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# NASASP-3004

_.. COPV

iii'_,

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION

Foreword

THIs

the calculation of attack. theory. of supersonic These Numerical calculations integrations differential obtained REPORT PRESENTS, in tabular flow fields were equations. for cone angles from 2.5 ° to 30 ° in regular increments about right circular the form, cones Taylor the results of at zero and angle

performed

using using

Maceoll method

were performed

the Runge-Kutta

for second-order Results were

of 2.5 °. For each of these 12 cone angles, a series of 16 problems was computed at nominal free-stream Mach numbers from 1.5 to 20.0. The free-stream Mach number for each was cone not increased In in even increments, the figures. the same as those Tech. of Zden_k Rep. No. 1, and reprecones at but desired the same values Mach were used

angle.

all calculations, significant report Flow

free-stream

number

was obtained The Kopal's 1947). by the sents small data Tables They

to six or more listed in this

ard essentially Around work only Cones in the

of Supersonic differ from

(M.I.T. manner of 1.405. the flow system

Kopal's heats ratio

of presentation This field report about

use of a specific a complement angles of attack

of 1.4 instead in which coordinate

to NASA

SP-3007

in a body-fixed

is tabulated.

.lo

111

...... 3 .... IMMEDIATELY V .................. 9 10 11 12 13 ..... COEFFICIENT MINIMUM OF SURFACE PRESSURE RESULTS FOR 14 10.........................................................................................................--VALUES 8....... .......--VALUES 16........... 6 2................... 20 21 22 OF M AT CONE SURFACE ....... OF M* AT CONE SURFACE ........ FREE-STREAM MACH 15 16 17 18 19 SHOCK SHOCK SHOCK WAVE WAVE WAVE .....--VALUES OF SHOCK WAVE ANGLE 8_ .......--VALUES 5.....Contents PAGE FOREWORD INTRODUCTION SYMBOLS SOLUTION ....................................................... 4 5 ..............--VALUES 3................................................................................--VALUES 9.......................... ........ I............. OF pw/p ...... M IMMEDIATELY IMMEDIATELY BEHIND BEHIND BEHIND #...................--VALUES 12.............. OF P_/P .........--VALUES 14 ........................................................... 11............/P OF Ps/9 ..........................................................--VALVES 7.................--VALUES FOR MINIMUM FREE-STREAM MACH NUMBER ............... ...........--VALUES 13............................. ......................--SHOCK=WAVE NUMBER ..............--VALVES OF TJT ........................--VALUES 15........... III 1 2 .............._VALUES 17.....................................................--VALUES 6. 7 8 4.......... OF OF OF M_........ OF T....../T® . OF AS/R ... OF fl AT CONE SURFACE ........--VALUES OF P..... OF THE EQUATIONS DISCUSSION REFERENCES TABLE OF TABLES ................

..... to 20....--#.1159051 12...2773745 M®=1......... to 20. 120-136.... 211/....0 ... to 20.0121844 M®=1..= 2........5o...0 ..........3419094 °.0 ..... 7..0 ..0°...=1.--8.= 85.....--8......5°...0 ..... to 20.....--#........0°..=27....... to 20...5°....u#..0°..... vi Fi! iil I!l ! ..0 .. 204-219..2182190 17..0 .....= 103-119........= 51.= 68.....--0....--0..............0 ...1643198 M®----1..=20........6710795 86-102.--#_=22.........--0.0 . 5.......--0... 23-56 57-90 91-124 125-158 159-192 193-225 226-258 259-291 292-324 325-357 358-389 390-421 lO.......=25........0 ...0735583 to 20..... M®=1.Con@al TAB LE S Flow Field PAGES 18355269- 34.--0.4895952 M®=1...... to 20..0 .O°. to 20........0 . to 20. M®----1.......0°...................0o.=15.......5 171-187..5°. 154-170.0383341 M®=1...............= 137-153.....5 °..........=30.4123337 M®=1. 188-203....--8. M®=1.5751393 M®=1... to 20. M®=1. to 20. to 20.

5 ° to a maximum cone angle of 30 ° (a total of 12 cone angles). cone angles of 27. case will be covered in present set of tables references 1 and 2. During the process of setting up a program for treating bodies of revolution by the method of characteristics. cone tables for the This latter set is the angle-of-attack reference 3.5 ° and 30 °.4 has been usedl One of the uses envisioned for of presentation ratio "y. this information is usually obtained from the solution of the flow field about circular cones. For sharp-nosed bodies of revolution. it appeared desirable to prepare a set of cone tables for cones at small angles of attack in a body-fixed coordinate system. the minimum cone angle was 2. presented in this report. results were computed for a constant series of free-stream Mach numbers from 1. a solution was computed which yielded the minimum free-stream Mach number for a completely supersonic conical flow field (u.5 were computed. it was decided to compute the starting flow field rather than use the tables published by Kopal in references 1 and 2.Introduction THE SOLUTION of supersonic flow fields by the method of characteristics requires that the flow conditions along a starting line in the flow field be known. the solutions free-stream Mach number of 1. In order not to restrict the Mach numbers to those of this required also a set of case of zero angle of attack. In addition. Thus. differs .5 ° and this was increased by increments of 2.=_/_)This any for at a not was the lowest value of M® for which solutions were obtaine& Consequently. With these programs available. This from those of reference 1 only in the manner and the value of specific heats of the present calculations. In all ideal gas value the results con- tained herein is in types of solutions of which the shock-expansion theories are typical. the of _= 1. For each of the cone angles.5 to 20.

Symbols a a* Cp M_ M P q r. dimensional (fig. 17/a 17/_* pressure free-stream dynamic pressure.4 Shock WaVe -'Characteristic line Mach angle flow direction angle. v u speed of sound nondimensional speed critical speed of sound of sound. 1). _/'_7_ resultant nondimensional velocity at any conical ray line. co conditions free-stream back of shock condition wave pressure coefficient. with origin at tip of cone. a/V. p/2V_ cylindrical coordinate axes. angle between velocity vector V and cone axis v density 0 conical ray angle. _/_z velocity (dimensional) limiting velocity due to expansion into a vacuum ratio of specific heats. (7)). nondimensional velocity normal to con- Shock line M_ v V V _t ical ray line in spherical coordinate system.--AP/q critical Mach number (see eq. u/V. Mach number.x R AS T u. from cone axis Subscripts: s denotes values at cone surface _b. rl i i'1 . ideal gas value = 1. cp/co. FIGVR_ 1. x-axis=cone axis universal gas constant increase in entropy absolute temperature velocity components. 1) nondimensional velocity along conical ray line in spherical coordinate system (fig.--Coordinate System.

dividing them by able by adiabatic as in reference 1. _1. even though the results are later transposed into another reference system. Integration step which are not included that the maximum integration 5X10 -8 at any point in any Rankine-Hugoniot conditions ± 2 X 10 -7. by the limiting velocity attainexpansion into a vacuum. Therefore. and V _ in the following /_. due to space limitations. a_(u+v cot 0) dO2 -f-u= v--___ . (5) by the results . The were satisfied to The method satisfied. yield a desired arbitrary frec-stream Mach number without a priori knowledge of the value of u. =h_= _/_:-_ since (u_+e) (7) (4) at the surface of the cone. an iteration on u_ was included in the procedure in order that Mach number both cone angle and could be specified. These results are transformed into the more usable forms of M*. and a at each conical ray angle 0. nondimensionalized. where du The solutions of equation (1) presented herein were obtained using the Runge-Kutta integration method. herein.Solution THE DERIVATIONS of the of the Equations basic M / 2 ®_"VT--1 u2 cos 2 O--u s (6) equations for the conical flow problem are given quite adequately in reference 1 and will not be repeated here. The differential equation that is the formulation of the conical flow problem in a spherical coordinate system (fig. and ended when the shock-wave conditions were size investigations. v. of solution outlined does not (1) v=_-_ and a2----_-_ In the foregoing (1--u2--V all _) velocities (2) (3) are equations. . Computation was started at the solid surface of the cone by specifying a value of u. and they are Integration of equation (1) yields values of u. of the Mach angle g will be presented small-angle-of-attack results. M. Boundary conditions must be prescribed along with equations (1) to (3). 1) is: d_u . The upper boundary condition is found by requiring the results obtained from the integration of equation _1) to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot equations which can be expressed as tan O_ "Y-1 u2--1 _+ 1 uv and the flow direction ¢l=0 + angle ¢1 is tan_ 1 v _t Furthermore.+1 manner: . that should be specified. free-stream This system of computation was used. indicate error is less that solution.Mach number _= sin-_/ a_ u_+v _ the values _th the When equation (5) is Fulfilled from equation (1) the free-stream is given by However. in order to make use of the parameters in reference 1 as convenient guides in setting up the numerical calculations.

r cylindrical coordinate system that has its origin at the cone vertex. These results in an x.47168732. 11 through 17 give shock-wave angles and flow parameters immediately behind the shock wave for all solutions in which the free-stream Mach number was specified. Furthermore. and T. Shock-wave angles immediately behind the shock minimum Tables given in table 10 for the Mach number solutions.xxxxxxxx./T. 4). x. The iteration procedure mentioned free-stream Mach numbers that correspond more significant and flow results wave are free-stream earlier for all produced solutions printed directly from the machine and were not converted to decimal calculations form. starting at the cone surface and terminating at the shock wave. ¢. computed from the RankineHugoniot . These results are tabulated for each cone angle as a function of the nominal free-stream Mach number. In these tables. this characteristic line was built up using the basic inte. p./P®.4 Discussion IT HAS BEEN ASSUMED that all of Tables system) of the characteristic cone base calibers while M* nondimensionalized direction angle in velocity radians. Coming last are an algebraic sign and two digits that are the exponent of 10 _-xXby which the size of the quantity must be multiplied to obtain the correct decimal point location. In the tables. This was done to keep the incremental distance along the characteristic line from increasing continuously. P. The leading sign is the algebraic sign of the quantity. Table 1 gives a summary of the surface results of the calculations for the minimum free-stream Mach number. starting line in is the resultant and ¢1 is the flow The end results of the cones are terminated at a base diameter of unity left-running this point are given and the geometric location of the characteristic line emanating from has been computed._y/_. The next eight digits that represent the size of the quantity are considered to be 0. and u stay constant since the conical ray angles do not change. In tables 2 through 9 are summarized some of the surface results for the cones in which the free-stream Mach number was specified. By means of a base diameter ratio it is possible to proportion the locations of these characteristic points on a cone of any other size. ¢1. The free-stream Mach number listed with each of these tables is the exact value equations. The angular increments at which the tables are printed generally are decreased as the flow field is traversed. the results are tabulated starting at the cone surface and proceeding through the flow field to the shock wave. the quantities M*. .. Thus a number that is printed in the machine code as --47168732+00 is read as --0./p®. Results for the complete flow field of each calculation are given in tables 18 through 219. x and r are the coordinates (in the cylindrical coordinate to the nominal values to six or figures._) were computed using the integrated results with shock wave and isentropic equations (ref. Of course. The tables for the individual solutions were given with each table (AS/R. and r are listed as functions of the conical ray angle 8.gration step size during the integration and cannot be duplicated exactly using the tabulated values. The summary tables for surface conditions were tabulated by hand from the machine printed individual tables and are given in decimal form.

1135. 3. 1. 3. Rep. Circular Institute of Technology. Tech. NASA SP-3007.X_K: Tables of Supersonic Flow Around Institute of Technology. 4. 2. Tables and Charts Rep. Rep.: Tables for Supersonic Flow Around Angle of Attack. Tech. KOPAL.References 1. 1947. at Small NACA for Compressible . ZDE. Yawing Right Massachusetts Cones. ZDEN']_K: Tables of Supersonic Flow Around Cones. AMES RESEARCH STAFF: Equations. 1953. 1964. SIMs. KOPAL. No. No. 1947. JosEP_ L. Massachusetts Cones Flow.

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