ChE 381 Process Laboratory Project

Result Report

Thain Ken Hong Tay Shin Ying Lesly Mohd Izzat Kehinde Opeyemi Oladele Lim Siew Siew

Due Date: 16th August, 2011

Supervisor(s): Ms Jia Chi Lai

All contributions made by others have been duly acknowledged. Signature Name : Student ID Date : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ Signature Name : Student ID Date : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : __________________________ __________ Signature Name : Student ID Date : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ Signature Name : Student ID Date : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ : ____________________________________ Signature Name : Student ID Date : ____________________________________ :____________________________________ : __________ __________________________ : ____________________________________ .We declare that this report entitled³_______________________________________´ is solely our own work.

All necessary safety precautions were in place for this experiment. bed pressure drop. A higher bed height was also achieved for the 120 grit size particle as the airflow was increased as compared to the 60 grit size particle. particles size and upward velocity through a bed of granular material. . bed temperature. and the experiment was repeated u sing two different temperatures 50 and 60 for each particle size. The fluidized bed apparatus was studied and explored in order to observe the behaviour of granular particles during the fluidization process to study the correlation between bed height. the airflow across the bed is smaller compared to that of the smaller particles. The experiment was performed with particle 120 grit and 60 grit sizes. For the 120 grit size particles it was also observed that the overall pressure drop is less compared to that of the 60 grit particle due to was less drag and friction force between the air and the particles.Summary Fluidization occurs in the bed when the superficial velocity has been reached and that the particles in the bed become fully suspended and thus the fluid -particle mixture can then act as a fluid itself (Fluidized Bed). Even though there were few deviations from the proposed possible outcomes which are due to human errors and equipment problems. It can be said that the objectives of the experiment was achieved and the possible outcomes reached. Due to the larger weight exerted by the bigger particles.

Experiment procedure -------------------------------------------------.Table of Contents 1. References-----------------------------------------------------------------9. Appendix-------------------------------------------------------------------y y y Appendix A -------------------------------------------------. Conclusion------------------------------------------------------------------8.------Appendix B---------------------------------------------------------Appendix C---------------------------------------------------------- . Recommendation--------------------------------------------------------7.3 y y Changing of bed material--------------------------------------Experimental procedure----------------------------------------- 4. Apparatus description--------------------------------------------------. Objectives-------------------------------------------.-----------------------1 2.1 3. Analysis and discussion ------------------------------------------------6. Apparatus description--------------------------------------------------5.

bed temperature. particles size and upward velocity through a bed of gra nular material. bed pressure drop. Apparatus D s ription Increasin  Figure 1 Fluidized Bed Apparatus (Saptoro 2011   § ¦¥ £¢ The jec ves his e e ime  ¢ §© ¢¨ e ¢ ¤  ¡  monitor the behaviour of partic es in a be with .Obj ti upward air flow and to study the correlation between bed height.

T2 y To detect the temperature of the inlet air flow 14. Air Regulator y To regulate and control the air flow rate 6. T1 y To detect the bed temperature across the bed 11. Bed Temperature Sensor.The apparatus used in the experiment is as shown above. Digital Indicator y To show the measurements 2. Flow Control Valves y To control the fluid flow 7. each part of which is properly labelled and with its respective function. Heater y To supply heat energy to the air flowing into the fluidization chamber 12. Pressure Probe y To measure the pressure drop in the fluidised bed 8. Manometer y To measure the pressure drop 3. Filter y To filter the air flowing into the fluidized bed 9. Air Distribution Chamber y A section for air distribution 13. . Air Flowmeter (Low flow) y To measure the rate of low flow 4. Air Inlet temperature sensor. Air Flowmeter (High flow) y To measure the rate of the high flow 5. Chamber y Where fluidization occurs 10. Air Inlet y A section where air flows into the fluidization chamber 1.

Keeping the air flow rate. The procedure above was repeated and observations were made. the axis of the chamber was placed vertically. bed temperature. by using the correlation below. P1: Air flow through bed. the experiment was repeated by transferring a new set of chosen granular material. all apparatus were cleaned and materials used were placed back at its origin. T 2. constant. hb (mm) Initial pressure. the initial pressure reading is noted . The air flow rate was decreased in small intervals until there is no flow and the previous step is repeated. the thermocouple probe. The air chamber seal was properly wiped to remove all particles that can cause leakage which would affect the pressure drop. the bed height h. Vm . Finally. the heater control was switched to zero and the temperature probe was descended into the bed. P across the bed. Next. Finally. The bed chamber was extracted cautiously and the loose filter taken cared of. The behaviour of the bed at all stages was observed. T1. Vb (L/s) Superfic ial velocity. are measured. the pressure drop. bed material temperature. The chosen granular material of 60 grit size was transferred into the bed chamber and all the components were reconstructed. Then. Then the bed chamber wall was tapped with flat hand until the bed achieves a minimum height. bed pressure drop. Then. heating element and pressure probe were levered to the highest part of the bed chamber. particle sizes and upward air velocity through a bed of granular material Experimental procedure Before starting the experiment. Vs (m/s) Final pressure . Investigations of the relationship between bed height. The probes and element were lowered to the bottom of the chamber. A required amount of granular material usually to a depth of 10 to 20 mm was transferred into the chamber. P (mmH2 . After conducting the experiment. the unit was rebuilt in backwards order and the filter was ensured to be per fectly placed in its location.Experimental Procedures Changing Bed Material First. P2 (mmH2 Pressure drop. the heater was lifted to the uppermost position. the velocity of the air through the bed. one hand was used to carry the bed chamber for support and the six nuts from the chamber supporting screws which pass through the mounting bracket were dismantled. The air flow control was rotated anti-clockwise to ensure the highest indicated air flow and the bed was left to blend evenly for about two to three minutes. Vm Bed material tempera tueT1 Air inlet temperat ureT2 (K) Bed height. the air inlet temperature. 120 grit sizes into the bed chamber and the experiment was extended further for various bed temperature and other sizes of particles of the same material density. (Saptoro 2011) Observation Datasheet Mean particle size: Constant temperature set: Air flow Air flow rate rate recorded recorded .

(L/min) (L/s) (K) O) O) Results 2 PAGES .

The air flow gains more kinetic energy to escape from the packed bed. The experimental value obtained shows that the pressure drop decreases with the increase of temperature. A possible explanation is that before fluidisation occurs. and this is due to misfit of the base of fluidisation chamber which leads to leakage of air pressure. T he bed height also increases with the bed temperature since the particles are able to move more . The increasing drag force and friction present in the bed indicates that air flow has more contact with the particles during fluidisation. It is also noticed that a smaller size of fluidised particles will result in a higher bed height because a smaller drag force is required to oppose the weight of particles. the heat transfer to the air flow causing the air to expand hence increase the air flow rates. therefore a greater distortion to the inlet air flow through the bed exhibits the increase in pressure drop. they start to separate from each other due to the increase of drag force. it will be observed that the pressure drop is seen to vary proportionally with the superficial v elocity of the air flow at both temperatures.Analysis and Discussion From the graphs shown in appendix C figure 2 &3. An incr ease of temperature in the packed bed will increase the pressure drop. thus increasing the pressure drop reading inside the chamber. The bed height increases with the increase of superficial velocity. the packed bed easily heats up the inlet air flow due to a large surface area. As the particles are subjected to air flow.

a significant temperature drop can be observed as shown in the graph.freely upon gaining energy from the heat source. These errors lead to an inconsistency of results. For 120 grit particles at 50 oC and 60 oC graph(figure 10). thus the heating time for the smaller particle to be at the required temperature is longer. The bed should be left to stabilize for a few minutes before taking the measurement. Initially we have to discuss generally about the process happened. For 60 grit particles at 50 oC. the temperature reading insid e the chamber is decreasing as the air flow is higher. it can be observed the bed temperature is increasing and at the same time the heat are transferred to the air particle by colliding the air bed particle. however in overall the validity of the results still hold. smaller particles will results higher densities of packed bed. the weight of each particle is lighter. we can observe that the graph (figure 10) is increased initially and decrease at the end. collision between air and the bed particle happened. There are also some difficulties were experienced during the experiment. the slight leakage of the fluidisation chamber can produce a significant amount of error due to improper installation. Besides. An average bed height was directly estimated. this is because the when air is flowing through the packed bed. the same pattern of graph can be observed due to the same type of human error that have been made. Wh en looking at the size of the particle. . Hence. At a same flow rate. Firstly the bed particles needed to be heated to the required temperature. For 60 grit particles at 60 oC. This is because the bed particle s kinetic energy is transferred to the air particles producing the air flow to be higher as the air flow gain kinetic energy and the temperature inside the chamber decreases as higher flow is used. which causes uncertainties to the actual average value. the increment of the bed temperature can be observed initially and when the bed particle s temperature reaches the required temperature. It is because when the particle is small. The measurements of the data may be influenced by human error indicated by the fluctuating bed heights observed fr om the fluidising chamber. This to let the bed particle to reached at the required temperature which is at 60 oC. This is where human error happened. From Figure 9 we can briefly discuss what happened during the experiment. the bed height increases when a bed of smaller particles are used. when the bed particle is not reaching the temperature and the experiment is started.

H Harker. R.R Backhurst. 2011) Richardson. when the heating process happened inside the chamber. 1970: 8. J. 2011. Rourkela-8. Regional Engineering College. Roy. the heat will transfer to the pipe belo w the chamber thus affecting the inlet temperature.Recommendation From this experiment we would like to suggest for a better improvement. The other reasons this idea to be suggested because.http://dspace.F. This is the reason for the variations in some of the values One of the observations can be made at the inlet temperature that the inlet temperature is changing instead of constant inlet temperature. Laboratory Manual. 3rd Edition. this is to avoid the particles to have an uneven temperature. particles size and upward velocity through a bed of granular material has been verified according to the proposed outcomes in the pre-lab. there were sources of error that ranged from human inaccuracy to apparatus faults. A. As with every experiment. holes and leaks throughout the system skewing the pressure drop. 2002. Conclusion From the discussed results above it can be concluded that the expected outcomes and objectives of the report were met. G. bed temperature.K. and K. J.pdf(accessed July 28.Particle Technology and Separation Processes (5th Edition). Sarma. and human error in measuring the bed height.nitrkl.. ChE 381 Process Laboratory Projects. bed pressure J. These faults include error in measuring the pressure drop at higher air flow rates du e to manometer fluctuations. References Saptoro. The bed particle should be heated to the required tempera ture before it being transfer into the chamber." Department of Chemical Engineering. Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering Volume 2 . and J. Accessed August 14th . "Fluidized bed heat transfer. The relationship between the upward air flow and the bed height.

Shankar. 2011. . J.pdf 1993. J. External Flows: Flow in Porous Media. Singapore: NOV EL_DISPLAY_bookid=2997&VerticalID=0 Subramaniam.chi.pdf Saptoro. Curtin University 5th ed. 154 . England: Butterworth-Heinemann. and Harriot.http://www. Flow through Packed Beds and Fluidized Beds.vscht.lis. Richardson. and J.fl. 2011. Harker. Coulson.eng. 2011.M.. P. Particle Technology and Separation Processes.H. 2002.C.curtin.L.. Fluidization. Accessed July 26. Backhurst. Smith. ChE 323 Transport Phenomena. Unit operations of chemical engineering. A and Deeptangsu Chaudhary. J..clarkson. J.. R. Lenka and Martin Kohout. W.F. McCabe. Accessed July 26. http://www.

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