will rise up to meet the opening of the sprue in a more controlled fashion.. while an Rn > 2000 is considered a Turbulent Flow. so that the pattern(s) can be extracted. by having a pool of metal form the flow will be less chaotic than pouring from the crucible down into the sprue. That area is lower than where the Mouth of the Sprue is located. The following are some ideas I have about "Pouring Basins" If I had a standard "Basin Pattern" that I would mold into the Cope. The only issue is to separate the base of the sprue from the Well.. Pouring Basin . note.I think of this as the "Crucible -Mold Interface". So after the first casting.. a Pouring Basin has several components that aid in creating a laminar flow of clean metal into the sprue. Could the dross-dam be just a solidified section of the same alloy being poured? I'm sure it should be pre-heated prior to placement.. So on a production run of (I typically do runs of 5 to 25 of a given casting). that a pouring cup and pouring basin are not equivalents. Similarly. There are a series of other calculations and formulas to place into context. but I want to return to the gating system and it's components with the idea of laminar flow in mind.The demarcation point of an Rn < 2000 is considered a Laminar Flow. .. "Sprue". If I was careful to design my initial runner/gating system. Below are some simple diagrams to be familiar with. The yellow bar that I've labeled as the "Dross-Dam" is positioned so that the molten metal will contact it's lower face and flow under. Extract. there may well be a point that denotes Turbulent and Severely Turbulent but our objective is to stay below 2000. I have a source of Dams.. The lecture notes have better illustrations and the text better still.

though not a strong force. the flow begins a near vertical incline that is acted upon by gravity and with an accelerative force that is 32ft/Sec/Sec or 384 In/sec/sec... This is considered the point that would sustain a "Head" or pressure of molten metal.Integrated Dross-Dam 5 . is causing the cork-screwing effect of the falling fluid. None of the above promotes Laminar flow.Thermal energy source to reduce viscosity increase on contact (if pre-heated). it was just easier to push the core inward for extraction. Fluids in free fall tend to distort from a columnar shape at their start into an intertwined series of flow lines that have a rotational vector or vortex effect (Clockwise in the northern hemi-sphere. I see the benefits of 1 . the more "Best Practices" I incorporate.. plus it aids the formation of dross and gas pick-up in the stream that is going to feed the casting. and counter clockwise in the southern hemi-sphere). but since this foundry is at such a preliminary stage. bear in mind I'm not trying to over complicate my life with additional work. Through all of the components there is a need to reduce turbulence and promote Laminar Flow.Possibly improved lamination of liquid flow over a smooth(er) surface. 4 .Counter Vortex Rifling at mouth of Sprue... the fluid is constrained to retain it's shape... The choke or narrowest point in the taper is a key variable in calculating other properties and sizing ratios of components.reduced mold-sand pick-up at the most turbulent point (Crucible to mold interface). and I'm sure as fuck not doing all this to turn out a low grade product.Is it worth the effort to make Basins for placement of the same alloy as being cast. From the Pouring Basin. So a mass falling has a velocity of 384 inches/sec after a free fall duration of 1 entire second. the higher the quality of my work. By creating a sprue with a taper. . or possibly 2 to 3 uses max. but I have been placing my sprue tapers in the wrong direction. I realize that these may be single use items. The rotational effect. 2 ... Sprue Placement and Parts The sprue is obviously the extension of the sprue mouth into the mold.. 3 .net . Laugh if you will. If you have any thoughts or advice (regarding the above) feel free to email me frnkgmbk@renfrew... reducing excessive surface area development (dross-forming property) and gas pick-up. (this would be just 1 or 2 degrees to ensure that the "Head" developing at the base of the sprue developes smoothly. If allowed to act on the fluid over a great enough duration or free fall the centrifugal force will separate the flow into droplets.

The R-Ext also acts as a "Dross/Gas Trap" for any materials generated and picked-up along the flow of the runner. Below are some dimensioning ratio's from Chastain's Foundry Manual #2 this information is not likely to be on the module test or the final exam. The Gating System The Gates (in this case) accommodate a directional change in the fluid flow and deliver the metal to the Casting cavity. or un-proportioned gate/runner sizes. The Runner path should promote smooth laminar flow by a balanced volumetric flow.the Runner is positioned above the midpoint of the well's depth.The area below the sprue is the "Well".. 2. which forms a relationship to the Choke or base of the Sprue Area. the design objective is to promote laminar flow. The R-Ext acts as a cushion to absorb the forward momentum or kinetic energy of the fluid flow.. but is relevant to the discussion. notice that the runner becomes proportionally shallower at the point where an in-gate creates an alternate path for the liquid flow. the primary causes of turbulence are sharp corners. Again. and can draw mold material (sand) into the flow. and avoiding sharp or abrupt changes in direction. low & high pressure zones that promote aspiration of mold gases into the flow. In the illustration. The 2 (two) dashed blue areas when added together form a relationship to the dashed blue area of the Runner. In the broadest terms this path should be "Balanced" with the model of heating or AC ductwork serving as a good illustration. 3. The well reduces the velocity of the fluid flow and acts as a reservoir for the runners and gates as they fill.Choke or sprue base area is 1/5th the area of the well. The issue of sharp corners (both inner and outer) create turbulence. The Runner System The runner system is fed by the well and is the path that the gates are fed from. The "Runner Extension" is a "Dead-End" that is placed after the last gate. By providing curved radius changes in direction the above effects are still at . None of this is good. 1. An Ideal Runner is also proportioned such that it maintains a constant volumetric flow through virtually any cross-sectional area.The well depth is twice the runner depth.

1 sq"). Ratios and Design Equations Everything covered so far is comprehensible.. Continuity Equation . and due to the uncompressible nature of the fluid resolve velocity at known cross-sectional areas.uncompressible) V=Velocity of flow A=Area (Cross-section) . while the gates closest to the sprue would feed the least. To the right a flow passes through Cross-sectional area A1 (1" by 1". The best analogy I can see is that of a performance tuned exhaust system or header on an engine.. The Continuity Equation can resolve for any term if 2 others are but at a reduced level. (this is counter to what I initially thought). Q= Rate of Flow (Constant . I stripped a lot of the detail and formulas to have the basic flow better illustrated...This formula allows calculation of cross-sectional Areas.. relative to flow Velocity and Volumetric flow over unit time. 1 sq"). the passage narrows to a cross-sectional area A2 (. a more uniform flow is promoted with near equal volumes of metal entering the mold from all points. By proportioning the gating system. In an unproportioned system the furthest gates would feed the most metal. and intuitive on a conceptual level.75". The image to the right is from the Lecture notes (Mohawk College MATL MTB-70 Mod 6) and is just too good a representation to pass-up.5625 sq"). the passage expands to a cross-sectional area A3 (1" by 1". 0. I imagine that designing on a state of the art system without at least the most basic concepts or background is akin to dual entry ledger accounting without 4-function math skills. This formula only works if the fluid flow is a liquid that does NOT compress (that applies to all molten metals).75" by . Although Computerized Flow Analysis programs are used extensively in large Foundry operations they are beyond the grasp of the small shop that is just starting out (if you know of a Flow Simulator that is freeware or in the Public Domain definitely email me. but the math below hopefully offers some insight into quick approximations for simple designs. and more in-depth calculations for complex systems.) Also. Similarly sharp angles impact the solidification process and may inhibit "Directional Solidification" with cross-sectional freezing. Formulas.

is a system where the gate and runner cross-sectional areas are either equal or less than the choke cross-sectional area.25 cubic inches per Sec of flow. 1:2:4 1:3:3 1:4:4 1:4:6 An exception is noted in Chastain with a 1 : 8 : 6 ratio to promote dross capture in the runner system of Areo-Space castings..25/0. the velocity has to almost double.25/1 or 0. at the point A2.75 : 0. and it would appear that the Gate(s) would equal or be larger than the Runner(s).25"/sec.The key distinction is that the Runner must have a X-sec area greater than the Choke. I believe that this example would resolve to a pressurized flow of 1 : 0. ie H : L equates to an increase in velocity while a L : H equates to a drop in velocity.5625=0. Common Ratio's noted in the lecture notes.44"/sec of Flow.. The ratios between the cross-sectional Area can be grouped into either Pressurized or Unpressurized. Chastian's Vol 2 are. Pressurized .33 Sq inch A5 = 2nd Gate = 0.If Q were 0.75 Sq Inch A3 = 2nd Runner X-Sec Area = 0. . Since the Area is almost half.33 Sq Inch Areas A2 & A3 do not get added as they are positioned in line with each other and flow is successive between the points and not simultaneous. Q=0. is simplified with the use of ratios as the velocity is inversely proportional between any 2 adjacent ratio values. text. Choke : Runner : Gate Ratio(s) The base of the Sprue and Choke are the same thing.. While Areas A4 & A5 are added together as flow does pass through these points simultaneously. Velocity=0..66 Unpressurized .66 Sq Inch A4 = 1st Gate = 0. A1= Choke = 1 Sq Inch A2 = 1st Runner X-Sec Area = 0. The Continuity Eq.

corn husk. Media include but are not limited to the following.. Chastain's Vol 2 has much more math and calculations. Water & Mechanical are used to clean any remaining sand or scale from the surface. The media is discharged by a paddle-wheel of sorts with adequate velocity that it impacts the casting with an abrasive action.. Cutting & Fettling the Casting . Blast Cleaning Types . These processes also include removing any residual Core material. the surface can be cleaned with wire brushes manually or mechanically (for softer alloys) or a series of blasting techniques available for harder alloys.Air. rolling drums this active impacting or hammers to break away the molding material. with Galileo.. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 7.. Beyond simply dumping the mold and pulling the casting. All methods of air blast should be conducted within proper enclosures to eliminate (not reduce) operator health & safety hazards. If you feel at home.such as walnut shell.. Mechanical Blasting poses similar respiratory hazards as air blasting but the delivery mechanism of the media is not through a blast of air.And yet again I'm telling you..typically a round media including a variety of ceramics and metals Soft Media . Air Blast cleaning is an efficient method that can utilize a broad range of Media that are selected by the degree of abrasion required to clean the casting and the softness of the alloy.this is the end of Course notes for Module 6 MATL MTB70. Once the casting is free from the mold. but introduces the requirement of adequate cleaning of the effluent or discharge water after use before releasing to a "Grey Water" destination. Newton and the lads. Cleaning This stage actually starts with the shake-out process. etc.. • • • Angular Sand or Grit (beware Silicosis!!!) Shot . there are vibrating tables. Keppler.. Cleaning and Inspection This is the last stage of the casting process before the finished unit is ready for the Finishing process (Not covered in this Module). which is harder to control at a high velocity than a relatively lower velocity. it's Laminar Flow. Water Blast cleaning eliminates many of the respiratory hazards associated with the Air Blast methods. (no time to post here) .

Non-Destructive Inspection is a process that can be performed on a casting numerous times and leaves the casting in such a state that it can proceed to the finishing stage if found to be within specifications. This method is has a labour cost associated with it..pennnet. Depending on the alloy there are numerous power tools that can be used including Band Saws.cfm .The casting is inspected visually every step by every person that touches the unit. the methods that are discussed are. The casting is removed from the feeder network. For tons of detail on this exciting technology (and man is it ever EXCITING!!!) http://vsd... I believe that this time could be further reduced by 2/3rds again to 5 min with a Plasma Cutter with the appropriate nozzle selection. The speed and easy of inspection lacks any record keeping and may be subjective or inconsistent if performed by personnel of varying experience.. and typically where the casting is being used in an application that requires very strict quality control such as vehicular applications..) as well as shears and cutting torches. Obviously these tests are carried out on sample(s) that would be representative of a casting run. Castings that are obvious defects should not even be cut away unless necessary for re-melt. Table and Chop) ensuring that the appropriate blade is matched to the alloy. Destructive & Non-Destructive Inspection Destructive inspection. either it is kept or re-melted. Circular Saws (of various orientations including Hand. though cleaning is required regardless. though not a component of this module is worth talking about The manual method is a tremendous amount of work and has a tangible expense associated with it.. though I personally have never repaired a casting. Where I would not cast 6 plaques and destroy one randomly for fear that it requires 1250lbs of force to break it and it broke at 1247lbs. I believe (perhaps naively) that ever employ on the payroll has the right and the responsibility to scrap a piece at any stage of processing if they know the end product will not meet the highest standard. Note do-not cut non-ferrous alloys with abrasive disks (just don't. These would include cutting castings through cross-sectional areas in pursuit of Sub-surface porosity defects. The lecture notes specify the option of repairs to castings at this point as well. Visual Inspection .. Any Company that would like to send such a unit would never regret the gesture as I'd sing your praise from the highest hills. there are a number of methods ranging from a manual hack saw through to a plasma cutter.. measuring tensile and shearing strength of castings as well as impacting various surface areas to determine hardness.. Currently I use a Sawz-All reciprocating saw and have shaved the per casting cutting time by 2/3rds to 15 min typically.. The Fettling process is the removal of fins or minor deformations with some mix of manual and machinery assisted labour.. I use a hammer and a 4 1/2" angle grinder with a Zircon Flap-disk.Obviously is Surface Quality comparison to a reference or based on the experience of the person performing the inspection. Machine Vision is a promising technology that incorporates high resolution cameras that feed image data to a comparative processor that can actual gates or arms to discharge castings into a scrap pile or pass them down a conveyor for further processing. This is becoming more common place as technological advances are made. though is comparatively low. in terms of quality blades (that can only last up to 10 Castings with 3 to 6 gates in my experience).

The cost and intellectual overhead of implementing such a system is significant. Eddy Current Inspection (ECI) .. This inspection system offers superior sub-surface analysis than other processes listed so far. This is definitely not for smaller foundries. as well as lends it's self to automated and archival processing. Ultrasonic Inspection .. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) . USI does require reasonably flat and or smooth surfaces for the transducer to propagate and receive the reflected waves. Also of consideration is the ability to records results for archival purposes and defect analysis.Liquid (Dye) Penetration Inspection (LPI) is a process that is able to detect narrow seams and cracks at or just below the surface of a casting by applying a liquid dye or phosphorescent dye. The reflected wave can indicate a properly formed casting or identify internal fractures or structures that could not be otherwise found. the wave is reflected and the reflection is examined on a display. and this process does not work well with coarse grained castings due to reflection by the grain structure. The noted drawbacks are the limitation of testing to Ferro-Magnetic castings.This is an emerging technology that is similar to both US and MPI. I'd think about implementing some sort of PACS or Picture Archive Communications System. the fundamental process is the application of a magnetic field to the casting. Personally I think that this process also would lend itself well to a Vision Systems solution. as the range or spectrum of detection of a sensor can be tailored to significantly extend beyond the range of the human eye. This process offers very rapid analysis of casting integrity. in that it can be performed faster. offers less clean-up. the penetrant is wiped away and the casting is inspected for residue that has properties that make for easy inspection or detection. In this case the medium the wave propagates through would be the casting. . and can detect defects up to 0. requires fewer material specific handling considerations.25" below the casting surface. An energy or acoustic wave is propagated through a medium via a transducer.This process is limited to Ferrous castings and requires less overhead than the name implies. but a shop that makes under 1000 Aero-space grade parts that require "Mission-Critical" tolerances and verifiable inspection documentation. MPI offers advantages over LPI. a higher intellectual overhead in terms of training and competency of staff as well as a measure of casting cleaning (though still less than LPI).This inspection system works on the same principles of Medical Ultra Sonography. coating the surface with a magnetic particle compound and examining the retained particles for markers that would denote fractures or inclusions in the casting by the distribution of the adhering particle matter. potential for residual magnetism in the casting. An EMF (Electro Motive Force) is induced in the casting (Ferrous or Non-Ferrous) and the induced EMF is read by an inductor that is sensitive enough to supply detailed information that is analyzed and displayed. The chemical composition of the effective dye(s) requires specific handling procedures that will be available off their respective MSDS.

This area has undergone Radical change over the last 10 years. Film is being replaced with Crystal cartridges that can be digitized and erased for re-use.. My guess is that this won't be cheap. Although the temptation exists to develop an archival data structure in house to save on costs.. losing it's shape. Radiography .Much Like USI is based on the medical practice of Diagnostic Imaging via X-Ray and the imaging of the x-rays that passed through the medium on to film. These notes are based on AFS Text Chapter 18. lecture audio.. an open architecture approach should be adopted to facilitate data sharing between the foundry and customers. though systems are spec'd based on qty of images processed and the number of image acquisition points (X-Ray station) and the number of view stations for radiographic interpretation. the mold material has to withstand the heat of the metal without melting. where does sand come from?" .this is the end of Course notes for Module 7 and MATL MTB70. you can't afford it. The X or Gamma rays are absorbed or modified by the thickness..ECI can diagnose and identify grain structure and offer a level of elemental composition that USI can-not at this and watch for other courses that are part of this same program. True there are savings. Since sand is generally a ceramic based material it typically has a strong inter atomic bonding structure that contributes to it's ability to withstand high temperatures before breaking down. Since Sand Molding is done with Sand. Similarly digital radiology techniques have developed to the point that through digital filtering of image data information is made available that could never have been detected with traditional film techniques.. . you'll likely be called upon to produce sample images to the customer's QC dept... thank you for taking the time to visit theworkshop.. "Daddy. text and 5 video segments. Since High Temperature is a subjective term.. lets generalize that most sands have a melting point above 3000F. ABOUT SAND Whutz-Up with Sand? Since Molten Metal is hot. the sand must not melt and it's physical dimensioning should remain intact.. density and/or atomic weight of the cross section being examined. The popularity of sand as a molding material is due to it's abundance and relatively inexpensive cost.. The savings are always touted to be on the cost of the film. and the utility of the mold is the space that it does not consume. If you are creating castings that have a requirement for Radiographic Inspection. handling and filing (for archival purposes) far out weighs the other savings. but the labour associated with processing.. any radiology system being install today MUST BE digital. size etc. If you have to ask what the cost is. chemicals and processing.

03 3800(2093) Chromite Black 4. why the fuck do you think I re-typed it (it's in the text.6-4.0045 Basic/Neutral Angular Ziron 33.27-3.34 8. The four basic sand compositions discussed in this course are Silica.012 Melting Point F(C) 3110(1710) Properties Silica Colour White/Brown Specific Gravity 2.50 0. 1/12" to 1/500" or #10 to #200 Mesh screening. I believe that like the infinite constant Pi all answers to this module are contained within the chart above.0016 TiO2 0.75 45.82 MgO 0. Sand has many sources and compositions.. it's even referred to in the audio files and I think references are made to it in the video clips).94 0.05mm.8 21. terms and ranges of measurement used in this course.0037 Slightly Acidic Rounded This chart is important.65-2.2 49. Weight (measured by Bulk Density and Specific Gravity) and pH.3-4. The AFS states that sand is "Mineral Material" regardless of chemical composition.7 152-183 0.049 Fe2O3 0..03 0. . but all sands have their common origin in the fact that they are granular material resulting from the disintegration or crushing of rock.37 96-103 0.018 Temp Reaction Acidic (pH) Shape Varied Olivine 41.19 4600(2538) Ziron White 4. Olivine... Of the various bodies that influence and advise the metal casting industry the AFS (American Foundry Society) will provide the standards. it's a slide. Of the numerous properties the most important are Shape. and casting sand falls into a broad range of grain sizes that span 2mm to 0.5 65 1 0.4 1.34 19. Thermal Expansion. Melting point. Sand Chemistry & Property Table Composition % Silica SiO2 98.2 3400(1875) Olivine Green 3.8 7. The following charts are based on AFS data listed in AFS pub "Technology of Metal Casting" ISBN #0-87433-257-5.031 Cr2O3 ZrO2 Al2O3 0.019 CaO 0. These types of sand have various properties that effect their application to the broad spectrum of foundry work..0083 Basic Angular Chromite 1. The Chemical composition of these sands provides some insight into why the other properties are attributed to the various types.5 156-165 0. Ziron and Chromite.1 0.67 Bulk Density 95-97 Thermal Expansion 0.. it's in the lecture.I'm glad you asked.

Melting point 3110F/1710C. Key Info. but I will note that it is used in Steel foundries. Key Info. There is so much I could say about Chromite FeCr2O4. Peter deposit. With the most stable thermal ...004"/inch. Melting point 3400F/1875C.. an angular shape and basic/neutral pH. and as a facing or core material where it's superior thermal characteristics are called upon. and has a price tag to reflect its point of origin. These organic and mineral contaminants effect castings in numerous ways including but not limited to introduction of carbon into the cast. rivers. an angular shape and basic pH. unpredictable thermal expansion and binding properties to name a few.. Key Info.. Ziron This is the last of the four sand types and has the fanciest name.. all other silica deposits tend to have varying degrees of organic and mineral contaminants that must be removed prior to classification as Casting Sand. as it comes from Africa.Sand Type Verbiage Silica Silica is the most common sand type and can be found where ever water has had the time to erode rock to a granular form over time. a varied shape and acidic pH. In North America Pure Silica Sand is mined primarily in the Illinois and Missouri States from the St. logically increasing the cost due to production of the material. Low thermal Expansion 0. Low thermal Expansion 0. The Forsterite is crushed to reduce the mineral to a granular form. Lakes. but is used occasionally in the Ferrous Sector to aid in the production of Manganese (Mn) Steel (Austentic) due to it's ability to overcome adverse chemical reactions that would result if Silica sand were used. Olivine Olivine Sand is an ortho-silicate of Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) and is found in it's natural state within Forsterite Mg2SiO4 and Fayalite Fe2SiO4(neither terms are overly relevant to this course) Except that Cast quality Olivine is only derived form 90% Forsterite. Florida and California. but won't as it's not germane to this discussion. High thermal Expansion 0.0083"/inch. Melting point 3800F/2093C.018"/inch. Zirconium Silicate or ZrSio4 to his friends is found primarily in Australia. Olivine sand is typically used in the Non-Ferrous foundry sector. river banks etc. Chromite FeCr2O4 This is an African Sand.

Buckles. Oh and before I forget. an elliptical or rounded shape and slightly acidic of the 4 types it is used as a mold or mold facing material where very high temperatures are encountered and refractoriness becomes a consideration.220 range....) AFS Grain Fineness Number (gfn) & Grain Distribution Words like "Fine. no big deal.. it has some characteristics that influence it's behavior when used within a mold. Medium & Coarse" are somewhat vague and subject to interpretation in the abscence of some form of relativistic model. though it doesn't say specifically that the sand itself is hazardous. as this is an average it may be somewhat deceptive.... has issues with metals that approach and exceed 2240F in the form of "Wetting" the point where metal starts to cover the surface of the sand grain faces and Fluxes with Iron. Melting point 4600F/2538C. above that temp it changes to a Beta Quartz state that is typified by significant expansion..003"/inch. (I don't really get the fluxing part. And that's the point!!! Don't confuse individual grain Mesh #'s with AFS gfn. And another minor point that might be worth knowing Zircon has trace elements of Uranium and Thorium ... The silica is considered to be in an Alpha Quartz State when below approx 2000F.. Similarly Silica sand having a relatively lower melting point compared to the other sands. Just so you know. The AFS gfn covers average grain size and distribution. . that High refractoriness can aid in "Directional Solidification" if your a keener and can figure that stuff out when you make your mold. as the gfn is an AVERAGE!!! Why such a range??? Too coarse a gfn is reflected in the surface of the casting. he AFS scale typically covers 25 to 170 (according to the Text book) But I personally have never heard of anything less than 80 or 90 on the coarse side and have regularly heard of fine grains that top the 200 ... too fine a gfn and the mold can't pass the gases from the molten metal during the pour and results in gas related defects. Rat's tails etc. The results of this expansion can be mold wall movement.. scabs. Thank God the American Foundry Society stepped in and implemented a numeric scale that does away with all that inaccuracy. an AFS gfn of 65 to 140 with 100 as the most common.. Lowest thermal Expansion 0. Dispose of as the law tells you. but all will come clear in time... So why all the hype on Thermal Expansion??? Although Silica Sand is the most common sand. Key Info.

So you have some sand. spent binder material and any metallic refuse need to be removed.. Mechanical Reclamation Processes The following are examples of various methods of mechanically reclaiming spent mold sands. Or just a conveyor that is dumping the sand into a cone shaped pile.. Along with breaking-up the spent mold. get that check book out as it ain't gonna be cheap. Sand Handling So if your sand is a distribution of Mesh sizes that is averaged to an AFS gfn.... there will be unpleasant results.. I know from painful experience if you can't pass gas. Consider a tumbler of sand rotating on an inclined axis. The above illustrates examples of "Segregation" and will impact casting quality if the AFS gfn distribution is not retained. "Sand Fines" (sub-AFS gfn sized material that results from mechanical handling of the sand). then it would stand to reason that you would want that distribution to stay.And again on a personal note. You cast you first casting and now what??? You open your check book and hope that you can afford even more machinery to handle the task of Sand Reclamation!!! On the most basic level the spent molds have to be broken up to make the sands flow for molding in the next casting. Jaw Crusher Pneumatic Scrubbers Vibratory Reduction Shot Blast Reduction Mechanical Sand Scrubber .. As I said. you ensured that you ordered the right AFS gfn for the metal or alloy to be cast. And for high production foundries the sand has to be cooled prior to re-use if the production cycle is that rapid.. Sand Reclamation Man does this Module never end. and the coarse grains move to the top. you selected it based on the type that suits your casting specifications...000's of dollars to ensure that the AFS gfn distribution is retained. the fine grains typically will accumulate in the center of the cone rising vertically as the cone builds surrounded by coarser material rolling off to the sides and surrounding the base. well. distributed. You've employed 100's of 1. the fines grains move to the bottom.

machine or transfer point to be tested.Heating Units to burn out residual binders . though there are general guidelines but the variability of processes. but once that qty is established all testing will be done with that target weight. alloys. Excessive amounts of cured resins that accumulate in the sand impact the LOI or Loss on Ignition rating of the sand. At some point within this module the first of a series of "On-Line Labs/Assignments will be completed" The MTB72 Mod 2 Lab is an actual AFS-gfn determination.this is employed when dealing with chemically bonded sands that use a resin that has cured and can not be re-activated. Especially in a Jobber Foundry where various alloys are cast using the same sand if it suits the purpose.. The odds of actually collecting exactly to the gram the amount required is very unlikely. so it is best to get easily twice as much as you think will be the required weight. beyond the typical checks to ensure that the proper qty and condition of the material reflects what was ordered. Always Follow AFS-1101-0-S specification to ensure consistent sampling. Ha!!!) To perform the test a predetermined qty of sand is removed from the batch.provided I pass the Lab. The sand is weighed to determine a start point or reference. for those unfamiliar with AFS-1101-0-S Sand should be acquired from a free-falling stream of sand by passing the container through the stream at a uniform speed. AFS-gfn readings may be grossly inaccurate if an inappropriate test point provides the sample (refer to examples in Mod1 of sand separation due to handling).. a sampling of the sand for AFS-gfn should be conducted to ensure that an appropriate grain distribution exists that will be consistent with expected quality of molds and ultimately castings produced. Quality Control practices should begin at the shipping dock when new unbonded sand arrives at the foundry. Sands that are classed as angular impart specific properties to the mold and casting.. sand types and binders precludes a definitive chart that can be referred to for selection. clearly passing through without overflowing the container. I assume that the weight will be different for each foundry. The removal of metal(s) from the sand is also important as it will directly impact the refractoriness of the sand and casting quality and defects. Sand Coolers All of the above should not aggravate the accumulation of "Fines" by excessively rough handling of sands. ..gfn (Grain Fineness Number) Refer to previous Module for general info.. It should be noted that the Foundry determines what is an appropriate AFS-gfn to provide the appropriate molding properties and finished product for a given casting. AFS . (details to follow .... but those attributes are altered if the sand is literally broken by force during the reclamation process and result in a sand that is now round.

12g (Hold) 29. ie.. ... For your own piece of mind each bin can be weighed to ensure that the separator does indeed separate in equal parts. and assumed perfect division of the Split weights.24g is good enough for me & my staff.78g (Discard) 7. The separator though simplistic is essential in retaining the grain distribution.12g (Split) 29. The above being said.56g (Hold) 14. but more anal supervisors may demand greater precision.12g was hit.56g (Split) 14.76g.The illustration to the right is a rather lame and grossly inaccurate representation of a simple sand separator.25 (Discard) 59.. consider this your written warning!!! The Diagram to the right illustrates a typical range of Sieve Mesh sizes used in an AFS-gfn test. Note: Do-Not attempt to simply scoop a bit of sand out by hand or with a spoon to adjust the weight between bins in an attempt to arrive at the Sample weight quicker. Rinse and repeat.69g (Hold) Bin2 236. I know that I can repeat the thought process to determine the split/hold and discard points. All the "Hold" bins are dumped together and weighed (check that the weight is as calculated) If there is a gross margin of error . measurement to within 0.. The initial qty of sand is divided over and over again.78g (Split) 7. This is grounds for dismissal.69g (Discard) The 4 (four) Hold bins should total 99. A series of evenly spaced slots alternatively direct the sand into Bins 1 and 2 respectively.39g (Split) 3. but have no interest in writing out a long précis on the theory of successive approximation. Target sample weight 100g Split 1 Split 2 Split 3 Split 4 Split 5 Split 6 Split 7 Bin1 236.39g (Hold) 3.Lather.25g (Split) 59. Initial weight 473 Grams.. obviously I've rounded back to 100th's of a gram and have pre-calculated the approximation value after the first sub-target split value of 59.5g (Split) 118... and weighed until by Successive approximation the target weight is arrived at...5g (Discard) 118.

The Column of sieves is placed into an agitator that securely holds the column and will apply a vibratory action on it to work the grains through the various mesh sizes.) It would seem that AFS-gfn is ranked as a 3... The solution is to use a distribution of varying grain sizes to fill-in voids to improve surface finishes... at is Even More.. and an added note that Silica Flour also can be used to increase mold densities. I think. Ensure that all sieves are completely free of any sand or residue from a previous test before beginning.. but not "the example". If a uniform size of rounded grains is compactly rammed. beyond the rather dry classification and assessment procedures employed within commercial foundries. I'm a bit unsure but. Unfortunately it also lacks any really exciting content. 4 or 5 sieve distribution (with the condition of at least 10% of the total sample weight is present on 3.NOTE: The word "Typical" implies that there may be other sizes that can be used for specific sand distribution ranges. The sieves are separated and the various distributions are weighed and documented. (Since I haven't done the actual Lab yet. According to the lecture notes.. The Sieves have collars that surround the mesh and allow them to be stacked securely into a column... it would still have an equal volume of voids. if the size was reduced considerably (but remained consistent. the total volume would still consist of approx 40% void space. with a closed pan the bottom to catch any material that passes through the finest Mesh sieve. This process run for approx 15 minutes to ensure that a thorough separation has occurred.. Since that is the case it's likely that there is a minimum value as a percentage of the total sample size required to a AFS-gfn to be within or out of bounds of the expected value??? The point of grain size distribution is to strike a balance between voids and permeability of sand. Bonded & UnBonded Sand . Physical Properties of Sand This module will be considerably shorter than others posted as some of the material was already covered in Module #1.. 4 or 5 adjacent sieves.... please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3.this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB72... but this listing can be considered an example. ...

More binder is required than Rounded. the chart to the right is as good a gauge of the various classifications and shapes of sand as you'll find.. Chromite. A fourth classification exists "Compound". permeability and binder strength. in an unbonded state. but good flow characteristics.. and Zircon) The 3 (three) general shape descriptions of Mold Quality sands are Angular. and a similar mid-point of flowability.) Sizes and Shapes of Sands This section applies to all 4 (four) sand types listed in Mod#1 (Silica. but not as good as Rounded when unbonded. Sub-Angular Sands Predictably Sub-Angular sands are a median between Rounded and Sub-Angular. The 3 (three) Sand shapes impart various properties such as flowability (for mechanized handling and molding). but not as good as Angular. Better permeability than Angular. but compound sands are not adequate for Metal Casting due to their fragile nature (typically 2 grains of lightly fused sand. dried and filtered of impurities such as carbaceous materials and minerals that would adversely affect the thermal specifications of the sand. Prior to the 1950's all foundry sand usage was clay bonded sand.. creating a compound grain) and the mechanical and thermal stresses of casting. Rounded Sands Rounded Sands offer excellent permeability but lack any interlocking strength. and are prone to produce significat sand fines due to sharp corners breaking from mechanical handling. handling and casting needs. and presumably was classed as such.. better interlocking strength than Rounded. .. In a bonded state require more binder to cover the higher surface area.. but more than Rounded.. In a bonded state require less binder though with a reduced permeability.This refers to loose sand that has been screened. with less fines generated than angular. Olivine. It is common practice for foundries to use a mixture of sand shapes to achieve a balance of the above properties for their specific molding. Angular Sands Angular Sands exhibit lower permeability though with superior interlocking strength when unbonded. Unbonded sand usage within the commercial foundry sector is relatively new (since the 1950's) as a result of the development of various casting processes and new synthetic binding agents. Sub-Angular and Rounded. Naturally occurring bonded sand is mined from river banks and similar deposits (vague.. but not as much as Angular.

Grain shape has a considerable influence on binder adhesion and qty. The electrostatic bonding mechanism can be defined as dipolar forces initiated by the preferential absorption of Positive and Negative Ions within the Hydrous solution.. Surface tension and inter particle Friction. Green Sand & Clay(s) . if separated into individual platelets would cover an area of approx 800 sq meters. the qty of fines also impacts mold permeability.An aluminum oxide compound Al2O3 is a family of compounds found naturally in clays such as bauxite or kaolin Silicate . in english Clay will dry-out. The points or material that is broken off an angular grain remains in the sand and is termed "Fines".A rock or mineral whose structure is dominated by bonds of silicon and oxygen atoms The Alumina & Silicate components are physical and can be defined on an elemental level.. Also the elemental chemistry of various clay types have varying degrees of pH in part due to the ionic retention of the hydrous component (This may be grossly inaccurate as I've tried to reduce a tremendous amount of detail into as short a definition as possible) Clay particles are rather flat in shape and typically can be imagined to stack like a deck of cards. due to handling and usage over time. The key component is that this solution has an ionic component that has enough strength to retain the hydrous element.I was unsure what that meant so with Google "Define: xxxxx" Hydrous ..The 2 (two) extremes of sand shape would be Lo-Spherical/Very Angular grain compared to a HiSpherical/Well Rounded Grain. 1 gram of Bentonite.. The last point is that Grain shape has a natural tendency to change from Angular to Rounded. but wants to retain a certain amount of water. this near 2 dimensionality of alumina silicate when hydrated imparts the characteristic slippery plasticity of clay. due to the variance in grain surface area. A typical individual Alumina Silicate platelet or flake ranges between 1/5000 to 1/50.Containing water. Electrostatic Bonding. The text definition goes on for a full page on micellular di-pole structures.000" in diameter. The elemental definition of water H2O bonds to the Alumina Silicate through 3 (three) methods. the Hydrous component is what gives clay it's adhesive and slippery properties. Alumina . typically chemically bound water or water of hydration. Clay and Clay Minerals All clays essentially can be considered Hydrous Alumina Silicates . Grain shape also influences mold strength and permeability.

000 tons. etc. Ohio) 10% quartz.Southern Bentonite.00001" <0. Na Western (OH)4Al4Si8O202100-2450F Very High.Schleg Particle Size <0. Ca Slight. Utah) feldspar mica.. 30% illinite. limonite. 3000-3100F Kaolinite (OH)8Al4Si8O10 Very low Non gel Low 1647-1703C forming 60% Kaolinite.. The "Big-3 of Clay's" . etc. alloy being poured. S. The key compositions of the Big-3 are summarized below Base Hydrous Shrinkage Refractoriness Exchange Quality (on drying) High. Class IV (Ill. Western Bentonite & Kaolinite Bentonite is mined and consumed in the North American market 8 to 1 vs Kaolinite. Ion pH=8Very High Bentonite nH2O 1148-1342C Gel Forming 10 90% Class 1A montmorillonite (Wyo.5 Gelling 85% Class 1B montmorillonite (Mississippi) 15% quartz. Southern (OH)4Al4Si8O201800F + Ion pH=4modest Very High Bentonite nH2O 982C + 6. . Dak. High. size and thickness section of castings being poured and the desired shake-out characteristics. and it's "Hot Strength" it's ability to hold it's shape until the metal has solidified.00001" typically coarse ground to flour Of note above is the Alkalinity of the clays based on their ionic bonding atom (Na or Ca for the Bentonites). clay can be added in proportions ranging from 5% thru to 12%.Technology of Metalcasting . with annual gross weights of 700.. etc. issues can arise with molds that hinder the collapsability of the mold as the casting contracts during solidification such as "Hot Tears" Clay Bonded sand is rated on it's "Green Strength" or ability to hold it's shape until the metal has been poured. Although it would appear that the stronger the mold the better...As a binder for sand.. The qty of clay used is influnced by numerous factors such as sand shape.. The elemental formulas listed don't accurately reflect the percentile mineral composition of the clays. grain size. Very Low. Composition Chart abbreviated from AFS .000 tons vs 90. 10% quartz.

lends itself well to high production foundries that employ mechanized molding due to it's High Green strength. Although it has 90% of the Green Strength of Southern Bentonite it has significantly more Green Strength than the Fire-Clays.0 10. Ben.5 12. Fireclay (Kaolinite) .4 69 Kaolinite 12 3. hot & dry strength. and Kaolinite is also blended with either or both clays to improve the refractoriness of the binder.5 Green Compression 11. Similarly Kaolinite requires 1/3 more water to be hydrated as the Bentinites.Western Bentonite .2 (PSI) Dry Compression (PSI) 101 Hot Compression @ (PSI) 1000F 110 1500F 210 1850F 520 2000F 345 2500F 8 Calcium Bentonite 5 2.5 55 103 150 72 4 75 145 170 510 27 . offering greater Green Strength. and 2 to 3 times as much clay is needed to achieve similar the most popular clay for green sand molding due to it's compatibility with a broad range of alloys.2 71. requires less mulling to completely coat sand grains. Sou. Western Bentonite requires additional Mulling (over S-Ben) due to it's expansion properties when hydrated. as the clay is destroyed above 700C.Has poor Hot & Dry strength properties that exclude it from use in steel or Cast Iron Casting. while too little moisture effects mold surface stability. Typically moisture content should be kept between 38 and 42% of Active Clay (as opposed to burnt or spent clay due to firing from previous pours). and contributes to erosion defects and mold cracks. and superior Hot Strength characteristics than Southern Bentonite. The hydration of Southern Ben.Although Kaolinite clay has the highest refractoriness of the clay families it has substantially lower green. Too much moisture impacts the moldability of the sand and shake-out characteristics. Property Sodium Bentinite % Clay to Sand 5 % moisture 2. Southern Bentonite . but exhibits more brittleness that impacts the ability to extract patterns that require deep pockets in the mold. With careful control of moisture content most foundries can use 100% Western Bentonite and avoid blending clays. Foundries and Foundry supply houses commonly blend the Bentonite clays to achieve an averaging of their beneficial properties.

AKA Methelyne Blue Test is used to determine the percentage of active clay remaining in the green sand mix.Primary Tests The following are a series of what are considered Primary Tests that are run on a continual basis (hourly) within a commercial foundry operation to ensure Green Sand performance is maintained at a consistent level. Too high a permeability results in surface finish a measure of the "Openness" of a green sand mixture.This is the most common test. where green sand is cycled from mold thru shake out. when combined with Moisture testing. and mulling must also occur below that threshold point. sand fractures. this relates to high production environments. Hot Strength.5 and 4% depending on the castings being produced. quantity of Clay and moisture. . and establishes a benchmark that allows foundries to compare a standard. Secondary Tests This series of tests are performed less frequently (daily or weekly depending on volume and test) Active Clay Content . Permeability is used to aid in determining proper AFS -Grain distribution. Permeability . this test becomes a good indicator of sand consistency. Total Fines . Flowability and Permeability. Compactability . Green Strength. or other green sand additives can adversely effect casting quality by reduction of permeability.. size and weight to sand ratio. Moisture . Green sand mulled above 120F is simply mixed together.the fines or sub-granular content must be maintained below 2..Offers an excellent indicator of either Over or Under Tempering of Green Sand.. Green Compression Strength . AFS -gfn . higher moisture requirements or brittle molds affecting green strength. and too low results in gas related defects. clay selection. Many of the other properties of green sand are dependant on accurate maintenance of proper moisture levels. as the clay is activated with water and it's plasticity is a function of it's level of hydration. This modules has 4 (four) Lab Assignments that relate to these tests.Grain size distribution was beaten-up and left for dead in the previous module.Testing is also classed as a Primary test .. This measure can be affected by Mulling. Since the total clay blend is determined by the alloy being cast. the percentage of "Dead" or clay that can no longer be re-activated must be determined to ensure consistency of castings.The last of the Primary tests is Temperature. and is a determinant in the sand's ability to vent gases. The accepted rule is that sand must be under 120F to re-activate clay binders. Temperature . mulled and into mold again at a high rate. and the sand grains are not being coated. The accumulation of fines from dead clay.

But there is no excess water that is free within the sand Clay mixture. . It is the water clay-bond that gives molding sand it's plasticity. Rather. This implies that to aim for a static numerical value for moisture content is impossible. LOI (Loss on Ignition) . Moisture Content This is a variable due to many factors that influence the requirement of water. And remember each clay type has unique points of hydration..Wet Tensile Strength . it is the influence that moisture has on the molding sand that should be aimed an integral function of the green sand process.flour etc) Sand Type.this is the end of Course notes for Module 3 MATL MTB72.It should be noted that when the molding process is mechanized as in HDM practice. • • • • • clay type. Ideal hydration is the point that all water is engaged within the clay structure and it can absorb no more. TWS is a good indicator of the quality of the Bentonite in use. Supplementary additives (Organics . Water This module is relatively brief.For some alloys it is necessary to add carbonaceous material such as "Seacoal". these are the various green and hot strength values that are required to create quality castings... the water or aqueous component of clay goes beyond simply wetting the other minerals. LOI is used to determine the amount of combustible material in the green sand. As stated in the previous module notes... but is dedicated to the most essential and most abused material within the green sand molding composition. Water. The terms discussed are "Adsorbed (nor absorbed) & Free Water. there is a reduced moisture content required. There is an ionic bonding mechanism at work that has water penetration that ranges from 3 to 10 molecules into the platelet structure. percentage of live to dead clay. the method of mulling. shape and grain distribution and fines Molding Sand Properties Vs Moisture Content Given that some of the above factors are variable over the life of the sand. The ideal hydration of the clay and sand mixture is the "Temper" of the sand. High Density Molding (HDM) . the moisture requirements of the sand are similarly dynamic. . Adsorbed is the point of ideal hydration. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3. or accumulation of contaminants in the sand.. while Free Water is any excess. WTS can be adversely impacted by shifts in the AFS-gfn.

To be clear. which brings to light the influence of the alloy type. on a volumetric scale as well in consideration of mass.An important factor in the water clay relationship is "Compactability". Sand molding and testing should be restricted to temperatures below 100F. The Temper point of the sand is the point of ideal hydration. though it should be noted that the ionic bonds that hold the water and clay in solution are rather weak and even temperatures as low as 120f to 160F (well below boiling) still influence the liberation of water.. Aluminum as a significantly lower thermal transfer requirement than a ferrous alloy such as Cast Iron. Water can actually be decomposed at excessive heat when in contact with certain alloys. It stands to reason that the sand to metal ratio has a significant influence on the moisture losses associated with the casting process. resistance to deformation. above 100C (the point of vaporization) water expands rapidly to 1600 times it's liquid volume. as well as hot tears due to too high a hot strength that does not allow the casting to shrink uniformly. Green Sand Additives As the previous module dealt with the issues associated with moisture (water) as the most important consideration in the maintenance of green sand.. the only reason to modify or change the properties of the foundry sand is to improve the quality of the castings. essentially forming iron oxide (rust) and hydrogen on contact. and building walls and work benches. tools. in an HDM application the sand has a compactability between 30 to 40%. fine cracks. For example a 50lb mold that receives 1 lb of molten metal dissipates less heat than a similar qty of sand that receives 5 lbs of the same Alloy. this module will address the numerous other materials that can be added and their effect & purpose. I said it was a nightmare) as well as our house (similarly located a distance from the foundry). Excess Moisture Defects . peak Green strength as well as ideal. this characteristic influences the strength of the molding sand. toughness and permeability. I picture a shower of liquid metal droplets emanating outward like bullets onto workers. Surely some clever engineer can use this to create a new energy economy. gas pick-up resulting in porosity defects. Other considerations such as . The expansive property of excess or free water within a mold is further exasperated by the resultant decrease of the mold's permeability. The heat of the casting process obviously liberates a qty of water from the mold. This can be in the form of superior surface finishes. expands as it rises in temperature Water can expand up to 4. deformation (oversized) castings. in the case of Cast Iron the thermo-chemical interaction is illustrated as 3Fe + 4H2O – Fe3O4 + 4 H2.3% above it's original volume between 5C and 100C. reducing or removing persistent defects and the scrap rate associated with such defects. Hot Sand Considerations. Water like most materials. The impact of each droplet in my nightmare scenario has all of my buildings engulfed in flames (even the hunt camp located a Km away.are found within the following list. Such a rapid expansion of a significant qty of free water within a mold can result in an explosion.

I personally feel that there is no optimal or super sand system. www.I found that it was worth my while to "google .com/glos9.bridgefieldgroup. the molds properties in terms of strength.html Define: Quality The characteristics of an item or process that indicate its conformance to designated parameters. Variability Theory .princeton.A chart presenting actual data from quality tests that shows the range.flowability or handling of the sand are and quick reusability for high production %20Practices/content/resource/gloss. consistency and the ability to continue performance in stress or volume situations. www.htm A spread of possible outcomes around an expected outcome www. and the end product will be an assortment of benefits and compromises. and its degree of perceived customer acceptance or satisfaction. Reduction of variability is a priority in systems that attempt to ensure consistent quality and reduce lead times. Consistency and Quality to get a better sense of their meaning.2asc. www. upper and lower variable control chart.this definitely won't be on the A measure of the ability of a particular method to converge on the correct answer as the sample size becomes infinite. due to their typically subjective nature (Note .Define: Variability. Through all of the above the primary objective is to establish consistency in the Green Sand formula.ubc.zoology.htm The totality of features and characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs. and deviation characteristics of a set of observations. Define: variabilityThe characteristic of a product or process in which parameters fluctuate to a significant degree but do not typically trend in a specific direction.bridgefieldgroup. but are critical only in relation to the value placed on them by the user or customer.htm Define: Consistency (logic) an attribute of a logical system that is so constituted that none of the propositions deducible from the axioms contradict one another . shakeout.bridgefieldgroup. Quality characteristics often include reliability. www. reclamation.cogsci. www. this area would cover the molding but is an exercise that frames a deeper understanding of the overall objective.

So as a Green Sand . improves flowability.This additive covers the variety of "Flours" including wood. dimensional stability and shake-out properties while contributing to the quality of the casting. This cushioning effect can aid in reducing scabs. . the appropriate addition of cellulose material. and oils. while contributing to the quality of the casting. wheat. cracks. Again. Points of consideration are ." Additives . resins. the appropriate addition of cereal material. and rye. The improved green strength and deformation properties reduce sand inclusions. Organic Additives . ultimately contributing to excessive fines. Cellulose . Cereals . In summary. green & hot Strength. and dry strength. proteins. where the burnt cellulose matter leaves voids that allow the sand grains to expand while retaining better mold dimensional accuracy. hot tears and buckle type defects. Similarly excessive water/cereal combinations typically exhibit gassing defects ranging from hydrogen formation to carbon monoxide and Carbon Dioxide formations. The purpose of introducing a cereal structure into the molding sand is to increase plasticity. improves plasticity. rat-tails. as well as aid in retaining moisture. as such there is a degree of variability in the composition of the additives. milo. Excessive cereal may rob water from the temper point of the clay and actually reduce green and hot strength of molding material. The destruction of the cellulose material at the mold metal interface creates a cushioning effect. The purpose of introducing Cellulose material is to absorb excess water and improve the flowability of the sand during the molding process. This property of variability contributes in a cumulative fashion as additives are introduced. The term flour implies a very fine particle size. bearing in mind the variability of additives the initial introduction of cereals should be between 1% and 2% of the total weight of the batch.25% and 2% by weight. This is the rational to minimizing the use of additives. The green and hot strength properties of the mold can be improved with cereal additions between 0. In summary.Mission Statement. Cereals typically are destroyed at temperatures between 500F and 700F.include but are not limited to Cereals. veining.Many of the additives are naturally occurring minerals. we could say that "Our goal is to reduce the Variability of the mixture such that we can achieve and maintain Consistency in an effort to provide Quality castings. Excessive water and cereal may create such a high hot strength that the mold can not shrink or collapse as the metal solidifies and create hot tears.The contact of molten metal creates dead material that will be accumulating in the molding sand over successive castings. The term flour implies a very fine particle size.This additive covers the variety of "Flours" including corn. rice husk/hull and nut shells.

thick walled copper alloy molding sands. A general note that applies to all modifications to the green sand mixtures.The contact of molten metal creates dead material that will be accumulating in the molding sand over successive castings. that essentially water-proofing the sand and clay.. as it would introduce carbon and alter the alloy in undesirable ways. which may impact the ability to draw patterns that have deep pockets. while leaving room for the sand grains to expand. Points of consideration are . The purpose of adding Iron Oxide is to aid in the thermal transfer of heat from the mold metal interface. Seacoal is typically added at 2% to 8% by weight relative to the batch of molding sand. ultimately contributing to excessive fines. lignite and petroleum distillates. Carbonaceous Materials . Cellulose material if used excessively can undermine the ideal temper of the water/clay ratio and reduce green & hot strength properties. This property is enhanced by the addition of carbonaceous material. The term that describes how a casting separates at the mold metal interface is called "Peel".The effect of fines from the seacoal and the requirement of heavy venting due to reduced permeability. gilsonite. and provide some stabilization of the mold's dimensional properties. The materials listed above have significantly higher volumes of "Volatile Carbons" and as such can replace seacoal in a 1 to 2 ratio (half as much as was used of the seacoal). Iron Oxide .Points of consideration are . wall movement. Also the introduction of excessive asphalt. a fine inorganic additive that has it's place primarily with Silica based sands. lignite and petroleum distillates. Carbonaceous material is used to improve the surface quality of the casting. though the gases aid in producing a non-oxidizing atmosphere for the metal surface with the addition of "Lustrous Carbon" This production of gases necessitates the addition of vents to aid in the dispersion of the gas. The examples given for Cast Iron green sands are all listed in the . Also like cereal material. The list of Carbonaceous materials includes (but is not limited to) seacoal. asphalt.These materials are applicable to Cast Iron alloys and some of the larger. potentially reducing Green & Hot Strength..include but are not limited to cement. This thermal property is most effective with alloys that promote the liquefaction of Iron Oxide creating the best thermal transfer properties. Note that carbonaceous materials are NOT used in the casting of steel. Points of consideration are . inhibiting the hydration of the clay and bonding action. The Volatile nature of the powered coal produces a significant volume of smoke and gas. silicates and some esters. Gilsonite. a finely crushed bituminous coal. resulting in poor Green & Hot Strength properties. Inorganic Additives . etc. and the pronounced brittleness (or reduced plasticity) of the mold. the scavenging effect the Iron Oxide has on the moisture content. Similarly the addition of Iron Oxide has an effect on the refractoriness of the molding sand and may contribute to "Burn-On" type defects. regardless of additive is the volumes or masses of material.The introduction of fines and the effect on permeability. Of these the most common is Seacoal. resulting in associate defects such as wash-out.

... we're making additions that are counter acting previous additions. The soda ash is added in proportions that restore the pH to the 8 . ad nauseum. Polymer Additives . Essentially dilution sand can be added to counter act a variety of additive related issues. as well as any supplementary additives that may unduly complicate the maintenance process in the course of counter-acting the effects of initial additives. avoid the "Knee-Jerk" response of reducing the clay content.. This counter action of a lowered or acidic pH is employed to stabilize the properties of the Bentonite clays that are effected by acid pH resulting in a weaker bond strength.. though be aware that this will activate clay that has been dormant and result in variations in mulling and significant modifications to Green compression strength. select the additive(s) carefully with the implications on the entire system as materials decompose due to exposure at the mold metal interface. the larger medium can be somewhat more forgiving. Similarly the use of polymers to enhance hydration can translate into reduced mulling requirements Chemical Additives . Dilution Sand This is the addition of sand of an appropriate grain size or distribution to buffer or counter act the accumulation of fines and restore permeability. This modified water of sorts can make minor allowances for hot sand molding environments by the reduced moisture loss relative to the less hydrated clay.. If this occurs.per-ton ranges. I hope you get the picture that as soon as we start to modify one parameter we effect other parameters and soon. The larger the scale of production typically the easier the additives are to control (assuming adequate mechanization is employed to handle such volumes).These materials are relatively new additions to the foundry and serve the purpose of lowering the surface tension of the water. it's generally much easier to maintain the properties of a larger (100g) tank than it is for a small (5g) tank. and if MINOR errors are made. In closing.. An example of a chemical additive would be Soda Ash for the purpose of reducing the acidic pH that results from cereal usage or the contamination of molding sand by the introduction of spent core material that was catalyzed by an acidic process. offering better clay hydration and superior coating properties to the sand. In summary. Refractoriness and Permeability via grain distribution remains within acceptable ranges. The illustration that comes to mind is the maintenance of an aquarium for fish. dilution sand is typically added at the rate of 20% to 30% to maintain the sand mix over time.I think the name is too generic as everything can be reduced to a chemical composition? no matter. . Be aware that the addition of dilution sand may require the proportionate addition of other constituents to ensure that the mixture retains it's desired properties.. only employ additives to impart a characteristic improvement in the sand for the casting at hand. All clay-based Green Sand mixture inevitably require some maintenance to ensure that Compactability.9 range. as the name implies it dilutes the general composition based on the volumes of the composition and the volume of dilution required to achieve a specific purpose.

The shakeout characteristics are also excellent. and heated to create a Biopolar crystalline structure from the polymerization of the binder.BINDERS Modules 6 & 7 could be under one heading of binders. The materials are derived from renewable naturally occurring sources and refined into a non-toxic compound. as the core is reduced to free sand due to thermal breakdown of the polymerized biopolar crystal structure. CI binder would have an additional component (Ferrous Oxide) that improves surface finish added. Cores are parts of the mold that typically are placed after the pattern is removed and form internal passage ways within the casting. Upon careful reading and research into the chemical binder systems. either a true testament or just clever marketing on the part of GM. The addition of water acts as a catalyst that forms polymer bonding of the mixture. Initially I thought that Mohawk had glossed over the topic of core-binders.gmbond.Protein based Binders This family of binders is a recent innovation developed by General Motors Corp. though must not be present for either Al or Mg castings. The R&D effort brought GMbond to market in the late 1990's. I agree with the Colleges choice in omitting significant detail on these systems. The sand flowability is optimal at a lower temperature. Protein based core binders work well in Aluminum and Magnesium foundries as well as Cast Iron production. with a gross lack of detail on the chemical binder systems found in the foundry industry. these are of greater interest for the purpose of creating Cores. mixed dry to a rounded grain sand. Phenolic Urethane. Module # 6 . Cores are blown or formed. The result was a Polymer-Peptide based binder that is formed through the use of "Long-Chain Amino Acids". impose significant capital and operating overheads to be handled in an effective and safe manner. Any retained core material is completely water soluble and is easily washed form the casting. GM began with an R&D effort in 1990 to replace their current binder systems with a more environmentally friendly system that could compete with regard to Cost & Performance properties. . I started to see the typically high environmental impact these systems impose. As an aside the licensing to a food industry manufacturer is an indication of the low impact the compound has on the environment. and Urea These cores exhibit excellent tensile strength on the order of 200psi with less than 2% binder.html Essentially the process requires 1% protein based binder by weight. these amino acids are found in the base material "Collagen Compounds" & an additive that promotes thermal breakdown is also included . This product is licensed through Hormel Foods. Below is a link that has several Video clips on GMBond http://www. Although I enjoy the exposure to the spectrum of industrial processes. regardless of their applicability to my foundry. The families of Furan.

. This is related to findings that indicate carcinogenic properties and environmental concerns associated with the reclamation and disposal of spent sands. Note that a mixture at 43C (well above 100F) would have very poor core/mold strength properties due to decomposed resin prior to activation by the catalyst. and then activated with a second compound known as a catalyst. The key distinction between the Protein based binders and chemical is the chemical catalyst vs a heat catalyst. All aspects from initial mixing through post-casting reclamation share in the benefits of an environmentally benign process. and the formation of synthetic binding polymers vs the amino acid based polymers that are water soluble. The property of activation or "Set-Time" is also influenced by the temperature of the resin coated sand.. Ideally Heat Pattern molding requires that temperatures are held within 50F of the target temperature (based on the application datasheet for the binder system being employed). If a resin coated mixture is rated to set within 30min if the mixture is at 23C when activated. typically long sand transports through steel piping should be avoided as it can degrade the sand. The resin based binders are typically a 2 (two) part process. Initially the sand is coated with a resin.The problems of Core Gases is also eliminated as well as the toxicity of traditional core processes by as much as 99% in Al & Mg production. 10 minutes can be removed from the "Set-Time" ie. Sand handling has a significant impact on mold/core quality. ideally a sand that has a rounded shape requires less binder and can provide improved mold/core densities and strengths. The trend in the 1980's was toward developing "No-Bake" or room temperature curing compounds. while the resins will begin to partially evaporate at temperatures above 100F.. Note: There are significant risks and high capital & operating costs associated with certain families of chemically bonded sands. The mixing of sands an resins is inhibited by excessive viscosity at temperature below 50F. Chemical Binders This module will focus on the "No-Bake" process and resin bonded sands. leaving a gummy residue with poor activation characteristics when the catalyst is introduced. also any process that might lead to segregation of the grain distribution is to be avoided. The primary constituent is the sand itself. while a mixture at 43C would set in 10 mins. The No-Bake process requires that all processes be within the range of 70F to 100F. Temperature The effects of temperature are important in both "Heat Pattern" process and the "No-Bake" process. a mixture at 33C will set in 20 mins. The general rule of thumb is that for every 10 Degrees C the mixture is above the optimally recommended temperature. The basic idea of establishing consistency in casting production is also important when considering chemically bonded molds & cores. The activation of the resin with a catalyst forms synthetic polymers that create the high strength properties required in the mold or core application.

This condition is counteracted by the use of in-line resin or sand heaters to aid to maintaining an adequate temperature. The paradox exists in the molds ability to resist absorption of moisture when cured but having to use comparably cooler sand to achieve the slower catalyst activation.. while Cold-Box and Phenolic Urethane processes require a more basic ADV. ADV .. ..) Density The core density also holds a relationship to the cured strength properties of core/molds.. This creates a paradox of sorts as there is also a relationship between the speed of activation or the formation of the polymerized bonds and the strength of the core/mold. Warm-Box. The Hot-Box.. The pH scale is defined as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration within an aqueous solution.I doubt that it requires mentioning that sand/resin mixtures at 53C will not reverse time. (if you understood that on the first reading you can take my spot in line for the gold star. the stronger the bond.. Typically moisture content is kept below 0. while sands below 50F are too viscous to be moved effectively and would result in poor activation if at all..33% due to it's negative effects. This ADV requirement now demands that the sand be tested to ensure that it is consistent with the process being employed. Conversely sand that is below 70F can take significantly longer to set or cure when activated. this is illustrated in the lecture notes as. as the ADV of sands can drift over use. Acid Catalyst No-Bakes systems require an acidic ADV.. by setting 5 minutes prior to the addition of the catalyst. Moisture The effects of excessive moisture can have tremendous impact on the properties of the cured core/molds if outside the specified norms for the process being used. the slower the polymerization of the resin. "The effect of a hot summer day with 100% humidity will cause the tensile strength to drop by 4 times" The effect of moisture condensing on cool sand on a hot day is a significant factor.Acid Demand Value Defined as the property of a sand or additive to affect the cure process as a function of the materials acidity or basicity on the pH scale.. Up to a limit. and aquariums for fish keepers etc.. This is the same scale that is used to maintain drinking water. and creating a condition where condensation potentially could occur.

. compactability increases between 8 to 10% over an angular grain shape.. Cold-Box & No-Bake.. .. about the lack of coverage of the "Binder Systems". though do have a place in specific foundry operations that require other properties that are beneficial. or based on Carbon compound(s). the main groupings are Heat Activate.The most common way to influence density is through grain shape of the sand.. Silica Sand has the worst characteristics at almost 4 times the rate of expansion than. provide lower strength levels and are the least reactive when catalyzed. This section and the next 2 sections are more info on binders.. Of note within the "Chemical Binders" is that the majority are classed as Organic.. Chromite and Zircon Sands. The In-Organic binders require more attention when molding. The chemical binders are grouped by activation. This section will not cover every "Heat-Activated" binder type listed but will discuss the more common applications and provide an overview of the group. my statement in the previous section (6 & 7). This section will deal with the Heat Activated class. or Non-Carbon binders are based on Silicate compound(s) or Phosphate/Metal Oxide compound(s). The dimensional integrity of the core within a closed area of the casting potentially could create stress or hot tears. especially when a binder is used that has poor collapsibility or too high a Hot Strength. Expansion Characteristics The final consideration in all binder systems.. The In-Organic. where a rounded shape will require the least binder for effective coverage. Heat Activated Chemical Binder Systems Let me retract. Olivine. and especially for cores is the thermal expansion characteristics of the sand being used. Cold-Box Phenolic/Urethane/Amine Silicate/CO2 Furan/SO2 Acrylic/Epoxy/SO2 (Acrylic) FRC /SO2 Phenolic/Ester (Methyl Formate) Phenolic/CO2 No-Bake Furan/Acid Phenolic/Acid Phenolic/Ester Oil/Urethane Silicate/Ester Phenolic Urethane Phosphate/Metal Oxide Polyol Urethane Heat-Activated Shell Core Oil Phenolic Hot-Box Furan Hot-Box Urea Formaldehyde Hot-Box Warm-Box The table above is the AFS grouping re-typed for quick reference. Again a balance has to be established as too high a density will adversely effect the permeability of the core/mold and create issues associated with gas related defects such as porosity.

Shell sand has an indefinite shelf life prior to molding and the mold/cores similarly have an indefinite shelf-life prior to use. Though their application is somewhat restricted due to the environmental issues that surround the emissions of Formaldehyde in production. Part of the Shell Processes longevity is it's relative ease of use. Typically most foundries purchase core sand that is pre-coated with resin. Although it is possible to resin coat the sand in-house. The sand is held at temperature for a period of time that allows the resins to melt and form either a solid or hollow shell core. Once the Sand/Cereal/water is well mixed a quantity of kerosene oil is added that improves the flowability of the sand and acts as a releasing agent for the formed core. The coating methods described in the text are termed "Hot-Coating" and "Warm-Coating".. Beyond the advantages of long storage periods. The hybrid resins are formulated with . The core mold is a heated box (typically 500F . These process are even more current than the Shell process. Hot Box Core Process The dominant process are Furan. Water is added to activate the cereal material and achieve a measure of green strength. The Core sand is dry mixed with cereal additives. These binder systems made the production of thin-walled castings in the production of engine-blocks possible due to their superior strength and shake-out characteristics. In hollow cores the box is tilted to allow un-catalyzed sand to pour out for the next core. Shell Cores provide good surface finish properties due to their flow and density characteristics.550F) that the sand is blown or rammed into. both require precision temp control of sand. the technical nature of the process generally precludes doing so.. removed and baked at between 350F & 500F in an oven with adequate air flow to evacuate any moisture release from the core. Phenolic & Urea Formaldehyde. as it was developed during the second World War. having been developed in the early 1960's (much like myself. The shell process is still in use today. and it's adaptability to mold production as well as Core production.Core Oil Binder Molding This method has been replaced by other systems but was once a dominant core bonding system and is one of the oldest. also known as the Croning process (named for it's developer Johannes Croning) is comparatively more current than the Core Oil process. resin and typically a chemical wash and mechanical treatment to particulate the sand for usage. The mixture is blown or rammed into a core mold.). and hollow cores aid in the "Shake-Out" properties of the casting. Shell or Croning Process The Shell process. The 3 resin types can be used individually or in combination to create specific core types with properties that are tailored to the casting in question.

while offering the flexibility of using plastic core molds at the lower activation heats. The Process also is similar to Hot-Box Core production in that it uses a Furan based resin. Phenolic Urethane/Amine (PUA) This system uses a 2 part resin coating made up of a Phenolic based resin that is dissolved by an organic solvent. with Epoxy Acrylic/Sulphur Dioxide as an alternative method to the PUA system. These compounds are blended with clean sand to form the resin coating. For a PUA mold the venting ensures that 80% of the crosssectional area of the core is exposed to the catalyzing gas.consideration to the ADV (Acid Demand Value) of the sand and the pH nature of the resin's themselves to ensure proper polymerization into a stable thermoset. More Chemical Binder Systems . The gas/vapour that is used is from the Amine family. The sand that is used is still a resin coated sand though. The reduction of environmental pollutants.. • • • sodium silicate/carbon dioxide (gas) phenolic urethane/amine (vapor) epoxy acrylic/sulphur dioxide (gas) Although other processes are also in use these three form the majority of the market in use. resulting in substantially reduced Formaldehyde and Phenol emissions. Of the most popular in use today (2005) are. Lastly Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide will be discussed. though the heat activation occurs approx 100F lower than the traditional "Hot-Box" temperature. Phenolic Urethane/Amine (or PUA for short) is ranked as the #1 process in use. The common theme appears that this is an Ammonia based molecule that has been modified to fall into an "Organic" classification. below are the results of a quick "GoogleDefine" . The Core molds that are used in "Cold-Box" applications have special considerations for passing gases or vapours through the pattern.. Once properly coated the sand is blown into the Core molds. Warm-Box Core Process This method is similar to the Hot-Box listed above.Cold Box Technology The "Cold-Box" technologies are currently being used in high-end core production and high volume core production shops. reduced energy consumption required in core activation make this a more viable and economically attractive Core Production method. . What distinguishes this system from the Hot & Warm-Box techniques beyond the use of heat as a catalyst is the use of a vapour or gas as a catalyzing agent. and isocyanate material that is dissolved by a similar solvent. though the catalyst is a mild acid.

In closing this section any chemical system that has an acronym like PUA likely has a poor environmental impact and this is true in this case. Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide The Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide system is a popular alternative to the PUA system just discussed. A general rule of thumb would be that industrial organic compounds can be potentially harmful to staff and the environment.asp An organic molecule which consists of an ammonia molecule where one or more of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by organic groups. the addition of heat to the clean air will accelerate the catalyst action of the Amine gas with the Phenolic Urethane resin mixture..html A curing agent used with epoxy resins that is any of a class of ammonia derivatives. The 2 (two) most common Amine based catalysts are triethylamine (TEA) and dimetylethylamine (DMEA). misterguch. the core/mold will shrink in the coarse of the curing www. www. as the gas catalyst interaction with the resin coated sand is crucial. It is advised that the sand be catalyzed as soon as possible after coating.. once the Amine is introduced. Also of note is that even with a clean-air flush the core/mold is still only 70 to 80% cured. as a result TEA is found more commonly in Core/Mold production usage. the remainder of the curing process occurs as the catalyst gases evaporate once the core/mold is removed from the core box.htm The Amine based vapour/gas is introduced under pressure.. Also proper design of core venting and aspiration of the Core/Mold box is a prerequisite to consistently stable core/mold This system is classed as an "In-Organic" binder system and as such has fewer health and environmental concerns associated with it's use. Unlike some core/molding systems PUA has a very short shelf life for the resin coated sand. a flush of clean air is introduced to the mold also under pressure.pqcorp. as well as remove any pronounced odor or health will stick to such benign process as wheat flour binders baked with molasses. . the type of aggregate and/or sand as well the age of the core/mold.• • • One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen by organic radicals. the proportions of resin. Considerations The PUA binder class falls under the definition of a Polymeric resin system..airproducts. The primary concern is dimensional accuracy. As with many chemical The purpose of the air is to ensure that the Amine is completely passed through the mold/core.brinkster. For my part theworkshop. This type of chemical composition has some properties that have to be accounted for. The adherence to local regulations in the use of such a system is essential to being a safe employer and corporate citizen. The amount of shrinkage is a function of the density of the core/mold. The Amine gases are carefully collected and vented off to a scrubber that neutralizes the Amine and recovers the vapour in the form of Acidic Salts. DMEA is the more effective catalyzing agent but has a higher cost and also has a much stronger odour.

this adverse property should be attended to with air conditioning and humidity handling systems. Similarly the sand reclamation process can be hampered by vitrification of the core due to heat. although some additives are available to improve this property for Ferrous metal castings. This system uses a blend of both Acrylic and Epoxy resins to derive the best strength properties of both compounds. Optimal performance has been established with 1 part Silicate to 2. The temperature of the Sodium Silicate mixture when gassed has a significant impact on compressive strength of the core/mold. these additives can't be used in non-ferrous applications. @ 60F it is close to 50PSI and at 100F is just under 200PSI compressive strength. so has fewer porosity defects. a fully cured mold will have a high initial strength but should be used the same day as it will have fully 1/5th the strength of an under cured core/mold 48hrs later. mechanical reclamation has poor results though some water based systems are available..5 parts Soda compounds. Also this property implies a relatively short shelf-life of core/molds. has no odour and will NOT be a respiratory irritant. These proportions are mixed to sand in 0. This system is free of Water and Nitrogen from a gas generation perspective and also Phenol. Similarly the Sodium Silicate binder has a lower environmental impact and can be considered comparatively inert. One of the pluses of a Sodium Silicate/CO2 system is that it generates very little gases when compared to Organic systems. A blend of 35 parts Epoxy to 65 parts Acrylic (with peroxide for Ferrous applications) seems ideal. The strength properties of the Core/Mold are closely related to the Sodium Silicate ratio. Acrylic based resins have excellent green strength and moldability. Epoxy Acrylic/Sulfur Dioxide (FRC) This final "Cold-Box" system is also known as the FRC system.0% concentrations. The Shake-Out characteristics for a Sodium Silicate/CO2 core/mold are unfortunately.Primarily the use of CO2 as the catalyzing gas/vapour removes the requirement of a scrubber as the gas in inert. while Epoxy based resins provide excellent Hot Strength properties though with longer cure-times and gassing requirements. or alternatively a 50/50 mix for Aluminum production is used. quite poor. The benefits of this system are reduced scrap sand. The duration of gassing has an effect on Core/Mold Strengths.5% to 2. better flow properties from the mixer through the hopper and into the core blowing machinery. with poor hot strength characteristics.. The Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide system was introduced in the 1950's and pre-dates Phenolic Urethane/Amine. and isocyanate from an environmental view. Of concern with this process is the core/mold tendency to absorb moisture in humid environments. Though the catalyst gas (Sulfer Dioxide) does require additional equipment (Scrubbers) for reclamation. The reclamation system most commonly used is a "Packed Tower Scrubber" this system uses a water and 5% Sodium Hydroxide . @ 32F the compressive strength is approx 20PSI. ureaformaldehyde. The popularity of PUA is largely due to superior strength properties over Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide. though I couldn't find the reason in either the lecture notes or text. Assuming a 60sec gassing time to activate or catalyze the binder.

how can there be such vague guide-lines for disposal of this type of material. the ambient temperature of the sand and room as well as humidity. This binder system has 3 (three) distinct phases or durations that start immediately after the catalyst is added to the coated sand mixture and occur at ambient room temperature. The basic premise is that every rise in sand/resin temperature of approx 10C/18F cuts the current phase time in half. and the resin will not be able to properly coat the grains if not pre-coated. .. As a last resort the core/mold may be baked in an oven to ensure all moisture and solvents have been evaporated. No-Bake Air-Set Binder Systems This the final section for this course as well as the last of the Core/Mold Binder systems. In an effort to accommodate the temperature requirements of the binder system that a foundry is using.. again a process that I will not undertake for the sake of profit. Temperatures above 110F tend to evaporate the solvents within the resin(s).. The Air-Set binder system is generally used by smaller "Jobber-Shops" or low volume foundries due to the additional time required for the binder system to cure once molded. Local laws and environmental regulation will dictate whether this can be discharged or requires specific disposal considerations. resulting in gummy resin that also does not coat or flow properly.. The first phase is "WorkTime" this is the period that all mixing transport. the qty & type of catalyst added. Temperature & Humidty The considerations of temperature and humidity can be even more critical with some of the binder systems that generate water as a byproduct of the polymerization process.. Similarly any surplus moisture or un-catalyzed solvents may contribute to excessive gassing and porosity defects in the casting. with a lower limit of approx 50F and an upper limit of approx 110F. The Air-Set or No-Bake systems are distinguished from the cold-Box systems just covered in that they are catalyzed by a liquid rather than a gas agent. either this effluent is benign or hazardous. Work. The moisture has to be evaporated from the core/mold to ensure that the binder is not under-cured and proportionally weaker as a result. As an aside. I can't see how regional jurisdiction would matter. The resultant Sodium Sulphate solution has a pH of 8.. the second is the "Strip-Time" referring to the period that has to elapse before core/mold has polymerized enough to hold it's shape and be removed from the core box. the 10C/18F Rule is applicable.solution. molding and compaction will occur within. Sand heaters and/or chiller may be needed to achieve consistent results. Strip & Cure times should be predictable consistent durations that are specific to the resin type being used. The ideal temperature or mid-point from which to work is between 75F & 85F...5. lastly the "Cure-Time" is the period of time that has to elapse once the core starts to set-up to the time that the resins are fully cured or polymerized... The sand/resin mixture may become too viscous below 50F to flow properly. As discussed in a previous module.

html a colorless toxic flammable liquid used in the synthesis of nylon Furan.princeton.sludgehappens. very volatile and highly flammable liquid with a boiling point close to room temperature.html Miscible means able to be mixed. www. google define: Furan • • • Resin formed from reactions involving furfuryl alcohol alone or in combination with other www.wikipedia.cogsci. to clarify this see below. google define: Miscible • • • • Capable of being mixed in any concentration without separation of phases.htm The system is considered as Organic. The Big-3 As with the Cold-Box system there are 3 (three) main families of binders that will be discussed • • • the Furan/acid system the Silicate/ester system the Phenolic urethane system Furan/Acid System The first is the Furan/Acid system. mutually soluble. is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. colorless..ccohs. eg. en.curiously I think that this would open the door to litigation on the basis of "False Advertising" if sold as a "No-Bake" binder The capability of being mixed. .. Two liquids are said to be miscible if they are partially or completely soluble in each other. www. These are generically identified as The Furfuryl alcohol is said to be miscible with water.hghouston. water and ethyl alcohol are miscible. (See also Solubility. Medium & High Nitrogen systems. www. This system is categorized as the Furan Family but contains no furan. and readily polymerizes with acidic catalysts to a solid state at room temperature The Furan family has 3 sub groupings based upon the Nitrogen & water content of the system. the term miscible is understood to mean that the two liquids are completely soluble in each Furan is a clear. It is toxic and may be carcinogenic.) ccinfoweb. also known as furane and furfuran. but rather is composed of either Urea Formaldehyde (UF) or Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) as well as a Furfuryl alcohol.airproducts.htm Capable of being mixed together.

strip and cure times. The Nitrogen (and by association moisture) content can be modified by the use of "Low-N" Furfuryl alcohol. The tensile strength of the core/mold is also negatively impacted by higher levels of moisture. The catalyst material is an acid. Though the effect of nitrogen is less pronounced with Non-Ferrous castings.15 10 . Sand Resin Catalyst Typical Material proportions Mold 98.30% Note that molds generally have less resin & catalyst than cores.. it's possible to theorize a relationship between the moisture content created during the polymerization phase and rate of cure. beyond which core/mold quality is effected by dried weak surfaces that are prone to being friable when cast. The release of residual formaldehyde during the sand reclamation process also poses health and environmental concerns.11 Water % 0-5 5 .96% 0. The rate of cure can be accelerated up to a point.00% 0. although not stated.70% 1. I think it is self evident. . On the negative side SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide) is produced during the casting process. good Hot-Strength & Erosion Resistance and relative ease of sand reclamation. In closing.Low Medium High Furan/Acid Binder Classification Nitrogen % 0-3 2-8 5 . Chromite and Zircon sands would be acceptable. as well as the toxicity of the resin & catalyst components involved.80% 0.. effectively neutralizing the catalyst before the curing process is complete. although neither text or lecture notes explicitly say this. Olivine sand does have a high ADV and would be considered unsuitable. The sand that is used can adversely affect the curing process if it has a high ADV (Acid Demand Value). while Silica. They offer flexible work. the Furan Family of binders are among the most widely used systems for the class of NoBake/Air-set. The third issue is the relationship between Nitrogen (N) and moisture. The catalyst reaction is exothermic or one that generates heat.24% Core 98. it is problematic with ferrous (especially steel) castings. What is stated is that higher moisture contents do generally lead to slower cure-times. with the Sulfonic acids yielding faster cure times. The acidic nature of the catalyst is what activates and precipitates polymerization. and do not include the volume of sand/aggregate. and is generally from either the Phosphoric or Sulfonic families.30 These percentages are representative of the percentile of the polymerized resin.

html Above is a quick reference to better define an Ester.9% Wt. In esters of carboxylic acids. www.carpetbuyershandbook.5% 11.eere.9% 56. The catalyzing Ester is added at a rate of 10 to 12% of the resin used to achieve consistent core/mold production.learnchem.4% 12. www. is it possible that more industrially friendly environmental policies and lax Work-place Safety governance could be contributing to the trend? Or is it the whining North-American worker that thinks s/he is above carcinogenic compounds and would rather breathe clean air than Formaldehyde laden clouds of sulfur dioxide that is to blame? Perhaps the purpose of this course is to illustrate what NOT to use for sustainable production.foresight.2% 30.shtml Compound formed by the elimination of water and bonding of an alcohol and an organic think that the shift to "Off-Shore" high volume casting may have motivators beyond "CheapLabour". It should also be noted that In-Organic molecular bonds are generally weaker than Organic 54.0 up to 3. the -COOH group of the acid and the -OH group of the alcohol lose a water and become a -COO. Ratio 2.85 google define: ester • • • • An ester is a compound formed from the reaction between an acid and an alcohol. a carbonyl group bonded to an O that is in turn bonded to a C. Silicate/Ester Chemical Binder Family This family is composed of a Sodium Silicate resin that is In-Organic that is catalyzed by an organic Acid Ester. Low Medium High Silicate/Ester Resin Composition Na2O SiO2 H2O 15. The various binder compositions are achieved by varying the ratio of Silica (SiO2) to Soda (Na2O) when mixing the resin with water. The Table below better illustrates the weight ratios for the range of Silicate/Ester binder resins. The range of ratio's for foundry usage in Core/Mold production is from 30. .html an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol www.0 2. www.htm A molecule containing an ester linkage.4 2.2% 56. The same considerations of ADV of the sand are applicable to this system as the polymerization occurs as a result of the acidic catalyst.

with an inorganic resin composition. followed by ethylene glycol diacetate which is a midrange curing speed Ester and lastly glycerol triacetate classed as a slow speed catalyst. The addition of the acidic ester causes the resin to gel and harden. and whether they drag down the environmental performance of the Silica Ester family is not discussed) The strength of the core/molds is also lower than that of the other No-Bake/Air-Set families. Moisture absorption is less of a problem with this No-Bake system over the PUA Cold-Box system. with the difference being an Acidic Liquid over the Vapour/Gas Amine catalyst used in Cold-Box production. This class of binders is quite similar to the PUA cold-box system discussed in Module #9. The binder and coated sand has long storage stability. The cured core/molds exhibit good strength characteristics. Advantages The Phenolic Urethane No-Bake system offers the fastest Cure-Time. Advantages The primary advantages to this system are environmental compared to the Furan Family. The 3 (three) Ester catalysts that are commonly used within the foundry industry are glycerol diacetate that provides the fastest curing action. Disadvantages . The speed and degree of hardness achieved is related to the type of acidic ester used as a catalyst. and the grains are coated with the sodium silicate resin. as the bond is not broken by heat. This can be improved by additives (what these additives are. This system is most prominent in the production of small to medium sized core/molds. Phenolic Urethane Family The final class of No-Bake/Air-Set binder families are the Phenolic Urethanes introduced in the 1970's.The sand must be above 15C. while providing excellent shakeout and sand reclamation properties. Silicate/Ester is better suited to a broader range of applications covering both Ferrous & Non-Ferrous casting due to the absence of Nitrogen pick-up. Proprietary blends of the three Esters have been formulated to offer a finer degree of control over cure rate and speed. phosphorous or formaldehyde emissions. while maintaining a high work to strip time ratio. Disadvantages The in-organic nature of the resin bonding impacts both shake-out and sand reclamation. absence of Sulfur.

Notice the el' Cheapo drill press. as it cuts easily and can be shaped with common hand tools.. Secondly. I buy mine in 2 ft by 8 ft by 2 inch sheets.The presence of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the solvents can't be a good thing. typical Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and government regulatory bodies that oversee the Foundry industry would have been helpful.. This is great stuff to work with. I just wanted to try it out on something quick & dirty. Also a module on current regulations. The tight cell structure is a key feature.25" over-size. and thought it would be a quick way to get started. it does tend to distort the form as it cuts and requires quite a bit of hand finishing to clean-up plugs. The foam that I use is construction insulation. When I first built my Blast Furnace. Lost-Foam Metal Casting This page was created in response to a few requests that I've had regarding Lost Foam Metal Casting method that I use. Unfortunately I can't compare Lost Foam to Cavity Molding or Green Sand Casting as I've never used green sand. in that it is rather boring and pretty dry but did cover a fairly broad range of basic knowledge and gave an overview of industrial practices with regard to Binder systems. I think that an opportunity was lost to drill deeper into the binder systems with a greater emphasis on Work-place safety and environmental concerns. During that experience I made a small hot wire foam cutter. since I didn't have a Cope & Drag setup or the sand clay mixtures readily available I started to focus more on Foam.. As well as the production of smoke and odors during the casting process (I wonder what they are? Are they healthy smokes and odors like those found in cigarettes???) The process is generally not used for ferrous (Steel) casting due to the presence of Nitrogen. This generally leaves enough material to shape as closely as possible to finished dimension. I first started using foam for molding fiberglass. I picked this up at a flea . Generally I guesstimate the rough dimensions of a part and cut a chunk of foam with a hand saw at least 0. I doubt the the larger bead type foam would be of much use. In this case I'm cutting out an octagon shape that will be turned down to be a face plate for my lathe. The results I had were so much better than what I expected that I've just continued on with it. Even though the cutter is fun to use. I had read about Lost Foam. This course (MTB72) is a necessary evil. Closing comments..

I true-up the block into a cylinder with a wood rasp. It doesn't have to be a drill press. Similarly you may loose your grip on the chisel and have it fly across the shop. It seems that the faster the foam spins the better finish I get. . but for me it seems to be easier than having the drill flopping all over the bench. while my main press is bolted to a stationary 16ft bench. Even though it's just foam. During the shaping process I tend to use the sharp corners of the chisel and the face as shown in this picture. Always angle the chisel point with the direction of rotation. Once the chunk is cut. there's enough velocity on the outer edges to give you nasty burn if you rub-up against a turning edge. This is adequate to keep the rod from spinning inside the foam as you shape it. At this point I'm using both hands and trying to steady off the base of the press. Obviously the threaded rod and foam block get chucked-up into an electric for 5 or 6 bucks. as it's bolted to a table on wheels. or you may find that the chisel gets drawn into the foam and ruins the piece. drill a hole to accept a length of 3/8ths threaded rod. A nut and large flat washer are located on either side of the foam block to help keep it flat or perpendicular to the threaded rod. and just love it. Generally I hand tighten the nuts to the point that the washers sink flat with the surface of the foam. After having shaped the block into a cylinder I use a woodworking chisel to turndown the cylinder into whatever shape I need. I'm using my index finger on my right hand as a light sensor as the block spins. After having tried at slower speeds I noticed that there is a greater ripping action on the foam leaving a more mottled finish requiring more effort to produce a piece. I find the center.

the screened sand is poured off into a container.The last stage is to get a smooth finish without removing any more material than necessary. Here my assistant carefully sifts the sand through screen stapled to a shallow box. This problem is more pronounced with flat square pieces. I wanted 4 slots cut squarely on the face. wooden box. I like to start with a 200 grit sand paper to remove any little flakes and finish with a flat metal file. and old pot are what I use for pouring my castings into. I will have to get more sand. but pulleys are just as easy to make with the groove cut and finished. Unfortunately it was on a beach in northern Quebec during a . Since it requires so little force to cut through the foam. the Steel bucket. The factory glaze or finish should be broken while on the press with the sand paper as well. The tub on wheels is full of used sand that I have yet to sift. By using a wisk any debris is easily swept off the screen onto the floor. but I have enough to pour off 3 castings at a time with this set-up. it's easy to use a steel rule as a guide without damaging the bit. The factory finish tends to cause a warp or curl on pieces once the opposite side is cut. Not that the specifics of this casting have much to do with Lost-Foam Casting but I thought this was a good illustration of how easy foam is to deal with. Here I'm using my trusty (knock-off) dremel tool with a quarter inch routing bit. I recently picked up 20lbs of the finest sand I've ever seen. These pictures are of a square shouldered faceplate.

fly-in fishing trip. It took some convincing to get the pilot to let me bring it back. This stuff is so fine it feels soapy when you run your fingers through it. I always find that there is a split second when the metal pools ontop of the sprue and then there is a quite poof with a puff of black smoke. dry sand. This picture doesn't show it well. just dry loose screened sand. I opted to use my trusty soup pot. I can never tell much from the poke test but it does tend to kill at least 15 to 20 seconds. poured in about an inch and half of loose sand. this only adds to your anxiety that the pour didn't turnout. but it's in Ontario and about to be put to the test. Now all that is left to do is is clean-up your tools. To make matters worse the sand does look like it is shifting slightly. Placed the faceplate plug roughly in the center and covered it with more loose. you want to pour the metal directly onto the top of the sprue as fast as it can take the metal. and generally wait. petro-bond. oil. As I've said in other pages. Though it may seem paranoid to be fearful of any changes to process. This is the first time I'll be trying steel pins to hold 2 pieces together. As this happens you are pouring and MUST KEEP pouring. Here is the faceplate plug with a 9/16th shaft through the bore and a sprue shaped and pinned into place. it's always in the back of your mind that liquid metal could end-up flying in all directions whenever you encounter an unknown variable. there is a knack to pouring fast but carefully. After about 10 minutes I'm almost crazed with anticipation. Ultimately. I start by poking the top of the sprue to see how solid it feels. water. There is no clay. pace around the mold pot. . but I try and create a natural funnel with the sand to help direct the metal onto the foam sprue.

This time everything when well. Steel pins are OK. My slots seem to have come out fine as well. so is the pipe to place the bore hole. There is a slight concave property to the face plate that will be machined off. The moment of truth. I grab a large set of pliers or channel locks and pull it out of the sand. The finish from the French sand also has noticeably improved this casting. After a bit of clean-up with a wire brush and file. Compared to previous pieces there is less pitting..This is it. Hopefully this helps you explore the possibilities of LostFoam Casting. the sprues are cut-off. .. I think that this is from not taking off enough of the factory foam finish.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful