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AStudyofPhotovolt A taicsanditsApplicati ioninBuildings

PHOTOVOLTAICS IN BUILDIN P NGS


A Study of photovoltaics and its applic cation in buildings 1. 1 Introduction Availability of energy is a basic precon A y ndition for human ec conomic activities an nd hence for human we h ealth. The energy s systems that are pro oviding the energy f for devices used today have mainly been bu on fossil fuel energy resources such a d h uilt as coal, oil, gas, uranium and nuclear w c which are limited an also tend to hav ve detrimental effects on environment. Photovoltaics are a lead technology in o d o ding our attempt to harness energy with a renew a e wable energy source The aim is to tak e. ke advantage of a rene a ewable energy sour as opposed to our traditional energ rce gy systems such as coa oil or nuclear. Ph s al, hotovoltaics can be integrated on virtua ally every conceivable st e tructure from bus sh helter to high rise of ffice buildings or eve en turned into landscaping elements. The a t analysis of the potential of Photovoltaics in buildings call for care assessment of se b eful everal factors including solar availability o on building surfaces, institutional restrictions and electric grid s b stability. Photovoltaics can c be worth conside ering if the building h access to solar ra has adiation, if the buildin ng is or will be an energy efficient building an also when an inno y nd ovative design option is preferred. p Objectives O he on To study th Photovoltaic technology & its applicatio in Buildings To check financial, technical & environmental f feasibility of applyin ng Photovoltaics in different type of buildings Methodology M The T methodology ada apted is presented in Figure 1. n 2. 2 Literature study y The T excerpts from the literature study, carried out as a p of the study a t part are discussed in this sect providing and an overview of the wor d tion n rking of a solar cell an nd related aspects. r The T solar radiation in ncident on a horizontal surface is comprised of direct radiatio on and a diffuse radiation. The diffused radiatio comprises of sky r on radiation and the

Figure 1 Methodology for stud dy

reflected radiation. Solar ce use direct as we as diffuse radiation to produce d ells ell electricit For optimal use in the northern hemisphere, a solar syst is oriented ty. tem southwa at an inclination from the horizontal. The appropriate inc ards . clination angle, , is dep pendent upon the latit tude and on the time of the year e A solar cell is essentially a diode in which light energy is converted into electrical d ectrical conversion is non-chemical, s energy. In a Photovoltaic cell, the process of ele ast in contra to the process in a battery. Figure 1 shows schematically the three main region of a solar cell a strongly ndiffused emitter, the space charge regio and the p-doped basis. A light on doped d quantum of sufficient energy falls on the upper surface of the sola cell, passes m y r ar through the space charge e emitter region, and g absorbed in the p-region. The gets e on reation of an electr ron-hole pair, the e electron in the absorptio leads to the cr conductiion band and hole in the valence band. Since the electrons in the p-region n are in a minority, one deno the electrons as minority charge ca otes s arriers and the holes as the majority charge carriers. These elec s ctrons diffuse in the p p-region till they come ac cross the boundary o the space charge r of region where the gov verning electric field acc celerates the electro and brings them to the side of the emitter. This ons m e phenomenon, therefore, lead to charge separatio the medium of se ds on, eparation being d . r provided by the electric field. The assumption for this separation is that the diffusion
KushalJain[Scho oolofBuildingScienc ceandTechnology,CE EPTUniversity]

AStudyofPhotovolt A taicsanditsApplicati ioninBuildings

length of the electron is long enough to reach the boundary of the space charg y ge region. For a shorter diffusion length, the energy of the photon goes waste. r n

nabsorbed solar radiation, excessively st trong radiation, such as reflection losses, un collection efficiency, series and parallel losses, self shadowing an temperature , nd losses. Different types of solar cells are available in the market today, som of the major t s e me types are Monocrystalline, polycrystalline solar c cells; Amorphous silic solar cells; con ar solar cells; Gallium arsenide solar Tandom (Multilayered) Sola cells; Cds-Cu2S s cells. red In order to achieve the requir voltage, solar cellls are connected with each other in series. W When one needs cur rrent higher than wh one solar cell can produce, the hat cells are connected in parallel. There is no uppe limit to number of solar cells that e er can be c connected together. Since so energy is interm olar mittent, the electricity produced needs to be stored in y some for There are two po rm. ossibilities; battery sto orage or feeding the electric grid.

Figure 2 Schematic view of a Solar cell and Char carrier production in a solar cell F w rge n

Absorption of a pho A oton in the n-region, on the other hand again leads to th d, he creation of an electro c on-hole pair, but now the holes are in m w minority. If the diffusio on length of the hole is long enough to ena it to reach the b able boundary of the spac ce charge region, it gets accelerated by the electric field and rea c s aches the p-base. It is therefore that due to the presence of the space charge region in the p-n junction th t n he electric and positive charges, created by the absorption o solar radiation, a e e of are immediately separate As a result of th electron migration to n-region and th ed. he he migration of the holes to the p-region, the is an excess of electrons in the n-regio m s ere on and a a deficiency in the p-region. If now the p-region and n-r t regions are connecte ed together through a conductor and the load, the generate voltage by charg t ed ge separation gives rise to the current and po s ower. The T manufacturing of a typical solar cell takes place by a f o forming ingots of pu ure silicon by a process known as the czoch s hralskis process. Th wafers are cut an hin nd electrical contacts are placed over t e these silicon layers. The cell is the en encapsulated by sealling it into silicon rubb or ethyl vinyl acetate. e ber The T ratio between th deliverable electriic power and the inc he cident optical power is known as the efficien of the solar cell. T efficiency is affected by various facto k ncy This ors

Photovoltaic systems which work independently of the grid are calle autonomous ed er Wp systems. Such systems are usually in the powe range of a few W to kWp. The m ar s maximum advantage of sola power systems is in the autonomous mode. Such systems usually consists of fo parts, our a. A solar Generator, b. A controller ator c. A special Accumula d. Different users ystems are used iin several applications such as solar stand alone r Such sy photovolltaic lights, solar r refrigerators, water pumping systems and also in commun nication systems. 3. Case Studies [Data Collection, Analysis an Inferences] e nd A total o four cases are stu of udied as a part of th research, includin two different he ng types of cases. The cases a classified into tw types, a. buildings that are also f are wo s connecte to the utility grid and are drawing electrical power from the grid. b. ed d buildings that are solely depe s endent only on the ph hotovoltaic system. B these type Both of cases are analyzed in t s terms of their finan ncial, technical and environmental suitability The payback perio and projects IRR is determined for ea of the case y. od ach
KushalJain[Scho oolofBuildingScienc ceandTechnology,CE EPTUniversity]

AStudyofPhotovolt A taicsanditsApplicati ioninBuildings

studies considering th different scenar of interest rates o capital expenditur s hree rios on re, as a an outcome of the financial suitability a e analysis. The financia suitability analysis is al carried out based on the consideration o the Designed cas (PV System) and a c n of se Base case (Convent B tional System). The annual operational e expenses for both th he designed and the bas case are calculate for each year cons d se ed sidering a useful life of thirty years for the system. The technic suitability analysis was carried out b t s cal by considering paramete that affect the eff c ers ficiency and overall w working of the system m. Each of these tech E hnical parameters is evaluated based on observations an s nd questioning from the case studies. Marks are given to each of these parameters o q f out of o five depending upon the existing situation and imp plemented system. A percentage of technical suitability is thus determined from the total score achieve p s ed for f each of the studied case. The annua reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is al n calculated as a part of the environmenta benefits analysis. For calculation of th c al he annual reduction in carbon dioxide emiss a c sions, the designed a the base case a and are considered. Emission in both cases, fo the base and the designed cases a c ns or e are calculated separately and a difference bet c y tween the two cases is taken. The T cases that are st tudied are: a. SEWA Soc Security Building cial b. SEWA Aca ademy Building c. A cluster of houses in Adalaj Villlage f d. A cluster of houses in Pore Villa f age The T first two cases are of the buildings that are also conne a ected to the utility gr rid while the last two cas are the cases wh the buildings ar using electricity on w ses here re nly of o the photovoltaic sy ystem. A scrutiny of results drawn from the analy of these cases iis presented in table ysis Also A the results of financial suitability a analysis in terms of payback periods f f for different cases are pr d resented in Figure 3. The T results of analysis indicate that financ cially, such type of projects are much mo ore beneficial in cases where the buildings are not connected to the utility grid a b w s d as compared to cases where the buildings are also drawing power from the grid. c s Technically, the imple T ementation of such s systems is considered to be viable in any of d the t cases. The ma aximum benefit is s shown by such buildings is in terms of environmental suitab as reductions in carbon dioxide emis e bility ssions is up to a gre eat extent in all the cas A low initial cos of investment and an adequate overall e ses. st d

design play an impo ortant role in making any such project m g more financially system d viable. A larger system whic is able to replace more electricity con ch nsumption from conventiional modes is more beneficial financially, technically and environmentally.
Table1S ScrutinyofResults
FinancialSuitability Environme ntal Benefits Annual Reducti onin Carbon dioxide emissio ns [kg/year ] 1701 1675 1565 1174 Technical Suitability 5% 4% 43 % 37 % Scenario3[12%] 7 7 46 % 40 % 7 Percentage 80 % 78 % 78 % 76 %

Paybackperiod (Years) Scenario2[10%] Scenario3[12%] Scenario1[6%]

ProjectIRR(%)

Cases Case1 S SEWASocialSecurity Building Case2 SE EWAAcademy Case3 C Clusterofhousesin Adalaj Case4 C Clusterofhousesin Pore

23 23 6 7

24 26 6 7

26 6 27 7 6 7

8% 7% 58 % 50 %

6% 5%

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

6 26 23 24

23

26 27

Years

Case1 SEWA A SocialSecurity Case2 SEWA Case3 Cluster y Academy Building ofhou usesin Adalaj

Case4 Cluster r ofhousesin Pore

Scenario1[6% %]

Scenario2[10 0%]

Scenario3[ [12%]

Figure3 Graphshowingcom 3 mparativepaybacko ofallcasesindifferen ntscenarios KushalJain[Scho oolofBuildingScienc ceandTechnology,CE EPTUniversity]

Scenario2[10%]

Scenario1[6%]