Approximately what percentage of the world's gross domestic product is spent on projects?
25 percent


Which of the following is not a potential advantage of using good project managment? a. Shorter development times b. higher worker morale c. lower cost of capital d. higher profit margins
c. lower cost of capital


A ____________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.


Which of the following is not an attribute of a project? a. projects are unique b. projects are developed using progressive elaboration c. projects have a primary customer or sponsor d. projects involve little uncertainty
d. projects involve little uncertainty


Which of the following is not part of the triple constraint of project management? a. meeting scope goals b. metting time goals c. meeting communications goals d. meeting cost goals.
c. meeting communications goals


_____________ is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
Project management


Project portfolio management addresses __________ goals of an organization, while project management addresses ___________ goals.
strategic, tactical


Several application development projects done for the same functional group might best be managed as part of a


Which of the following is not one of the top ten skills or competencies of an effective project manager? a. people skills b. leadership c. integrity d. technical skills
d. technical skills

10. What

is the certification program called that the Project Management Institute provides?
Project Management Professional (PMP)

11. To

handle complex situations effectively, project managers need to take a holistic view of a project and understand how it relates to the larger organization. ________ describes this holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
systems thinking

12. ________

addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system
systems management

13. Which

of the following best describes a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs?
systems analysis

14. Which

of the following is an overall model for thinking about things as systems?
systems philosophy

15. The

idea of addressing the three spheres of systems management - business, ________, and technology - can have a huge impact on selecting and managing projects successfully

16. Which

organizational frame is very rational and focuses on coordination and control? a. political frame b. structural frame c. symbolic frame d. human resources frame
b. structural frame

17. The

________ frame recognizes that there are often mismatches between the needs of the organization and the needs of individuals and groups and works to resolve any potential problems
human resources

18. Project

managers in ________ organizational structures have staff from various functional areas working on their projects

19. An

organization that uses a ________ organizational structure earns revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract. These companies often hire people specifically to work on particular projects

20. A

________ organizational structure is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart

21. What

is most important about any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. This philosophy describes the ________ frame

22. In

organizational culture, the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment describes a
open-systems focus

23. Some

projects have a senior manager called a ________ who acts as a key proponent for a project

24. A

________ is a collection of project phases

project life cycle

25. In

the ________ life cycle phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance

reports to stakeholders.

26. In

a ________ life cycle, the project team spends a large portion of the project effort attempting to clarify the requirements of the entire system and then producing a design

27. Important

attributes of the ________ life cycle model are that the projects are mission driven and component based, using time-based cycles to meet target dates
Adaptive Software Development(ASD)

28. The

waterfall, spiral, incremental build, prototype, and Rapid Application Development (RAD) models are examples of a ________ life cycle model

29. Known

as phase exits or kill points, ________ are very important for keeping projects on track and determining if they should be continued, redirected, or terminated
management reviews

30. Which

of the following is a Web-based conferencing tool that a multinational organization can use to record demos that can be stored in the organization's wiki?

31. Project

management ________ progress from initiation activities to planning activities, executing activities, monitoring and controlling activities, and closing activities
process groups

32. Which

project management process group includes devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project address the organization's needs

33. Examples

of the ________ project management process group include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.

34. ________

processes take place during each phase of a project. Therefore, you cannot equate process groups with project phases

35. A

common ________ process is performance reporting, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track
monitoring and controlling

36. Archiving

project files, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project are all activities often involved in which project management process group?

37. The

level of activity and length of each process group varies for every project. Normally, the ________ processes require the most resources and time, followed by the planning processes.

38. The

________ processes are usually the shortest and require the least amount of resources and time
initiating and closing

39. Research

suggests that companies working to implement best practices should spend at least ________ percent of project time in initiating and planning

40. If

changes to the project objectives or plans are required, ________ processes ensure that these changes are made efficiently and effectively to meet stakeholder needs and expectations.
monitoring and controlling

41. The

majority of project management processes occur as part of the ________ process group

42. A

________ describes how things should be done, and different organizations often have different ways of doing things.

43. Which

of the following is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members?
Rational Unified Process (RUP)

44. An

organization may initiate information technology projects for several reasons, but the most important reason is to ________.
support business objectives

45. A

business case often includes which of the following? a. preliminary project requirements b. all of these choices c. schedule estimates d. critical assumptions and constraints
b. all of these

46. Which

of the following is an output of project initiation?

a project charter

47. Which

of the following is a common output of the planning process? a. identifying key stakeholders b. creating the project management plan c. creating the procurement management plan d. assigning the project manager
b creating the project managemnt plan

48. Which

of the following is a common output of the closing process? a. a lessons-learned report b. change requests c. a cost estimate d. quality control updates
a. a lessons learned report

49. The

________ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.

50. Which

of the following is an output of the monitoring and controlling processes? a. qualified sellers list b. the stakeholders register

c. change requests d. the project charter
change requests

51. Project

________ management involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a project's life cycle

52. Which

of the following primary processes of integration management involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle? a. monitoring and controlling the project work b. directing and managing project execution c. performing integrated change control d. developing the project management plan
c. performing integrated change control

53. Which

of the following primary processes of integration management involves carrying out the project management plan by performing the activities included in it? a. directing and managing project execution b. monitoring and controlling the project work c. performing integrated change control d. developing the preliminary project scope statement
a. directing and managing project execution

54. Which

of the following primary processes of integration management involves overseeing activities to meet the performance objectives of the project? a. performing integrated change control b. directing and managing project execution c. developing the preliminary project scope statement d. monitoring and controlling the project work.
monitoring and controlling the project work

55. ________

management involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of the project

56. Which

of the following involves determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, studying opportunities and threats in the business environment, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services? a. configuration management b. project integration management c. project planning d. strategic planning
d. strategic planning

57. After

identifying strategic goals, the next step in the planning process for selecting information technology projects is to perform a ________.
business area analysis

58. One

method for selecting projects based on broad organizational needs is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, ________, and will.

59. It

is often easier to get approval and funding for projects that address ________ because the organization must respond to these categories of projects to avoid hurting their business
problems or directives

60. An

organization should consider only projects with a positive ________ if financial value is a key criterion for project selection
net present value

61. Which

of the following describes benefits minus costs or income minus expenses? a. cash flow b. payback analysis c. cost of capital d. net present value
a. cash flow

62. What

is also called the capitalization rate or opportunity cost of capital?

discount rate

63. In

net present value (NPV) analysis, the ________ is a multiplier for each year based on the discount rate and year.
discount factor

64. ________

is the result of subtracting the project costs from the benefits and then dividing by the costs
Return on investment (ROI)

65. You

can determine a project's ________ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project
internal rate of return(IRR)

66. A

________ is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria. These criteria can include factors such as meeting broad organizational need or addressing problems, opportunities, or directives.
weighted scoring model

67. A(n)

________ is a methodology that converts an organization's value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
balanced scorecard

68. After

top management decides on which projects to pursue, it needs to create and distribute documentation to authorize project initiation. This documentation can take many forms, but one common form is the ________.
project charter

69. A

________ consists of an approved project management plan plus approved changes

70. ________

involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle
Integrated change control

71. One

of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the ________ of the project

72. ________

can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.

73. Which

of the following processes of project scope management involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them?
collecting requirements

74. What

process of project scope management involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components
creating the WBS

75. Key

project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables of the project during the ________ process of project scope management.
scope verification

76. What

process of project scope management involves reviewing the project charter and preliminary scope statement created during the initiation process and adding more information during the planning process as requirements are developed and change requests are approved?
scope definition

77. ________

is the first step in project scope management and is often the most

collecting requirements

78. The

project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a ________.
work breakdown structure

79. A

________ represents the lowest level of work that the project manager is using to monitor and control the project
work package

80. One

approach for constructing a WBS is the ________, in which you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
analogy approach

81. In

which approach to creating a WBS do team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible?
bottom-up approach

82. Most

project managers consider the ________ of WBS construction to be conventional; you start with the largest items of the project and break them into their subordinate items
top-down approach

83. Instead

of writing tasks down in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, the ________ allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.
mind-mapping approach

84. What

is a basic principle that applies to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary?
A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it.

85. The

approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary form the
scope baseline

86. Even

when the project scope is fairly well defined, many information technology projects suffer from ________, which is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger
scope creep

87. The

project management plan, requirements documentation, the requirements traceability matrix, and validated deliverables are the main inputs for ________.
scope verification

88. ________

is the difference between planned and actual performance.


89. ________

uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders - the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on - to jointly define and design information systems
Joint Application Design (JAD)

90. ________

is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them
Use case modeling

91. What

processe of project time management involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities?
activity sequencing

92. Activity

resource requirements, a resource breakdown structure, requested changes, and updates to the activity attributes and resource calendars are the main outputs of ________.
activity resource estimating

93. Which

of the following processes of project time management involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables?
activity definition

94. What

process of project time management involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities?
activity duration estimating

95. A(n)

________ on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration.


96. A

project team might follow good practice and not start the detailed design of a new information system until the users sign off on all of the analysis work. This is an example of a(n) ________ dependency.

97. A(n)

________ dependency is inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project and is sometimes referred to as hard logic

98. A

________ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities.
network diagram

99. What

describes a relationship where the "from" activity must be finished before the "to" activity can be finished?


On several information technology projects, a group of activities all start simultaneously, such as the many tasks that occur when a new system goes live. This is an example of which type of relationship?


A ________ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project's resources by category and type.
resource breakdown structure


The planned schedule dates for activities are called the ________.

baseline dates


________ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
Critical path method (CPM)


________ describes the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities
Free slack


In critical path analysis, a ________ determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity
forward pass


What involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence?
fast tracking


________ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date
Critical chain scheduling


There are many issues involved in controlling changes to project schedules. It is important first to ensure that the project schedule is ________.


________ states that work expands to fill the time allowed

Parkinson's Law


________ occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time



Many organizations claim that using project management provides advantages, such as ________. a. improved customer relations b. higher profit margins c. all of these d. shorter development times
c. all of these


According to the Project Management Institute, a(n) ________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result


If the vice president of sales initiates a project to improve direct product sales using the Internet, he or she might be the ________.
project sponsor


To create a successful project, a project manager must consider scope, time, and cost and balance these often-competing goals. This is sometimes referred to in project management as the ________.
triple constraint


________ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project


Project ________ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully


Project ________ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.


Project ________ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information


Project ________ management involves acquiring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization.


Project ________ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas


Motivation techniques, empathic listening, team building exercises, resource histograms, and project management charts are examples of the tools and techniques project managers can use in project ________ management
human resources


In many organizations, project managers also support an emerging business strategy of project ________ management, in which organizations group and manage projects as a portfolio of investments that contributed to the entire enterprise's success


Which of the following helps projects succeed? a. customized software infrastructure b. broad scope c. flexible basic requirements d. executive support
d. executive support


Which IT project portfolio category helps transform business?



Generally, a ________ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.


Generally, a ________ often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals


A ________ is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format
Gantt chart


Members of the Navy Polaris missile/submarine project first used ________ in 1958 to help managers model the relationships among project tasks.
network diagrams


By August 2008, there were roughly how many certified Project Management Professionals (PMPs)?


Microsoft Project is the most widely used project management software today and is an example of a ________ tool


Which of the following is not part of the three-sphere model for systems management? a. business b. information c. technology d. organization
b. information


Which of the four frames of organizaitons addresses how meetings are run, employee dress codes, and expected work hours?


Personnel in a _____ organizational structure often report to two or more bosses.


Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where all of the following characteristics are high except_____. a. member identity b. group emphasis c. risk tolerance d. control
d. control


A _____ is a product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, or hardware, produced or provided as part of a project.


Which of the following is not a phase of the traditional project life

cycle? a. systems analysis b. concept c. development d. implementation
a. systems analysis


What is the term used to describe a framework of the phases involved in developing information systems?
systems development life cycle


Another name for a phase exit is a _____ point.



The nature of information technology projects is different from projects in many other industries because they are very


What term is used to describe when an organization acquires goods and or sources from an outside source in another country?


A _____ is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.



_____ processes include coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and produce the products, services, or results of the project or phase.


Which process group normally requires the most resources and time?



What methodology was developed in the UK, defines 45 separate subprocesses, and organizes these into eight process groups?


What is often completed before initiating a project?

business case


A work breakdown structure, project schedule, and cost estimates are outputs of the _____.


Initiating involves developing a project charter, which is part of the project _____ management knowledge area.


_____ involves measuring progress toward project objectives and taking corrective actions.
Monitoring and controlling


What type of report do project eams create to reflect on what went right and what went wrong with the project?
lessons-learned report


Many people use _____ to have a standard format for preparing various project management documents.


Which of the following processes is not part of project integration management? a. develop the project business case b. develop the project charter c. develop the project management plan d. close the project or phase
a. develop the project business case


What is the last step in the four-stage planning process for selecting information technology projects.
resource allocation


Which of the following is not a best practice for new product development projects? a. align projects and rsources with business strategy b. select projects that will take less than two years to provide payback c. focus on customer needs in identifying projects d. assign project managers to lead projects
b. select projects that will take less than two years to complete


A new govenment law requires an organization to report data in a new way. Under which category would a new information system project to provide this data fall?


If estimates for total dicsounted benefits for a project are $120,000 and total discounted costs are $100,000, what is the estimated return on investment (ROI)


A _____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project's objectives and management.
project charter


Which of the following items is not normally included in a project charter? a. the name of the project manager b. budget information c. stakeholder signatures d. a Gantt Chart
d. Gantt Chart


_____ ensures that the descriptions of the project's products are correct and complete.
Configuration management


Which of the following is not a suggestion for performing integrated change control? a. use good configuration management b. minimize change c. establish a formal change control system d. view project management as a process of constant communication and negotiation
b. minimize change


What tool and technique is used for all of the other project integration management processes?
expert judgment


_____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.


Which tool or technique for collecting requirements is often the most expensive and time consuming?


A _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.


What approach to developing a WBS involves writing down or drawing ideas in a nonlinear format?


Assume you have a project with major catagories called planning, analysis, design, and testing. What level of the WBS would these items fall under?


Which of the following is not a best practice that can help in avoiding scope problems on information technoglogy projects? a. keep the scope realistic b. use off -the-shelf hardware and software whenever possible c. follow good project management processes d. don't involve to many users in scope management
d. don't involve to many users in scope management


What major restaurant chain terminated a large project after spending $170 million on it, primarily because they realized the project scope was too much to hande?


Scope _____ is often achieved by a customer inspection and then signoff on key deliverables.


Which of the following is not a suggestion for improving user input? a. Develop a good project selection process for information technology projects b. have users on the project team c. co-locate users with developers d. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
d. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis


Project managment software helps you develop a _____, which serves as a basis for creating Gantt charts, assigning resources, and allocating cost.


What is the first process in planning a project schedule?

defining activities


Predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions are all examples of
activity attributes


As the project manager for a software develpment project, you are helping to develop the project schedule. You decide that writing code for a system should not start until users sign off on the analysis work. What type of dependency is this?


You cannot start editing a technical report until someone else completes the first draft. What type of dependency does this represent?


Which of the following statements is false? a. A resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project's rewources by category and type. b. Duration and effort are synonymous terms. c. A three-point estimate is an estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate. d. A Gantt chart is a common tool for displaying project schedule information


What symbol on a Gantt chart represents a slipped milestone?

a white diamond


What type of diagram shows planned and actual project schedule information?
a Tracking Gantt chart


_____ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.


Which of the following statements is false? a. "Growing Grass" was on the critical path for a large theme park project. b. The critical path is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which a project can be completed. c. A forward pass through a project netwrok diagram determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity. d. Fast tracking is a tchnique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greates amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost.


_____ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protec the project

completion date.
Critical chain scheduling


Scope refers to the length of time a project should take.



2. Program management and project management are the same items



The critical path always includes the most critical activities



PERT weighted average includes a degree of uncertainty or risk in the



____ involves working with stakeholders to create a document that formally authorizes a project
Project Charter


A Gantt chart displays start and end dates of an activity via:

Calendar Format


The ___ grants project management certification



The _____ is generally considered the segment with the highest risk

Early Phase


___ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the finish date
Total Slack


____ should serve as a foundation for deciding which projects to pursue

Strategic Planning


The five main process groups for good project management include all

but? Initiating Controlling Cost Control Executing Closing Planning
Cost Control


WBS means

Work Breakdown Structure


A __ is a methodology that convert’s a firm’s drivers such as customer service, financial performance to a series of define metrics
Balanced Scorecard


In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all criteria weights must total



Duration only includes the actual amount of time spent on an activity



____ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence
Fast Tracking


Project scope is a technique that uses branches radiating out of a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.


A milestone is

An object in a Gantt chart that generally has no duration


Which of the following does not generally involve the time value of money? ROI NPV Cash Payback Period All include the time value of money
All include the time value of money


Which step is often ‘shorted’ by Proj Mgr’s but should not be ignored in the PM process

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