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International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education
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Wearable textile antennas
Jung-Sim Roh , Yong-Seung Chi & Tae Jin Kang
a b c a b c
Intelligent Textile System Research Centre Fashion Textile Centre
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, Republic of Korea Available online: 04 Oct 2010
To cite this article: Jung-Sim Roh, Yong-Seung Chi & Tae Jin Kang (2010): Wearable textile antennas, International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 3:3, 135-153 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17543266.2010.521194
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International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education Vol. 3, No. 3, November 2010, 135–153
REVIEW ARTICLE Wearable textile antennas
Jung-Sim Roha, Yong-Seung Chib and Tae Jin Kanga,b,c*
Intelligent Textile System Research Centre; bFashion Textile Centre; cDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea (Received 14 July 2010; ﬁnal version received 20 September 2010) Owing to the rapid progress in fabrication technologies of conductive ﬁbrous materials and the increasing demand for wireless communications in smart clothing systems, the potential application of wearable textile antennas in this ﬁeld continues to increase. This article reviews a variety of wearable textile antennas in order to provide background information and application ideas for designing such antennas. The various materials used in the construction of wearable textile antennas, their fabrication methods, as well as the antenna types and their application ﬁelds are summarised. Owing to the high conductivity of metals, various metal composite yarns (MCYs) and fabrics have been used in the production of textile antennas. For inductively coupled near-ﬁeld communication within smart clothing systems, woven or embroidered multiturn loop antennas are suggested. For far-ﬁeld communication, a variety of broadband textile antennas were developed to counterbalance the detuning caused by the presence of a human body. Embroidered-folded dipole array antennas, metal-coated fabric patched bowtie and spiral antennas, a microstrip patch antenna array and a coplanar antenna made of metal-coated fabric patches and a ground plane, are the antennas that cover a broad spectrum and thus are capable of operating on the body. Keywords: wearable textile antennas; embroidered antenna; conductive fabric patch antenna; printed textile antenna; broadband textile antennas; textile antenna arrays
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As fabrication technologies for conductive ﬁbrous materials have rapidly progressed in recent years, the door to producing ﬂexible structures for wearable electrical and electronic systems has opened even wider. In this context, conventional textile industries have employed new strategies to support the innovation of smart products and enhance their functions. As a result, the production of smart textile systems is now becoming a reality based on the successful convergence of conventional textile-producing technology with other branches of science such as material science, sensor and actuator technology, data processing and communicating technology, electronics and electromagnetic engineering, artiﬁcial intelligence, bio-technology, etc. Currently, reduced-sized electronic devices or electrical circuit components are being built on or incorporated into textile-based structures using available technologies. As the demand for wearable smart textile systems continues to increase, the interest in body-worn antennas is growing, thanks to the expanding wireless applications for smart interactive textile systems. As clothing provides suﬃcient area to place antennas, which usually require a relatively large space, and textile antennas ensure wearing comfort owing to their ﬂexibility, conformability and lightness, much research
on smart textile systems has been focused on wearable textile antennas. The potential applications of wearable textile antennas are diverse, ranging from medical applications to health, sports, military and space applications (Jung et al. 2003, Dobbins et al. 2006, Locher et al. 2006, Salonen and Rahmat-Samii 2007, Visser and Reniers 2007, Hertleer et al. 2009, Kennedy et al. 2009, Vallozzi et al. 2009, Zhu and Langley 2009a). Early wearable antennas were non-ﬁbrous stiﬀ conductive structures constructed on a textile substrate, such as the inverted-F shape antenna by Salonen et al. (2000) and Massey (2001), rectangular patches of copper foils by Tanaka and Jang (2003), and linear patches of copper foil tape on ﬂeece fabric by Kellomaki et al. (2006). Recently, by using various conductive ﬁbrous materials, textile antennas made of purely conductive ﬁbrous materials have been successfully integrated into clothing. However, many design constraints follow the integration of antennas into clothing due to the physical inhomogeneity of textile materials, the proximity of a lossy human body or other irregular ground conditions, and diﬀerent polarisation due to body movements. Therefore, by reviewing a variety of wearable textile antennas, including the conductive ﬁbrous
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ISSN 1754-3266 print/ISSN 1754-3274 online Ó 2010 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/17543266.2010.521194 http://www.informaworld.com
-S. which is a hybrid fabric consisting of insulated Ag-coated copper monoﬁlaments and polyester (PET) monoﬁlament in both warp and weft. basic weaving and special fusing technologies have been used to form desired circuits (Figure 2(a)) (Jung et al. or polyesterimide-coated Ag-coated copper (ØCu: 40 mm. In many cases. yarns made from conductive polymers. such as carbon or silver. or Ag-coated copper with diameters in the range of 20–60 mm have been used to form woven electrical circuits.136 J. The PET was incorporated to prevent the metal ﬁlaments from extending and breaking during the weaving process. 2004).1. the important points to be considered when designing wearable textile antennas are summarised in this article. Øtotal: 47 mm) and PET multiﬁlaments. textile electronic buses or as ﬂexible electronic boards. Roh et al. Metal-coated polymer yarns have also been woven into textile materials to be used as antennas.1.1. Skin depth is the depth below the surface of the conductor at which the current is 1/e times the current at the surface. embroidering. Gimpel et al. Conducting warp yarns in the upper layer and conducting weft yarns in the lower layer are only in contact at the corners to form an antenna coil and are insulated by an intermediate nonconducting textile layer (Gimpel et al.1. Figure 2(b) is PowerMatrix1 produced by SEFAR (Locher 2007). 2. stainless steel (Ø: 35 mm). an Ag-coated polyamide yarn is able to achieve a resistance as low as 14 O/m when Auplated (ø: 1*2 mm) (Kallmayer et al. 2. Weaving with insulated conductive yarns With insulated conductive yarns. their high conductivity. Roh et al. 2003. With a PET ﬁlament as a core. metalcoated polymer yarns require additional galvanic deposition of metal to approach skin depth and supply the required conductivity to such structures. This method requires bonding with conducting adhesive at every contact point of the warp and weft conductive yarns in the three-layered structure. 2009). laminating or printing. a metal ﬁlament wrapped the core PET ﬁlament in the Z-direction with materials used. For example.e. Superﬁne metal ﬁlaments of silver.2. 2004). copper. Three-layered structure of a woven coil with noninsulated conductive warp and weft of Au/Ag-coated polyamide yarns only in contact at the corners to form a multi-turn loop (Gimpel et al. But unlike metal ﬁlaments. Materials and fabrication methods Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Conductive materials used for producing textile antennas include metallic yarns. Jacquard weaving with non-insulated conductive yarns When using non-insulated conductive yarns. conductive composite fabrics that have a thin layer of metal coating on a non-conductive fabric base or those containing metal ﬁlaments were the choice for the production of radio frequency (RF) engineered textiles owing to the characteristic physical properties of metals. ductility and malleability. 2. . 2006). 2. 2003. 2009) produced metal composite yarns (MCYs) which can be woven into fabrics on a commercial automatic rapier loom. as well as the antenna types and their application ﬁelds. polymer yarns containing high levels of conducting particles. 2004). The MCYs consisted of superﬁne metal ﬁlaments. Ag-coated copper (Ø: 40 mm). The level of conductivity and the textile-processibility of the conductive materials are the most important aspects to be considered in producing textile antennas. Weaving Metal composite fabrics containing superﬁne metal ﬁlaments or metal-coated polymer yarns opened the door to a new generation of multifunctional and interactive textiles by replacing traditional metal wire technology (Roh et al. Locher and Troster 2007). (2008. Textile antennas can be made either by weaving. i. their fabrication methods. conducting yarns (Figure 1). and conducting thin inorganic ﬁlms (Ghosh et al. The ductile but weak metal ﬁlaments are able to maintain their conductivity without yarn breakage and deformation within the woven structure of PET due to the high strength and low elasticity of PET. Figure 2(b) and (c) shows superﬁne ¨ metal ﬁlaments embedded into plain woven fabrics. This procedure is complicated and time-consuming. jacquard weaving has been used to produce multi-layer structures in order to prevent short circuits due to crossing Figure 1.
2. 2003). Machine embroidering of conductive yarns on textile substrates is considered a very attractive approach to produce textile-based circuits due to the freedom of circuit design and ease of fabrication (Ghosh et al. For skinning. Woven fabrics with embedded insulated conductive yarns: (a) design of a woven coil using insulated metal ﬁlaments by Inﬁneon Technologies AG (Jung et al. (b) adhesive dispensing. an Excimer laser XeCl (at 308 nm) or Nd-YAG laser (at 355 nm) with pulse energy 1.01 J/cm2. and pulse duration 25 ns. 2. was applied. 500 TPM (twists per metre). The ﬁlaments were cut with a laser beam using a higher ﬂuence than that applied for skinning and the bare warp and weft metal ﬁlaments were interconnected using a conductive adhesive. a laser beam was used to remove the PET substrate and to skin the polyesterimide-insulation coating from the Ag-copper ﬁlament. Technology and Education 137 Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 2. (b) micrograph of a woven fabric of insulated copper wire of Powermatrix by SEFAR (Locher 2007). capacitor and transmission line electrodes for sensing and antenna circuits for wireless communications. To bond the crossing warp and weft of polyesterimide-coated Ag-copper ﬁlaments. Bonding technologies of insulated copper ﬁlaments: (a) laser skinning. Metal composite fabrics could be easily constructed inserting MCYs in certain intervals as warp and weft to obtain diﬀerent metal densities. Embroidering of conductive yarns Figure 3. and (c) Metal composite fabric produced with MCY containing an Ag-copper ﬁlament by Roh (2010). epoxy resin was deposited to encapsulate the connection (Figure 3) (Kirstein 2005). . As the last step. pulse rate 500 Hz. Embroidering of conductive yarns can be widely used for wire-line integration of electronic devices and for the construction of various circuit components such as inductor. and then another PET ﬁlament wrapped the previous metal wrapped PET yarn in the S-direction with 500 TPM (Figure 2(c)). (c) laser cutting and (d) epoxy protection (Kirstein 2005). 2006).International Journal of Fashion Design.
2. Compared to pure metal ﬁlaments.-S. Plied yarn of stainless steel ﬁlaments. to be used in machine embroidering. 2. High tensile strength and modulus are required for these yarns.2. metal-coated yarns have considerably less-than-ideal conductivity and inhomogeneous structures with shallow skin depth (Shaw et al. which adversely inﬂuences the quality of the yarn. Moreover.2. 0. it is likely that this yarn cannot be used for high-speed . Syscom Technology Inc. (2000) reported a stainless steel composite embroidery yarn.1 N at 2000 rpm on a 1 mm-thick substrate. Aracon1. cables and bio-monitoring sensors (Linz et al.3.138 J. etc. three types of conductive embroidery yarns (Roh et al. these conductive yarns have been applied in ﬂexible circuitry.1.1. the ﬂexibility. But although the mechanical properties are better than copper. and due to the high rigidity and plasticity of the stainless steel Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 During high speed embroidering. They reported that the sewing force was 5. did not comment on the mechanical properties and the yarn structure. the embroidery yarn. Embroidering of metal ﬁlament bundles 2. an antenna with the optimal number of turns (N ¼ 33) could not be produced. as well as a smooth surface for less friction and uniform yarn diameter.2. Compared to copper. is that they contract at temperatures over their glass transition temperature. coating thicknesses and the number of ﬁlaments and strands to meet individual requirements. 2005) Generally. Among these. Aracon1 and AmberStrandTM. Stainless steel yarn with a copper core.6 N at a sewing speed of 1000 rpm. Agposs1 (Figure 5(a)).1. AmberStrandTM (Figure 5(b)). So despite their lower conductivity. Thus. Therefore.20 O/m. 2007). especially those that are nylon-based. thus. and 6. number of ﬁlaments is 275. can be directly soldered using a soldering iron (NASA 2007. stainless steel has better mechanical properties. Poly-phenylene benzobisoxazole) are used as the base ﬁlament. 2. so its usage is limited to textile sensors or electrodes rather than RF engineering applications. Coosemans et al. high mechanical properties are required of the yarn (Sundaresan et al. lightness and strength of metal-coated polymer yarns make them more similar to common textile materials. electrical interconnections. 2005. Shieldex1.2. where high-performance polymer ﬁbres such as Kevlar1 (para-Aramid) and Zylon1 (PBO. Composite yarn consisting of metal ﬁlaments and polymer ﬁlaments As shown in Table 2. computer numeric control (CNC) embroidering. These qualities will prevent yarn breakage during the embroidering process and shrinkage afterwards. are available as conductive embroidery yarns. Mallet and Du (1999) have measured the sewing force of a sewing machine using a piezoelectric strain gauge sensor. VN 140 nyl/35 6 3.2. due to the plasticity of stainless steel and copper. The consumer can choose among a variety of metal types. providing uniform conductivity and dimensional stability of the resulting embroidered circuit.2. stainless steel ﬁlaments have better tensile properties than silver-coated copper ﬁlaments. it is easier to make MCYs using stainless steel ﬁlaments than silver-coated copper ﬁlaments.1. the metal coating has poor durability due to its low abrasion resistance. is subjected to high tension. 2009) have been developed and used in the construction of electrical circuits. Plied yarn of metal-coated polymer ﬁlaments A variety of metal-coated polymer yarns with trade names such as X-static1. So. Up until now. Roh et al. Post et al. and the characteristics of these yarns are listed in Table 1. Although Coosemans et al. Unfortunately. (2006) used a stainless steel yarn (ø: 19 mm) with a copper ﬁlament core (ø: 79 mm) and produced an embroidered transponder antenna (Figure 15(b)). Figure 4 shows a three-plied yarn of stainless steel (AISI 316L) ﬁlaments where the diameter of the monoﬁlament is 12 mm. but due to the limited winding density of the yarn. Thus. the electrical resistance of this yarn was too high to match the conductivity of conventional printed circuits. Another existing problem with metal-coated polymer yarns. having a nylon core wrapped in three crossing superﬁne stainless steel ﬁlaments. 1997. Sosnowski 2007). the conductivity of this stainless steel yarn is comparably lower. especially the needle yarn. in order to reduce the electrical resistance of a metalcoated yarn circuit to a desired level. current commercial metal-coated polymer yarns require additional galvanic deposition of metals to increase their skin depth.2. Costs Technical Services 2007). the resistivity of the interconnection between the metal-coated polymer yarns and devices can be modiﬁed permanently depending on the environmental temperature (Simon 2009). 2. and is twisted in the S direction with 175 TPM (Bekinox 2006). Commercially available plied bundles of stainless steel ﬁlament have been used in the construction of embroidered circuits. conductive embroidery yarns should possess good mechanical properties to reduce the number of breaks and the amount of strain in order to maintain their conductivity. The resistance of this yarn was quite low.
6 tex) 15 mm 6 (24f–200f) 104.8 tex).6 tex.3 tex 7. 63 mm: 305 dtex 6 2) Three plies of Ag-copper ﬁlament (40 mm) and polyester (83 dtex/36 f).25 Ag-copper/polyester 3.75. suitable as both upper and lower yarn for CNC embroidery Two plies of Shieldex1 117/17dtex 350 26.89. Ltd. Bi-component yarn (Ohmatex 2004a) Roh et al.0 tex) (23. (AGposs1) DuPont (Aracon1) (Post et al. Technology and Education Silver-coated PBO Fraunhofer IZM (Linz 2009) Mitsufuji Textile Ind. Post et al. limited circuit designs Nylon core wrapped with three crossing stainless steel ﬁlaments.87 Silver-coated polyester Metal plated aramid International Journal of Fashion Design. Research group (trade name) Yarn speciﬁcations 1 Characteristics of currently developed conductive embroidery yarns.Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Table 1. (Bekinox1 VN 140 nyl/35 6 3) (Post et al. 3. nickel. 3.13 0. Co. 2000) AmberStrandTM (Syscom Technology Inc.88 Plied yarn of metalcoated polymer ﬁlaments Silver plated nylon Stainless steel yarns (ø: 19 mm) with a copper wire core yarn (ø: 79 mm). 2005) Three plies of Ag-coated polyester ﬁlaments Plied yarn of silver. Thickness (linear density) Three plies of stainless steel ﬁlaments (12 mm 6 275f) – – Resistivity (O/m) 630 mm (760 tex) 9.4 tex) 455 mm (66.. copper.1 7. 63 mm: 109 tex) Upper yarn: 286 mm (59. suitable as lower yarn for CNC embroidery Polyester (240 dtex/48 f 6 2) air textured yarn with silver-plated copper ﬁlament (40 mm: 123 dtex 6 2. lower yarn: 272 mm (59. gold or tin clad aramid Three plies of Ag-coated PBO 139 .2 *0. 2000) Ohmatex. (2006) Bundle of metal ﬁlaments Plied yarn of stainless steel multi-ﬁlaments Stainless steel yarns with a copper core Metal ﬁlament composite yarn IBM. (2009) Stainless steel/nylon Ag-copper/polyester 400 mm (40 mm: 72.20 *1000 Yarn type Bekinox VN (12/ 3 6 275/175S/316L) (BEKAERT 2006) Coosemans et al.
and thus it is suitable for constructing an embroidered electrode (Ohmatex 2004b). diameter) processed with polyester ﬁlaments (Figure 7). (2) a homogeneous sheet resistance and (3) ﬂexible but inelastic mechanical properties to ensure uniform electrical properties (Locher et al. and thus. 726 dtex and 3. Ltd. small variance in surface resistance and their ﬂexible but inelastic properties. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 ﬁlaments. The producer has reported a theoretical probability of 63% that a break would not reduce the conductive capacity of the yarn. On the contrary. Mitsufuji Textile Ind. Nora1. The resistance and linear density of the yarns with Ag-Copper 40 mm or 63 mm were 7. sold under the trade names.3. 2005). Flec Tron1. line gaps between the MCEY lines could be controlled to 0. embroidering processibility without yarn breakage. The resulting upper (U-) MCEY yarn had a yarn thickness of 286 mm and an electrical resistance of 3. Zhu and Langley 2009b). conductive textiles must possess the following characteristics: (1) a surface resistivity below 1 O/sq.89 O/m. and high durability to maintain constant electrical conductivity.75 O/m. Co.) and (b) three-plied Ag-coated PBO (Syscom Technology Inc. the lower thread of CNC embroidering should be thin and pliable. (2009) have developed a metal composite embroidery yarn (MCEY). respectively.or tin-plated synthetic fabrics are commercially available. the lower (L-) MCEY has been produced to have a yarn thickness of 272 mm and the electrical resistance was 3. Such metalised fabrics have been used in constructing conductive patches and grounds of textile antennas owing to their low surface resistivity (51 O/sq). Roh et al. Silver-.3. .140 J. Micrograph of a three-plied yarn of stainless steel ﬁlaments (Bekinox1 VN 12/3 6 275 of BEKAERT)..6 mm. 1090 dtex. etc. Roh et al. this yarn will not be suitable for CNC embroidering. without any design constraints. copper-. 2006. By using the lower-embroidery method. The MCEY that was used as the upper yarn of CNC embroidering has been processed with higher TPM (turns per metre) compared to the MCEY that was used as the lower yarn to provide better mechanical properties.1.25 O/m. Laser beams can be used to precisely cut conductive patches in the designed shapes. Figure 4. Ohmatex (2004a) has developed a bi-component yarn composed of two strands of silver-plated copper ﬁlaments (40 mm or 63 mm) and polyester ﬁlaments (240d/48f 6 2) through an air texturing process to lock them together (Figure 6). Zelt. which consists of three strands of silver-plated copper ﬁlaments (40 mm in 2.-S. However. Figure 5. electrically conductive embroidery yarns to be applied in RF engineering textile systems should possess the lowest possible electrical resistance. while with the upper-embroidery method 1 mm was the narrowest line gap possible. Conductive textile patches 2. Using MCEY as the upper yarn or the lower yarn of a CNC embroidering machine.88 O/m. Metal-coated fabric patch and ground To be used as antenna patches and ground planes. nickel. ShielditTM. Micrograph of embroidery yarns made of Ag-coated polymer ﬁlaments: (a) three-plied silver-coated polyester yarns (AGposs. they embroidered precise electrical circuits on a textile substrate with ease.
4 GHz.2 SS: Bekaert Bekinox1 VN 35/1 6 1. felt (Locher et al. the electromagnetic properties of the materials to be used at the operating frequency bands must be known. MCY components (ID) Silver-plated copperb Stainless steel (SS)a Speciﬁcations Diameter (mm) Linear density (dtex) DC resistance (O/m) Tensile properties Young’s modulus (N/tex) Load at yield (N) Max. or polar-ﬂeece (Zhu and Langley 2009a) have been used as non-conductive textile substrates (Table 3).288 16.7 Polyesterimide coated (Cuc) 40 (Øtotal: 48) 116 13.3. Cub: TW-O. although it induces wrinkles on the antenna patch (Figure 8(b)).03 4. Zhu and Langley 2009a).2. which are used as dielectric layers between an antenna patch and a ground plane. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 6.103 83 (36f) n. sewing and adhesive sheets. 2.2 35 80 735 28. from Table 3.167 0. Belgium.3. (2006) reported that thermally activated adhesive sheets showed the best results among liquid textile adhesives. 9. Thus. but the Figure 7.475 0. Cuc: TW-D. 2009). By using thermally activated sheets. (2009): (a) U-MCEY and U-embroidery and (b) L-MCEY and L-embroidery. Technology and Education Table 2. Micrographs of the MCEYs and the CNC embroidery process by Roh et al. 2.863 36.14 at a frequency of 2.329 20.35 13. Switzerland. 2006). and thus. Sewing is also a commonly used method due to the durability of the attachment. electrical permittivity and loss tangent of the substrate material are known to be aﬀected by the use of adhesives. For example.4 6.7 6. ﬂexible foam (Hertleer et al. Air textured bi-component yarn containing two strands of Ag-copper ﬁlaments by Ohmatex (2004a). the patch sheet resistance and substrate permittivity of the conductive patch was left unaltered (Figure 8(a)). 2006).96 0. load (N) Strain (%) a b 141 Bare (Cub) 40 112 13. for a textile antenna to obtain dimensional stability. 2006).2 0. require constant thickness of a few millimetres and low permittivity (Locher et al. Characteristics of metal ﬁlaments and a polyester ﬁlament used in the metal composite yarns of Roh (2010).3. 2009. and loss tangent is negligible (Locher et al.154 0.7 Polyester (P) 0. In order to design textile-based antennas.72 0. Locher et al. Attachment Antenna patches can be attached onto textile substrates by applying adhesives or sewing. highly resilient airy textiles such as a porous mesh of synthetic ﬁbres (Locher et al. Elektrisola. a relatively thin layer of adhesive that only penetrated the surface of the conductive fabric was deposited. the porous polyamide mesh fabric with a thickness of 6 mm has a permittivity er ¼ 1. Non-conductive textile substrates Non-conductive textile substrates. Kennedy et al.International Journal of Fashion Design. 2006. in bonding a conductive patch onto a non-conductive substrate fabric. point-wise application of conductive adhesives.97 1.a. .
02 Nomex felt (Kennedy et al. of conductive ink is one of the most convenient methods of introducing conductive materials onto textile substrates. The thickness of the deposited layer may be increased by repeating the inkjet deposition process. Etching As shown in Figure 10. insoluble metallic particles are generated. common antenna operating frequencies are 125 kHz. the drawbacks are the environmentally harmful process and low durability of the silver coating. (2005. This technology oﬀers the ability to transfer power and data in a highly electrically conductive. Noble Biomaterials 2006). Locher et al. 2. and is restricted to the user’s close proximity. 2009) 3.004 Fleece (Zhu and Langley 2009) 2. external communication is data transfer between smart clothing and external information networks or other users (Rantanen and Hannikainen 2005). In order to realise wireless reception and transmission of data for such on-body and oﬀ-body communication. Printed textile circuits 2.71 6 105 S/m). the CircuiteXTM technology of X-Static1 allows conversion from conventional PCB/PWB (printed wiring board) and ﬂex boards to a fabric circuit (Sosnowski 2007. which grow very quickly in diﬀerent shapes.18 0. 2006) 6 1.5 1. durable and ﬂexible product.17 0. where silver wire has a conductivity of 6. 2009) 6.012 Woolen felt (Locher et al. antennas must be integrated into clothing (Proetex 2004). personal space communication and external communication. 2007). by adopting etch patterning of silver-coated fabrics using PCB (printed circuit board) fabrication methods and equipment. 13. As textile-based antennas are ﬂexible.4.1. 2. Dielectric properties of various non-conductive textile substrates. i. 3.e. J. Textile antennas Three types of communication take place in smart clothing systems: internal communication.2. Attachment of metal-coated fabric patches on non-conductive textile substrates: (a) thermally activated adhesive bonding of Ni-/Cu-/Ag-coated nylon on a polyamide mesh (Troster 2005. they can be easily integrated into clothing. The textile substrate was ﬁrst printed with a reducing agent ink (ascorbic acid or hydroxylamine) and then with a metal salt ink (silver nitrate). Printing Printing. environmentally safe and economical process for ink-jet metal deposition on a textile substrate using commercially available ink-jet printers (Figure 9). The conductivity level of the ink-jet deposited silver pattern on cotton fabric (8.0035 Materials Thickness (mm) Permittivity (er0 ) Loss tangent (d) Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 8.4.173 6 107 S/m.76 6 104 S/m) dropped to one-third of that on PET transparency paper (2. In the RF antenna industry. conformable and light.52 0. lightweight. 2007) suggested a simple. Roh et al. within the user’s clothing or between diﬀerent smart clothing layers. Bidoki et al.56 MHz. 2006) 3.4.94 1. When the metal salt comes in contact with the reducing agent. Therefore. Internal communication refers to data transfer among separate components of a distributed smart clothing implementation. 2006) and (b) Ni-/Cu-/Ag-coated nylon ¨ sewn equiangular spiral antenna on polyester cloth (Kennedy et al.45 0. However.35 1. textile-based antennas are suitable for human body-centric wireless communication. by the means of silk-screening or ink-jet deposition.-S. Third.55 2. FM .142 Table 3. Polyamide mesh (Locher et al.14 Negligible Foam (Hertleer et al. Personal space communication takes place when internal communication components initiate data transfer with the environment without a centralised access point.
1. and thus the data transmission rate can be increased with higher frequency carrier far-ﬁeld communication systems (Hum 2001. According to the law of induction. in near-ﬁeld communication (NFC). Inductively coupled near-ﬁeld communication (NFC) 143 Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Near-ﬁeld communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless communication technology in the LF and high-frequency (HF). 2. various wearable textile antennas are reviewed. Technology and Education broadcast band (87 MHz to 107. As the strength of the inductive RF ﬁelds (H) decays to the third power of distance (r) (jHj * 1/r3) and the power transmission loss between coils decays with the transmission distance to the power of 6 (PTag * 1/r6).5 MHz). low power. To enable wireless communications across diﬀerent pieces of clothing and gaps. The ﬁrst attempt for applying near-ﬁeld inductive coupling of RF ﬁelds to on-body communication was made by Hum (2001).1. Low-frequency (LF) systems are used as inductive near-ﬁeld link of RF ﬁelds for data communication and powering. Silver-printed inductive coil on cotton fabric (Bidoki et al. 800/900 MHz. Therefore. the opencircuit voltage of the coil can be increased by enlarging the coil diameter. Nowadays. The human body eﬀect and antenna ﬂexure.4 GHz or even 5 GHz and beyond. 433 MHz. 3. named a fabric area network (FAN). which allows simple intuitive initialisation of the wireless network to nonself-powered devices. the distance of communication is considerably less than RF carrier wavelength. NFC for internal communication Figure 9. the zone of communication is mainly localised to the overlapping regions of the RF antennas (Hum 2001). used in most traditional radios. Antenna types. which are important factors to be considered when designing wearable textile antennas. inductive coupling comes into the forefront for various smart interactive textile systems as low energy consumption NFC. Mayer 2009). 3. A variety of wearable textile antennas for near-ﬁeld communication (NFC) and for far-ﬁeld communication (FFC) are summarised in Tables 4 and 5. increasing the number of turns and reducing the conductor width. are also reviewed. 2007). In this section. bands. eﬀectively form an air-core transformer (Figure 11) (Mayer 2009). the communication distance considerably exceeds the carrier wavelength (Sarpeshkar 2010). Fabric PCB by etching with spandex ﬂexibility: CircuiteXTM by X-static1 (Sosnowski 2007). respectively. But additional turns cause losses in the antenna that are related to the total resistance of the spiral conductor. Also.1. the range of the inductive RF ﬁelds can be restricted to the surface of the clothing and not radiate into the body. while in far-ﬁeld communication (FFC) systems. . The FAN was based on 125 kHz RFID Figure 10. given ﬁxed dimensions (Mayer 2009). non-propagating magnetic ﬁeld between the devices.International Journal of Fashion Design. The most eﬃcient antenna can be constructed by optimising the number of turns and the width of the conductor. where two inductive coils located within each other’s near ﬁeld. A tight. while higher frequency systems are used for microwave scattering and radiation. repeater RF links are implemented like a hopping network of transformer chains. the materials used and fabrication methods along with their characteristics and applications are listed and discussed.
56 MHz Dual multi-turn circular loop RFID reader/ transponder by Roh (2010) ´ Appliqued 6-turn spiral inductor (diameter: 12. These antennas can then be used to communicate with transponder chips that are embedded in the wallet. Roh et al. The yarn was hand stitched on the garment to create the inductors. constructed with a stainless steel yarn with an inductance value of 2. 27 mH) in the trouser leg overlaid the TX and received signals via inductive coupling despite much smaller ﬁeld strengths (Figure 14(a)).5 O/m and 175 Tex.5 mH inductance (Figure 13(a)). (2006) 13.1.5 cm . Frequency 125 kHz 6. The conductive yarn embroidered receiver (RX. Locher et al. The DC resistance and linear density of the conductive yarn were 7. applications FAN.5 cm.7 mH.56 MHz Multi-turn rectangular loop RFID transponder by Reichl et al.25-mm insulated wire 15 turns of conductive yarn (27 mH) Size 5 cm 6 5 cm – Speciﬁcations.-S. on the suit.78 MHz. The autonomous locomotion sensor system was embedded in the boot. (2004) reported textile sensors for wireless electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiration rate monitoring of hospitalised children.78 MHz Fabrication method Attachment of 15 turns of 0. Antennas were routed to the trouser pockets (front and back). TX: 4 turn outer loop/6 turn inner loop with 1 cm line intervals. (2004) For personal space communication Circular coil by Catrysse 700 kHz et al. The coil of the Table 4. The inductive link operated within a maximum coil separation range of 6 cm at a frequency of 700 kHz. respectively (Chung 2009). watches. RX: 6 turn outer loop/10 turn inner loop with 1 mm line intervals 12.144 J.2 at 132 kHz.5 cm) Embroidery of a stainless steel ﬁlament wrapped copper core yarn 3-layered jacquard woven Au-/ Ag-coated polyamide ﬁlaments CNC embroidery of MCEY (Linz 2009). The inductance of the 10 cmdiameter embroidered coil was 13. to monitor ECG as an embedded patient monitoring system (Figure 15(b)).20 O/m). cuﬀs of the trousers. shirt pockets. (2009) have also developed an inter-clothes network using inductive coupling between woven square spiral inductors with 2. shoes.25 mm insulated wires (Figure 12(a)). Wearable textile antennas for near-ﬁeld communication (NFC). logic and inductive transmitter (TX. (2004) Circular coil by 132 kHz Coosemans et al. ¨ 3. non-textile processibility WBAN for locomotion analysis Operating distance of 6 cm at 700 kHz WBAN. Yoo et al. the back of the shirt and other locations. scientiﬁc and medical (ISM) band of 6. RX: 6. including battery. accessories or personal items in a back-pack that is slung on the back or shoulders (Figure 12(b)). (2006) 13. Similarly. Limited circuit design Over 50-cm readout distance WBAN within 1 m Antenna type For internal communication Square coil by Hum (2001) Square coil by Locher et al. Coosemans et al. control Catrysse et al. For wireless transmission of the recorded data from the body-worn sensors to a base station. They used a conductive core spun yarn of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology) that is composed of seven strands of 10 mm copper alloy ﬁlaments insulated with ﬂuorine resin (Figure 13(b)). and the secondary coil. (2006) constructed a body-worn transponder antenna embroidered with a composite yarn made of stainless steel yarns and a copper core (electrical resistance: 0. Similarly. 3. They chose the carrier frequency in the industrial. NFC for personal space communication Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 (Radio-Frequency Identiﬁcation) technology with antenna coils with a square outline of 5 cm on each side with 15 turns of 0.5 cm *10 cm 46 cm 6 6 cm TX: 28 cm.9 mH and quality factor of 0. and the quality factor was 17. (2004) reported a locomotion sensor within a textile-based wireless body area network (WBAN) system motivated by the principle of RFID technology.1 mH). thus there are limitations in constructing precise circuits with this yarn. but they failed in matching the target frequency. the primary coil was integrated in the mattress. sleeves.2.72 at 700 kHz (Figure 15(a)). pens. Figure 14(b) shows embroidered coils used for inductively coupled interconnection between an mp3-player box and earphones in a jacket (Troster 2005). The secondary coil was a 6-turn circular spiral inductor with a diameter of 12.
The dual multi-turn loop structure of Roh’s antenna. using a Auplated Ag-coated polymer yarn. (2003) also reported a similar approach using insulated metal wires as warp and weft in a single-layer fabric (Figure 2(a)) to fully embed the antenna structure into the fabric in an unobtrusive but secure way. Roh (2010) proposed an embroidered multi-turn loop antenna system based on 13. which could be washed at 958C. The textile transponder antenna was woven into a three-layered weave on a jacquard loom (Figures 1 and 16). Jung et al. Clothing provides suﬃcient area for placing the transmitting antenna (maximum diameter: 28 cm). Small modules (2 6 4 mm2) were connected to the antenna. 145 Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 11. . Kallmayer et al.5 cm) was limited to that of the mobile device. To operate well. which is often used in chip-on-board technology.56 MHz textile transponder antennas for smart labels to be used in hospitals. consisting of a set of mobile and wearable intercommunicating sensors that can be used for monitoring real-time vital body parameters or movements has been suggested. Principle of inductive coupling between reader and transponder (Mayer 2009).3 and Figure 7. S21 from transmitting antennas on a body-phantom to the Figure 12. A new approach for WBAN. the inner loop of the transmitter antenna was tuned to resonate at 13.2 MHz in free space. (2006) constructed 13. where a pair of inner and outer multi-turn loops was embroidered on the same fabric plane and connected to the port in parallel.1.2.1. reduced the DC resistance and increased the mutual inductance between the inner and outer loops.International Journal of Fashion Design. both on and oﬀ the body.56 MHz RFID technology (Figure 17). as mentioned in section 2. each using the appropriate series capacitor. Additional Au-plating of 1–2 mm was deposited on a commercially available Ag-coated polyamide yarn. the resonance frequency of the antenna dropped from that measured in free space due to human body losses. Fabric area network by Hum (2001): (a) wireless transfer of RF energy across two antenna coils built on fabrics and (b) base-station layer supplying power to devices attached on clothing (left) and set up of wireless communications with a bag containing contents (such as cellphones) that have transponder chips embedded (right). and by using commercial glob top material. reducing the resistance of the yarn to about 14 O/m. so the optimal number of turns could not be attained. pressed with 28 bar and dried above 1008C. When worn on the body.. Technology and Education transponder antenna had a limited winding density due to the fabrication method. (2003) and Reichl et al.56 MHz in free space and the outer loop was tuned to resonate at 15. using the above-mentioned MCEY embroidering method in section 2. a thin encapsulation was created. and permitting a reading distance of about 50 cm with the Philips i-code System. while the size of the receiving antenna (maximum diameter: 6.
1. while on the arm.-S.8 dB at 2. both in free space and on the upper arm.1. ¨ receiving antenna was 735 dB and 737 dB at operating distances 50 cm and 75 cm. 2004) and (b) wireless connection of mp3-player to jacket (Troster 2005). broadband antennas. Inter-clothes network using inductive coupling between textile inductors by Yoo et al. the antenna was hand-embroidered onto a cotton fabric using a stainless steel yarn.2.95 GHz to 2.146 J. As shown in Figure 18.0 dB from 1. Roh et al.2.2. Far-ﬁeld communication (FFC) for external communication In order to operate well irrespective of the presence of the human body.25 GHz. Roh et al. 3. 3. Dipole antennas 3. Owing to their inherent wideband characteristics. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 13. This eﬀect was due to the fact that the tolerances on the antenna construction have not been tight because of the stretching of the cotton substrate during fabrication. the return loss was over 7. Folded dipole antennas. respectively. Visser and Reniers (2007) developed a wearable embroidered folded dipole array antenna to be used in a wearable communication system. (2010) have also considered the human body eﬀect when designing an embroidered wearable . In free space. This antenna had good input matching over a wide frequency band but the resonance frequency shifted from the required 2. the maximum return loss was 12 dB at 1. such antennas are less aﬀected by the impedance mismatch caused by human body losses and body movements.2 GHz.45 GHz. as well as the coupling eﬀect of the human body.1. array antennas and multiband antennas are preferred as wearable antennas. and the maximum return loss was about 11.45 GHz twoelement LPFDA (Log Periodic Folded Dipole Array) antenna. which was a 2.8 GHz. Textile coils for inductive signal transmission: (a) wireless locomotion analysis system (Locher et al. Figure 14. (2009): (a) illustration of interclothes network and (b) hand embroidered square spiral inductors using the conductive core spun yarn.
multi-resonant folded dipole (MRFD) antenna for FM signal reception. As the human body has very high relative permittivity.45 GHz Ni-Cu-Ag-coated nylon (Nora1. extravehicular activity space suit Dual-band.International Journal of Fashion Design. the presence of a human body close to an antenna reduces the eﬃciency of the antenna and lowers the resonance frequency.03 O/sq) patch and ground. Furthermore.45 GHz. 2009) Dual-band coplanar patch (Zhu and Langley 2009a) Speciﬁcations. 2010) Equiangular spiral (Kennedy et al. 0. 0.1–10 GHz 2. wider bandwidth.58742 GHz 2.94 mm) – 144 cm 6 10 cm 60. the movement of the body deforms the spatial geometry of the body-worn antenna . where both eﬀects depend on the distance between the antenna and the body.03 O/sq) spiral antenna sewn on polyester cloth Metal-coated fabric antenna patch (ShielditTM) and ground (Flectron1): 50.4–2. extravehicular activity space suit Broadband. 1. Technology and Education Table 5. space suit Wider bandwidth.45 GHz 87–107 MHz 2–4 GHz 2. felt substrate (1. Wearable textile antennas for far-ﬁeld communication (FFC).85 cm square patch 6 8 15. SAR (speciﬁc absorption rate) reduction Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 1.56342 GHz.32 cm (L) 6 12. applications Wider bandwidth Broadband Broadband. ﬁre-resistant/ water-repellent foam substrate (3.4835 GHz Fabrication method Hand embroidery of stainless steel yarn on cotton fabric MCEY CNC embroidery on polyester woven fabric Ni-Cu-Ag nylon (Nora1. ﬁreﬁghter’s vital sign monitoring (Proetex project) Global Positioning System (GPS) (Proetex project) Wider bandwidth.9 mm (outer radius) 50 mm (L) 6 46 mm (W) 6 8 mm (inset side length) 73. The antenna was produced using CNC embroidering of MCEY (Figure 7(b) and Figure 19). Textile coils for ECG monitoring suits: (a) appliqued coils of stainless steel yarn for inductive links (Catrysse et al. Frequency 2.35 mm) 2. 5 GHz ´ Figure 15. 2009) Complementary-8 wideband (Kennedy et al.01 O/ sq) patch and EBG materials. Nomex1 Felt substrate (6. 2008) Eight-element microstrip patch array (Kennedy et al.2 cm (W) Cu-Sn plated nylon (50.1 mm) Antenna: 55 mm 6 55 mm EBG: 120 mm 6 120 mm Size 147 Antenna type Log-periodic folded dipole array (Visser and Reniers 2007) Multi-resonant folded dipole (Roh et al.5 mm (L) 6 69. good gain. 2006). 2009) Microstrip patch (Hertleer et al.5 mm (W) 6 5 mm (inset side length) (Ground: 130 mm 6 130 mm) 4. 2007) Truncated corner microstrip patch (Hertleer et al. 2004) and (b) embroidered transponder antenna made with a composite yarn of stainless steel yarns and a copper core (Coosemans et al.1 O/sq.
made of silver-copper-nickel plated nylon fabric with a thickness of 0. When the antenna was worn. Embroidered dual multi-turn loop RFID antennas for WBAN: (a) transmitting antenna with a 4turn outer loop and 6-turn inner loop with 10 mm line intervals and (b) receiving antenna with a 6-turn outer loop and 10-turn inner loop with 1 mm line intervals (Roh 2010). Bow-tie dipole antennas.2. The two arms of the spiral. the copper-coatedfabric patched bow-tie antenna gave excellent results when compared to other fabrication methods such as embroidering conductive yarns or conductive printing.56 MHz) composed of three diﬀerent layers.1. were sewn onto a polyester cloth (thickness: . where a coil made of non-insulated conductive warp and weft of Au/Ag-coated polyamide yarns are only in contact at the corners to form multi-turn loops by TITV and Fraunhofer IZM (Reichl et al. and the gain of this bodyworn antenna ranged from 77.-S.148 J. (Sosnowski 2007) and a copper-coated-fabric patched bow-tie antenna by Matthews and Pettitt (2009). antenna developed by MegaWave Corp. a wearable embroidered FM antenna should be designed to be well matched over a wider frequency band than the FM broadcast band (about 87 to 130 MHz).2.06 mm and surface resistivity of 0. Based on RF performance. comprised ﬁve individual MCEY embroidered-folded dipoles connected in parallel so that the bandwidth could be broadened via multiple resonance. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 16. (2007) developed a fabric equiangular spiral antenna designed for 2–4 GHz operation of which wideband nature was well suited for spacesuit application (Figure 8(b)). The embroidered FM antenna of Roh et al. 2006).08 to 715. Figure 17.5 MHz to 108 MHz).45 GHz two-element LPFDA antenna made of stainless steel yarn embroidered on a cotton fabric (Visser and Reniers 2007).2. Roh et al. Spiral dipole antennas. to compensate for the human body eﬀect.79 dBd in the FM broadcast band regardless of the arms movement. 2. Figure 20 shows an Ag-coated polyamide yarn (X-static1. the most attractive method of constructing a textile-based bow-tie antenna is using conductive patches of metal-coated fabric. When the arms were moved. the antenna radiated diﬀerent polarisation. and aﬀects the performance of the antenna as well. The proposed antenna provides a wide operating band of 80.1. over the shoulder and to the right forearm. satisfying the FM broadcast band (87. 3. the maximum gain of the MCEY FM antenna was 0.3. 3. According to Matthews and Pettitt (2009). In free space. The antenna was attached to a jacket. Kennedy et al. Shieldex1 by Statex). giving a deformed toroidal radiation pattern.68 dBd.5 MHz to over 130 MHz at 5 dB return loss regardless of the arm movements. Thus. the radiation pattern and gain were greatly inﬂuenced by the body and arm postures. Nobel Biomaterials) embroidered broadband bow-tie Figure 18. Textile transponder antenna (13.03 O/sq (Nora. stretched from the left forearm.
(b) conductive yarn embroidering. easy to modify. 0. The performance of the painted antenna containing silver leaf was comparable to the conductive nylon patch. This e-textile equiangular spiral antenna showed a similar voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) response to the conventional copper spiral arms and simulation. for producing the antennas. ground and nonconductive aramid fabric substrate comprising the outer shell of a ﬁre-ﬁghter’s coat. (2008) reported that a rectangular ring-shaped e-textile . Hertleer et al. activity.45 GHz for short-range communication (Hertleer and Langenhove 2007). and they feature good properties. MCEY embroidered MRFD antenna for FM reception: (a) design and embroidered product and (b) embroidered MRFD antenna positioned on the shoulder of a jacket with arms outstretched (Roh et al. 2009). which was made of a metal-coated fabric patch.2. position and their environment during various risky situations (Proetex 2004). a variety of textile microstrip patch antennas has been developed for far-ﬁeld communication of smart textile systems.1. tand: 0. 2009. Textile broadband antennas: (a) Ag-plated polyamide yarn embroidered bow-tie antenna by MegaWave Corp. Microstrip patch antennas. They have used diﬀerent fabrication methods such as (a) conductive fabric patch. Hertleer et al. (Sosnowski 2007) and (b) a coppercoated-fabric patched bow-tie antenna (Matthews and Pettitt 2009). designed for operating around 2. Vallozzi et al.070). 2010). Patch antennas 3. usually operating in the 2.2. The conductive nylon patch spiral antenna showed the best RF performance among the three methods. 3.4 GHz ISM band. Thus. Figure 20. where the return loss of the body-worn antenna was better than 12 dB over the frequency range of 100 MHz to 1 GHz and the gain was higher than that from simulation (maximum gain was about 73 dB at 500 MHz). Hertleer et al. 2008. environment and position to a nearby base station (Hertleer and Langenhove 2007. The Proetex project. Technology and Education 149 Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 19. has proposed a variety of textile patch antennas integrated into a ﬁreﬁghter’s protective coat to transmit the ﬁreﬁghter’s life signs. or (c) conductive paint.2.2.43 mm. They are simple to fabricate. Figure 22 shows a wearable microstrip patch antenna. of which the goal is to improve the safety and eﬃciency of emergency workers by empowering them with wearable sensing and transmission systems that monitor their health. The wearable textile spiral antennas shown in Figure 21 were designed to work as wideband solutions from 100 MHz to 1 GHz by Matthews and Pettitt (2009). but the paint could crack with repeated ﬂexing and the high price was another drawback.International Journal of Fashion Design. The embroidered spiral antenna showed the lowest gain due to the lossyness of the material and the contact resistance between the embroidered conducting yarns. Textile microstrip patch antennas usually consist of a metal-coated fabric antenna patch bonded to an insulated dielectric substrate that has a ground plane on the opposite side of the substrate. suitable for simulation on common wave solvers.
the array showed good impedance . As smart antenna array systems are designed to be highly adaptable to a dynamic communication channel.150 J. Textile microstrip patch antennas (2. Microstrip patch antenna array. an increase in beam width and reduction in gain was observed (Kennedy et al. Also. An antenna array is basically a group of identical antennas arranged and interconnected for achieving greater gain or beam shaping.45 GHz ISM frequency band to be placed on an extravehicular activity space suit.45 GHz) integrated into textile layers (Hertleer and Langenhove 2007). the antennas are designed to cover a large bandwidth in order to account for shifts due to bending. microstrip patch antenna on a ﬂeece substrate had an eﬃciency of more than 75%. Figure 21.85 cm on the side and was aﬃxed to a Nomex felt (Table 3). onbody antenna systems are likely to beneﬁt from the addition of antenna arrays. Thus. 2007). 2009) constructed an eight-element e-textile microstrip patch array (Figure 23) for the 2. 0.2. 2006. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 Figure 22.03 O/sq) measured 1.-S. which was comparable to conventional non-textile antennas.2. As expected. Roh et al. 2009) on the eﬀects of antenna ﬂexure on the input impedance and radiation characteristics of e-textile microstrip patch antennas reported slight detuning of the antenna elements with ﬂexure. Hertleer et al. The elements are linearly polarized patch antennas.2. Wearable textile spiral antennas: (a) conductive nylon patch spiral (b) embroidered conductive yarn spiral and (c) conductive paint spiral (Matthews and Pettitt 2009). In this context. Several studies (Locher et al. where each square patch made of a metalcoated fabric (Nora. which can compensate for some of the deﬁciencies occurring under ﬂexure and wrinkling of a body-worn antenna. 3. (2007. as the linear dimension of the patch antenna increases when the antenna is bent outward. Kennedy et al.
as shown in Figure 24. Dual-band coplanar textile antenna on EBG array plane (Zhu and Langley 2009a). as the demand for wireless on-body and oﬀ-body . Conclusions Wearable textile antennas are of great interest. absorption of the body when compared to an equivalent microstrip patch antenna. 3. But under bending condition. rendering the antenna tolerant to human body eﬀects. Technology and Education 151 Figure 23. Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 09:46 06 July 2011 performance with slight wrinkling and the main beam widened with outward bending.48 mm. where pattern diversity was implemented by rotating the antenna elements.4. 2009). The conducting material used was a copper.1 to 10 GHz. The antenna was integrated with an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) substrate that has a potential advantage of reducing the backward radiation from the antenna and hence reducing the radiation absorbed by the body. which was attached to a thin felt of 1.and tin-plated nylon fabric. 2009). which was named as a complementary 8-wideband e-textile antenna (Figure 24). The overall thickness of the antenna was 4.International Journal of Fashion Design.45 GHz and the 5 GHz wireless networking band (Figure 25). Figure 25.2. With the self-complementary structure introduced to help with impedance matching and to generate polarisation diversity from a single element.3.1 mm. This antenna consisted of an inner patch surrounded by a parasitic rectangular ring element. Zhu and Langley (2009a) designed a wearable textile dual-band coplanar antenna covering the 2. this antenna showed acceptable wideband impedance performance from 2. Coplanar antenna As coplanar antennas have much wider bandwidth than microstrip patch antennas. Six complementary-8 e-textile antennas positioned around an EVA suit (Kennedy et al. ZeltTM. 3. a low-mass multiple-antenna system of six complementary-8 wideband antenna elements was placed around the periphery of an extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit. 4. and an EBG ground plane (120 mm 6 120 mm).2. the resonance frequency dropped by 2%. comparable gain and reduced radiation Figure 24. Eight-element e-textile microstrip patch antenna array (Kennedy et al. Ultra-wideband antennas Kennedy et al.1 MHz. The resulting antenna showed broader operating bandwidth. surrounded by the normal ground of coplanar feed line (55 mm 6 55 mm). And. (2009) also designed an ultra-wideband antenna for use above 2.
2007. Embroidering electrical interconnects with conductive yarn for the integration of ﬂexible electronic modules into fabric. In: Lecture of Wearable Systems II. 2004.pdf [Accessed 18 June 2010].. As everyday clothing provides suﬃcient area to place antennas.. 130–131.. S. including their fabrication methods. et al. Dobbins.. Catrysse. because this method oﬀers prompt and precise circuit design variability. et al. H. 386–387. and application ﬁelds. New Assembly of Technologies for Textile Transponder Systems. Heikkinen. Wearable antennas for FM reception.. Hum. As the characteristics of wearable antennas are greatly aﬀected by human proximity and motion. Kallmayer. Linz. Cambridge. Hertleer.P. and Puers.. and Aschenbrenner. Textile Research Journal. Kellomaki.. AATCC Review. 33 (3). 2001. Roh et al.M. various MCYs and fabrics are used to manufacture RF engineering textiles. and textile antennas ensure wearing comfort owing to their ﬂexibility and lightness. 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