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What are you going to learn?

To find a size in a map, actual measurement or scale. To find the size of a photo/ model or real object. To calculate enlargement factor and reduction factor in scale drawing.

Scaled Drawings

n geography, you often want to locate an island, river, city or mountain in a certain place. You c ann ot see all of those objects in a whole. Therefore a drawing (i.e a map) is made to represent the reality. This drawing is made to resemble the reality with a ratio (scale).

I

Key Terms

• • scale map

An architect who will build a building must make a scaled drawing which is usually called a design. The building and its design both have the same form but are different in size. You do so if you want to draw your classroom. The classroom and your drawing both have the same form, but are different in size. The design and drawing are made the same as the reality with a ratio (scale). The figure on the next page is a map of the East

Kalimantan Province with a scale of 1 : 6,000,000. It means that 1 cm on the map represents 6,000,000 cm in the actual size. This scale is a ratio of the size on the map to the actual size, or 6,000,000 cm in reality will be drawn on the map as 1 cm.

Scale = Distance on the map : Real Distance

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/183

Map of the East Kalimantan Province

Scale 1 : 6,000,000

184/Student’s Book - Proportion

EXAMPLE 1

Look at the map of East Kalimantan. What is the distance between Samarinda and Balikpapan? Answer: On the map, measure the distance between Balikpapan and Samarinda. The distance on the map is about 2.5 cm. Scale 1 : 6,000,000 The real distance = 2.5 x 6,000,000 = 15,000,000 Therefore, the distance between Balikpapan and Samarinda is 15,000,000 cm = 150 km ( 1 km = 100,000 cm).

EXAMPLE 2

The distance between Samarinda and Tarakan in East Kalimantan Province is 672 km. Find the distance between the cities on the map with the scale of 1 : 6,000,000. Answer:

Scale 1 : 6,000,000 Real distance = 672 km = 67,000,000 cm

**The distance on the map is x cm. Scale = Distance on the map : Real Distance
**

1 χ = 6 ,000 ,000 67 ,200 ,000 6 . 000 . 000 χ = 67 ,200 ,000 67 ,200 ,000 χ = 6 ,000 ,000 672 = = 11 . 2 60

So, the distance between Samarinda and Tarakan on the map is about 11.2 cm.

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/185

EXAMPLE 3

On another map, the distance between Samarinda and Sangkulirang on the map is 6 cm. The real distance between those cities is 180 km. Find the scale of the map. Answer: Distance on map = 6 cm Real distance = 180 km = 18,000,000 cm Scale = Distance on the map : Real Distance = 6 : 18,000,000 = 1 : 3,000,000 Simplify by dividing by 6 The scale of the map is 1 : 3,000,000.

Try It Out!

Using the map of East Kalimantan Province, find the distance on the map and the real distance between Samarinda and the following cities: a) Tanjung Redeb b) Tanjung Selor c) Sengata d) Bontang e) Muaramawa

**Photos and Scaled Models
**

Do you know photographs (photos)? Of course you do. Photographs can be printed in a photo studio with certain sizes, such as 2 x 3 or 4 x 6. A 2 x 3 photo is similar to a 4 x 6 photo in shape, since the corresponding parts of both photos have the same ratio. Before a plane or a car is constructed, usually a model of that plane or car is made. Parts of the plane or car have the same ratio as the corresponding parts (namely its height, width, and length) in the model.

186/Student’s Book - Proportion

Also, before a shopping centre or office building is constructed, usually a model or design is made. The length of the model and the length of the building, the width of model and the width of the building, and the height of the model and the height of the building have the same ratio. Length of model Length of building = Width of model = Width of building Height of model Height of building

EXAMPLE 4

The heights of a door and a window model are 8 cm and 4 cm, respectively. The real height of the window is 1 m. What is the real height of the door? Answer : The height The height The height The height of of of of the the the the door model is 8 cm. window model is 4 cm. window is 1 m = 100 cm. door is x cm. Height of the window model Height of the window = 4 100

Height of the door model Height of the door 8 x

=

4 x = 800 x = 200 The height of the door is 200 cm. Try to solve that problem in another way.

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/187

EXAMPLE 5

The size of photo I is 4 × 6 and the size of photo II is 2 × 3. What is the ratio of photo II to photo I?

Photo I Photo II Answer: The size of photo I is 4 x 6, which means 4 cm in width and 6 cm in length. The size of photo II is 2 x 3, which means 2 cm in width and 3 cm in length.

The length of photo II 3 1 The width of photo II 2 1 = = and = = The lenght of photo I 6 2 The width of photo I 4 2

**The ratio of photo II to photo I is 1 : 2.
**

1 times of 2 photo I; conversely, the size of photo I is the enlargement of 2 times of photo II. 1 Thus, the reduction factor of photo I to photo II is . Meanwhile, 2 the enlargement factor of photo II to photo I is 2.

The size of photo II is as a result of the reduction of

188/Student’s Book - Proportion

1. The figure below is a map of Central Kalimantan Province. Using a ruler, measure the distances on the map. Find the real distances from Palangkaraya to Pangkalanbun, Muarateweh, Buntok, Sampit and Kualakapuas and then complete the following table.

City Distance on the map Distance in reality from Palangkaraya from Palangkaraya ……………………… ………………………

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pangkalanbun Muarateweh Buntok Sampit Kualakapuas

……………………… ……………………… ……………………… ………………………

……………………… ……………………… ……………………… ………………………

Map of Central Kalimantan Province

Scale 1 : 6,000,000

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/189

2. A volleyball field has a size of 18 m x 9 m. The distance from the attack line to the centre line is 3 m. Make a scaled drawing of the volleyball field with the scale of 1 cm representing 2 m. What is the distance from the attack line to the centre line in the scaled drawing? 3. The scaled drawing of a rectangular classroom is 1 : 100. If the size of the classroom is 8 m x 9 m, draw the scaled drawing of the classroom. 4. A cupboard has the height of 200 cm, the length of 100 cm and the width of 60 cm. If that cupboard is modeled with the height of 20 cm, find the length and the width of the model. 5. A photograph of money has the length of 9 cm and the width of 4.1 cm. If the width of the money is 6.5 cm, find its length.

6. A building which is seen on a television screen is 10 cm in height and 8 cm in width. If the width of the building is 42 m, what is the height of it? 7. A football field has the size of 75 m x 110 m. The distance from the penalty point to the goal is 11 metres. a. b. Make a scaled drawing of that field with the scale of 1 : 1,000. Find the distance from the penalty point to the goal in your scaled drawing.

8.

A square field has the size of 20 m x 20 m. That field will be drawn with the size of 5 cm x 5 cm. Find a. the scale

190/Student’s Book - Proportion

b. the reduction factor (ratio of the field to its model). 9.

Model . A plane on

the right figure has the body length of 7.2 cm and the wing length of 5.4 cm. Find the length of the real body, if the length of the real wing is 50 m.

10. Model . The length and height of a car are 4.4 m and 1.1 m, respectively. The model of that car has the height of 2 cm. Find the length of the model. 10. Model. The height of the house and the door in a photograph is 6 cm and 1.5 cm respectively. If the real height of the house is 5 m, find the real height of the door.

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/191

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- Operations of Integers
- Operating Fraction
- Operating Decimals
- Mathematical Sentences
- Linier Inequality With 1 Variab
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- Kites
- Inverse Proportion
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