# PROBLEM A1 A Study of Bernoulli’s Theorem Post-Lab Report

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different manometer readings were read in different combination of valves with low and high flow rates.htm Bernoulli’s Theorem Distribution Experiment. at Bernoulli’s Principle. 2011. Then. The Bernoulli Theorem Demonstration Apparatus is used during the experiment in which we adjusted the difference between the highest and lowest manometer level to its maximum using the inlet and regulating valve.ceet.scribd. The area. The flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are have been calculated. 2011. II. and are also achieved through the experiment. 2011 at http://www.uwinnipeg. August 7. Objective • To determine the validity of the Bernoulli’s Theorem on the flow of water in a tapering circular duct by comparing the theoretical total head and the observed total head at a given flow rate. 2011. at http://www.PROBLEM A1 A Study of Bernoulli’s Theorem I. • To determine the range of validity of the Bernoulli Theorem using water flowing at different flow rates. at http://www. Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to determine the validity of Bernoulli’s Theorem on the flow of water in a tapering duct by comparing theoretical and total head at a given flow rate. August 7. flow rate.edu/faculty/kostic/bernoulli. August 7.centennialofflight. The flow rate was measured by collecting 500ml of water and getting the time. It also aims to determine the validity of the said theorem using water flowing at different flow rates.ca/mod_tech/node68.gov/essay/Dictionary/bernoulli/DI9. velocity head and Reynold’s number were computed using the data collected in the experiment. Results showed that the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. August 7.niu.html • • .com/doc/54100879/39165346-Bernoulli-s-TheoremDistribution-Experiment Experimental Verification of the Bernoulli’s Theorem. References • Bernoulli’s Principle.html • I. http://theory.

et..• Foust. In this case.Principles of Unit Operations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. . Alan S. I.. If a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline. Al.. Theory Graduated cylinder Stopwatch 1-liter beaker Feed vessel Pump Bernoulli’s principle is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid through a pressure difference. 1980. the highest speed is the one at the lowest pressure. whereas the lowest speed is at the highest pressure. Equipment/Materials • Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus manometer panel inlet valve regulating valve inlet pipe test section outlet pipe gland nut hypodermic probe • • • • • I. 2nd ed. the increase in speed can be explained due to the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed. Inc..

Illustration of the pressure vs velocity in the Bernoulli’s theorem To understand how and why it works. non-viscous. steady and has no loss of energy due to friction. ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid and C is a constant of integration to be determined by the conditions at some point on the streamline. the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. we need to look at Bernoulli’s equation dp+ 12u2+ γdz=0 dpρ+ 12u2+ gz=C Equation 1 where u is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline.Figure 1. The Bernoulli’s equation is an expression of the conservation of energy.This states that in a steady flow. For a fluid that is assumed to beincompressible. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane. equation 1 is multiplied with the fluid density and it can be rewritten as: 12ρv2+ ρgz+ ρ=C Equation 2 . p is the pressure at the point. g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Before integration of the pressure term in equation 1. 2. The manometer panel of the apparatus was filled with water to discharge the pockets of air from the system and to ensure that all tubes are also air-bubble free. The flow of the fluid was initiated by opening the inlet valve. the fluid moves towards the object. The inlet and regulating valve was adjusted where difference between the highest and lowest manometer levels was at its maximum. it “stagnates. The Bernoulli’s theorem apparatus was connected to the faucet and the drain valve was opened. Three readings were made in order to calculate its flow rate. Operating Conditions and Procedure 1. the streamlines are diverted round the object as shown but the along this dividing streamline. Bernoulli’s equation along the stagnation streamline gives pe+ 12ρue2= po+ 12ρuo2 where the point e is far upstream and point O is at the stagnation point. Considering an object located in a flowing fluid. 4. Since the flow cannot pass through the object. The flow of the water feed was adjusted using the inlet valve and the regulating valve. The time to collect the water for a rise (m) in the beaker was recorded. the relation between pressure and density must first be known. In other words.” The fluid along the dividing. or “stagnation streamline” slows down and eventually comes to rest without deflection at the stagnation point. 3.The Bernoulli’s equation can also be modified for compressible flows where the density may not be constant throughout the flow. Since the velocity at the stagnation point is zero pe+ 12ρue2=po Equation 3 II. . The hand pump was used to lower the levels of the liquid in the manometer panel. the fluid must come to rest at the point where it meets the plate.

41547 25 490. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 2 (t = 10.247337 64 100.96 386.87385 21 28 31 31 33 37 39. For each position. Data and Results After doing the experiment in triplicates.6 25 78. The probe was also withdrawn to its full length (original position). The data on the first table shows the laminar behavior of the fluid while tables 2 and 3 shows the turbulent behavior of the water passing the Bernoulli Apparatus.539816 34 88.58 69.43 Tub e No.67s) Diameter Area of Manomet Flowrate Probe Fluid at Diff.22 339. 7.85 282. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 1 (t = 14.162 92 40 40 40 40 40 40 433. the flow of the fluid was stopped by closing the inlet valve and draining off liquid in the apparatus.162 92 34083.6 11.162 92 34083. the distance from the end of the parallel position and the reading of the manometer levels were recorded. I. After performing steps 1-6.162 92 34083. Steps 2-5 were repeated for high and low flow rates for different combinations of valve openings. and Table 3. Table 1.3 12.5.5 34083. Table 2. the data gathered with probe away from any pressure taps were tabulated below: Table 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 2.4 14. Area of CrossManomet er Levels Flowrate Probe Manomet Fluid Velocity .23 203.01s) Tub e Diamete r at Diff. Crosser Levels Manomet Velocity (mm3/sec) er Level CrossSection (mm) (mm/s) Section (mm2) (mm) (mm) 10 10.162 92 34083.76282 16 167.162 92 34083. The probe was gently pushed into the different pressure taps. 6.28749 15 120.

52 .98 Table 3.05 49950.05 49950.41547 25 490.87385 21 (mm) (mm3/sec ) er Level (mm) (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 33 49950.62 45 498. Diamete r at Diff.873852 1 Manomet er Levels (mm) Flowrate (mm3/sec ) Probe Manomet er Level (mm) Fluid Velocity (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 55 52 83 132 175 49950.762821 6 167.09 769.06 45 566.05 49950.415472 5 490.2473376 4 100.287491 5 120.No.05 49950. CrossSection (mm) 10 10. CrossSection (mm) 10 10.6 11.05 43 49950.6 11.77 1460.3 12.28749 15 120.76 47 298.05 36 49950.88s) Tub e No.247337 64 100.6 25 Area of CrossSection (mm2) 78.05 38 49950.05 49950.5398163 4 88.539816 34 88.28 1284.73 262.3 12.76282 16 167.4 14.36 46 413.96 1067.6 25 Section (mm2) 78.4 14.05 43 49950.05 54 101.05 180 182 186 186 186 185 1640.05 36 49950.02 45 635. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 3 (t = 3.