PROBLEM A1 A Study of Bernoulli’s Theorem Post-Lab Report

MEMBERS: Gravador, Danna Rabago, Stefanie Valentin, Andrea Nepomuceno, Denise 5ChE-C

different manometer readings were read in different combination of valves with low and high flow rates.htm Bernoulli’s Theorem Distribution Experiment. at Bernoulli’s Principle. 2011. Then. The Bernoulli Theorem Demonstration Apparatus is used during the experiment in which we adjusted the difference between the highest and lowest manometer level to its maximum using the inlet and regulating valve.ceet.scribd. The area. The flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are have been calculated. 2011. II. and are also achieved through the experiment. 2011 at http://www.uwinnipeg. August 7. Objective • To determine the validity of the Bernoulli’s Theorem on the flow of water in a tapering circular duct by comparing the theoretical total head and the observed total head at a given flow rate. 2011. at http://www.PROBLEM A1 A Study of Bernoulli’s Theorem I. • To determine the range of validity of the Bernoulli Theorem using water flowing at different flow rates. at http://www. Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to determine the validity of Bernoulli’s Theorem on the flow of water in a tapering duct by comparing theoretical and total head at a given flow rate. August 7. flow August 7.centennialofflight. The flow rate was measured by collecting 500ml of water and getting the time. It also aims to determine the validity of the said theorem using water flowing at different flow velocity head and Reynold’s number were computed using the data collected in the experiment. Results showed that the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. August 7.niu.html • • .com/doc/54100879/39165346-Bernoulli-s-TheoremDistribution-Experiment Experimental Verification of the Bernoulli’s Theorem. References • Bernoulli’s Principle.html • I. http://theory.

et..• Foust. In this case.Principles of Unit Operations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. . Alan S. I.. If a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline. Al.. Theory Graduated cylinder Stopwatch 1-liter beaker Feed vessel Pump Bernoulli’s principle is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid through a pressure difference. 1980. the highest speed is the one at the lowest pressure. whereas the lowest speed is at the highest pressure. Equipment/Materials • Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus manometer panel inlet valve regulating valve inlet pipe test section outlet pipe gland nut hypodermic probe • • • • • I. 2nd ed. the increase in speed can be explained due to the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed. Inc..

Illustration of the pressure vs velocity in the Bernoulli’s theorem To understand how and why it works. non-viscous. steady and has no loss of energy due to friction. ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid and C is a constant of integration to be determined by the conditions at some point on the streamline. the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. we need to look at Bernoulli’s equation dp+ 12u2+ γdz=0 dpρ+ 12u2+ gz=C Equation 1 where u is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline.Figure 1. The Bernoulli’s equation is an expression of the conservation of energy.This states that in a steady flow. For a fluid that is assumed to beincompressible. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane. equation 1 is multiplied with the fluid density and it can be rewritten as: 12ρv2+ ρgz+ ρ=C Equation 2 . p is the pressure at the point. g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Before integration of the pressure term in equation 1. 2. The manometer panel of the apparatus was filled with water to discharge the pockets of air from the system and to ensure that all tubes are also air-bubble free. The flow of the fluid was initiated by opening the inlet valve. the fluid moves towards the object. The inlet and regulating valve was adjusted where difference between the highest and lowest manometer levels was at its maximum. it “stagnates. The Bernoulli’s theorem apparatus was connected to the faucet and the drain valve was opened. Three readings were made in order to calculate its flow rate. Operating Conditions and Procedure 1. the streamlines are diverted round the object as shown but the along this dividing streamline. Bernoulli’s equation along the stagnation streamline gives pe+ 12ρue2= po+ 12ρuo2 where the point e is far upstream and point O is at the stagnation point. Considering an object located in a flowing fluid. 4. Since the flow cannot pass through the object. The flow of the water feed was adjusted using the inlet valve and the regulating valve. The time to collect the water for a rise (m) in the beaker was recorded. the relation between pressure and density must first be known. In other words.” The fluid along the dividing. or “stagnation streamline” slows down and eventually comes to rest without deflection at the stagnation point. 3.The Bernoulli’s equation can also be modified for compressible flows where the density may not be constant throughout the flow. Since the velocity at the stagnation point is zero pe+ 12ρue2=po Equation 3 II. . The hand pump was used to lower the levels of the liquid in the manometer panel. the fluid must come to rest at the point where it meets the plate.

41547 25 490. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 2 (t = 10.247337 64 100.96 386.87385 21 28 31 31 33 37 39. For each position. Data and Results After doing the experiment in triplicates.6 25 78. The probe was also withdrawn to its full length (original position). The data on the first table shows the laminar behavior of the fluid while tables 2 and 3 shows the turbulent behavior of the water passing the Bernoulli Apparatus.539816 34 88.58 69.43 Tub e No.67s) Diameter Area of Manomet Flowrate Probe Fluid at Diff.22 339. 7.85 282. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 1 (t = 14.162 92 40 40 40 40 40 40 433. the flow of the fluid was stopped by closing the inlet valve and draining off liquid in the apparatus.162 92 34083.6 11.162 92 34083. the distance from the end of the parallel position and the reading of the manometer levels were recorded. I. After performing steps 1-6.162 92 34083. Steps 2-5 were repeated for high and low flow rates for different combinations of valve openings. and Table 3. Table 1.3 12.5.5 34083. Table 2. the data gathered with probe away from any pressure taps were tabulated below: Table 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 2.4 14. Area of CrossManomet er Levels Flowrate Probe Manomet Fluid Velocity .23 203.01s) Tub e Diamete r at Diff. Crosser Levels Manomet Velocity (mm3/sec) er Level CrossSection (mm) (mm/s) Section (mm2) (mm) (mm) 10 10.162 92 34083.76282 16 167.162 92 34083. The probe was gently pushed into the different pressure taps. 6.28749 15 120.

52 .98 Table 3.05 49950.05 49950.41547 25 490.87385 21 (mm) (mm3/sec ) er Level (mm) (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 33 49950.62 45 498. Diamete r at Diff.873852 1 Manomet er Levels (mm) Flowrate (mm3/sec ) Probe Manomet er Level (mm) Fluid Velocity (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 55 52 83 132 175 49950.762821 6 167.09 769.06 45 566.05 49950.415472 5 490.2473376 4 100.287491 5 120.No.05 49950. CrossSection (mm) 10 10. CrossSection (mm) 10 10.6 11.05 43 49950.6 11.77 1460.3 12.28749 15 120.76 47 298.05 36 49950.88s) Tub e No.247337 64 100.6 25 Area of CrossSection (mm2) 78.05 38 49950.05 49950.5398163 4 88.539816 34 88.28 1284.73 262.3 12.76282 16 167.4 14.36 46 413.96 1067.6 25 Section (mm2) 78.4 14.05 43 49950.05 54 101.05 180 182 186 186 186 185 1640.05 36 49950.02 45 635. Tabulated Experimental Results Trial 3 (t = 3.

and a=72mm. the following manometer probe distances are gathered: e= 16.11462092 39. The positioning of the probe on this data is respective to the manometer tube number. the calculation of theoretical velocity head was done to compare with the experimental head. Tube No. b=64.89291495 38. Table 4. shown below is a graphical data where the experimental head is compared to the theoretical head computed.473430382 3. Treatment of Results Using the data.e. Figure 1: Tube No.610627847 5.34604005 Experimental Head 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 %difference 0. d=57.267712633 3.61062785 37.064032817 2. vs Experimental / TheoreticalHead LEGEND: SERIES 123456Experimental Head Trial 1 Theoretical Head trial 1 Experimental Head Trial 2 Theoretical Head trial 2 Experimental Head Trial 3 Theoretical Head trial 3 I. c=62. With reference to Pressure tap ‘f’.213447708 4.635072492 2.870814996 1.47939423 6.6mm.892914947 4.245971003 20. the end of the probe is position beside manometer tube number to create stagnation points for both pressure taps.139554561 .745971 51. Trial1: 1 Trial1: 2 Trial1: 3 Trial1: 4 Trial1: 5 Trial1: 6 Trial2: 1 Trial2: 2 Theoretical Velocity Head 9.60824231 38.839917958 5. i.114620917 0.63649895 51.06403282 39.34604005 Theoretical Head 38.608242308 7.With the same volumetric flowrate from the trials above.The theoretical head computation was shown in appendix.

52829437 144. 7 has the highest manometer reading which corresponds to the . This maybe because friction is being created inside the tube which is considered negligible in the Bernoulli’s Principle. We can see that pressure tap No.5 29.2293842 3.5 29 31 31 3 30 30 30.5 39.81144049 23.69362257 The tables above shows that the Bernoulli theorem is always true for laminar flow (trial 1) due to the low difference in values and because stagnation point is being observed whenever the probe is positioned at the corresponding pressure taps where in creating stagnant flow.621918081 7.2416665 142.8964663 42.98066292 24.7970857 84.54176434 50.89357459 30.353814 146.5 27 25 29 2 29.24166647 58.85234105 0.5 39 39.09703689 30.2293842 184.515403688 12.728694205 4.5162576 45 46 47 54 180 182 186 186 186 185 3. whereas turbulent flow doesn’t have closer values.528294373 137.35935633 12.65675128 8.Trial2: 3 Trial2: 4 Trial2: 5 Trial2: 6 Trial3: 1 Trial3: 2 Trial3: 3 Trial3: 4 Trial3: 5 Trial3: 6 12.26216788 11. Table 5.65675128 47.516257639 48. 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 26 26 26.7970857 130.5 32 32 31 4 33 33 34 33 34 33 5 37 37 37 37 37 37 6 39.5 39. Full Data of Trial 1 Probe No.0970369 166.5 24 24 24 40 40 40 40 40 40 Table 5 shows the full data of the first trial.541764344 0.5 7 8 24 24 24.5 29.72869421 47.5 39.353814 108.

Summing all the data. This just proves that stagnation point being zero in velocity gives maximum pressure. the above graph shows that as the diameter increases. That is. which is a laminar type of flow. the velocity decreases which is one of the foundations of proving Bernoulli theorem. Cross-sectional Diameter vs Velocity Given a constant volumetric flow rate going through the Bernoulli apparatus.highest pressure among the others. Analysis of Results From the analysis of the results. pressure head also increases. we conclude that as the cross-section diameter increases. We can see on table 5 the comparison of the theoretical head and the experimental head that is graphically represented by figure 1. and stagnation point gives maximum pressure. Lastly. III. Table 5 which shows that the probe manometer is giving the highest measurement just proves that at stagnation point where velocity is zero compared to the other points in the system gives a maximum pressure regardless how high or low the velocity of the flowing fluid. laminar flow is more applicable to the Bernoulli Principle because turbulent flow forms eddies which causes the velocity profile of the fluid to be non-uniform flow across the system. there is a little difference in values whereas the other two trials has high percent differences. Do the computed heads agree with the total head probe? If they differ. Hence. Figure 2. what are the reasons? . We can see that for trial 1. we can say that for both type of flow. when the velocity decreases as the cross-section diameter increases. II. the velocity increases as the pressure difference increases. Answers to Questions 1. regardless of the type of flow. turbulent will somehow not coincide with the assumption of the bernoulli’s principle that the density should be constant because forming eddies cannot assure the consistency of the density of fluid at different points inside the system. be it convergent or divergent.

The deviations that can be observed though may be the effect of the eddies and shear stress created when the flow is not laminar. Comment on the validity of the Bernoulli Equation for the system tested for (a) convergent flow (b) divergent flow. In order to get the accuratevalue. there might be a possibility that the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the scale. this error will contribute to the different values obtained. the total head pressure also increases for both convergent and divergent flow. the readers must take the accurate reading from the manometers. Conclusion Although the experiment prove that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for both flow. For both flow. as the velocity of the same channel increase. From the result obtained. From the experiment conducted. Thus. Thus. we can conclude that the Bernoulli’s equation is valid for convergent and divergent flow as both of it does obey the equation. the values obtain might be slightly different from the actual value. Maybe. the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. This is proved in the experiment since the velocity computed is highest at the point where the cross sectional area of the converging duct is lowest. This is exactly following the Bernoulli’s . Bernoulli’s equation for fluid flow in the divergent zone suggests that the velocity decreases as the area increases. Bernoulli’s equation suggests that the velocity increases as the area decreases. This is also confirmed in the experiment since the velocity computed is lowest at the point where the cross sectional area is highest. In the convergent zone of the fluid flow. Thus. On the other hand.The computed heads agree with the total head probe as shown in the data. thus causing inconsistency in the density along the streamline. I. patience is needed in order to runthis experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment is conducted mayinfluence the result of the experiment. this is because there are some error happening during the experiment is done. the water level must be stable when you read it. While taking the reading of the manometer. It may also be the effect of the leaks in the apparatus and inaccuracy in the reading of the manometer levels. 2. the time taken for 3L water collected increase and the flow ratesof the water also increase. Moreover. as the pressure difference increases.

Appendix Area of Cross Section = Π * d2/ 4 = Π * 102/ 4 = 78.49431 .54 mm2 = 1591.010 m) * (1.54 mm2 Given that 500 dm3 is the reference volume for each trial: VolumetricsFlowrate = (500 cm3/ time) * (10mm / 1cm)3 = (500 cm3/ 4s) * (10mm / 1cm)3 = 125000 mm3 / s Fluid velocity = (volumetric flowrate) / (area of crossflow) = (125000 mm3 / s) / 78. are also achieved through the experiment.549)2 / (2*9.001 cp) = 15915.principle for a steady flow of water and the velocity is increasing along the same channel. The second objective.59 m/s) * (1000 kg/m3) / (0.8*1000) = 129. II. where the flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are to be calculated.24 mm Reynold’s Number = (Diameter of cross-section) * (Fluid velocity) * (Fluid Density) / (fluid viscosity) = (0.549 mm/s Theoretical Velocity Head =(Fluid Velocity)2 / (2g) = (1591.

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