Introduction to Metal Casting

Principle of Metal Casting On it's most basic level, when reduced to the most essential elements, molten metal is poured into a cavity called a mold, the mold forms a pre-determined shape, the metal cools to the point of solidification, after which it can be called a casting. A Brief History of Metal Casting

500 AD

The timeline above has the high points, and only includes most favorite characters and events, below will be several other players that would have made the chart too messy... 1 - Gold (Au) is speculated to be the first metal to be cast, due to it's naturally occurring state in metallic form, there is evidence that dates back as far as 4000BC of this in the Eurasiatic Steppe Belt also known as the Russian Black Sea area. Between 4000BC and 2000BC there was much development in the art of metal casting, including the use of Copper (Cu) and eventually by 2000BC the smelting of Iron (Fe). The dates are fuzzy and unimportant with regard to passing this modules examination. But the prevailing theory is that droplets of copper were discovered in the ashes of firepits, formed from the stone that circled or lined the fire. Humans, being the clever organisms that we are eventually determined that this too, was a metal like gold, and could be extracted from specific types of stone materials... An excellent BBC audio file exists on this theory under the programme heading "Material World" and the episode is "Mining Great Ormes Head"... it may not be exact but that should be close enough to get you there... 2 - 2000BC is a nice marker that defines the discovery of Iron, similar to Copper (Cu) it is not a naturally occurring metal, but as a species we applied similar methods to extract it as were developed for Copper (Cu). 1000BC too should have been included, on the timeline as it is significant in that as populations grew and migrated the above skills moved with them. The Chinese are credited with developing a significant body of casting technology over that period that included Lost-Wax casting. 3 - By 600BC the Chinese had also discovered Iron (Fe) and were developing methods to smelt and cast it.

4 - This date of 500AD is curious, in that cast crucible steel was first being used in India at that time, what is surprising is that the technology was lost for a considerable period and did not get rediscovered until 1200 years later in 1750 by Benjamin Huntsman in England. 5 - Huntsman likely could not have developed his process if not for Abraham Darby of Coalbrookdale in England. Darby is credited as the first foundry man to use Coke as a fuel for firing his Iron (Fe) foundry in 1730. It's also of some significance that an energy crisis was afoot in the 1800's due to all the wood being burnt into charcoal, ship building and the general need of growing populations, empires and our drive towards advancing our collective life styles through innovation... The move to Coke (not pepsi) cut the cost of Iron (Fe) production to 1/3rd what it was... 6 - 1855AD is the year Sir Henry Bessemer, one of my favorite figures in history filed a patent on the Bessemer process. Bessemer is best remembered for developing a method of decarborizing Iron (Fe) into steel... The jist of it has to do with blowing air through the molten Iron (Fe) in the hopes that the oxygen gathers some of the Carbon out of the liquid metal, eventually reducing it to less than 2% carbon content... The demarcation between Steel & Iron (Fe)... Do not take the last statement as gospel yet, as that will be dealt with in far more detail under the categorization of Ferrous metals later... For more information on Sir Henry Bessemer, again I direct you to the BBC radio 4 series called "Inventors Imperfect" Sir Henry had an entire 30min episode on his life, the Bessemer process and some of his other legacies, that landed him as an Inventor Imperfect. There are so many other great minds that have contributed to the advancement of casting technology that an entire course on just them would be required... This is largely due to the evolution of the patent office and the general trend toward recorded history... If such offices and practices existed in 500AD we would never have lost the first process of making crucible steel in India, and just think how far along we'd be now... 7 - Today, All this rich history has been driving toward one purpose, one goal, one objective, and that is, by knowing where we've been, I hope to have a better sense of where I will go. Key Metals in the Foundry or Metal Casting Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr) Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) Nickel (Ni), Silicon (Si), Tin (Sn), Zinc (Zn) The above are identified with their Elemental names as found in the periodic table, the only thing to note at this time is that Silicon (Si) is grouped as a semi-metal in the periodic table and not as a pure metal. Key Nonmetals in Metal Casting Carbon (C), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P) Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O)

Take note, the last three elements listed (Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O)) are typically encountered in a gaseous state and will reflect a different elemental symbology as shown below Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2) Key oxides (in the form of ceramics) Alumina (Al2O3), Silica (SiO2), Magnesia (MgO) and Calcium Oxide (CaO) The compounds listed in this section are the primary constituents of Slag or Dross encountered in the process of melting metals and their reaction to Oxygen (O) found in the atmosphere An effort has been made to list the Elemental symbol alongside of the name or compound, this is a practice that should continue... Even if the word Iron (Fe) is used 5 (Five) times within a single sentence... Provided the symbols are accurate to the names, it should aid in the process of internalizing their symbol... I'm not saying that this will be on the final Exam, but I'd be quite surprised if it wasn't there just as a "Gimme" mark... and if you don't know these cold, you have no business passing the exam... Classification of Foundries In general terms Foundries can be grouped by the type of metals that they cast, the primary groupings are "Ferrous" and "Non-Ferrous". The term Ferrous relates to the presence of Iron (Fe) in the metal being poured. A Ferrous foundry would typically pour cast iron in it's various forms including but not limited to the various grades of steel. A Non-Ferrous foundry would typically pour alloys of metal that are NOT Iron (Fe) based, these would include, but are not limited to Aluminum (Al) and all it various alloys, Copper (Cu) and it's alloys of brass and bronze, as well as the Magnesium (Mg) based alloys. If pressed further I would divide the above categories into 2 (two) other sub-groupings called Jobbing and Captive foundries. Captive foundries are typically a division of a larger corporation or business, they are considered "Captive" in that they only make castings for the parent company. A good example of a captive foundry would be the engine block division of an automotive manufacturing facility. One of the advantages of creating a captive foundry would be consistency of production and greater control of product development and retention of intellectual property relating to the castings, and proprietary techniques developed for their production. The Jobbing Foundry is one that is an open shop that produces castings for other companies, personally I would think that Jobbing Foundries would employ a broader skill-set and be more flexible to meet the constant changes that influence the casting market. Similarly Jobbing Foundries would have the potential to be more dynamic due to the ever changing types of work performed, and would be able to offer staff greater challenges. Parts Integration

. A block of wood. as like the un-carved block it holds all possibilities within it's bounds. I agree that all of their suggestions hold promise. tools. into a full fledged foundry.The final sub-section of Module 1 deals with the ideology of casting.. Over the course of the last 8 or 9 months that I've been letting the idea of extending theworkshop. it can be anything and everything that is imaginable that would fit within it's volumetric dimensioning.. • • • • Alloy Type Metal Quality Production Demands Economics Alloys have a wide spectrum of temperatures that they melt at. The transformation of metal from solid to molten is accomplished in a variety of ways through the use of various types of furnaces. The trend specifically in the automotive market is the creation of complex castings that are replacing similarly complex parts that had previously been stamped. sitting on the bench before the carver. And such is the mound of molders sand before it takes the shape of the casting that is to be. In it's virgin state it holds the myriad of possibilities. it's tremendous potential. my many relatives and friends have suggested ideas for object. but the true potential of a foundry operation is that it is not constrained to a particular line or market. The very idea of metal casting is such that it evokes the tenets of the Taoist "Un-carved block". the list below should illustrate this point. and the current trend towards parts integration. Metal Alloy Type Zinc Aluminum Magnesium Copper Cast Irons High Manganese Steel Monel (70N.. machined or fabricated by a combination of both.30Cu) Nickel Based Super Alloys High Alloy Steels High Alloy Irons Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Temp Range (Fahrenheit) 650-850 1150-1350 1150-1350 1650-2150 2450-2700 2550-2650 2500-2800 2600-2800 2700-2900 2800-3000 2850-3100 Temp Range (Celsius) 345-455 620-735 620-735 908-1180 1340-1480 1400-1455 1370-1540 1430-1540 1480-1600 1540-1650 1565-1700 . The choice of furnace type is based on these 4 factors. Melting of Metals A prerequisite to casting is the use of metal in a molten state. art pieces etc that I could cast with the idea that it has business potential.

or have a tilting mechanism with a fixed position crucible in the furnace. Oil and electricity are other ways to fire the furnace. this one is fired with Hardwood or Charcoal. maintenance and operating labour.. These furnaces can be stationary as pictured above. well as it turns out it isn't really a blast furnace. . The Crucible Furnace is one of the oldest methods of meting metals.Titanium Zirconium 3100-3300 3350-3450 1700-1820 1845-1900 as transcribed from AFS "Technology of Metalcasting" Metal Quality is effected by oxidization and losses due to vaporization. but is a Crucible Furnace. The basic premise is that the heat... The economics of furnace selection relate to factors of capital depreciation. Pictured to right is another of theworkshop. Crucible furnaces are used in smaller foundry operations that melt non-ferrous's original "Fat-Boy Blast Furnace". as well as the fuel and power consumption. Though Propane/LPG.. which can adversely effect the chemical properties of the alloy being melted. is absorbed by the crucible and transferred to the metal until it eventually melts.. Production demand can range from small batches under 100lbs through to 100 ton/hr continuous pour furnaces that run for days and weeks at a time uninterrupted. Similarly the types of refractory used are matched to the basicity or acidity of the metal and/or its resultant (Dross or slag). Furnace Types Crucible Furnaces Pictured to the right is original designs.. Crucible furnaces are also well suited to Jobber type foundries as a selection crucibles can easily be established to meet the requirements of the various alloy types encountered. This is an oil-fired furnace that can melt a broader range of alloys with higher heat capabilities.

. continuous runs.) Single Chamber. Advantages are High capacity. 3 electrodes are used that are tied to a 3 phase electrical source.. The furnace can have a pivoting point with a hydraulic actuator to tilt the furnace backward to skim of the dross/slag or forward to pour off the metal. Construction is typically of High Alumina Fire brick (85% Alumina) and structural steel (from what I can see in the text illustrations).. Front Charging. Reverbs are typically found in High production Aluminum foundries. Electricity or a combination of the three. with issues resulting from gas pickup and excessive dross formation due to the exposed flame on the charge. I believe the lower case "a" is a typo in the text and should be an "A" as in Amps. A typical "Direct Arc" furnace....Reverberatory Furnaces To the right is my interpretation of a DryHearth Sloping Reverb Furnace. Dry Hearth. Tower-Type Jet Melter or Stack and the regenerative/recuperative burner system furnaces. There are number of various orientations and styles of reverbs. The electrodes strike an arc with the metal charge. The heat of the sustained arc can be in excess of 7232F or 4000C. Arc Furnaces can be configured with "Ultra-HighPowered" (UHP) transformers that can supply 600900KVa/ton. heat exchanges and recirculation systems. They can be fired either with Gas.. As with all furnaces there is a variety of refractory compounds that range from basic to acidic that can be used to match the pH characteristics of the metal and resultant dross/slag. These include (but are not limited to. These units are typically Monsters and can be several hundred feet long with melt capacities topping 75 Tons... Well Fired. Oil. That's fuckin' hot!!! With such extreme heat comes the requirement of cooling with water jackets.

as I have a significant qty of Aluminum Dross to refine for the remaining metal trapped in it and to extract the Alumina for future uses within the foundry. But like all things the drawback is the potential for drawing dross or surface impurities into the melt if the stirring action is excessive. and are selected to match the type of metal being melted.. The illustration is a "Cross-Section" view. or the crucible can be fixed inside the coil and a tilting mechanism employed for the pouring process.. or is it??? The In-Direct Arc furnace is similar in principle... This is beneficial in uniform distribution of temperature and alloy chemistry through the melt.Core/Channel or Coreless To the right is a basic Coreless Induction furnace. Also the Coil that surrounds the crucible is not a thin AWG #12 or 14 copper wire that you'd find in your house wiring. This furnace is beyond the typical home or hobby foundry. As an aside my gut feeling is that the term should be "Chromium Oxide" rather than "Chrome Oxide" but I defer to the venerable Bible (AFS Technology of Metalcasting). The neutral refractories are typically Alumina (Al2O3) and the less common Chrome Oxide (Cr2O3). Just so you know. The electrodes can be either graphite or carbon. There are some unusual properties of the coreless furnace that are worth noting.. It is a heavy Copper tube that usually requires active cooling by passing a flow . Acidic Refractories are Silica Dioxide (SiO2) based & Base type refractories can be either Calcium Oxide (CaO) or Magnesium Oxide (MgO). with the Orange depicting the heavy copper coils that surround the Crucible & Charge. The metal charge held in the crucible acts as the core and develops heat through "Eddy Currents" induced by the EMF (Electro-Magnetic-Force) that is concentrated in the centre of the circular primary coil.. specifically that the metal undergoes a circulatory action or stirring once molten. The considerations of pH matching refractories is stressed in the text more so with Arc furnaces.. The In-Direct furnace also can be a sealed unit that operates under a reduced atmosphere for specialty metals that are sensitive to oxidization or atmospheric contamination. Alumina is a personal point of interest. or the Coil/shell assembly can be lifted up & away from the crucible.... but the arc is struck above the metal charge and is typically just one electrode.The high temp capacity of this furnace lends itself better toward ferrous casting than non ferrous.... Induction Furnaces . but curiously it can't be considered an In-Direct Arc. The Crucible can be either pushed up and out of the core via a ram.. and so is reflected in this sentence. Titanium is a good example of a vacuum process arc furnace. as the Titanium IS THE Electrode.

Low Density = High Freq.. For these reason's there are no plans for theworkshop. and conversely High Density = Low Freq. Lastly. The typical issues of Metal solidification within the Channel (Loop that forms the Secondary Coil) are of considerable concern if the Alloy being processed has a high thermal expansion co-efficient as it may potentially damage the channel upon solidification. The illustration to the right is of the most basic "Core/Channel" Furnace. The practice of pre-melting and holding between 2 (two) different furnaces is called "Duplexing" (that little bastard will be on the exam.. . before the primary can be energized. and the maintenance of the Primary Coil is more accessible. No specifications are given for the Wall thickness or inner diameter of the copper tubing.) There are issues.. completing the "Secondary Coil" circuit. the Coreless Induction furnace is capable of utilizing various frequencies to accommodate different Alloy types. or the general hassle of dis-assembling the furnace should such a quantity of metal freeze in the channel that it can't be returned to a molten state. This implies that the furnace is a "Continuous Melt" class unit and does not lend itself well to "Batch Melt Processing like it's Coreless counter-part. Sweeping generalization. The distinction for the less mentally adroit is the addition of a "Core". Core/Channel Induction Furnaces are typically employed to hold Volumes of molten metals at a molten state for continuous pour operations.of water through it. The core acts as a transfer medium for the EMF or Flux (electro-magnetically speaking NOT Chemometallurgically). while lighter Alloys such as Aluminum are more efficiently processed at frequencies ranging from 150 thru 700Hz depending on the density of the alloy.. or I'd be out building one now rather than summarizing these notes.. The size and shape of the metal containment area is more flexible. In closing the Induction Furnace section here are some cool equations and to employs "Cored/Channel" induction furnaces in the near future. not the least of which is the requirement of a molten heel of metal to completely encircle the core.. Copper based alloys are more efficiently melted with AC voltage frequencies between 60 and 100Hz (Hertz).

lastly 19Kwh will raise 1 ton or iron 100F... The basic premise is the same through out.000Watts = 1KWatt=3.....And if that's not enough. Open Hearth Furnace Since these furnaces are no-longer in use (since late 1960's early 1970's) there is no illustration.. The charge material becomes molten and flows to the base with the expected Slag. and a tap is provided to tap-off the molten metal.. The fuel is ignited by an oxygen enriched atmosphere. A series of Ni-Chrome elements are energized around the crucible and the radiant energy is absorbed by the Crucible and the metal. up through the mixture. with the unlined variety requiring water-cooling along the entire body of the steel shell. As well as Water cooled tuyere assemblies that extend their life considerably. Key points are to angle Tuyere slightly to 15 degrees off horizontal to get a more central blast to the center of the charge.. A door is provided to remove the slag. and is blasted into the base. fumes.. A less exciting way to melt metal than the Electric Resistive Furnace.. The illustration to the right shows a "Rear-Slagger". There are lined and unlined Cupola's. Cupola Furnaces Basically a steel tube with racks for holding a mixture of charge material. mileage may vary... flames or potential for disaster..... but they are typically used in Duplexing processes for consistent holding of molten metal.413BTU. and 1KW continuous power for a duration of 1 hour is 1Kwh.. But essentially it is an ER type with a different element. Wow.. No noise. 1.. or supporting narrative. .. Of minor note is the "Glo-Bar" furnace that uses a Silicon Carbide rod in place of Ni-Chrome elements placed at the top of the furnace... I'd love to have included the numerous other Cupola photo's sectional views and diagrams that are in the book.. fuel and refining minerals. Without seriously violating the Copyright of the AFS text. Unlike the Core/Channel Induction furnace ER type systems can take solid charge material. I think it would be prudent to not use the above for extended extrapolations due to such variables as heat losses and ambient temperature variables that could influence extended calculations.

.. From the time cupola is fired-up to the time it is shut down or "Dropping Bottom" is called a "Campaign".. and it's not that important. 80lbs lime stone and 250lbs of Coke.. Yielding a ratio of 25 Parts Scrap to 1 part Flux to 3. The materials entering the top of the cupola is called a "Charge or Burden". there is a slight discrepancy between the text and the lecture notes.. this mixture enters through a "Charging Door".125 parts fuel.... The approximate dimensioning for commercial Cupolas is determined by the inside diameter ranging from 18" up thru 160". it likely will not have a 1 ton capacity. There is a lower limit to diameter size that will be a function of "Critical Mass of Charge or Burden" but I'm almost positive I've read about Cupolas having inner diameters as low as 6" on other websites.. while the impurities of the scrap Iron and steel are Silica SiO2 and Alumina Al2O3 and some sulphur (S) which all tend to be pH "Acidic" the ratio of Acidic to Basic should be 1:1. The Flux is Limestone (or Dolomite) and is added in specific proportions to the Coke (fuel) and the metal in the charge. Other enhancements that you can incorporate are exhaust heat exchangers to preheat the incoming air. A typical charge (according to the Lecture notes.. A campaign can run for several weeks on larger Cupolas.125. The Limestone is essentially Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). Rust and sand from the initial charge. a source of Calcium Oxide when heated. These units typically are used for Cast Iron production with a carbon content level of 2. Both may appear on a test or exam. ..) is 2000lbs scrap.. Dolomite is similar in that it is a source of Calcium Oxide (CaO) but also is a source of Magnesium Oxide (MgO)..8% carbon and a production capacity of over 30 tons per hour. 25 : 1 : 3. with my personal favorite being the "Divided-Blast" cupola that has 2 (two) wind-boxes and 2 rows or tuyere's with an optimal spacing of 30 to 42" one above the other. The text notes production rates up to 100tons per hour as opposed to the 30 tons per hour previously noted.. I want this basic ratio to be included beyond the scope of the study notes should I ever decide to build such a furnace.. this is a mixture of Coke. I'm hesitant to start firing off it's equations as I just don't have the data at hand. scrap Iron (or possibly Iron Ore) and a Fluxing agent (Limestone) to aid in removing impurities in the Iron. or (%CaO +% MgO) over (%SiO2+%Al2O3) The importance of balancing the pH of the impurities has to do with their otherwise high melting points in an Acidic Oxide state. unless answered out of context.4% to 3. The materials removed in a properly formed slag are Coke... this is limited to approx 700-800F for conventional refractory lined Cupolas and extended to 1000-1200F on the water cooled Tuyere models. Ash. The balance is determined by the ratios of Metal to Flux to Fuel.... The Limestone (or Dolomite) produce oxide(s) that are pH "Basic".. These would be considered hobby or low volume units by comparison...The tuyere's typically encircle the base with 6 or more nozzles facing inward. While the molten metal is taken off from a hole called a "Tap". the resultant slag will have better fluid properties for removal when this balance is achieved. The theory is that Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) + Heat = Calcium Oxide (CaO) and Carbon Dioxide CO2) This process is referred to as Calcination. and each tuyere fed off of a common wind-box. but my lawyer advises me that I have a case if either is marked wrong....

Since steel is essentially Cast Iron with a carbon content below 2%.this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB70. with production rates up to 100 tons per hour. The oxygen is injected into the melt via a series of tuyeres with a mixture of the neutral elemental gas Argon.. and an inlet port at the top where Oxygen is piped in and ignited. The Text is a fair reference. I've opted to not make . this process can be termed "Destructive Distillation". but in the PAE.. The Charge is held in a monstrous Egg shaped vessel with an exhaust port at the back. the Blast Oxygen process can be classed as a decarburizing process. but the material in the video clips is the best so far in the course. The basics are that the Coke is derived from "Metallurgical Coal" that is crushed to less 1/8" material and fed into sealed ovens that bake the impurities out at well above 2000F for a period of 24 hrs. it's what is listed from the lecture notes) and hopefully will be of use in the Post Apocalyptic Era (PAE).. The Oxygen acts as the catalyst in the decarburizing process. fast Cycle-time steel production furnace. (though this seems vague.. Upon exposure to the air after opening the ovens Coke typically cracks or fractures... as well as the advantages and disadvantages found with them.. while the Argon aids in the retention of precious alloy elements such as chromium. So when "the shit goes down.... The injection of the gas mixture results in a vigorous agitation of the melt that improves the removal of unwanted elements such as sulfur to the specifically formulated slag that covers the melt.Coke Production All of the "Cupola" related information is meaningless in the absence of COKE. you'll want to know a bit about Coke production. I believe that this is the modern equivalent of Sir Henry Bessemer's method of steel production. The typical size grade for commercial Cupola furnaces is 6" to 8"... Mold Types & Methods This section will largely be a text based listing of General Mold types and the various methods associated with each. The oxygen passing through the molten metal picks-up a high percentage of the free carbon from the melt and leaves as Carbon Dioxide CO2. Blast Oxygen Furnace This furnace is a high capacity. I think any size would do.. Argon Oxygen Decarburization Process Similar to the Blast Oxygen Furnace in process. The resultant Coke is 92% pure Carbon with the remainder classified as Ash. ." and you're left to make your own Cast Iron. Very much the sort of thing a Metal-Casting Specialty channel would carry.. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3. but Argon Oxygen Decarburization is considered a secondary process in refining specific alloys such as Stainless Steel. The charge can tolerate only up to 30% scrap content with the majority as molten Cast Iron.

The complexity of the casting is limited by the requirement of draft.Each has unique properties relating to pH. appropriate selection for alloy type.High-Density Molding This method employs mechanical ramming of bonded sands with either hydraulic or air pressure into the flask over the pattern. Part tolerances and dimensional accuracy may be lower than other types/methods requiring additional labour costs for finishing/machining of castings.. the cost of materials and patterns is comparatively lower than other methods/types of mold making. where a re-usable pattern is placed in a flask. The binder or Bonding material is a Polymer or Silica Gel that replaces the Clay & water combination found in the Green Sand family. Disadvantages .illustrations for this Module as it would be a few days of work. strength and shake-out to be discussed later • • • • • • Alkyd Urethane Furan Sodium Silicate Acid Cured Phenolic Phenolic Urethane Phenolic Ester Skin-Dried & Dry Sand Molding . sand is rammed up. Advantages . but with closer dimensional accuracy while improving surface finish over the previous method. and likely wouldn't come close to the videos. the process is scalable to higher production run requirements and the molding material (bonded Sand) is easily recycled. higher labour cost associated with maintenance and training of staff and tighter quality control. By using sand with a lower moisture content higher densities and mold hardness are achieved.. split and the pattern extracted to leave a cavity into which the molten metal is poured. lecture note images or the text. Disadvantages . Advantages .a wide range of metals can be cast with this method. Binder types . The objective of these synthetic binders is to achieve greater binding strength. rammed with sand. Conventional Molding . parting lines and the ability to position cores.Green Sand This is the traditional Cope & Drag Flask method. The other benefit is higher production rates realized by the mechanization of the ramming process.Again a diversity of Metal types can be cast. The Ramming process can be termed either as a Jolt or Squeeze method. the flask is rolled. Alternative Sands This section describes the family of No-Bake or Quick-Set binders. Conventional Molding . the other flask half is applied.Higher capital cost of equipment.

. as well as reduced productivity due to the process being relatively slow. Advantages .. the baking process allows for greater mechanical strength. reduced production rates due to drying process of molds. but with the addition of heat to bake the mold at 400 to 600F. Gas or Oil Flame and the mold face can be washed with as refractory coating (so that's a refractory coating on a refractory type material???) Advantages .are Superior dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Advantages . cost of operation.. ie porosity/pinhole gas defects. Zinc and Magnesium family of alloys. and a stronger mold. The 2 halves of the mold are glued together with an appropriate adhesive. . This method is employed for medium to Heavy and Heavy castings. The sand typically has special bonding agents applied prior to drying such as GM Bond (presumably a proprietary agent developed by General Motors???) The Mold face exhibits superior mechanical strength. The metals to be cast generally are restricted to lower Melting Temp alloys due to the issues inherent in the handling and mechanization of high temp alloy handling. housings etc. Copper or aluminum (mold material selection is based on the metal type to be cast) for repeated usage. The Surface can be dried with either Hot Air. and reduced production relative to Green Sand. tighter dimensional accuracy. this is the end of the "Conventional Molding types Precision Molding and Casting Permanent Mold .are the capital cost of Bake Ovens. graphite. This process is well suited to the Aluminum. and better surface finishes due to the reduction mold moisture and/or the application surface coats. and higher casting complexity. Disadvantages . The pre-coated sand is applied to a heated pattern plate where the resin hardens to form a shell that is approx 3/4" to 1" in thickness.The primary purpose of Skin Dried molds is to reduce moisture and gas forming materials at the surface of the mold where the metal sand junction occurs. while retaining comparible "Shake-out" characteristics to Green Sand molds. This process is employed for medium to heavy castings such as gears.Capital and labour costs. Disadvantages . Disadvantages . cast iron.are Labour and material costs compared to Green Sand molding.The mechanical strength of the mold.Gravity feed This class of mold is typically made of tool steel. Dry Sand Molding This is the Green Sand process..Reduced Gas and Moisture . Shell Molding or Croning Process This process uses a heat activated Resin/Catalyst combination with silica sand.

Lost Wax Process A wax duplicate of the desired casting is created to be invested into a "Ceramic Slurry". surface finish and dimensional accuracy at a high level. It should be noted that an Aluminum casting with a wall thickness of 5/32" or greater is achievable with this method. Advantages . The Metal is injected into the mold at pressures up to 5000PSI (5. Low Pressure Mold This method employs a feed mechanism that exerts a 5 to 15 PSI head on the molten metal forcing it into the mold. stringent Mold Design requirements and the Very High cost of tooling and equipment that must be extended across high volume production runs to recover the initial costs.The mold is stationary along a fixed plane while the molten metal is poured into a sprue. The Pattern is typically burned out of the mold leaving a cavity that molten metal can then be poured into. Tilt Pour . Investment Casting This class of molding describes the process of "Investing" a pattern in a suitable molding material.000PSI that's high!!!) with such pressures the susceptibility of porosity defects is increased. .Low cost of castings when extended across very large production runs with part complexity.Castings are limited to typically 75lbs and require additional QC procedures to avoid Porosity defects.are typically the capital cost of equipment and Mold production. This process also exhibits superior dimensional accuracy and surface finish over the Shell process just discussed. Static Pour . the slurry covered investment can be dipped into alternating coatings of sand & slurry until a suitable thickness of shell is achieved that can hold the molten metal after the investment is burnt out.Good dimensional accuracy and casting complexity compared to previous methods discussed and better economy of scale on a per casting basis (beyond the initial tooling cost recovery) Disadvantages . this semi-rotational action allows for more complex mold creation then possible with a static mold. High Pressure Molding This is a High Volume casting process for low-temp alloys that offers superior dimensional accuracy and complexity of castings. Disadvantages .This type of process is further divided into 2 (two) variants Static and Tilt Pouring. Advantages . as well as the restriction of alloys that can be cast. This class also can be divided into 2 (two) classes Cold Chamber & Hot Chamber processes.The mold is placed into a machine that can tilt back once the receiving cups/reservoirs are filled with molten metal.

Strict safety procedures to be followed when handling loose sand post pouring. Evaporative Pattern Casting This is it.The "Burn-Out" process requires that the investment and coating are inverted in an oven that is fired to 1800F so that the investment can flow out and be recovered. patterns require care as they can be fragile due to construction. ease of sand recovery and as mentioned 0.are (but not limited to. and the Refractory is cured the mold is removed and poured immediately while it is still hot.. Advantages .120" wall thicknesses. The process is scalable from small to high production requirements and offers reduced finishing costs with exception surface quality. just fantastic.. very high casting complexity. simplified shakeout. The last item applies to all loose sand handling with regard to the hazards of Silicosis. The vibratory motion creates a degree of fluid movement within the surface of the sand that is able to completely fill all crevices. openings and orifices thus removing the requirement of otherwise complex cores. (I have concerns to the contrary) Disadvantages .. comparatively low capital and operating investment. The heat of the molten metal evaporates the foam in it's path and accurately fills in behind the foam as it advances down through the pattern. LFMC (Lost Foam Metal Casting) where it all started for me. but I know for a fact that it can be omitted with a minor degradation in surface finish and complexity of casting. the pattern receives a sprue or feeder system (also of EPS) and can be either placed directly into loose dry sand.. Of note is that the Lecture notes. but especially when handling sand that has burnt EPS covering the grains.. text and videos all specify the use of a refractory coating. under-cuts.include a physical limitation on the size of the casting as determined by the strength of the cured ceramic slurry (even when backed by sand) and a higher material and labour cost (which can be offset by savings in finishing and machining).Pattern coating requires additional labour and material costs. The refractory coating is also cured in this procedure. and is a great process that has served me well. The strong chemical stench of the sand screams of future respiratory ailments if caution is not exercised (personal observation & belief) . The Video and notes reflect this as a relatively environmentally benign process. Once the investment is lost. or invested into a ceramic slurry. In either case the pattern is surrounded by loose dry sand that is being constantly agitated by a vibratory mechanism as the sand is added to the container that holds the pattern. Once the pattern (and refractory coating) is completely held in a container of sand.. the metal is poured into the sprue. Advantages . parting lines and the ability to mold under-cuts previously impossible with other techniques. Patterns are produced in EPS (Encapsulated Polystyrene).High level of accuracy and flexibility of design due to no draft... The slurry is air dried or in a low temp oven (but the foam pattern is retained).) coreless molding. The vapourized EPS is vented into the loose sand through the refractory coating (if used). Disadvantages . Castings with wall thickness of 120 thou" that's 5 thou less than an 1/8" are possible.

and how the alloy being poured impacts the process as well as the mold material's affect.. Ipso Facto Ergo Sum.. . but I fear that more practical information will be based on a sound understanding of this. and obviously 0% Lead (Pb) & 100% Tin (Sn). Eutectic being a particularly difficult concept for me to fully understand.. I think a legitimate concern. and Steve Chastain's Sand casting Manual Vol 1 & 2 is yet another perspective. Assigned Text (Chapter 13 Not 7 as noted in the course notes).. Metals in Solid Solution type alloys: A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species The definitions above are far from useful.. Solidification of Metals. Beyond the lecture notes.. which would be pure metals.. Properties of Thermal Transfer within a Casting The application of thermal energy transfer theory to metal casting requires consideration in the following properties. The metal being poured can be considered in terms of a. The idea of a solid Solution Alloy would be every other combination of Lead (Pb) and Tin (Sn) that is not the Eutectic with exception of 100% Lead (Pb) & 0% Tin (Sn). eutectic solder paste has a composition of 63% tin (Sn) and 37% lead (Pb).. The process of solidification.. presumably on a much larger scale... The transition of phase (from Liquid to Solid) is called the "heat of fusion" and is represented as unit measure energy as a function of unit measure weight (of element or solution) released at transition unit measure temperature (s) of solidification. earth what ever. through a series of transitions. with enough variation in presentation to make the idea's less vague... similarly Eutectic alloys exhibit finer grain sizes than the pure metal and precipitate 2 or more phases simultaneously (this will be revisited).. Pure Metal: Single element metal with a clean phase transition between liquid and solid Eutectic Alloy: The alloy which has the lowest melting point possible for a given composition. The energy is transferred from the Liquid water to the air. When a metal is poured a similar energy transfer occurs between the metal mold interface...this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB70. 144BTU of energy transfer occurs to change 1 pound of water into 1 pound of ice at 32F. for the context of alloying. Water is a classic example. an eutectic alloy would be the alloy of 2 or more elements that combines to a lower melting point than any of the constituent elements For example. This chapter is primarily concerned this what happens after that metal actually is poured into a mold. and has a eutectic temperature of 183ºC (straight from google). Google is proving to be fantastic. This following level of detail is not required to make castings. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 4..

the energy transfer continues through the layer of solid metal toward the mold material. As density is a function of weight and volumetric displacement. As the energy is traveling in one direction the solidification process is traveling in the opposite direction. gate. as it is related to the surface area of the metal-mold interface. Molding Material is the recipient of the energy being transferred. runners. sprue. size. Essentially there will always be a cavity defect. pattern and risers such that the thinnest sections through thickest are forming a wedge that ends with the riser(s) being the thickest section The image to the right certainly is overly simplistic but illustrated the basic idea. but the idea is to position the defect in the riser not the casting itself. gates and risers) determines the amount of energy that must be transferred to complete the phase transition from liquid to solid. so the composition. thermal characteristics and density of the material also influence the solidification process of a given casting. The "Pattern-Maker's Ruler" is found in most every pattern shop to accurately scale the pattern for a given alloy to the required solidified dimensions. In closing the process of "Directional Solidification" is accomplished by orienting the Sprue. Logically. Directional Solidification The solidification process begins at the mold-metal interface. This is accomplished by gate and runner placement such that the thinnest sections cool first and the placement of the risers ensure a source of molten metal.The shape and size of the casting. . unlike water that has a lower density when Solid (frozen) than in it's liquid state (Ice Floats). the volumetric displacement must be reduced to raise the density of a specific qty of metal. Physical Dimensioning through the Phase Transition. meaning the entire outer skin of the casting. gates. The manner in which the casting solidifies (as determined by the alloy. The source of liquid metal is from the Risers that act as reservoirs to feed the casting during the solidification phase. Metals typically have a lower density when molten then when solid. as the volume of metal is decreasing in relation to the percentage of metal that has solidified. there is an expectation that the casting will be proportionally smaller than the pattern from which it was cast. This is a predictable result and the percentile increase in pattern size to achieve an accurate cast size is a prerequisite to useful castings. runner and riser system combine to either yield a dimensionally correct casting or one that has defects such as gross shrinkage cavities (pipe) or dispersed porosity. and the weight of the metal remains constant. mold. runners. The size of the casting (including sprue. As molten metals typically have a lower density. shape. thin sections of castings will solidify before thick sections of the casting. The shape and complexity of a casting influences the efficiency with which the thermal transfer occurs. a source of liquid metal has to be drawn upon to keep the casting dimensionally accurate.

. Three Stages of Contraction (Shrinkage) This is a complex time in the life of a casting. B & C are for illustration. So the inequities of the college system of Ontario again falls on the shoulders of theworkshop. and lastly the solidified casting further contracts (shrinks) through the cooling process (Starting at Temperature of solidification through to ambient temperature) settling on Volume "C". and the freeze wave propagates over a continuum in a semi-linear fashion. as it solidifies it shrinks during the phase transition to solid and reflects a new volume "B". subsequent section(s) takes this conceptual idea and illustrates it in more accurate detail. and does not have such exaggerated demarcation points... The right most end of the cross-section has a greater surface of mold/metal interface and is not only growing inward from the top and bottom but also from the right.More complex castings would require additional risers and supporting runners and gating. . Also of note is that the points in time A.. with the understanding that the left section continues on toward an even thicker (when will it end???) The basic concept is the formation of crests and troughs within the leading edge of the solidifying metal as it propagates through the liquid metal. Obviously the world around us is in constant dimensional change as the ambient temperature is always in a state of transition. Progressive Solidification Although the lecture notes clearly state that this term must be understood. The liquid Metal has a Volume "A". The ideal in the illustration to the right is that over time the wave grows from the right toward the left. the Glossary of terms simply refers to directional solidification. Lastly The concept of a Freeze Wave is allegorical in nature only. but the minor variations in volumetric displacement are negligible compared to the variances that occur from "A" to "B" and lastly to "C".

As an Alloy has 2 or more constituent elements.. Two new terms are introduced "Liquidus & Solidus" that denote the points in the graph where phase transition begins and ends for the solidification process. I've opted to pass on the diagrams and the math as it's not an essential building block (or so I hope). The solidification rate can be graphed for various alloys.. and the point of fusion has been expanded to cover a range of temperature drop over the energy dissipation. The lower right illustration is of an alloy. This is mathematically a function of the casting thickness (assuming a flat surface) against the sq root of time as well as the introduction of a Constant "K".In Consideration of Pure Metals Although the vast majority of castings produced are alloys of varying elemental composition.. such as risers etc.. and orientation of casting components. or Soliqus.. as well as a new issue "Segregation". The illustrations to the upper right depict a pure metal and the flat thermal property of solidification. Shrinkage and associate defects. The speed of solidification has a direct bearing in such issues as grain size within the solid casting.. Pure metals exhibit ideal solidification characteristics and introduce a point of reference when consideration of solidification is turned to alloyed compositions.. The blue line shows the point of fusion with a predictable dissipation of energy with no drop in temperature until the solidification process has completed. mold materials etc. Curiously the area between Liquidus & Solidus has a rather mundane name "Mushy Zone"... we can influence the speed at which solidification occurs.. the point to start at is with a pure elemental composition. Control of the Solidification Rate By understanding the factors associated with the solidification process.. the individual elements potential can solidify at varying rates creating concentrations or isolated pockets of that element within the liquid solution during the phase transition. .. I personally would have preferred Zonis Indeterminus.. through the use of molding material..

in the center are longer "Columnar" grains that form directionally in opposition to the energy flow of the point of fusion. millions of nucleus form near simultaneously. The energy transfer between the liquid and solid interface is conducted through this dendrite structure toward the metal mold interface. have a smoke and review the disjointed factoids presented thus far..Solidification Modeling The illustration on the right has 5 steps shown A thru E. This cross-section is supposed to illustrate the region of solidification from the mold wall upward to the liquid/solid interface. If directional solidification is encouraged though proper placement of Sprue. Since the majority of castings are alloys (2 or more elemental constituents) the dendrite growth will be displacing higher point of fusion elements into the liquid or mushy center. A) is the initial nucleus that forms on the smallest scale as the outermost skin of molten metal enters the Mushy Zone by the energy transfer between the moldmetal interface. At the base of the structure to the right are fine grains that formed very quickly at the metal-mold interface. but at least I know what I'm trying to depict. and this is the freeze wave discussed earlier. runners and Risers. B) is the extension of the Primary axis into the molten metal C) is the formations of secondary axes at right angles to the primary Axis D) is the extended growth of the now complete dendrite with ever thickening branches and trunks as seen in E.. At this point get a beer.. This segregation of constituents impacts grains size and composition.. Grain Structure and Growth The illustrations are getting looser and dirtier as we go along here. we know that the nucleation of dentrites will form and grow in opposition to the energy flow inward making a mushy zone that is being impregnated by dendrite growth. gates. ... So. The crystalline or lattice structure is growing by the solidification of the molten metal. toward the top are smaller random "Equiaxed" grains that form at a slower rate...

please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 5. Chastain's Foundry manual Vol 2. To reduce the absorption of gases from the atmosphere leave any slag or dross cover over the molten metal until just prior to pouring into the mold. Since any given alloy has a static Mushy Zone based upon it's composition and the mass of the casting. The elemental nucleation and dendritic growth displaces molten elements and results in micro porosity. Typically hydrogen precipitates into melts by contact with the atmosphere. scavenging the hydrogen in the process.AFS Text Chapter 16 (not 8). . . The next is the columnar zone that are longer directional grains that grow toward the liquid metal. the only variable that can influence grain formation and reduce elemental segregation is the time required to transfer the point of fusion energy.. The generalization that wide mushy zones (slow phase transitions) promote Equiaxed Grains and micro segregation. Gases can be scavenged from the molten metal by introducing either an inert gas such as argon or nitrogen and bubbling it through the melt.. or poor foundry practices. Design of Risers and Feeding of Castings References .The Alloy composition is impacted by the thermal gradient of the mold-metal interface and the efficiency with which it can transfer the energy released by the point of fusion of the elemental constituents. And again. and to avoid holding the metal in a molten state any longer than is required.this is the end of Course notes for Module 4 MATL MTB70.. I think that this is what Metallurgy & Heat treating will be based upon. Google. lecture text & audio (No video) This is a helluva way to start Module 5. The most obvious porosity defects are caused by the entrapment of gases within the molten solution. such as introducing wet charge materials into the melt. super-heating metals beyond their melting temperature. Porosity Defects The most subtle of the porosity defects is caused by alloyed melts that have a wide mushy zone transition phase to solid. But I'm going to just put my shoulder to the yoke and bull through in the hopes that it makes sense before I'm done the module.. the third is the equiaxed zone of small random grains in the center of the casting. In summary the faster the better.. while narrow mushy zones (fast phase transitions) promote columnar grain structures is still somewhat meaningless.. except that columnar grains are stronger and contain a better elemental distribution through the alloy. As the chlorine turns to a gas it will form hydrogen chloride. (as this is being repeated it has to be on the final exam) Mold-Metal interface is the chill zone with fine grain structure. or using a solid such as chlorine with an inverted cup that will plunge the chlorine to the bottom of the melt. Since Hydrogen is highly soluble in molten metal. it is best to avoid.

.05 + 1.(FPR) Steel (from the lecture) Castings and Risers..math2.1415 *r3 1728=4. The underlying theme here is Volumes. There are relationships between all these items and values that will help in designing a complete mold that controls progressive solidification.0* *Note: Don't ask where the constants are from. http://www. but would make for a fast cooling casting (if that flexibility exists for a pattern design).1887*r3 . while a high SA:V Ratio would make a poor Riser.Freeze Point Ratio (FPR) FPR=X=(Casting Surface/Casting Volume)/(Riser Surface/Riser Volume) EQ#2 . Note: All shapes have a common volumetric displacement of 1 cubic foot=1728 Cubic inches Shape #1 . This is largely accomplished by ensuring that the riser(s) are the last to has to haul their bacon out of the fire.. The College's link to a library of mathematical equations is down. EQ#4 .Volume Ratio (VR) (Y Axis) VR=Y=Riser Vol/Casting Vol* *Note the riser volume is the actual poured vol. and influences directional solidification to produce castings with minimal porosity and shrinkage defects.12/y-0. EQ#1 . Surface Areas..htm The Surface Area to Volume Ratio is an important consideration when designing patterns. molds and especially Risers.. 2 & 4) there is no Equation 3..I've simplified the diagram to the right by putting in references to the equations (EQ 1.. The link below hopefully will be a good start for finding specific equations. I'm hoping that we both know before this page is finished.Sphere Volume=(4/3) [pi] r3 1728=(4/3)*3. so again theworkshop. It would stand to reason that the lowest SA:V Ratio would have the slowest cooling rate (a desired attribute for a Riser).. and I'm not changing the diagram.. The following Exercise hopefully illustrates the SA:V Ratio of some basic geometric shapes..

www.5438 Inches2 And Finally the Spherical SA:V Ratio * 6.5384=r3 At this point I believe that r = the cubed root of 412.4620 SA:V for a 12" tall Cylinder .4707/1728=0.8379 = r2 again I believe that r = the square root of 45.4442 The link below should offer an on-line Cube/Cube Root Calculator www.html Surface Area = 2(pi r 2) + (2 pi r)* h Surface Area = 2(3.csgnetwork.5438/1728=0.7703 2) + (2 * 3.html Surface Area =4 [pi] r2 Surface Area =4 * 3.0541 SA:V for a sphere Shape #2 * 12 Surface Area =798.8379 r=6.1415 * r2 * 12 1728/3..1415 * 7.1887=r3 412.1728/4.7703 As an aside the generic Windows calculator does not perform Sqrt function (or as far as I found).1415* 6.4707 inches 2 And Finally the Cylindrical SA:V Ratio (with height 12") 798.5384 r=7.1415 * 12= r2 45. the calculator at the link below does.Cylinder of Height 12" Volume=[pi] r2 h 1728=3...44422 Surface Area =93.

4529) * 1 Surface Area = 3603.0394 = r2 again I believe that r = the square root of 550..1415* 23...0394 r=23.Shape #3 . the calculator at the link below does.Cylinder of Height 1" Now don't get all wrapped-up in semantics.1415 * 1= r2 550. but we both know a plate is just a very squat cylinder Volume=[pi] r2 h 1728=3.. www. the exercise calls for a plate that is 1" SA:V for a 12" Cube Shape #4 ..csgnetwork..Cube of 12" Volume= L * W * H Volume = 12 * 12 * 12 Volume = 1728 Area= 6 a 2 Area= 6 * 12 2 Area= 864 inches 2 And again the Cubic SA:V Ratio (with height 12") 864//1728=0.4529 2) + (2 * 3.3528 inches 2 And Finally the Cylindrical SA:V Ratio (with height 1") .1415 * 23.html Surface Area = 2(pi r 2) + (2 pi r)* h Surface Area = 2(3.1415 * r2 * 1 1728/3.4529 And still the generic Windows calculator does not perform Sqrt function (or as far as I found).

I decided to revisit the math and the relationship between SA. Proper Riser Positioning and Dimensioning With the knowledge of low SA:V riser geometry. as it is a practical shape for molding. or email me and I'll send it as an attachment. V. it would be safe.4620 SA:V for a 12" tall Cylinder 0.xls If the link doesn't work give me a couple of days I've never done this before... All of the above is in support of directional solidification.. Below are 4 points about the Riser/Casting Relationship 1 . Geometric shape and dimensioning. I kinda like the cylinder." the file is created with Excel sa-v calculator.3528/1728=2. After writing the test and scoring rather poorly.3603..A casting that has more than one heavy section requires at least one riser per heavy section . Right click on the link and select "Save As.0852 SA:V for a 1" tall Cylinder Given the generalization that opened the SA:V dialog.. As I'm generally as lazy as the next guy. where t (riser) > t (casting) If you're not paying attention (like me) you assume that Solidification Time and SA:V are synonymous. I would guess that if the diameter was equal to or greater than the section it is connecting to the riser.. Put yet another way SA:V(Riser) < SA:V (Casting) The point above must be underscored as the lecture reflects an extrapolated rule of Solidification Time (t).0541 SA:V for a sphere 0.5000 SA:V for a 12" Cube 2. we must consider where we will place riser(s) to ensure proper directional solidification and dimensioning the riser to hold an adequate volume of liquid metal to feed the casting as it solidifies.0852 SA:V for a 1" tall Cylinder Below are the SA:V's of the 4 shapes to be compared 0.Risers are the last to solidify 3 . they are inversely proportional (in an ideal world)... one would think that a spherical riser would be the best (though somewhat impractical to implement).. it should be noted that the contact point between the riser and the casting must be of sufficient diameter that it doesn't freeze before the casting and leave the riser performing no function. low SA:V's cool slowly and make good Risers.. while a 1" tall cylinder would be somehow lacking in desirable riser properties.Risers are attached to the heaviest sections of the casting 2 .. below is a link to the spread sheet that far better illustrates what's going on above numerically as well as in a graphical format..

4 - Occasionally the thermal gradient is modified at the mold-metal interface by the introduction of a "Chill" that can better conduct the heat away from the casting and lower the solidification time for that section. On the Subject of Thermal Gradients... Thermal gradients can be increased to facilitate faster, directional solidification, or lowered to allow sections to remain molten to reduce micro porosity within captive regions that can't be practically fed by risers otherwise. Thin sections of castings that have the potential to develop captive pools can be "Padded" to keep a path for directional solidification to follow. "Padding" is the result of thickening a pattern area for the sole consideration of Directional Solidification. Areas that are "Padded" may add machining costs to return the finished casting to it's original dimensional specification. Also thermal gradients can be modified through the use of "Chills", a chill is a material that becomes part of the mold either internally or externally (referring to the physical casting). External Chills - these can be a variety of materials with a greater ability to facilitate the energy transfer associated with the solidification process, relative to the molding material used through out the mold. The materials commonly used are (but not limited to) Iron, Steel, Graphite, Chromite and copper... these materials typically are inserted in to the mold and lay at the mold-metal interface. Internal Chills - are typically oriented to become part of the physical casting with a portion extending outward into the molding material to act as a path for thermal energy to rapidly move through, thereby facilitating the solidification process. Internal chills have issues associated with them that range from appropriate positioning through fusion with the casting material. The internal chill material must be compatible with the alloy being cast. Exothermic and Insulating Applications The last discussions in this module that relate to Riser Design and Feeding of Castings relates to the application of exothermic and insulating materials. These compounds are the opposite of the chill's previously discussed. Similarly they are NOT applied to the casting, but rather to the top of the riser. Insulation - As the name implies this material does not promote energy transfer, but inhibits it. This reduction of thermal energy transfer out the top of the riser, helps to maintain the riser as a source of molten metal to feed the casting for a longer duration. Exothermic - This compound goes one step further than insulation. The exothermic material generates heat that can maintain the riser at a molten state even longer than an insulation. The Exothermic material is placed on the top of the riser and is ignited by the molten metal as it contacts the Exo-material... ...this is the end of Course notes for Module 5 MATL MTB70, please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 6.

The Feeder Network
Now this is cool stuff, if you've been following along, A) I credit you with "Tenacity", upon rereading my notes, (Prep for the final Exam starts on Day One...) I personally think it's all interesting content, but I doubt that I'd have hung-on this long (especially the more theoretical parts like dendretic growth and nucleation sites etc...) But this is the meat of what I signed-up for... Gating / Runner Design With an overview of the solidification of metal(s) done, we can look at the flow characteristics of the metal as it enters the mold and how it fills the casting. Of the flow characteristics fluidity/viscosity plays a role as well as velocity, gravitational acceleration & vortex, pressure zones, molten alloy aspiration from the mold and the momentum or kinetic energy of a fluid. Although the lecture notes introduce these terms and their consideration over the duration of this module, it seems easier for me to group them at the start. Laminar Flow The factors and issues noted above are all related in some way to the property of "Laminar Flow." This is my Ideal "Laminar Flow" reference. The lake is fed from a water fall at one end and flows through a dam at the other. A drop of 30 to 40ft total with the lake sitting somewhere in the center. While drift fishing, your boat glides gently from one end of the lake to the other over the course of 5 or 6 hours. Though while passing through the narrows off in the horizon, the boat's drift may be up to 4 (four) times the velocity experienced at the widest portion of the lake.

I just thought this made a nice picture 20 years ago, but now I realize that this is "Turbulent Flow". The violent foaming bubbling action of the water is the result of "Aspiration" of the water. Perhaps on a smaller scale the forces that create this effect work identically in liquid metal and it's flow through the mold.

And after considerable searching I found this picture (taken with my first camera)... This illustrates "Severely Turbulent Flow". The water is cascading down a ladder of rocks, similar to a staircase with 6' to 7 ft' steps through a constrained chasm along the Niagara Escarpment. (though located a few hundred miles north east of Niagara Falls)

In summary Liquid Flow can be identified as Laminar, Turbulent or Severely Turbulent, just think of the images above if the names don't strike you as intuitive. The identification of the flow types has a mathematical component that removes the subjectivity of the names. The mathematical formula is known as the "Reynold's Number" . A Google "Define: Reynold's Number" yielded these links... The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces, as described by Newton's second law of motion, to viscous forces. If the Reynolds number is high, inertial forces dominate and turbulent flow exists. If it is low, viscous forces prevail, and laminar flow results.

(After Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), English scientist.) A non dimensional parameter representing the ratio of the momentum forces to the viscous forces in fluid flow.

the dimensionless ratio of fluid acceleration and accelerations induced by viscosity typical of a particular flow regime.

The dimensionless ratio used to determine whether the flow in a certain system is turbulent or laminar. Reynolds number is as follows: Rd = (Velocity x Diameter x Density)/Absolute viscosity I edited the list to show a consistent definition, as this law (of sorts) covers far more physics than the metal casting industry.

. If I was careful to design my initial runner/gating system. "Sprue". Could the dross-dam be just a solidified section of the same alloy being poured? I'm sure it should be pre-heated prior to placement. so that the pattern(s) can be extracted. The lecture notes have better illustrations and the text better still. but the idea is that the basin acts as a point for the liquid metal to enter the gating system in a laminar fashion. there may well be a point that denotes Turbulent and Severely Turbulent but our objective is to stay below 2000. I think it would work. but I want to return to the gating system and it's components with the idea of laminar flow in mind. The metal flows through the system in the order that they are listed.The demarcation point of an Rn < 2000 is considered a Laminar Flow. So on a production run of (I typically do runs of 5 to 25 of a given casting). by having a pool of metal form the flow will be less chaotic than pouring from the crucible down into the sprue. I would ensure that there was at least one chunk to be saved after shaking out the castings and cutting away the feeder network. I have a source of Dams. That area is lower than where the Mouth of the Sprue is located... Below are some simple diagrams to be familiar with.I think of this as the "Crucible -Mold Interface".. The Dross-Dams that I'm thinking about would be Sections of runners or gates from previous castings (of the same alloy). and core with a Dross Dam. Flaws??? Issues??? beyond dimensional (over) compensation on the first pattern for the feeder network. with the idea that it would be the physical pattern for subsequent molds Plus a dross dam (to be cut away). while skimming or holding back any dross from the crucible or what accumulated through the act of pouring... The yellow bar that I've labeled as the "Dross-Dam" is positioned so that the molten metal will contact it's lower face and flow under. Extract. As the lower portion fills and the metal is skimmed the clean(er) metal will rise up to meet the opening of the sprue in a more controlled fashion. The only issue is to separate the base of the sprue from the Well. note. "Runners" and the "Gates" that feed the casting. while an Rn > 2000 is considered a Turbulent Flow. . So after the first casting. The area I call "Crucible-Mold Interface" is where the metal from the crucible first contacts the mold surface. The following are some ideas I have about "Pouring Basins" If I had a standard "Basin Pattern" that I would mold into the Cope. Basic Components of a Gating System The basic components of a gating system are "Pouring Basin".. The pouring cup is simply a larger target when pouring out of the crucible. a Pouring Basin has several components that aid in creating a laminar flow of clean metal into the sprue.. Pouring Basin . Similarly. that a pouring cup and pouring basin are not equivalents. There are a series of other calculations and formulas to place into context.

.Possibly improved lamination of liquid flow over a smooth(er) surface.. though not a strong force.. plus it aids the formation of dross and gas pick-up in the stream that is going to feed the casting. . If allowed to act on the fluid over a great enough duration or free fall the centrifugal force will separate the flow into droplets. (this would be just 1 or 2 degrees to ensure that the "Head" developing at the base of the sprue developes smoothly. I see the benefits of 1 . and I'm sure as fuck not doing all this to turn out a low grade product. but I have been placing my sprue tapers in the wrong direction. 4 . reducing excessive surface area development (dross-forming property) and gas pick-up. the higher the quality of my work.Is it worth the effort to make Basins for placement of the same alloy as being cast..reduced mold-sand pick-up at the most turbulent point (Crucible to mold interface).Integrated Dross-Dam 5 . Laugh if you will.. the more "Best Practices" I incorporate. By creating a sprue with a taper. Through all of the components there is a need to reduce turbulence and promote Laminar Flow. but since this foundry is at such a preliminary stage.. it was just easier to push the core inward for extraction. So a mass falling has a velocity of 384 inches/sec after a free fall duration of 1 entire second.. If you have any thoughts or advice (regarding the above) feel free to email me frnkgmbk@renfrew. the fluid is constrained to retain it's shape. 2 . 3 . is causing the cork-screwing effect of the falling fluid.Counter Vortex Rifling at mouth of Sprue. and counter clockwise in the southern hemi-sphere).. This is considered the point that would sustain a "Head" or pressure of molten metal.. or possibly 2 to 3 uses max. Fluids in free fall tend to distort from a columnar shape at their start into an intertwined series of flow lines that have a rotational vector or vortex effect (Clockwise in the northern hemi-sphere. From the Pouring Basin.. None of the above promotes Laminar flow. Sprue Placement and Parts The sprue is obviously the extension of the sprue mouth into the mold. the flow begins a near vertical incline that is acted upon by gravity and with an accelerative force that is 32ft/Sec/Sec or 384 In/sec/sec.. bear in mind I'm not trying to over complicate my life with additional work. The rotational effect.Thermal energy source to reduce viscosity increase on contact (if pre-heated). I realize that these may be single use items.. The choke or narrowest point in the taper is a key variable in calculating other properties and sizing ratios of .

An Ideal Runner is also proportioned such that it maintains a constant volumetric flow through virtually any cross-sectional area. and can draw mold material (sand) into the flow.The well depth is twice the runner depth. which forms a relationship to the Choke or base of the Sprue Area. The "Runner Extension" is a "Dead-End" that is placed after the last gate.The area below the sprue is the "Well". notice that the runner becomes proportionally shallower at the point where an in-gate creates an alternate path for the liquid flow. The R-Ext acts as a cushion to absorb the forward momentum or kinetic energy of the fluid flow. In the illustration. The R-Ext also acts as a "Dross/Gas Trap" for any materials generated and picked-up along the flow of the runner. Below are some dimensioning ratio's from Chastain's Foundry Manual #2 this information is not likely to be on the module test or the final exam. The 2 (two) dashed blue areas when added together form a relationship to the dashed blue area of the Runner.Choke or sprue base area is 1/5th the area of the well. By providing curved radius changes in direction the above effects are still at . but is relevant to the discussion. The Runner path should promote smooth laminar flow by a balanced volumetric flow. 1. The issue of sharp corners (both inner and outer) create turbulence. In the broadest terms this path should be "Balanced" with the model of heating or AC ductwork serving as a good illustration.. 3. the design objective is to promote laminar flow. The Runner System The runner system is fed by the well and is the path that the gates are fed from. The well reduces the velocity of the fluid flow and acts as a reservoir for the runners and gates as they fill. 2. or un-proportioned gate/runner sizes. None of this is good. low & high pressure zones that promote aspiration of mold gases into the flow. The Gating System The Gates (in this case) accommodate a directional change in the fluid flow and deliver the metal to the Casting cavity. the primary causes of turbulence are sharp corners.the Runner is positioned above the midpoint of the well's depth.. Again. and avoiding sharp or abrupt changes in direction.

0. I stripped a lot of the detail and formulas to have the basic flow better illustrated. Similarly sharp angles impact the solidification process and may inhibit "Directional Solidification" with cross-sectional freezing. I imagine that designing on a state of the art system without at least the most basic concepts or background is akin to dual entry ledger accounting without 4-function math skills. The Continuity Equation can resolve for any term if 2 others are known. but the math below hopefully offers some insight into quick approximations for simple designs. By proportioning the gating system.) Also.75". Continuity Equation ..5625 sq").play but at a reduced level. Formulas.This formula allows calculation of cross-sectional Areas. This formula only works if the fluid flow is a liquid that does NOT compress (that applies to all molten metals). 1 sq")... (this is counter to what I initially thought). while the gates closest to the sprue would feed the least. and intuitive on a conceptual level. Although Computerized Flow Analysis programs are used extensively in large Foundry operations they are beyond the grasp of the small shop that is just starting out (if you know of a Flow Simulator that is freeware or in the Public Domain definitely email me.. a more uniform flow is promoted with near equal volumes of metal entering the mold from all points. To the right a flow passes through Cross-sectional area A1 (1" by 1". The image to the right is from the Lecture notes (Mohawk College MATL MTB-70 Mod 6) and is just too good a representation to pass-up. In an unproportioned system the furthest gates would feed the most metal. Q= Rate of Flow (Constant .75" by .. the passage expands to a cross-sectional area A3 (1" by 1". relative to flow Velocity and Volumetric flow over unit time. 1 sq"). and due to the uncompressible nature of the fluid resolve velocity at known cross-sectional areas. The best analogy I can see is that of a performance tuned exhaust system or header on an engine.uncompressible) V=Velocity of flow A=Area (Cross-section) . Ratios and Design Equations Everything covered so far is comprehensible. the passage narrows to a cross-sectional area A2 (.. and more in-depth calculations for complex systems.

Velocity=0.25"/sec.66 Sq Inch A4 = 1st Gate = a system where the gate and runner cross-sectional areas are either equal or less than the choke cross-sectional area. the velocity has to almost double.33 Sq Inch Areas A2 & A3 do not get added as they are positioned in line with each other and flow is successive between the points and not simultaneous. and it would appear that the Gate(s) would equal or be larger than the Runner(s). is simplified with the use of ratios as the velocity is inversely proportional between any 2 adjacent ratio values. Common Ratio's noted in the lecture notes.66 Unpressurized . While Areas A4 & A5 are added together as flow does pass through these points simultaneously.25/1 or 0.. I believe that this example would resolve to a pressurized flow of 1 : 0.. 1:2:4 1:3:3 1:4:4 1:4:6 An exception is noted in Chastain with a 1 : 8 : 6 ratio to promote dross capture in the runner system of Areo-Space castings.. text.If Q were 0. Choke : Runner : Gate Ratio(s) The base of the Sprue and Choke are the same thing. The Continuity Eq. Q=0.25 cubic inches per Sec of flow. Pressurized .75 Sq Inch A3 = 2nd Runner X-Sec Area = 0. ie H : L equates to an increase in velocity while a L : H equates to a drop in velocity.33 Sq inch A5 = 2nd Gate = 0.44"/sec of Flow. at the point A2.75 : 0.. A1= Choke = 1 Sq Inch A2 = 1st Runner X-Sec Area = 0. The ratios between the cross-sectional Area can be grouped into either Pressurized or Unpressurized.5625=0. Chastian's Vol 2 are.25/0. . Since the Area is almost half.The key distinction is that the Runner must have a X-sec area greater than the Choke.

Mechanical Blasting poses similar respiratory hazards as air blasting but the delivery mechanism of the media is not through a blast of air. Air Blast cleaning is an efficient method that can utilize a broad range of Media that are selected by the degree of abrasion required to clean the casting and the softness of the alloy. rolling drums this active impacting or hammers to break away the molding material. with Galileo. Media include but are not limited to the following. Cleaning and Inspection This is the last stage of the casting process before the finished unit is ready for the Finishing process (Not covered in this Module).And yet again I'm telling you. etc. • • • Angular Sand or Grit (beware Silicosis!!!) Shot . Newton and the lads.. Water Blast cleaning eliminates many of the respiratory hazards associated with the Air Blast methods. If you feel at home. which is harder to control at a high velocity than a relatively lower velocity. it's Laminar Flow..such as walnut shell.this is the end of Course notes for Module 6 MATL MTB70. the surface can be cleaned with wire brushes manually or mechanically (for softer alloys) or a series of blasting techniques available for harder alloys. Beyond simply dumping the mold and pulling the casting. Keppler. Water & Mechanical are used to clean any remaining sand or scale from the surface. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 7.. Chastain's Vol 2 has much more math and calculations. Cleaning This stage actually starts with the shake-out process. These processes also include removing any residual Core material.typically a round media including a variety of ceramics and metals Soft Media ..Air. Once the casting is free from the mold. The media is discharged by a paddle-wheel of sorts with adequate velocity that it impacts the casting with an abrasive action. but introduces the requirement of adequate cleaning of the effluent or discharge water after use before releasing to a "Grey Water" destination. there are vibrating tables. corn husk. Cutting & Fettling the Casting . Blast Cleaning Types .. All methods of air blast should be conducted within proper enclosures to eliminate (not reduce) operator health & safety hazards. (no time to post here) ....

.. Castings that are obvious defects should not even be cut away unless necessary for re-melt.. Currently I use a Sawz-All reciprocating saw and have shaved the per casting cutting time by 2/3rds to 15 min typically. in terms of quality blades (that can only last up to 10 Castings with 3 to 6 gates in my experience). I believe that this time could be further reduced by 2/3rds again to 5 min with a Plasma Cutter with the appropriate nozzle selection. Destructive & Non-Destructive Inspection Destructive inspection. though cleaning is required regardless. The speed and easy of inspection lacks any record keeping and may be subjective or inconsistent if performed by personnel of varying experience. Any Company that would like to send such a unit would never regret the gesture as I'd sing your praise from the highest hills. measuring tensile and shearing strength of castings as well as impacting various surface areas to determine hardness. The manual method is a tremendous amount of work and has a tangible expense associated with it. either it is kept or re-melted.. The casting is removed from the feeder network.. the methods that are discussed are. Table and Chop) ensuring that the appropriate blade is matched to the alloy.) as well as shears and cutting torches. For tons of detail on this exciting technology (and man is it ever EXCITING!!!) http://vsd. The Fettling process is the removal of fins or minor deformations with some mix of manual and machinery assisted labour. Circular Saws (of various orientations including Hand. These would include cutting castings through cross-sectional areas in pursuit of Sub-surface porosity defects.Obviously is Surface Quality comparison to a reference or based on the experience of the person performing the inspection. This is becoming more common place as technological advances are made. Visual Inspection . Obviously these tests are carried out on sample(s) that would be representative of a casting run.cfm .. though I personally have never repaired a casting.The casting is inspected visually every step by every person that touches the unit. there are a number of methods ranging from a manual hack saw through to a plasma cutter. and typically where the casting is being used in an application that requires very strict quality control such as vehicular applications.. This method is has a labour cost associated with it.. I believe (perhaps naively) that ever employ on the payroll has the right and the responsibility to scrap a piece at any stage of processing if they know the end product will not meet the highest standard.. though is comparatively Machine Vision is a promising technology that incorporates high resolution cameras that feed image data to a comparative processor that can actual gates or arms to discharge castings into a scrap pile or pass them down a conveyor for further processing. Where I would not cast 6 plaques and destroy one randomly for fear that it requires 1250lbs of force to break it and it broke at 1247lbs.. I use a hammer and a 4 1/2" angle grinder with a Zircon Flap-disk.pennnet.. The lecture notes specify the option of repairs to castings at this point as well. though not a component of this module is worth talking about briefly. Non-Destructive Inspection is a process that can be performed on a casting numerous times and leaves the casting in such a state that it can proceed to the finishing stage if found to be within specifications. Note do-not cut non-ferrous alloys with abrasive disks (just don't. Depending on the alloy there are numerous power tools that can be used including Band Saws.

potential for residual magnetism in the casting. In this case the medium the wave propagates through would be the casting. offers less clean-up. . An EMF (Electro Motive Force) is induced in the casting (Ferrous or Non-Ferrous) and the induced EMF is read by an inductor that is sensitive enough to supply detailed information that is analyzed and displayed. The chemical composition of the effective dye(s) requires specific handling procedures that will be available off their respective MSDS. This inspection system offers superior sub-surface analysis than other processes listed so far. and can detect defects up to 0. the wave is reflected and the reflection is examined on a display. the fundamental process is the application of a magnetic field to the casting. in that it can be performed faster.. coating the surface with a magnetic particle compound and examining the retained particles for markers that would denote fractures or inclusions in the casting by the distribution of the adhering particle matter. but a shop that makes under 1000 Aero-space grade parts that require "Mission-Critical" tolerances and verifiable inspection documentation. USI does require reasonably flat and or smooth surfaces for the transducer to propagate and receive the reflected waves. The reflected wave can indicate a properly formed casting or identify internal fractures or structures that could not be otherwise found.This inspection system works on the same principles of Medical Ultra Sonography. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) . as the range or spectrum of detection of a sensor can be tailored to significantly extend beyond the range of the human eye. Ultrasonic Inspection . The noted drawbacks are the limitation of testing to Ferro-Magnetic castings. Personally I think that this process also would lend itself well to a Vision Systems solution. the penetrant is wiped away and the casting is inspected for residue that has properties that make for easy inspection or detection.Liquid (Dye) Penetration Inspection (LPI) is a process that is able to detect narrow seams and cracks at or just below the surface of a casting by applying a liquid dye or phosphorescent dye. This is definitely not for smaller foundries. and this process does not work well with coarse grained castings due to reflection by the grain structure. a higher intellectual overhead in terms of training and competency of staff as well as a measure of casting cleaning (though still less than LPI). Eddy Current Inspection (ECI) . requires fewer material specific handling considerations. The cost and intellectual overhead of implementing such a system is significant.. An energy or acoustic wave is propagated through a medium via a transducer. Also of consideration is the ability to records results for archival purposes and defect analysis. as well as lends it's self to automated and archival processing.This is an emerging technology that is similar to both US and MPI. MPI offers advantages over LPI. This process offers very rapid analysis of casting integrity.This process is limited to Ferrous castings and requires less overhead than the name implies.25" below the casting surface. I'd think about implementing some sort of PACS or Picture Archive Communications System.

handling and filing (for archival purposes) far out weighs the other savings. Since High Temperature is a subjective term.. text and 5 video segments.. Radiography .. Although the temptation exists to develop an archival data structure in house to save on costs. True there are savings. thank you for taking the time to visit theworkshop. Film is being replaced with Crystal cartridges that can be digitized and erased for re-use.. The savings are always touted to be on the cost of the film..this is the end of Course notes for Module 7 and MATL MTB70.. chemicals and processing. and the utility of the mold is the space that it does not consume. ABOUT SAND Whutz-Up with Sand? Since Molten Metal is hot. density and/or atomic weight of the cross section being examined.. any radiology system being install today MUST BE digital.. The X or Gamma rays are absorbed or modified by the thickness. Similarly digital radiology techniques have developed to the point that through digital filtering of image data information is made available that could never have been detected with traditional film techniques. an open architecture approach should be adopted to facilitate data sharing between the foundry and customers. The popularity of sand as a molding material is due to it's abundance and relatively inexpensive cost. the mold material has to withstand the heat of the metal without melting. . losing it's shape. the sand must not melt and it's physical dimensioning should remain intact. lecture audio. My guess is that this won't be cheap... where does sand come from?" .ca and watch for other courses that are part of this same program. "Daddy. you can't afford it. If you have to ask what the cost is.. though systems are spec'd based on qty of images processed and the number of image acquisition points (X-Ray station) and the number of view stations for radiographic interpretation. but the labour associated with processing. This area has undergone Radical change over the last 10 years.. If you are creating castings that have a requirement for Radiographic Inspection. Since sand is generally a ceramic based material it typically has a strong inter atomic bonding structure that contributes to it's ability to withstand high temperatures before breaking down. These notes are based on AFS Text Chapter 18. size etc. you'll likely be called upon to produce sample images to the customer's QC dept.ECI can diagnose and identify grain structure and offer a level of elemental composition that USI can-not at this time. lets generalize that most sands have a melting point above 3000F.Much Like USI is based on the medical practice of Diagnostic Imaging via X-Ray and the imaging of the x-rays that passed through the medium on to film. Since Sand Molding is done with Sand.

031 Cr2O3 ZrO2 Al2O3 0.. it's even referred to in the audio files and I think references are made to it in the video clips).8 7.018 Temp Reaction Acidic (pH) Shape Varied Olivine 41.I'm glad you asked.2 3400(1875) Olivine Green 3. The AFS states that sand is "Mineral Material" regardless of chemical composition.75 45.94 0. Of the numerous properties the most important are Shape. Of the various bodies that influence and advise the metal casting industry the AFS (American Foundry Society) will provide the standards.. 1/12" to 1/500" or #10 to #200 Mesh screening.82 MgO 0. I believe that like the infinite constant Pi all answers to this module are contained within the chart above.0083 Basic Angular Chromite 1.. but all sands have their common origin in the fact that they are granular material resulting from the disintegration or crushing of rock. Sand has many sources and compositions..5 65 1 0. The Chemical composition of these sands provides some insight into why the other properties are attributed to the various types. Melting point.05mm.1 0. Weight (measured by Bulk Density and Specific Gravity) and pH.03 3800(2093) Chromite Black 4.27-3. The four basic sand compositions discussed in this course are Silica.3-4. Sand Chemistry & Property Table Composition % Silica SiO2 98.7 152-183 0. it's a slide.50 0.049 Fe2O3 0. it's in the lecture.34 8.019 CaO 0.0016 TiO2 0.0037 Slightly Acidic Rounded This chart is important.65-2.4 1.5 156-165 0. why the fuck do you think I re-typed it (it's in the text.03 0.34 19.37 96-103 0.2 49.. .012 Melting Point F(C) 3110(1710) Properties Silica Colour White/Brown Specific Gravity 2. Ziron and Chromite. The following charts are based on AFS data listed in AFS pub "Technology of Metal Casting" ISBN #0-87433-257-5.67 Bulk Density 95-97 Thermal Expansion 0.0045 Basic/Neutral Angular Ziron 33.. terms and ranges of measurement used in this course. These types of sand have various properties that effect their application to the broad spectrum of foundry work. and casting sand falls into a broad range of grain sizes that span 2mm to 0. Olivine. Thermal Expansion.8 21.19 4600(2538) Ziron White 4.6-4.

Key Info. but is used occasionally in the Ferrous Sector to aid in the production of Manganese (Mn) Steel (Austentic) due to it's ability to overcome adverse chemical reactions that would result if Silica sand were used. Melting point 3800F/2093C. Chromite FeCr2O4 This is an African Sand. an angular shape and basic/neutral pH. but won't as it's not germane to this discussion. Peter deposit... In North America Pure Silica Sand is mined primarily in the Illinois and Missouri States from the St. all other silica deposits tend to have varying degrees of organic and mineral contaminants that must be removed prior to classification as Casting Sand. Low thermal Expansion 0. and has a price tag to reflect its point of origin. Melting point 3110F/1710C. Olivine Olivine Sand is an ortho-silicate of Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) and is found in it's natural state within Forsterite Mg2SiO4 and Fayalite Fe2SiO4(neither terms are overly relevant to this course) Except that Cast quality Olivine is only derived form 90% Forsterite. There is so much I could say about Chromite FeCr2O4. logically increasing the cost due to production of the material. With the most stable thermal . Olivine sand is typically used in the Non-Ferrous foundry sector.Sand Type Verbiage Silica Silica is the most common sand type and can be found where ever water has had the time to erode rock to a granular form over time. Key Info. an angular shape and basic pH. Lakes. Key Info. as it comes from Africa... Ziron This is the last of the four sand types and has the fanciest name. and as a facing or core material where it's superior thermal characteristics are called upon.004"/inch. but I will note that it is used in Steel foundries. unpredictable thermal expansion and binding properties to name a few. a varied shape and acidic pH... Florida and California. Zirconium Silicate or ZrSio4 to his friends is found primarily in Australia. Low thermal Expansion 0. High thermal Expansion 0. river banks etc. Melting point 3400F/1875C.018"/inch.0083"/inch. The Forsterite is crushed to reduce the mineral to a granular form. These organic and mineral contaminants effect castings in numerous ways including but not limited to introduction of carbon into the cast. rivers.

. has issues with metals that approach and exceed 2240F in the form of "Wetting" the point where metal starts to cover the surface of the sand grain faces and Fluxes with Iron.. Oh and before I forget. an AFS gfn of 65 to 140 with 100 as the most common. scabs. that High refractoriness can aid in "Directional Solidification" if your a keener and can figure that stuff out when you make your mold.. The silica is considered to be in an Alpha Quartz State when below approx 2000F. Medium & Coarse" are somewhat vague and subject to interpretation in the abscence of some form of relativistic model. Rat's tails etc. Just so you know.220 range. as the gfn is an AVERAGE!!! Why such a range??? Too coarse a gfn is reflected in the surface of the casting. though it doesn't say specifically that the sand itself is hazardous. as this is an average it may be somewhat deceptive. The results of this expansion can be mold wall movement. The AFS gfn covers average grain size and distribution. Thank God the American Foundry Society stepped in and implemented a numeric scale that does away with all that inaccuracy. . Melting point 4600F/2538C. but all will come clear in time.003"/inch.. Dispose of as the law tells you.) AFS Grain Fineness Number (gfn) & Grain Distribution Words like "Fine. So why all the hype on Thermal Expansion??? Although Silica Sand is the most common of the 4 types it is used as a mold or mold facing material where very high temperatures are encountered and refractoriness becomes a consideration... And another minor point that might be worth knowing Zircon has trace elements of Uranium and Thorium .. Buckles.... (I don't really get the fluxing part. it has some characteristics that influence it's behavior when used within a mold.. he AFS scale typically covers 25 to 170 (according to the Text book) But I personally have never heard of anything less than 80 or 90 on the coarse side and have regularly heard of fine grains that top the 200 . no big deal. Similarly Silica sand having a relatively lower melting point compared to the other sands.. And that's the point!!! Don't confuse individual grain Mesh #'s with AFS gfn. Lowest thermal Expansion 0.... Key Info. above that temp it changes to a Beta Quartz state that is typified by significant expansion. an elliptical or rounded shape and slightly acidic pH.. too fine a gfn and the mold can't pass the gases from the molten metal during the pour and results in gas related defects...

you ensured that you ordered the right AFS gfn for the metal or alloy to be cast.. the fines grains move to the bottom. You cast you first casting and now what??? You open your check book and hope that you can afford even more machinery to handle the task of Sand Reclamation!!! On the most basic level the spent molds have to be broken up to make the sands flow for molding in the next casting.. You've employed 100's of 1. well. spent binder material and any metallic refuse need to be removed. get that check book out as it ain't gonna be cheap. Jaw Crusher Pneumatic Scrubbers Vibratory Reduction Shot Blast Reduction Mechanical Sand Scrubber .. then it would stand to reason that you would want that distribution to stay. The above illustrates examples of "Segregation" and will impact casting quality if the AFS gfn distribution is not retained..And again on a personal note.. So you have some sand. And for high production foundries the sand has to be cooled prior to re-use if the production cycle is that rapid...000's of dollars to ensure that the AFS gfn distribution is retained. "Sand Fines" (sub-AFS gfn sized material that results from mechanical handling of the sand). Sand Reclamation Man does this Module never end.. the fine grains typically will accumulate in the center of the cone rising vertically as the cone builds surrounded by coarser material rolling off to the sides and surrounding the base. Along with breaking-up the spent mold. I know from painful experience if you can't pass gas. and the coarse grains move to the top.. As I said. Or just a conveyor that is dumping the sand into a cone shaped pile. there will be unpleasant results. Consider a tumbler of sand rotating on an inclined axis. Mechanical Reclamation Processes The following are examples of various methods of mechanically reclaiming spent mold sands. distributed.. you selected it based on the type that suits your casting specifications. Sand Handling So if your sand is a distribution of Mesh sizes that is averaged to an AFS gfn.

Ha!!!) To perform the test a predetermined qty of sand is removed from the batch. Quality Control practices should begin at the shipping dock when new unbonded sand arrives at the foundry. Always Follow AFS-1101-0-S specification to ensure consistent sampling.. .this is employed when dealing with chemically bonded sands that use a resin that has cured and can not be re-activated. The odds of actually collecting exactly to the gram the amount required is very unlikely. so it is best to get easily twice as much as you think will be the required weight. The removal of metal(s) from the sand is also important as it will directly impact the refractoriness of the sand and casting quality and defects. but once that qty is established all testing will be done with that target weight. It should be noted that the Foundry determines what is an appropriate AFS-gfn to provide the appropriate molding properties and finished product for a given casting.provided I pass the Lab. clearly passing through without overflowing the container. a sampling of the sand for AFS-gfn should be conducted to ensure that an appropriate grain distribution exists that will be consistent with expected quality of molds and ultimately castings produced. but those attributes are altered if the sand is literally broken by force during the reclamation process and result in a sand that is now round. though there are general guidelines but the variability of processes..Heating Units to burn out residual binders ... for those unfamiliar with AFS-1101-0-S Sand should be acquired from a free-falling stream of sand by passing the container through the stream at a uniform speed. sand types and binders precludes a definitive chart that can be referred to for selection. Sand Coolers All of the above should not aggravate the accumulation of "Fines" by excessively rough handling of sands.. Sands that are classed as angular impart specific properties to the mold and casting. machine or transfer point to be tested. (details to follow . Excessive amounts of cured resins that accumulate in the sand impact the LOI or Loss on Ignition rating of the sand. At some point within this module the first of a series of "On-Line Labs/Assignments will be completed" The MTB72 Mod 2 Lab is an actual AFS-gfn determination.. beyond the typical checks to ensure that the proper qty and condition of the material reflects what was ordered..gfn (Grain Fineness Number) Refer to previous Module for general info. The sand is weighed to determine a start point or reference.. alloys. AFS . I assume that the weight will be different for each foundry. Especially in a Jobber Foundry where various alloys are cast using the same sand if it suits the purpose. AFS-gfn readings may be grossly inaccurate if an inappropriate test point provides the sample (refer to examples in Mod1 of sand separation due to handling).

25 (Discard) 59.. and weighed until by Successive approximation the target weight is arrived at.12g (Split) 29.. obviously I've rounded back to 100th's of a gram and have pre-calculated the approximation value after the first sub-target split value of 59.78g (Discard) 7. and assumed perfect division of the Split weights..5g (Split) 118.39g (Split) 3.. Rinse and repeat. For your own piece of mind each bin can be weighed to ensure that the separator does indeed separate in equal parts.12g (Hold) 29. but have no interest in writing out a long précis on the theory of successive approximation. The above being said. Note: Do-Not attempt to simply scoop a bit of sand out by hand or with a spoon to adjust the weight between bins in an attempt to arrive at the Sample weight quicker. The initial qty of sand is divided over and over again.56g (Split) 14.The illustration to the right is a rather lame and grossly inaccurate representation of a simple sand separator.76g..12g was hit. A series of evenly spaced slots alternatively direct the sand into Bins 1 and 2 respectively.25g (Split) 59.69g (Hold) Bin2 236. All the "Hold" bins are dumped together and weighed (check that the weight is as calculated) If there is a gross margin of error .. I know that I can repeat the thought process to determine the split/hold and discard points. but more anal supervisors may demand greater precision. This is grounds for dismissal. measurement to within 0..5g (Discard) 118. consider this your written warning!!! The Diagram to the right illustrates a typical range of Sieve Mesh sizes used in an AFS-gfn test.69g (Discard) The 4 (four) Hold bins should total 99. The separator though simplistic is essential in retaining the grain distribution.Lather.56g (Hold) 14..78g (Split) 7.. .24g is good enough for me & my staff.39g (Hold) 3. Target sample weight 100g Split 1 Split 2 Split 3 Split 4 Split 5 Split 6 Split 7 Bin1 236. Initial weight 473 Grams.. ie.

please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3.this is the end of Course notes for Module 2 MATL MTB72. and an added note that Silica Flour also can be used to increase mold densities.. Ensure that all sieves are completely free of any sand or residue from a previous test before beginning. Bonded & UnBonded Sand . According to the lecture notes.. Physical Properties of Sand This module will be considerably shorter than others posted as some of the material was already covered in Module #1.. This process run for approx 15 minutes to ensure that a thorough separation has occurred. Since that is the case it's likely that there is a minimum value as a percentage of the total sample size required to a AFS-gfn to be within or out of bounds of the expected value??? The point of grain size distribution is to strike a balance between voids and permeability of sand. the total volume would still consist of approx 40% void space... with a closed pan the bottom to catch any material that passes through the finest Mesh sieve.. The sieves are separated and the various distributions are weighed and documented. The Sieves have collars that surround the mesh and allow them to be stacked securely into a column.. Unfortunately it also lacks any really exciting content... it would still have an equal volume of voids. 4 or 5 adjacent sieves. if the size was reduced considerably (but remained consistent. .. I think. beyond the rather dry classification and assessment procedures employed within commercial foundries. I'm a bit unsure but. at is Even More. but not "the example". If a uniform size of rounded grains is compactly rammed. 4 or 5 sieve distribution (with the condition of at least 10% of the total sample weight is present on 3. (Since I haven't done the actual Lab yet...) It would seem that AFS-gfn is ranked as a 3... The Column of sieves is placed into an agitator that securely holds the column and will apply a vibratory action on it to work the grains through the various mesh sizes. but this listing can be considered an example..... The solution is to use a distribution of varying grain sizes to fill-in voids to improve surface finishes.NOTE: The word "Typical" implies that there may be other sizes that can be used for specific sand distribution ranges.

The 3 (three) Sand shapes impart various properties such as flowability (for mechanized handling and molding). but not as good as Angular... handling and casting needs. Unbonded sand usage within the commercial foundry sector is relatively new (since the 1950's) as a result of the development of various casting processes and new synthetic binding agents. Chromite. permeability and binder strength. and presumably was classed as such. with less fines generated than angular. Rounded Sands Rounded Sands offer excellent permeability but lack any interlocking strength.. and are prone to produce significat sand fines due to sharp corners breaking from mechanical handling. but good flow characteristics. but not as much as Angular. More binder is required than Rounded. A fourth classification exists "Compound".) Sizes and Shapes of Sands This section applies to all 4 (four) sand types listed in Mod#1 (Silica. Better permeability than Angular. but not as good as Rounded when unbonded. Naturally occurring bonded sand is mined from river banks and similar deposits (vague.. Prior to the 1950's all foundry sand usage was clay bonded sand. ..This refers to loose sand that has been screened.. but compound sands are not adequate for Metal Casting due to their fragile nature (typically 2 grains of lightly fused sand. In a bonded state require more binder to cover the higher surface area. Sub-Angular and Rounded. dried and filtered of impurities such as carbaceous materials and minerals that would adversely affect the thermal specifications of the sand. Sub-Angular Sands Predictably Sub-Angular sands are a median between Rounded and Sub-Angular. Olivine. Angular Sands Angular Sands exhibit lower permeability though with superior interlocking strength when unbonded. and a similar mid-point of flowability. and Zircon) The 3 (three) general shape descriptions of Mold Quality sands are Angular... in an unbonded state. In a bonded state require less binder though with a reduced permeability. creating a compound grain) and the mechanical and thermal stresses of casting. It is common practice for foundries to use a mixture of sand shapes to achieve a balance of the above properties for their specific molding. but more than Rounded. the chart to the right is as good a gauge of the various classifications and shapes of sand as you'll find. better interlocking strength than Rounded.

Also the elemental chemistry of various clay types have varying degrees of pH in part due to the ionic retention of the hydrous component (This may be grossly inaccurate as I've tried to reduce a tremendous amount of detail into as short a definition as possible) Clay particles are rather flat in shape and typically can be imagined to stack like a deck of cards... Grain shape also influences mold strength and permeability.A rock or mineral whose structure is dominated by bonds of silicon and oxygen atoms The Alumina & Silicate components are physical and can be defined on an elemental level. this near 2 dimensionality of alumina silicate when hydrated imparts the characteristic slippery plasticity of clay. but wants to retain a certain amount of water. in english Clay will dry-out. Electrostatic Bonding. The last point is that Grain shape has a natural tendency to change from Angular to Rounded. due to the variance in grain surface area. The key component is that this solution has an ionic component that has enough strength to retain the hydrous element. The text definition goes on for a full page on micellular di-pole structures. The electrostatic bonding mechanism can be defined as dipolar forces initiated by the preferential absorption of Positive and Negative Ions within the Hydrous solution. 1 gram of Bentonite. due to handling and usage over time.An aluminum oxide compound Al2O3 is a family of compounds found naturally in clays such as bauxite or kaolin Silicate . A typical individual Alumina Silicate platelet or flake ranges between 1/5000 to 1/50.Containing water.000" in diameter. the Hydrous component is what gives clay it's adhesive and slippery properties. typically chemically bound water or water of hydration.The 2 (two) extremes of sand shape would be Lo-Spherical/Very Angular grain compared to a HiSpherical/Well Rounded Grain. The points or material that is broken off an angular grain remains in the sand and is termed "Fines". if separated into individual platelets would cover an area of approx 800 sq meters. Green Sand & Clay(s) .. the qty of fines also impacts mold permeability.I was unsure what that meant so with Google "Define: xxxxx" Hydrous . Surface tension and inter particle Friction. The elemental definition of water H2O bonds to the Alumina Silicate through 3 (three) methods. Clay and Clay Minerals All clays essentially can be considered Hydrous Alumina Silicates .. Alumina . Grain shape has a considerable influence on binder adhesion and qty.

.Technology of Metalcasting . issues can arise with molds that hinder the collapsability of the mold as the casting contracts during solidification such as "Hot Tears" Clay Bonded sand is rated on it's "Green Strength" or ability to hold it's shape until the metal has been poured. limonite.Schleg Particle Size <0. Composition Chart abbreviated from AFS . etc. 10% quartz. and it's "Hot Strength" it's ability to hold it's shape until the metal has solidified. Ohio) 10% quartz.00001" <0. The elemental formulas listed don't accurately reflect the percentile mineral composition of the clays. 3000-3100F Kaolinite (OH)8Al4Si8O10 Very low Non gel Low 1647-1703C forming 60% Kaolinite.. Very Low.. etc. 30% illinite. Although it would appear that the stronger the mold the better.Southern Bentonite.5 Gelling 85% Class 1B montmorillonite (Mississippi) 15% quartz. The key compositions of the Big-3 are summarized below Base Hydrous Shrinkage Refractoriness Exchange Quality (on drying) High. The "Big-3 of Clay's" . alloy being poured. . Utah) feldspar mica. etc. Class IV (Ill. Ca Slight.000 tons. The qty of clay used is influnced by numerous factors such as sand shape.. Ion pH=8Very High Bentonite nH2O 1148-1342C Gel Forming 10 90% Class 1A montmorillonite (Wyo.. High. size and thickness section of castings being poured and the desired shake-out characteristics. with annual gross weights of 700.000 tons vs 90.As a binder for sand. Dak..00001" typically coarse ground to flour Of note above is the Alkalinity of the clays based on their ionic bonding atom (Na or Ca for the Bentonites). Southern (OH)4Al4Si8O201800F + Ion pH=4modest Very High Bentonite nH2O 982C + 6. Western Bentonite & Kaolinite Bentonite is mined and consumed in the North American market 8 to 1 vs Kaolinite. grain size.. clay can be added in proportions ranging from 5% thru to 12%. S. Na Western (OH)4Al4Si8O202100-2450F Very High.

Fireclay (Kaolinite) . hot & dry strength. Sou. and 2 to 3 times as much clay is needed to achieve similar coverage. requires less mulling to completely coat sand grains. Western Bentonite requires additional Mulling (over S-Ben) due to it's expansion properties when hydrated. Ben. lends itself well to high production foundries that employ mechanized molding due to it's High Green strength.5 Green Compression 11. and superior Hot Strength characteristics than Southern Bentonite.Western Bentonite . Although it has 90% of the Green Strength of Southern Bentonite it has significantly more Green Strength than the Fire-Clays. as the clay is destroyed above 700C. Property Sodium Bentinite % Clay to Sand 5 % moisture 2. Too much moisture impacts the moldability of the sand and shake-out characteristics.2 (PSI) Dry Compression (PSI) 101 Hot Compression @ (PSI) 1000F 110 1500F 210 1850F 520 2000F 345 2500F 8 Calcium Bentonite 5 2. but exhibits more brittleness that impacts the ability to extract patterns that require deep pockets in the mold. and Kaolinite is also blended with either or both clays to improve the refractoriness of the binder. offering greater Green Strength. and contributes to erosion defects and mold cracks. Typically moisture content should be kept between 38 and 42% of Active Clay (as opposed to burnt or spent clay due to firing from previous pours). With careful control of moisture content most foundries can use 100% Western Bentonite and avoid blending clays.0 10.5 55 103 150 72 4 75 145 170 510 27 .Although Kaolinite clay has the highest refractoriness of the clay families it has substantially lower green. Southern Bentonite . The hydration of Southern Ben. while too little moisture effects mold surface the most popular clay for green sand molding due to it's compatibility with a broad range of alloys.4 69 Kaolinite 12 3.Has poor Hot & Dry strength properties that exclude it from use in steel or Cast Iron Casting.5 12. Similarly Kaolinite requires 1/3 more water to be hydrated as the Bentinites. Foundries and Foundry supply houses commonly blend the Bentonite clays to achieve an averaging of their beneficial properties.2 71.

Moisture . AFS -gfn . This measure can be affected by Mulling. Green sand mulled above 120F is simply mixed together.AKA Methelyne Blue Test is used to determine the percentage of active clay remaining in the green sand mix. Since the total clay blend is determined by the alloy being cast.Offers an excellent indicator of either Over or Under Tempering of Green Sand. The accepted rule is that sand must be under 120F to re-activate clay binders. and mulling must also occur below that threshold point. this relates to high production environments.Grain size distribution was beaten-up and left for dead in the previous module.the fines or sub-granular content must be maintained below 2. The accumulation of fines from dead clay.Testing is also classed as a Primary test . when combined with Moisture testing. Green Strength. sand fractures. Green Compression Strength .. Flowability and a measure of the "Openness" of a green sand mixture. mulled and into mold again at a high rate. higher moisture requirements or brittle molds affecting green strength. Many of the other properties of green sand are dependant on accurate maintenance of proper moisture levels.. This modules has 4 (four) Lab Assignments that relate to these tests. Permeability . and establishes a benchmark that allows foundries to compare a standard.The last of the Primary tests is Temperature.. the percentage of "Dead" or clay that can no longer be re-activated must be determined to ensure consistency of castings. Compactability . clay selection. and is a determinant in the sand's ability to vent gases. this test becomes a good indicator of sand consistency. Permeability is used to aid in determining proper AFS -Grain distribution. Temperature . as the clay is activated with water and it's plasticity is a function of it's level of hydration.5 and 4% depending on the castings being produced. where green sand is cycled from mold thru shake out. . and the sand grains are not being coated. and too low results in gas related defects. Total Fines . or other green sand additives can adversely effect casting quality by reduction of permeability. Too high a permeability results in surface finish defects. quantity of Clay and moisture.This is the most common test. Hot Strength.Primary Tests The following are a series of what are considered Primary Tests that are run on a continual basis (hourly) within a commercial foundry operation to ensure Green Sand performance is maintained at a consistent level. size and weight to sand ratio. Secondary Tests This series of tests are performed less frequently (daily or weekly depending on volume and test) Active Clay Content .

And remember each clay type has unique points of hydration. but is dedicated to the most essential and most abused material within the green sand molding an integral function of the green sand process. As stated in the previous module notes. . the moisture requirements of the sand are similarly dynamic. LOI (Loss on Ignition) .. But there is no excess water that is free within the sand Clay mixture. LOI is used to determine the amount of combustible material in the green sand.. The ideal hydration of the clay and sand mixture is the "Temper" of the sand. The terms discussed are "Adsorbed (nor absorbed) & Free Water. it is the influence that moisture has on the molding sand that should be aimed at.Wet Tensile Strength .this is the end of Course notes for Module 3 MATL MTB72. WTS can be adversely impacted by shifts in the AFS-gfn. Ideal hydration is the point that all water is engaged within the clay structure and it can absorb no more. It is the water clay-bond that gives molding sand it's plasticity.It should be noted that when the molding process is mechanized as in HDM practice.. percentage of live to dead clay. please turn over the tape to continue listening to Module 3. Water. there is a reduced moisture content required. High Density Molding (HDM) . or accumulation of contaminants in the sand.. • • • • • clay type. TWS is a good indicator of the quality of the Bentonite in use. This implies that to aim for a static numerical value for moisture content is impossible. Water This module is relatively brief. these are the various green and hot strength values that are required to create quality castings. . Rather..flour etc) Sand Type. Adsorbed is the point of ideal hydration. Moisture Content This is a variable due to many factors that influence the requirement of water. the method of mulling.. Supplementary additives (Organics .For some alloys it is necessary to add carbonaceous material such as "Seacoal". the water or aqueous component of clay goes beyond simply wetting the other minerals. while Free Water is any excess. There is an ionic bonding mechanism at work that has water penetration that ranges from 3 to 10 molecules into the platelet structure. shape and grain distribution and fines Molding Sand Properties Vs Moisture Content Given that some of the above factors are variable over the life of the sand.

It stands to reason that the sand to metal ratio has a significant influence on the moisture losses associated with the casting process. the only reason to modify or change the properties of the foundry sand is to improve the quality of the castings. To be clear. Sand molding and testing should be restricted to temperatures below 100F. Aluminum as a significantly lower thermal transfer requirement than a ferrous alloy such as Cast Iron. tools. above 100C (the point of vaporization) water expands rapidly to 1600 times it's liquid volume. essentially forming iron oxide (rust) and hydrogen on contact. For example a 50lb mold that receives 1 lb of molten metal dissipates less heat than a similar qty of sand that receives 5 lbs of the same Alloy. reducing or removing persistent defects and the scrap rate associated with such defects. as well as hot tears due to too high a hot strength that does not allow the casting to shrink uniformly.. resistance to deformation.3% above it's original volume between 5C and 100C. fine cracks.. The heat of the casting process obviously liberates a qty of water from the mold. Such a rapid expansion of a significant qty of free water within a mold can result in an explosion. This can be in the form of superior surface finishes. Excess Moisture Defects . I picture a shower of liquid metal droplets emanating outward like bullets onto workers.are found within the following list. The Temper point of the sand is the point of ideal hydration. this module will address the numerous other materials that can be added and their effect & purpose. Green Sand Additives As the previous module dealt with the issues associated with moisture (water) as the most important consideration in the maintenance of green sand. which brings to light the influence of the alloy type. in an HDM application the sand has a compactability between 30 to 40%. toughness and permeability. on a volumetric scale as well in consideration of mass. Surely some clever engineer can use this to create a new energy economy. expands as it rises in temperature Water can expand up to 4. this characteristic influences the strength of the molding sand. deformation (oversized) castings. The impact of each droplet in my nightmare scenario has all of my buildings engulfed in flames (even the hunt camp located a Km away. I said it was a nightmare) as well as our house (similarly located a distance from the foundry).An important factor in the water clay relationship is "Compactability". Water can actually be decomposed at excessive heat when in contact with certain alloys. Hot Sand Considerations. Other considerations such as . in the case of Cast Iron the thermo-chemical interaction is illustrated as 3Fe + 4H2O – Fe3O4 + 4 H2. The expansive property of excess or free water within a mold is further exasperated by the resultant decrease of the mold's permeability. and building walls and work benches. though it should be noted that the ionic bonds that hold the water and clay in solution are rather weak and even temperatures as low as 120f to 160F (well below boiling) still influence the liberation of water. Water like most materials. gas pick-up resulting in porosity defects. peak Green strength as well as ideal.

shakeout.cogsci.htm The totality of features and characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy given www.A chart presenting actual data from quality tests that shows the range.nhs.html variable control chart.bridgefieldgroup. but is an exercise that frames a deeper understanding of the overall this area would cover the molding process.zoology. www. Variability Theory .html Define: Quality The characteristics of an item or process that indicate its conformance to designated parameters. I personally feel that there is no optimal or super sand system. www. www. and the end product will be an assortment of benefits and compromises. consistency and the ability to continue performance in stress or volume situations.I found that it was worth my while to "google A measure of the ability of a particular method to converge on the correct answer as the sample size becomes due to their typically subjective nature (Note .Define: Reduction of variability is a priority in systems that attempt to ensure consistent quality and reduce lead Quality characteristics often include reliability. and quick reusability for high production foundries.htm Define: Consistency (logic) an attribute of a logical system that is so constituted that none of the propositions deducible from the axioms contradict one another www. the molds properties in terms of strength. and deviation characteristics of a set of observations.this definitely won't be on the exam. but are critical only in relation to the value placed on them by the user or customer. Consistency and Quality to get a better sense of their meaning. Through all of the above the primary objective is to establish consistency in the Green Sand formula.princeton. and its degree of perceived customer acceptance or %20Practices/content/resource/gloss.htm .bridgefieldgroup. upper and lower limits. Define: variabilityThe characteristic of a product or process in which parameters fluctuate to a significant degree but do not typically trend in a specific direction.flowability or handling of the sand are included.htm A spread of possible outcomes around an expected outcome www.

Organic Additives . The green and hot strength properties of the mold can be improved with cereal additions between 0.So as a Green Sand . Cellulose .25% and 2% by weight. the appropriate addition of cereal material. The purpose of introducing Cellulose material is to absorb excess water and improve the flowability of the sand during the molding process. Excessive water and cereal may create such a high hot strength that the mold can not shrink or collapse as the metal solidifies and create hot tears. where the burnt cellulose matter leaves voids that allow the sand grains to expand while retaining better mold dimensional accuracy. The destruction of the cellulose material at the mold metal interface creates a cushioning effect. while contributing to the quality of the casting. In summary.This additive covers the variety of "Flours" including corn. This property of variability contributes in a cumulative fashion as additives are introduced. improves flowability. In summary. proteins.include but are not limited to Cereals. rat-tails. The improved green strength and deformation properties reduce sand inclusions. dimensional stability and shake-out properties while contributing to the quality of the casting. cracks.The contact of molten metal creates dead material that will be accumulating in the molding sand over successive castings. Similarly excessive water/cereal combinations typically exhibit gassing defects ranging from hydrogen formation to carbon monoxide and Carbon Dioxide formations. as well as aid in retaining moisture. and dry strength. as such there is a degree of variability in the composition of the additives. milo. bearing in mind the variability of additives the initial introduction of cereals should be between 1% and 2% of the total weight of the batch. green & hot Strength. resins. This cushioning effect can aid in reducing scabs. . Cereals typically are destroyed at temperatures between 500F and 700F. we could say that "Our goal is to reduce the Variability of the mixture such that we can achieve and maintain Consistency in an effort to provide Quality castings. hot tears and buckle type defects. wheat.Mission Statement. improves plasticity.This additive covers the variety of "Flours" including wood. ultimately contributing to excessive fines. The term flour implies a very fine particle size. This is the rational to minimizing the use of additives. and rye. Excessive cereal may rob water from the temper point of the clay and actually reduce green and hot strength of molding material. Again.Many of the additives are naturally occurring minerals. The term flour implies a very fine particle size." Additives . the appropriate addition of cellulose material. rice husk/hull and nut shells. veining. The purpose of introducing a cereal structure into the molding sand is to increase plasticity. and oils. Points of consideration are . Cereals .

thick walled copper alloy molding sands. and provide some stabilization of the mold's dimensional properties. Carbonaceous material is used to improve the surface quality of the casting. silicates and some esters. Cellulose material if used excessively can undermine the ideal temper of the water/clay ratio and reduce green & hot strength properties.Points of consideration are . The materials listed above have significantly higher volumes of "Volatile Carbons" and as such can replace seacoal in a 1 to 2 ratio (half as much as was used of the seacoal). gilsonite.The introduction of fines and the effect on permeability. though the gases aid in producing a non-oxidizing atmosphere for the metal surface with the addition of "Lustrous Carbon" This production of gases necessitates the addition of vents to aid in the dispersion of the gas. the scavenging effect the Iron Oxide has on the moisture content. a fine inorganic additive that has it's place primarily with Silica based sands. Note that carbonaceous materials are NOT used in the casting of steel. as it would introduce carbon and alter the alloy in undesirable ways. The examples given for Cast Iron green sands are all listed in the . ultimately contributing to excessive fines.include but are not limited to cement. which may impact the ability to draw patterns that have deep pockets.These materials are applicable to Cast Iron alloys and some of the larger. Carbonaceous Materials . potentially reducing Green & Hot Strength. etc. The Volatile nature of the powered coal produces a significant volume of smoke and gas. Points of consideration are . that essentially water-proofing the sand and clay. Also the introduction of excessive asphalt. Inorganic Additives . The purpose of adding Iron Oxide is to aid in the thermal transfer of heat from the mold metal interface. resulting in associate defects such as wash-out. This thermal property is most effective with alloys that promote the liquefaction of Iron Oxide creating the best thermal transfer properties. while leaving room for the sand grains to expand. resulting in poor Green & Hot Strength properties.The effect of fines from the seacoal and the requirement of heavy venting due to reduced permeability. Iron Oxide . lignite and petroleum distillates. Gilsonite. The term that describes how a casting separates at the mold metal interface is called "Peel". Of these the most common is Seacoal. Seacoal is typically added at 2% to 8% by weight relative to the batch of molding sand. The list of Carbonaceous materials includes (but is not limited to) seacoal. Similarly the addition of Iron Oxide has an effect on the refractoriness of the molding sand and may contribute to "Burn-On" type defects. A general note that applies to all modifications to the green sand mixtures. lignite and petroleum distillates. regardless of additive is the volumes or masses of material.The contact of molten metal creates dead material that will be accumulating in the molding sand over successive castings. This property is enhanced by the addition of carbonaceous material. Also like cereal material. and the pronounced brittleness (or reduced plasticity) of the mold. wall movement. Points of consideration are . gassing.. inhibiting the hydration of the clay and bonding action. a finely crushed bituminous coal.

as well as any supplementary additives that may unduly complicate the maintenance process in the course of counter-acting the effects of initial additives. . The soda ash is added in proportions that restore the pH to the 8 .. An example of a chemical additive would be Soda Ash for the purpose of reducing the acidic pH that results from cereal usage or the contamination of molding sand by the introduction of spent core material that was catalyzed by an acidic process. The illustration that comes to mind is the maintenance of an aquarium for fish. Refractoriness and Permeability via grain distribution remains within acceptable ranges.. the larger medium can be somewhat more forgiving. This modified water of sorts can make minor allowances for hot sand molding environments by the reduced moisture loss relative to the less hydrated clay. The larger the scale of production typically the easier the additives are to control (assuming adequate mechanization is employed to handle such volumes). Be aware that the addition of dilution sand may require the proportionate addition of other constituents to ensure that the mixture retains it's desired properties. only employ additives to impart a characteristic improvement in the sand for the casting at hand. it's generally much easier to maintain the properties of a larger (100g) tank than it is for a small (5g) tank. select the additive(s) carefully with the implications on the entire system as materials decompose due to exposure at the mold metal interface... Similarly the use of polymers to enhance hydration can translate into reduced mulling requirements Chemical Additives .These materials are relatively new additions to the foundry and serve the purpose of lowering the surface tension of the water.9 range. Polymer Additives .. In closing. and if MINOR errors are made. All clay-based Green Sand mixture inevitably require some maintenance to ensure that Compactability.. dilution sand is typically added at the rate of 20% to 30% to maintain the sand mix over time. ad nauseum. If this occurs. I hope you get the picture that as soon as we start to modify one parameter we effect other parameters and soon..per-ton ranges. we're making additions that are counter acting previous additions.. This counter action of a lowered or acidic pH is employed to stabilize the properties of the Bentonite clays that are effected by acid pH resulting in a weaker bond strength. In summary. avoid the "Knee-Jerk" response of reducing the clay content. as the name implies it dilutes the general composition based on the volumes of the composition and the volume of dilution required to achieve a specific purpose. though be aware that this will activate clay that has been dormant and result in variations in mulling and significant modifications to Green compression strength. Essentially dilution sand can be added to counter act a variety of additive related issues. offering better clay hydration and superior coating properties to the sand.I think the name is too generic as everything can be reduced to a chemical composition? no matter. Dilution Sand This is the addition of sand of an appropriate grain size or distribution to buffer or counter act the accumulation of fines and restore permeability.

Initially I thought that Mohawk had glossed over the topic of core-binders. These cores exhibit excellent tensile strength on the order of 200psi with less than 2% binder.Protein based Binders This family of binders is a recent innovation developed by General Motors Corp. Module # 6 . The R&D effort brought GMbond to market in the late 1990's. . The shakeout characteristics are also excellent. Phenolic Urethane. The result was a Polymer-Peptide based binder that is formed through the use of "Long-Chain Amino Acids".html Essentially the process requires 1% protein based binder by weight. Protein based core binders work well in Aluminum and Magnesium foundries as well as Cast Iron production. and Urea Formaldehyde. mixed dry to a rounded grain sand. and heated to create a Biopolar crystalline structure from the polymerization of the Cores are parts of the mold that typically are placed after the pattern is removed and form internal passage ways within the casting. as the core is reduced to free sand due to thermal breakdown of the polymerized biopolar crystal structure. I agree with the Colleges choice in omitting significant detail on these systems. Cores are blown or formed. As an aside the licensing to a food industry manufacturer is an indication of the low impact the compound has on the environment. The sand flowability is optimal at a lower temperature. either a true testament or just clever marketing on the part of GM.BINDERS Modules 6 & 7 could be under one heading of binders. these amino acids are found in the base material "Collagen Compounds" & an additive that promotes thermal breakdown is also included . The families of Furan. GM began with an R&D effort in 1990 to replace their current binder systems with a more environmentally friendly system that could compete with regard to Cost & Performance properties. The addition of water acts as a catalyst that forms polymer bonding of the mixture. CI binder would have an additional component (Ferrous Oxide) that improves surface finish added. Any retained core material is completely water soluble and is easily washed form the casting. with a gross lack of detail on the chemical binder systems found in the foundry industry. This product is licensed through Hormel Foods.gmbond. though must not be present for either Al or Mg castings. regardless of their applicability to my foundry. these are of greater interest for the purpose of creating Cores. The materials are derived from renewable naturally occurring sources and refined into a non-toxic compound. Although I enjoy the exposure to the spectrum of industrial processes. impose significant capital and operating overheads to be handled in an effective and safe manner. I started to see the typically high environmental impact these systems impose. Below is a link that has several Video clips on GMBond http://www. Upon careful reading and research into the chemical binder systems.

Chemical Binders This module will focus on the "No-Bake" process and resin bonded sands. and the formation of synthetic binding polymers vs the amino acid based polymers that are water soluble. The basic idea of establishing consistency in casting production is also important when considering chemically bonded molds & cores. Note: There are significant risks and high capital & operating costs associated with certain families of chemically bonded sands. This is related to findings that indicate carcinogenic properties and environmental concerns associated with the reclamation and disposal of spent sands. The primary constituent is the sand itself.The problems of Core Gases is also eliminated as well as the toxicity of traditional core processes by as much as 99% in Al & Mg production. also any process that might lead to segregation of the grain distribution is to be avoided. The mixing of sands an resins is inhibited by excessive viscosity at temperature below 50F. Temperature The effects of temperature are important in both "Heat Pattern" process and the "No-Bake" process. The key distinction between the Protein based binders and chemical is the chemical catalyst vs a heat catalyst.. Initially the sand is coated with a resin. All aspects from initial mixing through post-casting reclamation share in the benefits of an environmentally benign process. a mixture at 33C will set in 20 mins. . typically long sand transports through steel piping should be avoided as it can degrade the sand. Note that a mixture at 43C (well above 100F) would have very poor core/mold strength properties due to decomposed resin prior to activation by the catalyst. The activation of the resin with a catalyst forms synthetic polymers that create the high strength properties required in the mold or core application. and then activated with a second compound known as a catalyst. while a mixture at 43C would set in 10 mins. while the resins will begin to partially evaporate at temperatures above 100F. The resin based binders are typically a 2 (two) part process. If a resin coated mixture is rated to set within 30min if the mixture is at 23C when activated. 10 minutes can be removed from the "Set-Time" ie. Ideally Heat Pattern molding requires that temperatures are held within 50F of the target temperature (based on the application datasheet for the binder system being employed). The property of activation or "Set-Time" is also influenced by the temperature of the resin coated sand. The No-Bake process requires that all processes be within the range of 70F to 100F.. The general rule of thumb is that for every 10 Degrees C the mixture is above the optimally recommended temperature. ideally a sand that has a rounded shape requires less binder and can provide improved mold/core densities and strengths. The trend in the 1980's was toward developing "No-Bake" or room temperature curing compounds. leaving a gummy residue with poor activation characteristics when the catalyst is introduced. Sand handling has a significant impact on mold/core quality.

) Density The core density also holds a relationship to the cured strength properties of core/molds. Moisture The effects of excessive moisture can have tremendous impact on the properties of the cured core/molds if outside the specified norms for the process being used. the stronger the bond. Up to a limit. This creates a paradox of sorts as there is also a relationship between the speed of activation or the formation of the polymerized bonds and the strength of the core/mold.Acid Demand Value Defined as the property of a sand or additive to affect the cure process as a function of the materials acidity or basicity on the pH scale.... ADV . as the ADV of sands can drift over use. Acid Catalyst No-Bakes systems require an acidic ADV. This condition is counteracted by the use of in-line resin or sand heaters to aid to maintaining an adequate temperature... Typically moisture content is kept below 0.. this is illustrated in the lecture notes as. The Hot-Box. (if you understood that on the first reading you can take my spot in line for the gold star.33% due to it's negative effects. This is the same scale that is used to maintain drinking water. This ADV requirement now demands that the sand be tested to ensure that it is consistent with the process being employed. the slower the polymerization of the resin. by setting 5 minutes prior to the addition of the catalyst. and creating a condition where condensation potentially could occur.. Conversely sand that is below 70F can take significantly longer to set or cure when activated. "The effect of a hot summer day with 100% humidity will cause the tensile strength to drop by 4 times" The effect of moisture condensing on cool sand on a hot day is a significant factor. Warm-Box. The pH scale is defined as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration within an aqueous solution. The paradox exists in the molds ability to resist absorption of moisture when cured but having to use comparably cooler sand to achieve the slower catalyst activation.. and aquariums for fish keepers etc. while sands below 50F are too viscous to be moved effectively and would result in poor activation if at all. while Cold-Box and Phenolic Urethane processes require a more basic ADV.. .I doubt that it requires mentioning that sand/resin mixtures at 53C will not reverse time..

provide lower strength levels and are the least reactive when catalyzed. or Non-Carbon binders are based on Silicate compound(s) or Phosphate/Metal Oxide compound(s).. about the lack of coverage of the "Binder Systems".. . Chromite and Zircon Sands.. especially when a binder is used that has poor collapsibility or too high a Hot Strength. the main groupings are Heat Activate. The In-Organic.The most common way to influence density is through grain shape of the sand. Cold-Box Phenolic/Urethane/Amine Silicate/CO2 Furan/SO2 Acrylic/Epoxy/SO2 (Acrylic) FRC /SO2 Phenolic/Ester (Methyl Formate) Phenolic/CO2 No-Bake Furan/Acid Phenolic/Acid Phenolic/Ester Oil/Urethane Silicate/Ester Phenolic Urethane Phosphate/Metal Oxide Polyol Urethane Heat-Activated Shell Core Oil Phenolic Hot-Box Furan Hot-Box Urea Formaldehyde Hot-Box Warm-Box The table above is the AFS grouping re-typed for quick reference. where a rounded shape will require the least binder for effective coverage. compactability increases between 8 to 10% over an angular grain shape. Again a balance has to be established as too high a density will adversely effect the permeability of the core/mold and create issues associated with gas related defects such as porosity.. This section will not cover every "Heat-Activated" binder type listed but will discuss the more common applications and provide an overview of the group.. though do have a place in specific foundry operations that require other properties that are beneficial... The dimensional integrity of the core within a closed area of the casting potentially could create stress or hot tears. This section and the next 2 sections are more info on binders.. Expansion Characteristics The final consideration in all binder systems. Of note within the "Chemical Binders" is that the majority are classed as Organic. or based on Carbon compound(s). my statement in the previous section (6 & 7). Cold-Box & No-Bake. This section will deal with the Heat Activated class. The chemical binders are grouped by activation. Olivine. The In-Organic binders require more attention when molding. Heat Activated Chemical Binder Systems Let me retract. and especially for cores is the thermal expansion characteristics of the sand being used. Silica Sand has the worst characteristics at almost 4 times the rate of expansion than.

Part of the Shell Processes longevity is it's relative ease of use. The hybrid resins are formulated with . The core mold is a heated box (typically 500F . The mixture is blown or rammed into a core mold. The coating methods described in the text are termed "Hot-Coating" and "Warm-Coating". In hollow cores the box is tilted to allow un-catalyzed sand to pour out for the next core. The sand is held at temperature for a period of time that allows the resins to melt and form either a solid or hollow shell core. resin and typically a chemical wash and mechanical treatment to particulate the sand for usage. Shell Cores provide good surface finish properties due to their flow and density characteristics. Though their application is somewhat restricted due to the environmental issues that surround the emissions of Formaldehyde in production. These process are even more current than the Shell process. Once the Sand/Cereal/water is well mixed a quantity of kerosene oil is added that improves the flowability of the sand and acts as a releasing agent for the formed core. the technical nature of the process generally precludes doing so. and it's adaptability to mold production as well as Core production. Beyond the advantages of long storage periods. and hollow cores aid in the "Shake-Out" properties of the casting. both require precision temp control of sand. Hot Box Core Process The dominant process are Furan...550F) that the sand is blown or rammed into. Typically most foundries purchase core sand that is pre-coated with resin. Phenolic & Urea Formaldehyde. as it was developed during the second World War. having been developed in the early 1960's (much like myself. Although it is possible to resin coat the sand in-house. Shell or Croning Process The Shell process.Core Oil Binder Molding This method has been replaced by other systems but was once a dominant core bonding system and is one of the oldest. also known as the Croning process (named for it's developer Johannes Croning) is comparatively more current than the Core Oil process. The 3 resin types can be used individually or in combination to create specific core types with properties that are tailored to the casting in question. These binder systems made the production of thin-walled castings in the production of engine-blocks possible due to their superior strength and shake-out characteristics. removed and baked at between 350F & 500F in an oven with adequate air flow to evacuate any moisture release from the core. Water is added to activate the cereal material and achieve a measure of green strength. The Core sand is dry mixed with cereal additives. Shell sand has an indefinite shelf life prior to molding and the mold/cores similarly have an indefinite shelf-life prior to use.). The shell process is still in use today.

The common theme appears that this is an Ammonia based molecule that has been modified to fall into an "Organic" classification. What distinguishes this system from the Hot & Warm-Box techniques beyond the use of heat as a catalyst is the use of a vapour or gas as a catalyzing agent. Warm-Box Core Process This method is similar to the Hot-Box listed above. The gas/vapour that is used is from the Amine family. For a PUA mold the venting ensures that 80% of the crosssectional area of the core is exposed to the catalyzing gas. More Chemical Binder Systems ... The Core molds that are used in "Cold-Box" applications have special considerations for passing gases or vapours through the pattern. • • • sodium silicate/carbon dioxide (gas) phenolic urethane/amine (vapor) epoxy acrylic/sulphur dioxide (gas) Although other processes are also in use these three form the majority of the market in use. Phenolic Urethane/Amine (or PUA for short) is ranked as the #1 process in use. The sand that is used is still a resin coated sand though. and isocyanate material that is dissolved by a similar solvent. while offering the flexibility of using plastic core molds at the lower activation heats. with Epoxy Acrylic/Sulphur Dioxide as an alternative method to the PUA system.Cold Box Technology The "Cold-Box" technologies are currently being used in high-end core production and high volume core production shops. Phenolic Urethane/Amine (PUA) This system uses a 2 part resin coating made up of a Phenolic based resin that is dissolved by an organic solvent. The Process also is similar to Hot-Box Core production in that it uses a Furan based resin.consideration to the ADV (Acid Demand Value) of the sand and the pH nature of the resin's themselves to ensure proper polymerization into a stable thermoset. Lastly Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide will be discussed. though the catalyst is a mild acid. Of the most popular in use today (2005) are. resulting in substantially reduced Formaldehyde and Phenol emissions. though the heat activation occurs approx 100F lower than the traditional "Hot-Box" temperature. . The reduction of environmental pollutants. reduced energy consumption required in core activation make this a more viable and economically attractive Core Production method. below are the results of a quick "GoogleDefine" . These compounds are blended with clean sand to form the resin coating. Once properly coated the sand is blown into the Core molds.

The Amine gases are carefully collected and vented off to a scrubber that neutralizes the Amine and recovers the vapour in the form of Acidic Salts. as a result TEA is found more commonly in Core/Mold production usage. Considerations The PUA binder class falls under the definition of a Polymeric resin system.. once the Amine is introduced. www. As with many chemical processes. the remainder of the curing process occurs as the catalyst gases evaporate once the core/mold is removed from the core box. as the gas catalyst interaction with the resin coated sand is crucial. a flush of clean air is introduced to the mold also under pressure. The adherence to local regulations in the use of such a system is essential to being a safe employer and corporate citizen. It is advised that the sand be catalyzed as soon as possible after coating. the proportions of resin. www. the core/mold will shrink in the coarse of the curing• • • One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen by organic radicals.brinkster. Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide The Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide system is a popular alternative to the PUA system just discussed.pqcorp.asp An organic molecule which consists of an ammonia molecule where one or more of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by organic groups. the type of aggregate and/or sand as well the age of the core/mold. the addition of heat to the clean air will accelerate the catalyst action of the Amine gas with the Phenolic Urethane resin mixture.htm The Amine based vapour/gas is introduced under will stick to such benign process as wheat flour binders baked with molasses.html A curing agent used with epoxy resins that is any of a class of ammonia derivatives. . A general rule of thumb would be that industrial organic compounds can be potentially harmful to staff and the environment. The purpose of the air is to ensure that the Amine is completely passed through the mold/core. The 2 (two) most common Amine based catalysts are triethylamine (TEA) and dimetylethylamine (DMEA)... as well as remove any pronounced odor or health hazard. Also proper design of core venting and aspiration of the Core/Mold box is a prerequisite to consistently stable core/mold production. This system is classed as an "In-Organic" binder system and as such has fewer health and environmental concerns associated with it's use.airproducts.. DMEA is the more effective catalyzing agent but has a higher cost and also has a much stronger odour. For my part theworkshop. This type of chemical composition has some properties that have to be accounted for. The primary concern is dimensional accuracy. Also of note is that even with a clean-air flush the core/mold is still only 70 to 80% cured. In closing this section any chemical system that has an acronym like PUA likely has a poor environmental impact and this is true in this case. Unlike some core/molding systems PUA has a very short shelf life for the resin coated sand. The amount of shrinkage is a function of the density of the core/

The Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide system was introduced in the 1950's and pre-dates Phenolic Urethane/Amine. Of concern with this process is the core/mold tendency to absorb moisture in humid environments. so has fewer porosity defects. This system uses a blend of both Acrylic and Epoxy resins to derive the best strength properties of both compounds. and isocyanate from an environmental view. although some additives are available to improve this property for Ferrous metal castings.5% to 2. The reclamation system most commonly used is a "Packed Tower Scrubber" this system uses a water and 5% Sodium Hydroxide . while Epoxy based resins provide excellent Hot Strength properties though with longer cure-times and gassing requirements. These proportions are mixed to sand in 0. better flow properties from the mixer through the hopper and into the core blowing machinery. The benefits of this system are reduced scrap sand.. Assuming a 60sec gassing time to activate or catalyze the binder. this adverse property should be attended to with air conditioning and humidity handling systems. The strength properties of the Core/Mold are closely related to the Sodium Silicate ratio. with poor hot strength characteristics. A blend of 35 parts Epoxy to 65 parts Acrylic (with peroxide for Ferrous applications) seems ideal. quite poor. Also this property implies a relatively short shelf-life of core/molds. mechanical reclamation has poor results though some water based systems are available. Though the catalyst gas (Sulfer Dioxide) does require additional equipment (Scrubbers) for reclamation. ureaformaldehyde. Similarly the Sodium Silicate binder has a lower environmental impact and can be considered comparatively inert. The Shake-Out characteristics for a Sodium Silicate/CO2 core/mold are unfortunately. The temperature of the Sodium Silicate mixture when gassed has a significant impact on compressive strength of the core/mold. or alternatively a 50/50 mix for Aluminum production is used. these additives can't be used in non-ferrous applications. though I couldn't find the reason in either the lecture notes or text. The popularity of PUA is largely due to superior strength properties over Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide. Epoxy Acrylic/Sulfur Dioxide (FRC) This final "Cold-Box" system is also known as the FRC system. @ 32F the compressive strength is approx 20PSI.0% concentrations. a fully cured mold will have a high initial strength but should be used the same day as it will have fully 1/5th the strength of an under cured core/mold 48hrs later. has no odour and will NOT be a respiratory irritant. The duration of gassing has an effect on Core/Mold Strengths. Acrylic based resins have excellent green strength and moldability. This system is free of Water and Nitrogen from a gas generation perspective and also Phenol.Primarily the use of CO2 as the catalyzing gas/vapour removes the requirement of a scrubber as the gas in inert. @ 60F it is close to 50PSI and at 100F is just under 200PSI compressive strength.5 parts Soda compounds.. Similarly the sand reclamation process can be hampered by vitrification of the core due to heat. One of the pluses of a Sodium Silicate/CO2 system is that it generates very little gases when compared to Organic systems. Optimal performance has been established with 1 part Silicate to 2.

. with a lower limit of approx 50F and an upper limit of approx 110F.. Strip & Cure times should be predictable consistent durations that are specific to the resin type being used... As a last resort the core/mold may be baked in an oven to ensure all moisture and solvents have been evaporated. I can't see how regional jurisdiction would matter. The moisture has to be evaporated from the core/mold to ensure that the binder is not under-cured and proportionally weaker as a result.. In an effort to accommodate the temperature requirements of the binder system that a foundry is using. how can there be such vague guide-lines for disposal of this type of material.. The sand/resin mixture may become too viscous below 50F to flow properly.5.. The first phase is "WorkTime" this is the period that all mixing transport. Temperatures above 110F tend to evaporate the solvents within the resin(s). again a process that I will not undertake for the sake of profit. The resultant Sodium Sulphate solution has a pH of 8.. lastly the "Cure-Time" is the period of time that has to elapse once the core starts to set-up to the time that the resins are fully cured or polymerized. Local laws and environmental regulation will dictate whether this can be discharged or requires specific disposal considerations. . the qty & type of catalyst added. The Air-Set binder system is generally used by smaller "Jobber-Shops" or low volume foundries due to the additional time required for the binder system to cure once molded. the second is the "Strip-Time" referring to the period that has to elapse before core/mold has polymerized enough to hold it's shape and be removed from the core box. either this effluent is benign or hazardous. resulting in gummy resin that also does not coat or flow properly.. The Air-Set or No-Bake systems are distinguished from the cold-Box systems just covered in that they are catalyzed by a liquid rather than a gas agent. As an aside. Temperature & Humidty The considerations of temperature and humidity can be even more critical with some of the binder systems that generate water as a byproduct of the polymerization process. The ideal temperature or mid-point from which to work is between 75F & 85F. As discussed in a previous module. the 10C/18F Rule is applicable. Similarly any surplus moisture or un-catalyzed solvents may contribute to excessive gassing and porosity defects in the casting. The basic premise is that every rise in sand/resin temperature of approx 10C/18F cuts the current phase time in half. and the resin will not be able to properly coat the grains if not pre-coated. This binder system has 3 (three) distinct phases or durations that start immediately after the catalyst is added to the coated sand mixture and occur at ambient room temperature.. No-Bake Air-Set Binder Systems This the final section for this course as well as the last of the Core/Mold Binder systems. Work.solution. molding and compaction will occur within. Sand heaters and/or chiller may be needed to achieve consistent results. the ambient temperature of the sand and room as well as humidity. The Furfuryl alcohol is said to be miscible with water.curiously I think that this would open the door to litigation on the basis of "False Advertising" if sold as a "No-Bake" binder system.html The capability of being mixed. Furan is a clear. eg. water and ethyl alcohol are very volatile and highly flammable liquid with a boiling point close to room temperature. It is toxic and may be carcinogenic. Two liquids are said to be miscible if they are partially or completely soluble in each other. These are generically identified as Low. The Big-3 As with the Cold-Box system there are 3 (three) main families of binders that will be discussed • • • the Furan/acid system the Silicate/ester system the Phenolic urethane system Furan/Acid System The first is the Furan/Acid Capable of being mixed en.) ccinfoweb. www. This system is categorized as the Furan Family but contains no furan. to clarify this see below. www. colorless.havoline.html Miscible means able to be mixed. is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. and readily polymerizes with acidic catalysts to a solid state at room temperature The Furan family has 3 sub groupings based upon the Nitrogen & water content of the system. google define: Furan • • • Resin formed from reactions involving furfuryl alcohol alone or in combination with other constituents. but rather is composed of either Urea Formaldehyde (UF) or Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) as well as a Furfuryl alcohol. ..htm The system is considered as the term miscible is understood to mean that the two liquids are completely soluble in each other. google define: Miscible • • • • Capable of being mixed in any concentration without separation of (See also Solubility.cogsci. Medium & High Nitrogen systems. also known as furane and furfuran. www.ccohs. Furan.html a colorless toxic flammable liquid used in the synthesis of nylon www. Commonly. mutually soluble.

80% 0. The rate of cure can be accelerated up to a point. In closing. The sand that is used can adversely affect the curing process if it has a high ADV (Acid Demand Value). What is stated is that higher moisture contents do generally lead to slower cure-times. with the Sulfonic acids yielding faster cure times. The catalyst reaction is exothermic or one that generates heat. although neither text or lecture notes explicitly say this. Though the effect of nitrogen is less pronounced with Non-Ferrous castings. On the negative side SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide) is produced during the casting process.15 10 . while Silica. Sand Resin Catalyst Typical Material proportions Mold 98. and is generally from either the Phosphoric or Sulfonic families. The catalyst material is an acid.24% Core 98.Low Medium High Furan/Acid Binder Classification Nitrogen % 0-3 2-8 5 .11 Water % 0-5 5 .00% 0. good Hot-Strength & Erosion Resistance and relative ease of sand reclamation. The Nitrogen (and by association moisture) content can be modified by the use of "Low-N" Furfuryl alcohol. I think it is self evident. The third issue is the relationship between Nitrogen (N) and moisture.. although not stated. beyond which core/mold quality is effected by dried weak surfaces that are prone to being friable when cast. . and do not include the volume of sand/aggregate. The tensile strength of the core/mold is also negatively impacted by higher levels of moisture. The acidic nature of the catalyst is what activates and precipitates polymerization. the Furan Family of binders are among the most widely used systems for the class of NoBake/Air-set. They offer flexible work. it is problematic with ferrous (especially steel) castings. strip and cure times. it's possible to theorize a relationship between the moisture content created during the polymerization phase and rate of cure.96% 0.. effectively neutralizing the catalyst before the curing process is complete.70% 1. Chromite and Zircon sands would be acceptable.30% Note that molds generally have less resin & catalyst than cores. Olivine sand does have a high ADV and would be considered unsuitable.30 These percentages are representative of the percentile of the polymerized resin. The release of residual formaldehyde during the sand reclamation process also poses health and environmental concerns. as well as the toxicity of the resin & catalyst components involved.

It should also be noted that In-Organic molecular bonds are generally weaker than Organic 56.html an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol www.4% 54.2% In esters of carboxylic acids.htm A molecule containing an ester linkage. The Table below better illustrates the weight ratios for the range of Silicate/Ester binder resins. the -COOH group of the acid and the -OH group of the alcohol lose a water and become a -COO. .I think that the shift to "Off-Shore" high volume casting may have motivators beyond "CheapLabour".9% Wt. is it possible that more industrially friendly environmental policies and lax Work-place Safety governance could be contributing to the trend? Or is it the whining North-American worker that thinks s/he is above carcinogenic compounds and would rather breathe clean air than Formaldehyde laden clouds of sulfur dioxide that is to blame? Perhaps the purpose of this course is to illustrate what NOT to use for sustainable production. www. Silicate/Ester Chemical Binder Family This family is composed of a Sodium Silicate resin that is In-Organic that is catalyzed by an organic Acid Ester.0.4 a carbonyl group bonded to an O that is in turn bonded to a C.carpetbuyershandbook.html Above is a quick reference to better define an Ester. www. Low Medium High Silicate/Ester Resin Composition Na2O SiO2 H2O 15.85 google define: ester • • • • An ester is a compound formed from the reaction between an acid and an alcohol. The range of ratio's for foundry usage in Core/Mold production is from 2.4% 12.2% 31.0 up to 3. The catalyzing Ester is added at a rate of 10 to 12% of the resin used to achieve consistent core/mold production.0 2.7% 30.shtml Compound formed by the elimination of water and bonding of an alcohol and an organic Ratio 2. www.eere.5% 11. The various binder compositions are achieved by varying the ratio of Silica (SiO2) to Soda (Na2O) when mixing the resin with water.8% 56.learnchem. The same considerations of ADV of the sand are applicable to this system as the polymerization occurs as a result of the acidic catalyst.

This can be improved by additives (what these additives are. Disadvantages The in-organic nature of the resin bonding impacts both shake-out and sand reclamation. Advantages The primary advantages to this system are environmental compared to the Furan Family. The 3 (three) Ester catalysts that are commonly used within the foundry industry are glycerol diacetate that provides the fastest curing action. Phenolic Urethane Family The final class of No-Bake/Air-Set binder families are the Phenolic Urethanes introduced in the 1970's. The speed and degree of hardness achieved is related to the type of acidic ester used as a catalyst. with the difference being an Acidic Liquid over the Vapour/Gas Amine catalyst used in Cold-Box production.The sand must be above 15C. Moisture absorption is less of a problem with this No-Bake system over the PUA Cold-Box system. Advantages The Phenolic Urethane No-Bake system offers the fastest Cure-Time. The binder and coated sand has long storage stability. as the bond is not broken by heat. This system is most prominent in the production of small to medium sized core/molds. The cured core/molds exhibit good strength characteristics. absence of Sulfur. The addition of the acidic ester causes the resin to gel and harden. Silicate/Ester is better suited to a broader range of applications covering both Ferrous & Non-Ferrous casting due to the absence of Nitrogen pick-up. while maintaining a high work to strip time ratio. followed by ethylene glycol diacetate which is a midrange curing speed Ester and lastly glycerol triacetate classed as a slow speed catalyst. and the grains are coated with the sodium silicate resin. Disadvantages . and whether they drag down the environmental performance of the Silica Ester family is not discussed) The strength of the core/molds is also lower than that of the other No-Bake/Air-Set families. phosphorous or formaldehyde emissions. This class of binders is quite similar to the PUA cold-box system discussed in Module #9. Proprietary blends of the three Esters have been formulated to offer a finer degree of control over cure rate and speed. while providing excellent shakeout and sand reclamation properties. with an inorganic resin composition.

When I first built my Blast Furnace.. This generally leaves enough material to shape as closely as possible to finished dimension. Generally I guesstimate the rough dimensions of a part and cut a chunk of foam with a hand saw at least 0. and thought it would be a quick way to get started. I doubt the the larger bead type foam would be of much use.The presence of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the solvents can't be a good thing.. This course (MTB72) is a necessary evil. Also a module on current regulations. I just wanted to try it out on something quick & dirty. The tight cell structure is a key feature. Unfortunately I can't compare Lost Foam to Cavity Molding or Green Sand Casting as I've never used green sand. I picked this up at a flea . typical Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and government regulatory bodies that oversee the Foundry industry would have been helpful. as it cuts easily and can be shaped with common hand tools. I buy mine in 2 ft by 8 ft by 2 inch sheets. The results I had were so much better than what I expected that I've just continued on with it. In this case I'm cutting out an octagon shape that will be turned down to be a face plate for my lathe. The foam that I use is construction insulation. As well as the production of smoke and odors during the casting process (I wonder what they are? Are they healthy smokes and odors like those found in cigarettes???) The process is generally not used for ferrous (Steel) casting due to the presence of Nitrogen. During that experience I made a small hot wire foam cutter. I first started using foam for molding fiberglass. since I didn't have a Cope & Drag setup or the sand clay mixtures readily available I started to focus more on Foam. Notice the el' Cheapo drill press. in that it is rather boring and pretty dry but did cover a fairly broad range of basic knowledge and gave an overview of industrial practices with regard to Binder systems. I had read about Lost Foam. Secondly.. Closing comments. I think that an opportunity was lost to drill deeper into the binder systems with a greater emphasis on Work-place safety and environmental concerns.25" over-size. This is great stuff to work with.. Even though the cutter is fun to use. it does tend to distort the form as it cuts and requires quite a bit of hand finishing to clean-up plugs. Lost-Foam Metal Casting This page was created in response to a few requests that I've had regarding Lost Foam Metal Casting method that I use.

At this point I'm using both hands and trying to steady off the base of the press. Once the chunk is cut. I'm using my index finger on my right hand as a light sensor as the block spins. . there's enough velocity on the outer edges to give you nasty burn if you rub-up against a turning edge. but for me it seems to be easier than having the drill flopping all over the bench. I true-up the block into a cylinder with a wood rasp. It seems that the faster the foam spins the better finish I get. Obviously the threaded rod and foam block get chucked-up into an electric drill. A nut and large flat washer are located on either side of the foam block to help keep it flat or perpendicular to the threaded rod. After having tried at slower speeds I noticed that there is a greater ripping action on the foam leaving a more mottled finish requiring more effort to produce a piece. After having shaped the block into a cylinder I use a woodworking chisel to turndown the cylinder into whatever shape I need. This is adequate to keep the rod from spinning inside the foam as you shape it. as it's bolted to a table on wheels. During the shaping process I tend to use the sharp corners of the chisel and the face as shown in this picture. Generally I hand tighten the nuts to the point that the washers sink flat with the surface of the foam. while my main press is bolted to a stationary 16ft bench. and just love it. Always angle the chisel point with the direction of rotation. Similarly you may loose your grip on the chisel and have it fly across the shop. It doesn't have to be a drill for 5 or 6 bucks. drill a hole to accept a length of 3/8ths threaded rod. Even though it's just foam. I find the center. or you may find that the chisel gets drawn into the foam and ruins the piece.

Not that the specifics of this casting have much to do with Lost-Foam Casting but I thought this was a good illustration of how easy foam is to deal with. The factory glaze or finish should be broken while on the press with the sand paper as well. Since it requires so little force to cut through the foam. This problem is more pronounced with flat square pieces. I like to start with a 200 grit sand paper to remove any little flakes and finish with a flat metal file. I wanted 4 slots cut squarely on the face. I recently picked up 20lbs of the finest sand I've ever seen. Here I'm using my trusty (knock-off) dremel tool with a quarter inch routing bit. the screened sand is poured off into a container. The tub on wheels is full of used sand that I have yet to sift. and old pot are what I use for pouring my castings into. but pulleys are just as easy to make with the groove cut and finished. wooden box. Here my assistant carefully sifts the sand through screen stapled to a shallow box. I will have to get more sand. the Steel bucket. These pictures are of a square shouldered faceplate. The factory finish tends to cause a warp or curl on pieces once the opposite side is cut.The last stage is to get a smooth finish without removing any more material than necessary. it's easy to use a steel rule as a guide without damaging the bit. but I have enough to pour off 3 castings at a time with this set-up. By using a wisk any debris is easily swept off the screen onto the floor. Unfortunately it was on a beach in northern Quebec during a .

this only adds to your anxiety that the pour didn't turnout. I always find that there is a split second when the metal pools ontop of the sprue and then there is a quite poof with a puff of black smoke. but it's in Ontario and about to be put to the test. Now all that is left to do is is clean-up your tools. and generally fishing trip. I start by poking the top of the sprue to see how solid it feels. To make matters worse the sand does look like it is shifting slightly. there is a knack to pouring fast but carefully. It took some convincing to get the pilot to let me bring it back. I opted to use my trusty soup pot. pace around the mold pot. There is no clay. As this happens you are pouring and MUST KEEP pouring. . Here is the faceplate plug with a 9/16th shaft through the bore and a sprue shaped and pinned into place. it's always in the back of your mind that liquid metal could end-up flying in all directions whenever you encounter an unknown variable. Ultimately. oil. dry sand. just dry loose screened sand. Placed the faceplate plug roughly in the center and covered it with more loose. petro-bond. This is the first time I'll be trying steel pins to hold 2 pieces together. This picture doesn't show it well. After about 10 minutes I'm almost crazed with anticipation. water. As I've said in other pages. but I try and create a natural funnel with the sand to help direct the metal onto the foam sprue. This stuff is so fine it feels soapy when you run your fingers through it. you want to pour the metal directly onto the top of the sprue as fast as it can take the metal. Though it may seem paranoid to be fearful of any changes to process. poured in about an inch and half of loose sand. I can never tell much from the poke test but it does tend to kill at least 15 to 20 seconds.

. The moment of truth. . My slots seem to have come out fine as well. so is the pipe to place the bore hole. The finish from the French sand also has noticeably improved this casting. Steel pins are OK. Compared to previous pieces there is less pitting. Hopefully this helps you explore the possibilities of LostFoam Casting.This is it.. There is a slight concave property to the face plate that will be machined off. I grab a large set of pliers or channel locks and pull it out of the sand. After a bit of clean-up with a wire brush and file. the sprues are cut-off. I think that this is from not taking off enough of the factory foam finish. This time everything when well.

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