Presentation For: Transforming Neighborhoods - Tokyo / Berlin @Institute for Information Design Japan by Chris Berthelsen (a-small-lab

)
chris@a-small-lab.com

People play with things and find new uses for them

(Lynch, 1984:157);

Messy and spontaneous, individually created, everyday expressions of the creativity of everyday people in all of its facets.
A response to the environment, a reflection of society, culture, and traditions (Jonas, 2007).

Change reconciles with the idea
and

people feel joy, as opposed to mere pleasure
of improvement
(Illich, 1973:17). (Koolhaus, 2002)

Neighbourhood Creative Climate
Intrinsic motivation

Sketching for Usable Cities

FIXING the Neighbourhood:
Investigations in Suburban Tokyo Chris Berthelsen a-small-lab.com

FIXING the Neighbourhood:
Investigations in Suburban Tokyo Chris Berthelsen (chris@a-small-lab.com) a-small-lab.com 3 small projects a-small-lab.com/fixes/ (東京の小さな繕い) tokyo-diy-gardening.org(てづくりの緑たち)
a-small-lab.com/projects/kokonohanashi/(ここの話)

MAIN LINKS
Website: http://a-small-lab.com Fixes Project: http://a-small-lab.com/fixes/ (resource) and http://a-small-lab.com/projects/fixes/ (project overview) Flickr Sets: http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-small-lab/collections/72157623668988392/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening: http://tokyo-diy-gardening.org Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop MAP: http://tokyo-diy-gardening.org/tokyo-diy-gardening-workshop-map/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening: Personal Impact of Urban Green Space MODEL: http://tokyo-diy-gardening.org/personal-impact-of-urban-green-space/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop WRITE UP: http://greenz.jp/en/2010/11/01/tokyo-diy-gardening-interactive-map-ready-for-exploring/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop WRITE UP: http://www.3331.jp/news/en/201008/000564.html Kokonohanashi Project: http://a-small-lab.com/projects/kokonohanashi/ Kokonohanashi WRITE UP: For references to literature, concepts etc in – just ask!

http://tokyogreenspace.com/2010/11/04/%e3%81%93%e3%81%93%e3%81%ae%e8%a9%b1-koko-no-hanashi-talking-about-here/

Main Theme > Intrinsic Motivation can trump external forces (design, planning, good intentions, etc etc). > A plan/strategy for increasing + sustaining intrinsic motivation should be central to any proposed project or solution for cities and citizens (and in the context of this workshop, the elderly). > A modified creative climate framework (from social psychology research in business/research organizations) provides a promising starting point.

Structure of this presentation 001:
> Trigger/Context quotes & notes on control, the radical monopoly of space, and the hope that can be held for citizen power. > Examples of the fine grained ways that regular citizens solve problems and mold their environments (from FIXES and Tokyo-DIY-Gardening projects). > Sketching for Usable Cities overview (Agile, Robust, Fine Grained) > Personal benefits of sketching (or DIY, non-intentional design whatever you want to call it). > Notes on location: Scattered Use, Scattered Uchi – how the one person's 'Uchi' can be dispersed throughout the city. Implications for the 'non-intentional landscape'. The (non-linear) development/growth of the city as an aggregate of fine grained, non-connected individual actions. > Round up of first half of presentation.

Structure of this presentation 002:
> Imagining/Constructing/Discussing/Debating the non-intentional landscape of Tokyo – Interactive workshop at 3331 Arts Chiyoda example. > Brief implications/directions - Q&A > Introducing 'Neighbourhood Creative Climate' framework (Creativity, Components of Creativity, etc). > An experiment in 'trying to do something' in the neighbourhood – the Kokonohanashi 「ここの話」 project overview. Aims: (1) investigate systems for citizen discussion about place. (2) investigate creative climate perceptions (researcher-as-subject.) > Roundup. > Comments, anger, etc – work with participants to flesh out Neighbourhood Creative Climate framework from a Japanese perspective.

→ The abstract, faceless conquest of Space by Man → the limitation of place for men Our city illness has a basic motive , a common denominator; A single mechanism by which it most disturbs urbanites. This is the loss of control.
(capitalized) (in small letters) (Ellul, 1964:328). (Lynch, 1984:364)

The message is clear: “You cannot do as you please; your actions do not make any difference."

The Radical Monopoly of Space: a major tool rules out natural competence, imposing compulsory consumption and thereby restricting personal autonomy. It constitutes a special kind of social control because it is enforced by means of the

imposed consumption of a standard product that only large institutions can provide .
(Illich, 1973:35)

people give up their native ability to do what they can do for themselves and for each other, in exchange for something “better” that can be done for them only by a major tool
(Illich, 1973:36)

Verbs become nouns. We no longer ‘garden’ or ‘play’ or ‘cycle’ – the city of the fully industrialized man ‘has’ (calls his own) gardens and playgrounds and cycling tracks which are made for him. Now, space is stated in terms of a commodity and claims are made in terms of competition for scarce resources (see e.g Illich, 1973:56). The actor has become the consumer, who gambles for perceived nouns.

The components for self-building of the city can be easily and cheaply made available. People

could build, adapt, create and modify, while at the same time learning about materials, systems and relationships. But instead,
government and commercialities deposit roads, apartment blocks, parks, green spaces, roof gardens, barbeque zones, and other built environmental components into the city - the

professionally built is defined as the functional unit, and the selfbuilt is stamped as a shanty

(Illich, 1973:41).

When consumers gain more confidence in a ‘product’ (those lovely, safe and green) the victory only increases society’s dependence at the cost and frustration of
Consumer protection, ‘better spaces’ and planning are insufficient. those who cannot or would prefer not to partake (Illich, 1973:37). While the organized selfprotection of the addict-consumer immediately raises the quality of the dope and the power of the peddler, it may lead ultimately to limits (Illich, 1973:37).

Discerning consumers (citizens? →modifiers/gardeners?→city creators/curators?) may discover that they can do better by doing things for themselves.

The most powerful way of improving our environment then is to put the control of it into the hands of its immediate users who have the stake and knowledge to make it function well (Lynch, 1984:165).

The last great force in the city is the residents themselves their creative response to change is their ultimate guarantee of survival
(Orum and Chen:18); (Lynch, 1984:172).

人々は考 えてい る。
> Examples of the fine grained ways that regular citizens solve problems and mold their environments (from FIXES and Tokyo-DIY-Gardening projects).

バス停のベンチの設置。 Public Seating

危険防止。 Safety.

アクセス。 Access.

自宅のアクセスが不便になった人は When access becomes difficult

対応する。 Fix it.

スペースも土もなければ、自分の手で作る。 In a city with scarce space and dirt, make it yourself....

幅が10センチしかない場所でも。 Even on a 10cm wide curb....

歩道でも。 Or on the sidewalk.

高い建物の中でも。 Or in a highrise.

狭いレンガ壁の上でも。 Or on a precarious brick wall.

線路沿いでも。 Or along the railroad tracks.

花が好きな人は Flower lovers share their passion...

渋谷のマスカット・オタクは Grape-obsessed Shibuya-ites.....

スペースも土もなければ、自分の手で作る (そして美味しいもの(バジル)もできる)。 Basil

街角のDEAD SPACEだと思ったら、 What appears to be dead space...

唐辛子が育っていた。 Is home to fresh red peppers.

亡くなった夫の大切にしていた近所の公園の小さな花園を維持し続ける。 Maintaing a dead spouse's neighbourhood park garden...

ゴミだらけのDEAD SPACEだと思ったら、 What appears to be run-down dead space

緑豊かなリビング・フェンスが空き地を隠してくれた。 Becomes a lush living fence that beautifies the vacant lots

そしてきれいな花が訪ねてきた。 An plays host to lovely flora....

近所のイタズラ The work of neighbourhood misfits

実はトマト畑。 Is actually a tomato garden.

隣へよく行く人は、 People who often visit the neighbours

その必要に応じる。 Create their own access-ways.

ゴミ箱がなければ、設置する。 Placing rubbish bins where they are needed.

動物立ち入り禁止! Animals KEEP OUT!

With intricate, flexible and affordable construction.

路上喫煙禁止地区ではない道ではマナを守る。 Even pedestrian smokers find a way to keep the street (if not the air) clean.

帰り道が暗いアパートには街路灯。 Dark apartment complexes call for home-made street lights.

道が分かりにくい街には・・・ And when you're sick of people asking you how to find the station, you stick up some signs.

自転車置き場の不便にレンガ。 Bricks are a key element in bicycle parking.

フォックスフェイスの季節 Foxface decorates an inner city garden

ではなくても構いません。 Even when it's out of season (fruit are tied on with plastic ties)

ジャズクラブのない郊外には・・・・・ In the suburbs, where Jazz clubs are scarce, you need to make your own..

ゴルフ好き郊外の老人は・・・・・ And golf lovers construct a 'fold away' 9-hole course in the local park.

ad infinitum

Sketching for Usable Cities

Sketching for Usable Cities

Quick, timely, inexpensive, disposable, plentiful, distinct, minimal, ambiguous, beta, open, hopeful, seeking

Sketching for Usable Cities
Agile
機動的

Quick, timely, inexpensive, disposable, plentiful, distinct, minimal, ambiguous, beta, open, hopeful, seeking

Sketching for Usable Robust Cities
丈夫

Quick, timely, inexpensive, disposable, plentiful, distinct, minimal, ambiguous, beta, open, hopeful, seeking

Agile
機動的

Sketching for Usable Robust Cities
丈夫

Quick, timely, inexpensive, disposable, plentiful, distinct, minimal, ambiguous, beta, open, hopeful, seeking

Agile
機動的

Flexibility, adaptability to local & personal needs and opportunities
(Turner & Roberts, 1975)

Fine Grained

Sketching for Usable Robust Cities
丈夫

Quick, timely, inexpensive, disposable, plentiful, distinct, minimal, ambiguous, beta, open, hopeful, seeking

Agile
機動的

Flexibility, adaptability to local & personal needs and opportunities
(Turner & Roberts, 1975)

Granularity(グラニュラリティ)
Developers, Govt = Coarse grained cities
(企業や政府が「作る」のは粗粒子)

(e.g Turner & Roberts, 1975)

= tension, friction, mismatch, waste
=ストレス、不安、摩擦、不一致、無駄 =弱いものはすぐ苦しくなる

= the first to suffer are the weak

Granularity(グラニュラリティ)
Developers, Govt = Coarse grained cities
(企業や政府が「作る」のは粗粒子)

(e.g Turner & Roberts, 1975)

= tension, friction, mismatch, waste
=ストレス、不安、摩擦、不一致、無駄 =弱いものはすぐ苦しくなる

= the first to suffer are the weak Local action, entrepreneurship etc = fine grain
(個人や近所レベル行動=細粒) =一致。ニーズに合った行動

= better matched needs = security
=安全、安心

= efficient and effective
=効率的かつ効果的

=good for people

Personal Effects/個人的影響
Long time

長期

伝統 Social Norms Memory Community Functional Affordable Mutual dependence Pleasure Immediate Indpendence Emotional 地域社会 社会規範 記憶 独立

Aesthetics

実用
(家計的に) 無理なくでき ること 実質

感情

相互依存

Practical

喜び

即時

Based on informal chats, discussions, interviews, our own experience, and research into Tokyo’s informal landscapes (especially the great work of Mariluise Jonas)

Scattered use, Scattered Uchi
=involvement, care, peace of mind over scale

Dwelling・住宅

City・都市

> Notes on location: Scattered Use, Scattered Uchi – how the one person's 'Uchi' can be dispersed throughout the city. Implications for the 'non-intentional landscape'. The (non-linear) development/growth of the city as an aggregate of fine grained, nonconnected individual actions.

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Home・自宅

Dwelling・住まい

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Surrounds・家の近く

Home・自宅

Dwelling・住まい

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Surrounds・家の近く Opposite Footpath・反対歩道

Frontage・正面

Footpath・歩道 Dwelling・住まい

Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Neighbourhood・近所

Surrounds・家の近く Surrounds Opposite Footpath・反対歩道 Footpath

Frontage Frontage・正面

Footpath・歩道 Footpath Dwelling・住まい Dwelling

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Neighbourhood・近所 Neighbourhood Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所

Close Small Parks・近くの公園 Surrounds・家の近く Surrounds

Uncle's House ・おじさんの家

Opposite Footpath・反対歩道 Footpath

Own Shop & Surrounds

Frontage・正面 Frontage

Footpath・歩道 Footpath Dwelling Dwelling・住まい

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)
Suburb・町・街

Neighbourhood・近所 Neighbourhood Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所

Close Small Parks・近くの公園 Parks Surrounds・家の近く Surrounds

Uncle's House ・おじさんの家

Opposite Footpath・反対歩道 Footpath

Own Shop & Surrounds

Frontage・正面 Frontage

Footpath・歩道 Footpath Dwelling Dwelling・住まい

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)
Suburb・町・街 Suburb Nearby Large Park ・もっと大きい公園 Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所

Workplace・職場 Neighbourhood・近所 Neighbourhood

Close Small Parks・近くの公園 Parks Surrounds・家の近く Surrounds

Uncle's House ・おじさんの家

Opposite Footpath Footpath・反対歩道

Own Shop & Surrounds

Frontage・正面 Frontage

Footpath Footpath・歩道 Dwelling Dwelling・住まい

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)
Nearby Large Park ・もっと大きい公園 Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所

City・都市

Suburb・町・街 Suburb

Workplace・職場 Workplace Neighbourhood・近所 Neighbourhood

Close Small Parks・近くの公園 Parks Surrounds・家の近く Surrounds

Uncle's House ・おじさんの家

Opposite Footpath Footpath・反対歩道

Own Shop & Surrounds

Frontage・正面 Frontage

Footpath Footpath・歩道 Dwelling Dwelling・住まい

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)
Workplace・職場 Nearby Large Park ・もっと大きい公園 Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所

City・都市 City

Suburb・町・街 Suburb

Workplace・職場 Workplace Neighbourhood Neighbourhood・近所

Deceased Grandparents' House & Shop ・亡くなった親戚 の家や店

Close Small Parks・近くの公園 Parks Surrounds Surrounds・家の近く

Uncle's House ・おじさんの家

Opposite Footpath Footpath・反対歩道

Own Shop & Surrounds

Frontage・正面 Frontage

Footpath・歩道 Footpath Dwelling・住まい Dwelling

Home Home・自宅

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Scattered Uchi(散在性の「内」)

Themes > TRANSFORMING the big-size city into the small-scale city where people feel
encouraged and able, and intrinsically rewarded for assuming control over their environment (Krupat, 1985:207; discussed in relation to Tokyo in Jonas, 2007).

> Neither the passive observer of determined systems (consumer) nor a

determined manipulator of passive material (planner, developer, businessman), but rather, the manager (cultivator) of an unfolding process occurring in (scattered) personal locations (uchi) (based on Reiser and Umemoto, 2006:104)

> Could many minor changes across the city add up to major transformations in our environment? (This is Tokyo....non-intentional design, non-intentional landscaping, Tokyo's non-intentional landscape).
(Sub Plan, 2009)

> Imagining/Constructing/Discussing/Debating the non-intentional landscape of Tokyo – Interactive workshop at 3331 Arts Chiyoda example.
Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop MAP: http://tokyo-diy-gardening.org/tokyo-diy-gardening-workshop-map/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop WRITE UP: http://greenz.jp/en/2010/11/01/tokyo-diy-gardening-interactive-map-ready-for-exploring/ Tokyo-DIY-Gardening City Mapping Workshop WRITE UP: http://www.3331.jp/news/en/201008/000564.html

東京 DIY ガーデンイング ワークショップ(3331 Arts Chiyoda)

東京 DIY ガーデンイング ワークショップ(3331 Arts Chiyoda)

Implications for the Eldery/Aging Societies....for those that will be 'old' in 10,20,30 years....... > A resource, a sourcebook > Preserving 繕い spirit > A history > Patterns? > Implications for how cities/neighbourhoods are run..or not run. Etc etc etc

Neighbourhood Creative Climate

creative product

創造的アウトプット

creative product

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Process(プロセス)

creative product

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity Knowledge & Skills
問題領域の知識

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity Creativity Specific Skills
創造スキルなど

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Knowledge & Skills
問題領域の知識

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity Intrinsic Motivation
内因性動機付け

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Creativity Specific Skills
創造スキルなど

Knowledge & Skills
問題領域の知識

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity Intrinsic Motivation
内因性動機付け

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Creativity Specific Skills
創造スキルなど

Knowledge & Skills
問題領域の知識

Press (Environment)(環境・風土) Person(人格) Process(プロセス)

creative product
Components of Creativity Intrinsic Motivation
内因性動機付け

創造的アウトプット

As fine-grained component of happiness.

Creativity Specific Skills
創造スキルなど

Knowledge & Skills
問題領域の知識

Creative Climate(創造的環境・風土)(see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen)

Risk Tolerance Freedom
どれだけ自由に意 思決定できるか。 リスクを犯すことにど れだけ耐えられるか。 失敗は学習の機会と 見なされる。

Debate
どれだけ建設的な意 見交換が行われてい るか。

Trust/ Openness
信頼感の高さ。

Time
どれだけアイデア を練る・実現させ る時間があるか。

?
Playfulness /Humor
どれだけリラックスした 雰囲気か。

Idea Support
新しいアイデアを出す ことがどれだけ奨励さ れるか。

Conflict
ネガティブな感情をと もなう非建設的な関係 がどれだけ存在する か。

> An experiment in 'trying to do something' in the neighbourhood – the Kokonohanashi 「ここの話」 project overview. Aims: (1) investigate systems for citizen discussion about place. (2) investigate creative climate perceptions (researcher-as-subject.)

Image: Tokyo (Google Maps)

The kokonohanashi (「ここの話」 lit. 'talking about here') project works locally with a combinat -ion of analogue (notebooks, pens, laminated A4 posters, wire, legwork) and open low-tech digital tools (QR codes, stripped down Wordpress, email, smart-and-not-so-smart-phones) to

investigate the development of a platform for discussion about, and positive action in, city space by the people who most matter those who experience and use the place in their everyday lives.

Image: France Bed Factory, Akishima (Google Maps)

Rough Schematic

External Interaction External interaction with log through commenting

Front End

Unregistered participants access + join in location specific discussion through posters at locations around the city

Web Publishing Platform

QR codes, URL direct link, 'real' writing in notebooks attached to posters

Open discussion Log (stripped down wordpress)

Collati on, Categ orizati on etc...

Analysis, discussio n etc...

Output (presentations , reports, workshops, games, etc)

Deeper discussion, Interviews, Communication, Workshops

Interaction with city and relevant stakeholders

※ How can we construct low-cost, agile, fine-grained (and also scalable) ways (1) for people to begin to discuss and interact with the spaces they use, and the other people that use them? (2) to record, share, the living histories of places (memories, experiences, feelings)? First Stage: Five locations in suburban Tokyo What are: > Official reactions (positive/negative/non-existent, direct/indirect etc) > User reactions/participation (content, patterns, time, feeling etc) > Channels of participation (hierarchy, patterns, content etc) > Materials/Tools (how robust, appropriate, necessary etc) > Places (official, private, semi-public, residential, abandoned etc) > Collaboration, participation avenues ? Review/Revise/Collaborate/Interact (Further Stages)

More Practical Details

The kokonohanashi (「ここの話」 lit. 'talking about here') project works locally - in the community where we live. With places that we know. At the first stage of testing: > A run-down park in front of a factory (run-down, official) > A friendly neighbourhood park which has been declared a 'night no-go zone' (well-ke pt, official) > A park under a motorway (run-down, secluded, official) > An abondoned car in an apartment complex car park (illegal use) > A deserted house on a school route (run-down, private property)
Image: Western Tokyo (Google Maps)

analogue (notebooks, pens, laminated A4 posters, wire, legwork) - materials on location. > Laminated A4 posters fastened with wire and tape (key components of the Japanese DIY public signage kit) installed in selected locations. > A notebook and pen attached for non-net-enabled users.
Image: Examples of street signage in Japan (from FIXES project)

Example Poster

Trigger Question or Statement Example poster (Top Half, Trigger Statement)

Heading: “What do you think about this place?” Logo About the kokonohanashi project

Use instructions (access, email, comment etc)

Example poster (Bottom Half)

QR Code Invitation to add own place to the project

Place name Place specific URL

Installation period (until the end of November)

General contact details

digital (QR codes, stripped down Wordpress, email, smart/not-so-smart-phones) - real(ish) time commenting/contribution/access to other opinions. > Access to location-specific post via QR code, direct URL – PC/Mobile. > Commenting/discussion enabled. > Easy monitoring via comment rss feed.

e.g

Online component running stripped down Wordpress

Access site via QR code (or direct URL)

1

Retrieve message

2

Connect

3

Comment

4

5
Thank You!

First stage test locations

A run-down park in front of a factory “This park is known around here as 'one-p ark' because it only has one slide” 「この公園はすべり台が一つしかないので「ワン 公園」とよばれています。」

A friendly neighbourhood park which has been declared a 'night no-go zone'. “Why can't we use this park at night anymore?” 「この公園が夜間使用禁止になったのはなぜ?」

A park under a motorway. “From the outside, parks und er motorways look like pretty sad places – but what's the reality? ” 「近所の皆様、橋の下の遊び場は 外から見ると寂しそうな感じで すか、実際は?」

An abandoned car in an apartment complex car park “This car has been here for three years....what do you think?” 「この廃車は3年以上このままです。どう思いますか?」

A deserted house on a school route “This house has been deserted for the la st three years. Want to make it somethi ng a bit more fun?” 「この廃屋は3年以上このままです。楽しい 場所に変えてみませんか?」

Main Theme
> Intrinsic Motivation can trump external forces (design, planning, good intentions, etc etc). > A plan/strategy for increasing + sustaining intrinsic motivation should be central to any proposed project or solution for cities and citizens (and in the context of this workshop, the elderly). > A modified creative climate framework (from social psychology research in business/research organizations) provides a promising starting point. > The FIXES and Tokyo-DIY-Gardening projects uncover examples of creative output. They are the starting point for deriving patterns/principles/frameworks of neighbourhood creativity that can inform the discussion on citizen created cities/urban planning/etc.... > kokonohanashi seeks to (1) understand practical directions for neighbourhood communication, (2) investigate the neighbourhood creative climate.

> Comments, anger, etc – work with participants to flesh out Neighbourhood Creative Climate framework from a Japanese perspective.

Contact:

Chris Berthelsen (chris@a-small-lab.com) > twitter.com/a_small_lab > a-small-lab.com With questions, comments, ideas... anything!