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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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STRUCTURE

The formidable modelling task Overview some RANS models & limitations Show for LES model not that important Outline the things for LES that matter and the order of importance Discuss mixing LES & RANS models RANS model defects and management

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Drag generation Heat transfer Particle dispersion Scalar mixing Sound generation

TURBULENCE

l

y+

Transition

clouds as scattered and torn

Van Gogh

FORMIDABLE TASK

I am an old man now, and when I die and go to heaven there are two matters on which I hope for enlightenment. One is quantum electrodynamics, and the other is the turbulent motion of fluids. And about the former I am rather optimistic Sir Horace Lamb FRS (1849-1934) 2nd Wrangler Trinity College Turbulence is the last great unsolved problem in classical physics Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics - quantum electrodynamics ) Do not even know the Karman constant (l = y 0.38 < < 0.45) or if it is a constant!!! Spalart (2006) 2% decrease in gives 1% decrease in predicted aircraft drag

MODEL BASIS

Phenomenological but we do not fully understand the phenomena!!! Spalart & Allmaras (1994) La Recherche Aerospatiale, No 1, 5-21 Abstract A transport equation for turbulent viscosity is assembled based on empiricism and arguments of dimensional analysis

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DICTIONARY DEFINITION

Empiricism - Philosophy. the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience. - Undue reliance upon experience, as in medicine; quackery.

SA MODEL BASIS

4 nested models: (I) Free shear flows; (II) log-outer layer; (III) buffer and viscous sublayer & (IV) laminar and trip region Model (I)

Shearing for production

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CALIBRATION

2D mixing layer Wake

max = 0.01( U )2

max = 0.06( U )2

Calibration suggests 0.6<<1; 0.1375< C1<0.1275 & 0.6< C2<0.7 Pick:2/3, 0.1355, 0.622. Acknowledge plane jet spreading rate 38% too high

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Boussinesq (1877)

U/y

uiuj = tSij

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Classified by the number of differential equations Realizability - whether the model is constrained so that it does not break basic physical principles k > 0 Hundreds of basic RANS models - indicative of quest for something better.

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Dimensional grounds t Length x Velocity Incomplete model Log layer viscous sublayer Outer BL Mixing layer Round jet Plane jet Wake

l = y l=yD l=C l 0.07 x the layer width; l 0.075 x the jet half width; l 0.09 x jet half width and l 0.16 x the wake half width

further corrections see later. Zero equation models require relatively modest grids - slow iterative convergence. Seldom be expected to provide high accuracy unlikely to massively err.

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Zero eqn. assume turbulence equilibrium. One-eqn allow turbulence transport

D = 2 + S Dt

SA model, Secundov, Baldwin-Barth t ; k-l model = k Grid forgiving frequently used just near walls

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Vast number - most are based on k & k2 t = C Secundov et al. t and l; Kim and Chung k-t; Wilcox k-; Warner et al. k-kl k- - sensitive to the specified free stream turbulence intensity level - zonal Menter (1993) model.

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RSM MODEL

Around 12 massive differential equations to solve Most exact model Contains substantial empiricism Computational cost is extreme Numerous gradient terms grid demands Separation or buoyancy large scale unsteady structures failure Uncertain near wall performance: modelling dissipation, pressure-strain, ad hoc modifications Wide range of options suggests a weakness and unresolved issues Simpler eddy viscosity models used near walls

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Half-way-house between costly

RSM and simple linear EVM Extended forms of the Boussinesq approximation: quadratic or cubic Quadratic - anisotropy modelling; cubic - streamline curvature

Marketed as a means of getting RSM type performance at linear eddy viscosity model cost

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Round jet/plane jet anomaly - d/dx opposite traits Ma > 1 d/dx decreases x2 but RANS insensitive Axis switching t based models cant handle

k- 0.091 0.101

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WALL JETS

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URANS

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URANS

T [K]

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By Strelets group

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RANS = Resolve time average of flow LES = Resolve all large eddies

Modelled < 2 x

Resolved/solved for

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Big whorls have little whorls, which feed on their velocity, and little whorls have lesser whorls, and so on to viscosity (in the molecular sense).

Big whorls

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LES HIERARCHY

PROBLEM DEFINITION

BCs, Soln uniqueness

WALL MODELLING

GRID/SOLVER COMPATIBLITY

MODEL

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NUMEROUS FORMS OF NS EQNS Chow & Moin (JCP) 2003 NUMEROUS DISCRETIZATIONS dissipation Staggered grids, cell centered/vertex, codes with smoothers, Rhie and Chow, axis treatment one legged and two legged GRID TOPOLOGY dissipation

+ turbulence model validity + wall modelling + problem definition + soln uniqueness + = Do not get too hung up on turbulence model

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HEAT TRANSFER

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GRID INFLUENCE

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LES

Boussinesq (1877)

Comte-Bellot and Corsin

uiuj = sgsSij

+ Non-linear terms

Clark et al. (1979) [+Leonard] Kosovic (1997), Leray, LANS [Geurts & Holm (2005)] Cubic [Lund & Novikov (1992)]

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ui,j = ui/ xj

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LES MODEL MINIMAL INFLUENCE GOOD RESULTS WITH NO LES MODEL!! x/D = 15 Re = 4 x 103 Circa 1 million cells

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Resolving streaks Pope (2004), Boeing 777 at cruise 108 streaks

Hinze (1975)

LES Cost Re2.5* Hybrid LES-RANS Cost Re0.5 (Based on outer layer modelling)

y+=90

*Piomelli, AIAA-2008-396

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WING-FLAP

[Re = 23 x 106, 3.3 million cells] ZONAL ILES-RANS vorticity contours

Model

CL

%

Error

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CHEVRON ILES-RANS

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x/D=1

Re = 300,000

x/D=2

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COMPRESSOR/TURBINE LES

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URANS

SRANS,

Partly Converged

Vorticity Magnitude

DES

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Electronics

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LES SIMULATIONS

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Surface orthogonal flow direction

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Cf. Boussinesq - uu=f(U/y), RSM - Duu/Dt= Erroneous predicted turbulence for curved shear layers and adverse pressure gradients; Separation suppression on curved surfaces Failure at separation Excessive turbulence in stagnation zones Wrong behaviour for rotating flows Insensitivity to density gradients Excessive heat transfer at reattachments points Insensitivity to system rotation

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STAGNATION PROBLEM

Turbulence massively over predicted Suppression of leading edge separation; excessive predicted heat transfer Ad hoc corrections:

Kato and Launder (1993); Yap (1987) & C modifications

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CURVATURE PROBLEM

Turbulence can be virtually eliminated around convex surfaces Basic Richardson correction (various forms, can be used in various places in same model)

U U Ri = R r

Many other curvature corrections available e.g. modification of the k or equation or C based on contractions of more advanced models

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STREAMLINE CURVATURE

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Turbomachinery flows often involve rotation/swirl & local swirl d ( rU ) /( rdr ) > 0 Stable Rossby number (different forms)

Ro =

U / y

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BUOYANCY

T/r > 0 unstable, Rayleigh-Bernard instability Large scale unsteady structures Way beyond even RSM Again a range of different corrections e.g. gradient based hypothesis

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Tucker, Rumsey and Spalart AIAA J. (2005)

wall distances

Flow direction

| |=1

| |=1+ 2

=

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Hamilton-Jacobi equation Tucker, Rumsey, Spalart . (AIAA J.)

| |=1

Measured Palliative d function Normal calculation 3.10 2.90 2.77

| |=1+ 2 =

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TRANSITION MODELLING

Transition modelling is of some importance for LPT, engine inlets Influenced by roughness, acoustics and external disturbances, pressure gradient, freestream velocity change, surface curvature, temperature gradients and rotation Generally associated with the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. Bypass transition, linear T-S wave process is bypassed, free stream intensities greater than 0.5% Some turbulence models can naturally predict the bypass transition process

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TRANSITION MODELLING

k Convection = k Diffusion + P - D k convects and diffuses into BL Increases t, increases Pk = t (dU/dy)2 Substantial kave growth until transition

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TRANSITION MODELLING

Standard transition procedure, estimate the transition point, exp. correlations (Abu-Ghannan and Shaw (1980), Arnal (1992)) Trip model Lots of models, active research area With fine enough grids LES will capture transition

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REAL GEOMETRY

Blisters

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DESIGN OPTIMISATION

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SILENT AIRCRAFT

Shadow region

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NOISE SHIELDING

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Combustion Noise

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CONCLUSIONS

Vast number of RANS models, choice can have substantial impact - CFD use a specialist activity CFD predict correct deltas To predict exact levels extreme insights into turbulence model and many other CFD aspects + calibration data Rationalism is desirable with every effort being made to place the CFD solution on a solid rational basis Many practical flows are highly three dimensional in which inviscid pressure driven structures occur and then turbulence stresses become less important However, if the 3D structures are unsteady in nature, other challenges arise

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CONCLUSIONS

URANS can help Zonal RANS-LES & LES with take over but when? Depends on HPC/GPU developments Zonal RANS-LES & LES still need physical insight by analyst

LES Hierarchy?:

Problem definition, solution uniqueness, transition, separation + Near wall LES modelling + Grid structure/quality > LES Model

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