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Learning Objectives : 1) State Hooke’s law, and note the conditions under which it is valid. 2) Compute the elastic modulus from a stress-strain diagram. 3) Distinguish between elastic and plastic deformations, both by definition, and in terms of behavior on a stressstrain plot. 4) Given an engineering stress-strain diagram for a metallic material, determine (a) the proportional limit, (b) the yield strength (0.002 strain offset), and (c) the tensile strength, and (d) estimate the percent elongation. 5) Define anelasticity.
6) For the tensile deformation of a ductile cylindrical specimen, describe changes in specimen profile to the point of fracture. 7) Give a brief definition of ductility, and schematically sketch the engineering stress-strain behaviors for both ductile and brittle metals. 8) For metallic materials cite how elastic modulus, tensile and yield strengths, and ductility change with increasing temperature.
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Mechanical properties are also used to help specify and identify metals • How to determine mechanical properties of a material? By performing standard test method Page 2 of 12 . Therefore. Introduction When in service.g. The consistency in the manner in which tests are conducted and in the interpretation of their results is accomplished by using standardized testing techniques ( coordinated by professional societies e. The mechanical properties are determined by performing tests. The mechanical behavior of a material reflects the relationship between its response and deformation to an applied load or force. it is necessary to know the characteristics of the material and to design the member from which it is made such that any resulting deformation will not excessive and fracture will not occur. the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)) What are mechanical properties? • Mechanical properties relate deformation to an applied load or force Why do we study mechanical properties? • To know the characteristics of the material so that any resulting deformation will not be excessive and fracture will not occur • The mechanical properties of metals determine the range of usefulness of the metal and establish the service that can be expected. many materials are subjected to forces or loads.
g. Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Monsanto) • The specimen is deformed. the applied load and the resulting elongations are measured and recorded on a strip chart as load vs. the mechanical behaviour may be determined by simple stress-strain test Tension test • The most common mechanical stress-strain test • A specimen is mounted by its end into the holding grips of the testing apparatus (e. Concepts of stress and strain • Types of loading Tension Compression Shear Torsion • If a load is static (changes relatively slow with time) & is applied uniformly over a cross section of a member. usually to fracture with gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the long axis of a specimen • During testing. Instron. elongation Page 3 of 12 .
the load is calculated per unit area (normalization) • Engineering stress. σ= F A0 (N/m2) @ Pa (N/mm2) @ MPa F = load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section (N) A0 = cross-sectional area before application of the load (m2) • • The units of engineering stress (stress) are megapascals (MPa) 1MPa = 106 N/m2 Engineering strain.• To compare specimens of different sizes. ε= l i − l 0 ∆l = l0 l0 m m @ unitless l0 = original length li = instantaneous length Compression test Page 4 of 12 .
• Similar to the tensile test. except that the force is compressive and the specimen contracts along the direction of the stress • Compression tests are used when a material’s behaviour under large and permanent strains is desired or when the material is brittle in tension *Stress & strain are positive for tensile loads and negative for compressive loads Stress-strain diagram Page 5 of 12 .
τ is a function of applied torque • Shear strain (in Torsion).• Shear and Torsional test Shear stress (pure shear). γ = tan θ • Torsion is a variation of pure shear • Shear stress (in Torsion). the material does not return to its previous dimension but there is a permanent. irreversible deformation. the material returns to the dimension it had before the load was applied. γ is related to the angle of twist Shear Torsion Elastic Deformation There are two kinds of deformation in solid materials: Elastic deformation. Deformation is reversible. Valid for small strains (except the case of rubbers). When the stress is removed. τ= F A0 N m2 F = load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section (N) A0 = cross-sectional area before application of the load (m2) • Shear strain. • Page 6 of 12 . non permanent • Plastic deformation. When the stress is removed.
the elastic modulus decreases with temperature. This modulus is a measure of stiffness of a material (resistance to elastic deformation) • modulus. • For shear stress-strain relationship • • τ = Gγ G = shear modulus • Anelasticity.In tensile test. Time dependent elastic behaviour. N/m2. The behaviour is elastic but the stress-strain curve is not immediately reversible. strain • E is large for ceramics (stronger ionic bond) and small for polymers (weak covalent bond) • Due to thermal vibrations. It takes a while for the strain to return to zero Page 7 of 12 . stiffness. the stress and strain are proportional to each other through the relationship • • σ = Eε This is known as Hooke’s law E E is the slope of stress-strain curve E is Young’s Modulus or elastic modulus or tensile modulus. if the deformation is elastic. has the same units as σ.
v v =− • Material subject to tension shrinks laterally. bulge ε lateral ε axial • v is dimensionless. shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are related by E = 2G(1+ v) Plastic Deformation Yielding and Yield Strength Page 8 of 12 . Those subject to compression.Elastic properties of materials v • The ratio of lateral and axial strains is called the Poisson’s ratio. sign shows that lateral strain is in opposite sense to longitudinal strain • The elastic modulus.
σy and its corresponding stress is yield stress • For low-carbon steel. strain curve includes both an upper and lower yield point (yield point phenomena). (For metals. elastic deformation extend to strains of about 0. the stress vs.002. in normal materials. usually 0. The point at which this happens is the proportional limit (Point P) because there the material yields. The yield strength is defined in this case as the average stress at the lower yield point • Page 9 of 12 . • If the stress is too large. is not that the atomic bond is stretched beyond repair. but the motion of dislocations. which involves breaking and reforming bonds.• The reason for plastic deformation. the strain deviates from being proportional to the stress. a straight line is drawn parallel to the elastic portion of the curve at some specified strain offset.005) • The intersection of the offset line and the curve defines the yield strength. deforming permanently (plastically) Since the position of this point may not be determined precisely.
The magnitude of the yield strength for a metal is a measure of its resistance to plastic deformation • Tensile Strength • Tensile strength / ultimate tensile strength – the stress at the maximum on the engineering stress-strain curve • This stress corresponds to the maximum stress that can be sustained by a structure in tension. the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits Fracture strength – the stress at fracture • • • Page 10 of 12 . fracture will occur At this point. because once it is passed. the phenomenon of ‘necking’ starts and fracture occurs at the neck For structural applications. the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength. if this stress is applied and maintained.
• Ductility can be given either as percent maximum elongation εmax or maximum area reduction • Can be defined by percent elongation l f − l0 % EL = l × 100 0 • Can be defined by percent area reduction A0 − A f % AR = A 0 × 100 Page 11 of 12 . Ductility • The ability to deform before breaking. • A material that experiences very little or no plastic deformation upon fracture is termed brittle. It is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture.
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