# 2 .

3

What are you going to learn?

To estimate the sum and the difference of decimals To estimate the products of decimals To estimate the quotients of decimals To add decimals To subtract decimals To multiply decimals To divide decimals

**Estimating with Decimals
**

1. Rounding to the nearest

Do you like ice cream? Do you know what is in a cup of ice cream?

Key Terms:

add, subtract, multiply, divide, estimate, product, quotient

Nutrition: • Energy : 60.53 kal • Protein : 1.938 gr • Fat : 0.58 gr • Carbohydrate : 22.01 gr

C

Fi

You can round 60.53 to the nearest tenth. Think about how you round the whole numbers. The rules are similar.

EXAMPLE 1

Round 0.237 to the nearest tenth.

You can use a number line:

0.2 0.237

0.3

0.237 is closer to 0.2 than 0.3. nearest tenth, 0.237 rounds to 0.2

Therefore, to the

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/87

If you round 0.237 to the nearest hundredth, then you get

0.23 0.237

0.24

0.237 is closer to 0.24 than 0.23.

Therefore, to the

nearest hundredth, 0.237 rounds to 0.24

You can round decimal the underlined place with mental math.

0.237

2 is in the tenths’ place so 0.237 rounds to 0.2 or 0.3 3 is the digit to the right of 2

Since 3 < 5, 0.237 is closer to 0.2 than 0.3 To the nearest tenth, 0.237 rounds to 0.2 Problem 1 Round above to the nearest hundredth Then round each decimal to the nearest tenth.

ROUNDING DECIMALS Decide to which place you are rounding • If the digit to the right of that place is greater than or equal to 5, round up. • If the digit to the right of that place is less than 5, round down.

88/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

**2. Estimating Sums and Differences
**

2.1. Estimating by Rounding

You can use rounding to estimate a sum or a difference.

Example 2

Mother buys two fishes at the market. The first fish is 0.426 kilogram and the second is 0.271 kilogram. If the cost of 100 gram is Rp 1,000.00, estimate nearest thousands mother will pay.

100 gram = 0.1 kilogram 0.426 0.271

nearest tenth 0.4 0.3 0.7

The weight of fish is about 0.7 kilogram. So, mother will pay for about Rp 7,000.00.

Problem 2

Ms. Eni buys fish too. She chooses 0.738 kilogram and 0.652 kilogram. If the price is also Rp 1,000.00 per 100 grams, estimate how many thousands Ms. Eni must pay for the fish. If Ms. Eni wants to buy 2 kilograms of 3 fish, estimate the weight of the third fish. 2.2. Front-end estimation

Another type of estimation is front-end estimation. When you use front-end estimation, add or subtract the front digits. Then add or subtract the digits in the

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/89

next place value position.

Example 3

Use front-end estimation to estimate the total weight of three durians that are marked 2.193 kilograms, 1.507 kilograms, and 0.831 kilograms.

Add the front-end digits, the kilograms 2.193 1.507 0.831 3

Estimates the grams 0.193 0 0.507 1 0.831 1 2

Add

3 2 5

The total weight of the three durians is about 5 kilograms.

Use calculator to find the exact total weight of that three durians. How reasonable is the estimate?

Problem 3

Use front-end estimation to estimate the total weight of the following items: apples 2.560 kilograms, oranges 3.184 kilograms, mangoes 5.032 kilograms, and grapes 1.593 kilograms. Check your answer with a calculator. How reasonable is the estimate?

2.3.

Clustering

When estimating a sum in which all of the addends are close to the same number, you can use clustering.

90/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

Example 4

Use the information in the table to estimate the total number of hours worked in the four months. Month May June July August Hours Worked 72.50 68.50 69.75 71.75

The addends are clustered around 70. 72.50 68.50 69.75 + 71.75 70 70 70 + 70 280 So, a good estimate is 4 X 70, or 280. The total number of hours worked in the four months is 280 hours.

Problem 4

A cage of rabbits at a pet store is given a vitamin each day. The rabbits consumed 21.8 ounces, 19.1 ounces, 20.3 ounces, 18.9 ounces, and 20.3 ounces of the vitamin each day. Use this information to estimate the total amount of vitamin that is consumed in one day. Explain your answer.

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/91

Concept Summary Front-End Estimation

Estimation Methods Estimate by first adding or subtracting the front digits. Then add or subtract the next digits. Estimate by rounding a group of close numbers to the same number

Clustering

3.

Estimating Products and Quotients

**Buying Fruits. Dhani buys some apples at the
**

supermarket. The weight of the apples is 2.35 kg. If the price of the apples is Rp 1,199.00 every 100 grams, estimate how many thousands Dhani will pay for them.

Fruit market

To solve the problem above, try to answer the following question. 1. What two numbers will you multiply to find

the amount of money that Dhani should pay for the apples? 2. Estimate the price that Dhani pays by

rounding both numbers to the nearest thousand. 3.

Reasoning. How is your estimatimation

compared with the exact answer? 3.1. Estimating Products You can estimate a product by rounding each factor to the nearest whole number or by using compatible numbers.

92/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

Example 5

Estimate 23.06 2.31 ⎯⎯⎯×

23.06 × 2.31 ⇒ ⇒ 23 Use compatible numbers 2 such as 23 and 2 ⎯⎯× 46

Problem 5

The estimate product is 46. Estimate the product 8.37 × 13.62.

3.2. Estimating Quotients You can also use compatible numbers to estimate quotient.s A stick is 92.8 cm long. A pencil is 15.6 cm long. About how many times as long as the pencil is the stick? 92.8 : 15.6 90 : 15 Write numerical expression. Use compatible numbers to divide.

Example 6

The stick is about six times as long as the pencil.

Problem 6

Use compatible numbers to estimate 68.2 : 7.52.

**Adding and Subtracting Decimals
**

To add or subtract decimals, write the numbers in a column and line up the decimal points. In some

cases, you may want to place zeros at the back of the decimals, to help align the columns. Then add or

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/93

subtract in the same way as the whole numbers and bring down the decimal point. Always estimate first to determine whether your answer is reasonable. Example 7 Find each sum or difference. a. 12.65 + 4.5 Estimate 13 + 5 = 18 12.65 + 4.50 17.1 Line up the decimal points. Place a 0 to align the columns and add The sum is close to the estimate.

b. 42.1 – 15.85 Estimate 42 – 16 = 26 42.10 - 15.85 26.25 Place a 0 and line up the decimals points Subtract The difference is close to the estimate.

Problem 7

Find each sum or difference. a. b. 57.125 + 7.63 25 – 15.25

**Multiplying and Dividing Decimals
**

Multiplying Decimals Consider the following problem: Six tables are lined up end-to-end. Each table is 2.3 metres long. How long is the line of the tables?

The

problem

can

be

seen

as

the

following

multiplication problem.

94/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

6 × 2.3 with the estimate 6 × 2 = 12 The exact answer is: 6 × 2.3 = 2.3 + 2.3 + 2.3 + 2.3 + 2.3 + 2.3 = 13.8 Which is reasonably close to the estimate.

**Instead of using repeated addition as above, you can think of the following strategy. 2.3
**

X

23

X

tenth (1 decimal place)

6

6

138 tenth, which is equal to 13.8 (1 decimal place) Now, using the similar strategy we multiply

decimals. Example 8 Multiply 1.4 × 0.9 Estimate 1.4 × 0.9 14 × 9 126 1.5 × 1 = 1.5

tenth (1 decimal place) tenth (1 decimal place) hundredth, which is equal to 1.26 (2 decimal places).

Compare the result with the estimate. Multiply 0.84 × 1.6

Problem 8

1.

Dividing Decimals

Consider the following problem. A gasoline company distributed 97.2 million litres of gasoline equally to six costumers. How much gasoline did each customer receive? Did each

costumer get more than fifteen million litres? Did

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/95

each costumer get more than twenty million litres? What is the answer?

The problem is a division problem of the following:

97.2 : 6 16.2 6 97.2 - 60.0 37.2 - 36.0 1.2 - 1.2 0

with the estimate 90 : 6 = 15

Place 0s to align the columns then subtract Place 0 to align the columns then subtract Divide 12 tenths to 6 people, each gets 2 tenths Thus, 6 × 2 tenths or 12 tenths have been distributed .

Compare the result with the estimate. Example 9 Divide 97.5 : 6 The estimate is 90 : 6 = 15

**The problem can also be seen as 97.50 : 6 16.25 6 97.50 - 60.00 37.50 - 36.00 1.50 1.20 0
**

Place 0 to align the columns then subtract. Divide 12 tenths to 6 people, each gets 2 tenths. Thus, 6 × 2 tenths or 12 tenths have been distributed. Place 0s to align the columns then subtract.

Compare the result with the estimate.

96/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

To divide a decimal by decimal you can turn the problem by making the divisor as a whole number. Then follow the algorithm above. To make the divisor as a whole number means you should multiply the divisor by a power of ten, such as 10, 100, 1000. In order not to change the problem, the dividend must also be multiplied by that same number. For example:

0.5 1.25

convert to

5 12.5

Multiply by 10 Problem 9

Divide 199.68 : 9.6 Concept summary To multiply decimals, multiply them in the same way as whole numbers. The product has the same number of decimal places as the sum of the decimal places of the factors. Use estimate to determine whether your answers are reasonable. To divide two decimals, use the following: • If necessary, change the divisor to a whole number by multiplying the divisor by a power of ten. • Multiplying the dividend by the same power of ten. • Divide in the same way as whole numbers.

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/97

1. Round each decimal to the nearest hundredth. Then round each decimal to the nearest tenth. a. 3.4726 e. 0.6853 b. 0.5873 f. 42.063 c. 2.095 g. 1.001 d. 0.053 h. 123.456

2. Open-ended . Write five different decimals that are rounded to 5.7

3. Round each number to the underlined place. a. 3.166 b. 0.428 c. 3.2197 d. 0.0806

4. Estimate each sum or difference to the nearest integer. Then compare the estimate with the exact results. a. 3.89 + 2.92 b. 4.521 - 1.938 c. 0.82 + 3.39 d. 23.45 - 12.97

e. 12.67 - 9.52

f. 0.49 + 2.38

g. 32.51 - 27.99

h. 5.55 - 4.44

5. Round each factor to the nearest whole number to estimate the product. Then compare each estimate with the corresponding exact product. a. 17.2 × 1.8 d. 23.9 × 9.38 g. 0.38 × 0.51 b. 3.3 × 12.6 e. 35.04 × 7.82 h. 49.2 × 3.81 c. 0.67 × 35.4 f. 47.3 × 0.82

**6. Write a pair of compatible numbers. Then estimate each product. a. 73.6 × 1.48 b. 56.39 × 3.053
**

98/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

c. 0.41 × 31.06

d. 0.7 × 1.53 g. 2.74 × 1.837

e. 73 × 1.65

f. 0.06 × 42.49

h. 567.2 × 11.39

7. Use compatible numbers to estimate each quotients. a. 64.4 : 536 d. 37.45 : 4.06 g. 36.7 : 6.45 b. 32.7 : 8.06 e. 53.8 : 23.7 h. 5.61 : 27.9 c. 8.03 : 0.52 f. 0.76 : 0.03 30.

8. Determine two integers that are close to the quotient 28.4 : 3.58.

9. Complete the table below. No Sum Estimate to the nearest integer by using clustering Exact result Difference

a.

b.

c.

6.99 +6.59 + 7.02 + 7.44 5.45 + 5.3948 + 4.7999 99.8 + 100.2 + 99.5 +100.4

10. Number Sense. Estimating 26.25 : 4.62. a. First use the compatible numbers. b. Then estimate by rounding. c. Which method is closer to the exact answer?

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/99

Why ? 11. Consumer Issues. Regular gasoline costs Rp 4.800,00/litre. Mr. Bambang spends Rp 15,000.00 on gasoline. How many litres does he buy? 12. Reasoning. Is an estimate of 20 higher or lower than the sum of 6.66, 9.54 and 4.813? How can you tell? Is the estimate reasonable? Explain. 13. Writing. Describe a situation in which you might want your estimate to be high. Then describe one in which you might want your estimate to be low. 14. Research. Look through newspapers or magazines to find five decimals. Decide whether each decimal is an estimate. To which places are the decimals rounded? 15. Number sense. How do you know that the sum of 5.4, 6.3, and 9.6 is greater than 20? 16. Nutrition. Use the chart on the left.

Vitamin B (mg) in 100 grams Heart 9.25 Liver 0.53 Tongue 0.12 Brain 0.23 Small 0.08 Intestine Intestine 0.15

Estimate and round to the nearest tenth. a. About how much vitamin B is in heart and tongue? In one of everything? b. About how much more vitamin B is in 500 gram of liver than that in 1 kilogram of brain? c. About how much vitamin B is in the last three items combined?

17. Mental Math. Suppose you use a hand phone for 3.07 minutes. If the calling cost is Rp 275.47 per minute, estimate how many thousands you will pay for it.

100/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals

18.

Mental Math. Suppose you save Rp 3,870.00

each week. Estimate how much money you will save in one year.

19. Social Studies. The Apennine Railroad Tunnel in Italy is 18.5 km long. The Seikan Tunnel in Japan is 2.9 times longer. Estimate the length of the Seikan Tunnel.

20. Packaging. A volley ball weighs 283.5 gram and a shipping crate weighs 595.34 gram. Estimate the weight of a shipping crate containing 9 volley balls.

21. Nutrition. Use the chart below to answer. Food Serving Size Canned Tuna 3 oz (drained) Rye Bread 1 slice Cheese Pizza 1 slice (14 in. pie) Protein (grams) 24.4 2.3 7.8

a. About how many grams of protein are in 2 slices of cheese pizza? b. About how many grams of protein are in 8

slices of cheese pizza? c. Estimate how many grams of protein are in a sandwich consisting of 2 slices of rye cheese bread and 2 oz of tuna.

22. Library Science. The bills for 3 copies of a book is Rp 38.840,00. Estimate the cost of one book. Is

Mathematics for Junior High School – Year 7/101

your estimate higher or lower than the actual cost of the book?

102/Student’s Book – Operations of Decimals