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INTRODUCTION

Human people, us Resource assets/costs for organizations Management co-ordination and control to achieve set goals But humans, unlike other resources in the context of work and management, cause problems. The objective is to seek & maximize commitment of people by organising work and creating attitudes and behaviour, which generate best outcomes. Thus, HRM is basically a search for best practices to generate high levels of employee commitment and performance. But organisational practices may cause difficulties down/right sizing or less secure employment seems to sit uneasily against this rhetoric of HRM. Storey has identified two broadly contrasting pictures of HRM Emphasis on people as costs and resources to be worked to secure maximum efficiency. It is called the Rational or economic view of employment where the basic approach is Control and compliance Emphasis on people as resources to be invested in to generate high commitment and involvement. This is the Social or psychological view of employment and it emphasises on commitment of the people working together as an organisation both - Hard and Soft. From this definition, we can easily deduce certain key words which can give us an idea of what the features of HRM are. They are: Strategic i.e. planned, deliberate, seeking to achieve set objectives Capabilities i.e. people or resources with potential (knowledge, skills, attitudes) which can be developed to contribute to organisational success. Competitive advantage by tapping into and developing these capabilities organisations give themselves an edge over their rivals Integrated that the range of things under HRM (recruitment, selection of employees, their training and development, how they are rewarded) is looked at together not as separate things. For example, if you recruit and select people you should have a clear idea of how you see them developing and contributing to the performance of the organization. Isnt it ?? This Employment Relationship has several dimensions to it:

1. Economic pay in exchange for effort


We sell ourselves to survive and prosper We enter the labour market to be bought We try to improve our price in various ways. But there is a supply and demand aspect We bring potential effort which needs control 2. Legal employment laws, rights and responsibilities on both sides contractual relationship although formality of the contract can be very freely entered into. But is it that free and equal? Employment rights may help redress the balance between individual and organizations (as does collective association or unions) 3. Social Work is social because it involves various degrees of integration with others: - Some of this is formally required - Some is just natural - Influence of social on individual - In work, social relations are structured 4. Psychological mutual expectations and obligations - beyond the formal contract What do you expect your employer to provide beyond the wage effort bargain? What is reasonable in terms of this bargain? To understand what human resource management more clearly, we should first review what managers do. Dessler has defined the concept by relating the HRM field with five basic functions all managers perform: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. In total, these functions represent the management process. Some of the specific activities involved in each function include: Planning: Establishing goals and standards; developing rules and procedures; developing plans and forecasting-predicting or projecting some future occurrence. Organizing: Giving each subordinate a specific task; establishing departments; delegating authority to subordinates; establishing channels of authority and communication; coordinating the work of subordinates. Staffing: Deciding what type of people should be hired; recruiting prospective employees; employees. Leading: Getting others to get the job done; maintaining morale; motivating subordinates. selecting employees; setting performance standards; compensating employees; evaluating performance; counseling employees; training and developing

Controlling: Setting standards such as sales quotas, quality standards, or production levels; checking to see how actual performance compares with these standards; taking corrective action as needed. Evolution of Human Resource Management The development of HRM has been slow but a steady process. Arguably, HRM has become the dominant approach to people management in most of the countries. However, it is important to stress that human resource management has not 'come out of nowhere'. HRM has absorbed ideas and techniques from a number of areas. In effect, it is a synthesis of themes and concepts drawn from over a century of management theory and social science research. There is a long history of attempts to achieve an understanding of human behaviour in the workplace. Throughout the twentieth century, practitioners and academics have searched for theories and tools to explain and influence human behaviour at work. Managers in different industries encounter similar experiences: businesses expand or fail; they innovate or stagnate; they may be exciting or unhappy organizations in which to work; finance has to be obtained and workers have to be recruited; new equipment is purchased, eliminating old procedures and introducing new methods; staff must be re-organized, retrained or dismissed. Over and over again, managers must deal with events that are clearly similar but also different enough to require fresh thinking. We can imagine that, one day, there will be a science of management in which these problems and their solutions are catalogued, classified, standardized and made predictable. Sociologists, psychologists and management theorists have attempted to build such a science, producing a constant stream of new and reworked ideas. They offer theoretical insights and practical assistance in areas of people management such as recruitment and selection, performance measurement, team composition and organizational design. Many of their concepts have been integrated into broader approaches which have contributed to management thinking in various periods and ultimately the development of HRM. Importance of Human Resource Management HRM is very important to us for the following reasons: 1.Development and Growth of the organization: HRM paves way for development and growth in the organization. By improving the individual capabilities, acquiring necessary cooperation and developing teamwork HRM makes sure that the organization develops and grows well. Goals of the organization are met by HRM by effective motivation and excellent utilization of employees.

2.Creation of healthy culture in the Organization: HRM creates and maintains excellent culture in the organization and it makes people develop and grow. 3.Maintenance of Human Resources: The development, care of Human Resources is done by the HRM. Human beings are a very crucial and vital factor of production , and thus HRM is gaining more and more importance day by day. It also has important implication in societal development also. IT IS THE HEART AND SOUL OF MODERN MANAGEMENT. Core values of HRM: The core values of HRM states that 1.Human beings are the crucial aspects of every organization. The greater is the commitment of the human resources the more successful is the organization. 2. An individual is a whole person. He brings all aspects of his personality, attitudes, traits and behavior to the work place. 3. All people represents the organization. The building, equipment and other resources productive only because they are being handled by the hyper energic force of humans. 4.People are different from each other. They vary in abilities, nature, personality, religion etc. people are also influenced by social economic and environmental factors. 5. Human resources have to be acquired, developed and motivated to give higher performances and also must be retained. 6. The success of an organization depends upon the satisfaction of organizational needs and employees needs. There are various levels of hierarchical levels in an organisation. The people who manage (i.e., the managers), and people who are at work (subordinates). The effective coordination and commitment between managers and subordinates is essential for organizational success. Apart from that healthy relation ships are to be maintained with consumers, shareholders, entrepreneurs, governments and suppliers. 7. Human relations enable people to work effectively in an organization with other people in organization.

HRs NEW ROLE ORIENTATION, COMPETITIVE EDGE AND RELATIONSHIP WITH ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE The human resources function is at a crossroads, as new technologies create opportunities for more strategic leadership in the management of human capital and corporate culture, while commoditizing some of HRs traditional administrative functions. Whats the strategic vision for HR in todays large organizations? How can HR proactively help drive business results and business transformation? What are best practices in global talent management, self service HR systems, and outsourcing? Who is the customer for HR? How can HR and IT work together to further the corporations business goals? The human resources (HR) function is at an inflection point: It must reshape itself to deliver the strategic value that todays business environment demands and refocus its energies to become a change catalyst and messages. HR and IT must jointly leverage technology and their unique cross-enterprise views to enable companies to become increasingly flexible and adaptable, drive enterprise-wide transparency, and provide high-touch experiences where and when they are really needed. leader. HR is in a position to shape corporate culture, spread best practices, and drive enterprise-wide consistency of important shared values and

Information technology is enabling digitization of routine transactional processes and event management, at the same time providing all levels of the enterprise more data about its human capital than ever before. Talent management and development is a high leverage opportunity for HR. HR can play a major role in creating a performance and accountability culture via compensation systems, opt-out programs, recruiting, and continuous learning processes. Technology offers tools to do this more effectively and efficiently. Both HR and IT can benefit from sharing embedded talent with each others organizations and with other business functions. Cross-pollination of managerial talent and perspectives can help increase understanding, cooperation and goal alignment. Self-service HR systems, when well designed, can deliver benefits beyond increased capacity and efficiency. In addition to empowering employees and managers, IT-enabled systems can also deliver new managerial insight by aggregating and leveraging data that were previously inaccessible. Self service HR systems should be event-triggered, workflowdriven and role-based whenever possible. In making outsourcing and automation decisions, HR must consider both corporate efficiency goals and the strategic benefit of high-touch customer and employee experiences. Executives must understand whats strategic and value-added to the business and whats not, and let those distinctions drive the design of new processes and programs. The world of work is rapidly changing. As a part of organization, HRM must be prepared to deal with effects of changing world of work. For the HR people it means understanding the implications of globalization, work-force diversity, changing skill requirements, corporate downsizing, continuous improvement initiatives, reengineering, the contingent work force, decentralized work sites and employee involvement

QUESTIONS 1) You have a poor performer in your team. What can you do as a Manager to address this problem? What factors do you need to consider when deciding your course of action By creating a culture which is supportive of high performance High performances does not occur in vacuum. The organizations culture must be conductive to productivity and the quality improvement. II By influencing attitudes HR professionals can be effective in bringing about change through their crossorganizational influence, ability to design structures and processes which support the business strategy and helping to create the culture changes through values and communication which supports new ways of working. HR can help set up benchmarking visits to organizations which are achieving outstanding results through people. Skillful use of data can stimulate the need for change among III By designing and implementing HR processes which support the business strategy At a practical level to create the conditions for high performance, HR processes such as reward systems need to be aligned to the new ways of working. The following HR processes are typical of vanguard companies described by Otoole: Highly selective recruitment Extensive training and skill development Contingent or performance-related pay , at high rates Employee share ownership Benefits tailored to individual needs Providing some degree of employment security Sharing information about a firm goals and results.

Performance management Managing performances is perhaps the key responsibility of the line managers and an area where a partnership between line and HR can be most beneficial. Hr can help managers to understand how to define roles in the light of business drivers and how to identify the capabilities required to do the job. The key performance indicators for each role should derive from business drivers and are then built into role processes. This makes each job role responsive to the changing business environment. The four key elements of performance management are: A common understanding of the organizations goals Shared expectations of how individuals can contribute Employee with the skill and ability to meet expectations Individuals who are fully committed to the aims of the organization In managing performances mangers should ensure that the employees are appropriately focused into roles, developed and managed. Job fit and job design what role can HR play? HR can develop assessment processes to ensure that the right people are selected for roles. HR can work with the line to develop self-assessment process. The pace of change is so fast that job description, which create boundaries, are inappropriate. Important responsibilities fall between the gaps and the most job descriptions are not current for more than few months. What is needed is a broad role description, with some fuzzy boundaries to allow for growth. Dealing with poor performance In some organizations, poor performance is handled by simply passing on the underperformer to another department. HR needs to be able to support managers in understanding how they can achieve high standards with slim resources. HR can provide valuable training and other resources to ensure that managers have the skills to coach and develop other people, as well as appraise performance. Designing effective appraisal and development processes

Appraisal requires excellent interview and counseling skills if the process is to be motivating for those involved. It relies on managers and employees having a relationship in which discussing performance is not seen as a burden or a threat. Usually appraisal are taken only as an administrative tool, thus there is no link between personal development and business strategy. HR can help by designing processes which are user friendly and effective like, 360 feedback. Helping line managers to set appropriate measures Success criteria should be such that makes a positive difference to the organization. While measure undoubtedly send strong symbolic messages about what is valued, the question of what is being measured and therefore considered important is increasingly be called into question. Targets need to be set for the deliverables which are required but not at the expense of how the deliverables are to be achieved. If measures are set around soft targets such as behavior, care must be taken that they are taken seriously and also understood well. Reward Strategies Since 1990s the dynamic link between performance and reward has been a topic of debate. The need of flexibility and cost effectiveness has lead to organizational restructuring of various kinds; including flatter structures with their focus on teamwork, broader roles and non-traditional work arrangements. Implementing a flatter structure is meaningless unless there is a degree of consistency between what is expected of employees in terms of working practices and systems, processes and the resources needed to do the job. All human resource systems especially pay; need to reinforce the forms of skilled performance required of individuals. However most of the companies believe in following the preferred model of paying market rates alongside schemes that recognize individual short-term performance but not long term development. This is among the most challenging responsibility of human resource specialist, as there are many factors to be taken into account before revising a compensation system to make it reflect the diverse aspects of behavior, skills and experience which lead to the sort of performance organization requires. Many organizations are experimenting with more flexible packages which include elements of variable pay, linked to job performance, competence skill development and desired team and leadership behavior.

The symbolic power of reward systems Reward schemes are required to meet both the organizational need of managing its salary bill, along side ensuring that it is getting good performance from its employees as well as the employee is been appropriately recompensed for their efforts. Reward schemes carry enormous symbolic significance for employees, as they are the powerful means of teaching employees what is actually valued in the organization, as well as what is not. As such they have a greater impact on employee attitudes and behavior than rhetoric or values statements which encourage, team work. In theory, reward schemes are designed to be motivating, offering appropriate incentives for, and recognition of, desired performance. Whether schemes which focus exclusively on the financial aspects of reward achieves this aim is open to debate. Reward Strategies Since 1990s the dynamic link between performance and reward has been a topic of debate. The need of flexibility and cost effectiveness has lead to organizational restructuring of various kinds; including flatter structures with their focus on teamwork, broader roles and non-traditional work arrangements. Implementing a flatter structure is meaningless unless there is a degree of consistency between what is expected of employees in terms of working practices and systems, processes and the resources needed to do the job. All human resource systems especially pay; need to reinforce the forms of skilled performance required of individuals. However most of the companies believe in following the preferred model of paying market rates alongside schemes that recognize individual short-term performance but not long term development. This is among the most challenging responsibility of human resource specialist, as there are many factors to be taken into account before revising a compensation system to make it reflect the diverse aspects of behavior, skills and experience which lead to the sort of performance organization requires. Many organizations are experimenting with more flexible packages which include elements of variable pay, linked to job performance, competence skill development and desired team and leadership behavior.

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The symbolic power of reward systems Reward schemes are required to meet both the organizational need of managing its salary bill, along side ensuring that it is getting good performance from its employees as well as the employee is been appropriately recompensed for their efforts. Reward schemes carry enormous symbolic significance for employees, as they are the powerful means of teaching employees what is actually valued in the organization, as well as what is not. As such they have a greater impact on employee attitudes and behavior than rhetoric or values statements which encourage, team work. In theory, reward schemes are designed to be motivating, offering appropriate incentives for, and recognition of, desired performance. Whether schemes which focus exclusively on the financial aspects of reward achieves this aim is open to debate. The need to revise reward strategies In an attempt to move towards the performance culture, many organizations have introduced pay schemes which have intended to reflected performance in the job more than the job grade itself. In these changing times, reward schemes quickly becomes sources of discontent. In flatter structures in particular, there is often considerable pressure for reward system to be revised. However, in traditional hierarchical structure, being promoted was the only way of gaining status as well as earning more money or breaking through the ceiling for a grade. In some organizations, eligibility for promotion was based on age and experience rather than performance. In flatter structure where promotion is most unlikely, thus pay is obviously performance based. Theres no perfect pay system, thus a good system should be customized and tailored as per the need and the objective, rather than adopting any off-the shelf solution. Performance-related pay Incentive schemes and performance-related pay continues to provoke debate. However some researches propagate the ineffectiveness of performance-based reward, recognition and incentive systems on the following grounds:

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There is no data to show long term benefits They setup internal competition Reward systems undermine teamwork and cooperation They often reward those who are lucky and pass by those who are unlucky They create cynic and losers While devising such schemes care should be taken about their responsiveness to the business drivers, the changing technology, the new skills needed and the fact in a new environment, people need to perform on different parameters. In response to these business drivers some basic questions need to be answered: What, for instance, are t he critical roles, task, skills, which should be rewarded? What are the new working practices that t he organization wishes to encourage? Will team working be more critical to achieving business goals than individual performances? Is having one system the only way of thinking about the revised system? Many organizations want people to be keen and willing to take on broader responsibilities, learn new skills and develop wider competencies. In addition, technology is bringing about a more fundamental change, switching the nature of the way work is carried out from directive tasks to process-driven activities. In some organizations only outputs are assessed for bonus purposes while in others inputs are also taken into account. Typically, the new areas of providing incentives include soft areas such as making creative suggestions, receiving positive feedback from customers, team working and demonstrating leadership. To support this approach there is usually an emphasis on competencies and various feedback mechanisms are used. Other trends I Competence-based pay (CBP) Many organizations are experimenting with the competence-based pay (CBP), also known as knowledge- or skill0based pay which takes the notion of performance-related pay in a particular direction. CBP- works on the basis of rewarding the skills an individual possesses and actually uses. The downside of such schemes of such schemes

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That they tend to be very complex. The emphasis on individual competence can lead to a failure to reflect sought after organizational business goals such as team working and quality. II Team-based pay It provides financial rewards to individual employees working within a formally established team. Payments are linked to team performances or the achievement of agreed team objectives. One of the drawback is that every scheme is unique, its not possible to adopt some broad recommendations from other organizations, nor are such schemes easy to design or manage. For effective success of such a scheme it necessary that team stands alone with the agreed targets and standards, have autonomy, are composed of people whose work is interdependent, are stable, are well established and make good use of complimentary skills. The three basic elements of a team-based reward package (assuming that the basic pay is right) are: 1. The individual element, the basic salary but varied in relation to performance or skills/competence. 2. A team element related to the achievement of team targets. 3. An organization element related to the business performance measured as a profit, or added value. According to Danny Chestennan, corporate development advisor at Kent County Council, individuals should be rewarded for their contribution to teams, and the teams for the way they develop individuals. III Flexible benefits Given the way the work environment is changing, continuing to offer benefits that are based on the job-for-life assumption is unrealistic. The important thing is to find out how people perceive their benefits and whether these are valued appropriate to both the company and the employee needs. Items in this scheme include pensions, healthcare, childcare vouchers, annual leave, life cover and dental insurance for employees and their partners. Further emphasize should be there to ensure proper communication of these schemes by HR team. How do people want to be rewarded?

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The latest rewards techniques followed are as follows: Profit (gain) sharing Flexible benefit Bonuses payable Bonuses payable in terms of extra leaves rather than pay Bonuses payable towards prestigious qualification Long term incentives Deferred incentives Extending private health schemes to all employees and their families Longer holidays Sponsored holidays Free family holiday in company owned cottages Enhanced early retirement

Research suggests that intrinsic motivators such as the chance to do something worthwhile, to have a development stretch, to increase job satisfaction are all as important as the financial package and represent psychological rewards. IV Recognition In many organizations the scope for modifying the reward system may appear limited. Recognition schemes take on a special significance since they are a symbolic way of reinforcing the new behaviors and the performance needed in the organization.

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2)

Provide the background of the job or duties of this personnel in the organization

Job Title: Department: Location: Level/Salary: JOB SUMMARY

Software Programmer ....................................... ....................................... .......................................

Company Job Code: Position type: Reports to: Last Revision Date:

...................................... . ...................................... . Manager ...................................... .

Perform a variety of programming assignments requiring knowledge of established programming procedures and data processing requirements. Maintain and modify programs. JOB PURPOSE Develops information systems by designing, developing, and installing software solutions. PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES 1. Code, test and troubleshoot programs utilizing the appropriate hardware, database, and programming technology. 2. Refine data and format final product. 3. Maintain and modify programs; make approved changes by amending flow charts, develop detailed programming logic, and coding changes. 4. Test and develop programming modifications. 5. Write new program code using prescribed specifications. 6. Evaluate simple interrelationships between programs such as whether a contemplated change in one part of a program would cause unwanted results in a related part. 7. Analyze performance of programs and take action to correct deficiencies based on consultation with users and approval of supervisor. 8. Confer with users to gain understanding of needed changes or modifications of existing programs. Resolve questions of program intent, data input, output requirements, and inclusion of internal checks and controls. 9. Write and maintain programming documentation. 10. Analyze NT client/server and micro-computer based software solutions compatibility with company requirements. 11. Maintain confidentiality with regard to the information being processed, stored or accessed. 12. Document programming problems and resolutions for future reference. 13. Assist personnel of other departments as a computer resource. 14. Other duties as assigned. ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES 1. Provide on-the-job training to new department staff members. 2. Provide computer orientation to new company staff.

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KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS 1. Basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills required. This is normally acquired through a high school diploma or equivalent. 2. Knowledge of company programming procedures and programming languages. Ability to process computer data and to format and generate reports. Ability to implement and troubleshoot programming changes and modifications. Knowledge of computer flow charts and of programming logic and codes. Ability to write technical instructions in the use of programs and/or program modifications. Ability to investigate and analyze information and to draw conclusions. Ability to learn and support new systems and applications. Work with users requires interpersonal skills. This is normally acquired through a combination of a Bachelor's Degree and three to five years of programming experience. 3. Responsibilities may require evening and weekend work in response to needs of the systems being supported. WORKING CONDITIONS Working conditions are normal for an office environment. Work requires extensive work using a computer. Responsibilities may require evening and weekend work in response to needs of the systems being supported.

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3)

Examine your current job in term of job satisfaction. What factors are contributing to job satisfaction for you and what are your current sources of job dissatisfaction.

Job Satisfaction Personality type, coping skills, procedural justice, locus of control, and organizational involvement are all factors that affect job satisfaction. This study looks at other factors such as age, education level, sex, shift, and part or full-time status to see how they affect job satisfaction. Employees of the Wal-Mart Supercenter in St. Joseph, Missouri filled out surveys intended to gather information about what makes people satisfied with their jobs, and what types of people are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs. Results showed that there were three major predictors of job satisfaction: thinking all employees are treated equally by their boss, sex (females were more satisfied than males), and employees seeing themselves having a future in their present job. Factors hypothesized to be significant predictors of job satisfaction, such as education level and age, did not turn out to be significant at all. Shift was significant, however, in that first shift workers were more satisfied with pay than were second or various shift workers. There have been many studies performed to determine variables that affect job satisfaction. Some have looked at factors such as organizational involvement, locus of control, age, identification with role, dual career families, and commitment to organization. Others have examined stress, Type A behavior, coping strategies, participation in decision making , procedural justice, emotional exhaustion, race, and education . Prause and Dooley found that a larger percentage of intermittently unemployed and non fullyear poverty wage workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs when compared to the employed and full-year poverty wage workers. This suggests superiors and subordinates may tend to accentuate their differences and be more prone to stereotype one another. These are at the functional core of many jobs. FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION 1. Work Itself:(a) Skill Variety (b) Task Identity (c) Task Significance (d) Autonomy (e) Feedback 2. Pay Structure:- It should be more attractive & lucrative. Some people get satisfaction only because of the salary and Compensation and they stick to the organization for a long time. 3. Advancement Opportunities:-There should be good scope and opportunity to grow. Opportunity should be given to employees at regular interval. 4. Supervision:-Proper supervision should be there in every organization. It helps the employee not to deviate from their path. And Employee works in a proper way.

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5. Co-Workers:- It is an important factor. Employee feels comfortable when their colleagues are good. They feel happy, because they can gain knowledge, culture, & so many things. 6. Environment:- Company should be free from dispute, politics. Employees like to work in friendly environment. 7. Compensation & Benefits:-Employee wants more compensation & benefits. Benefits attract employees like perquisites, fringe benefits, club memberships etc. 8. Training:-What kind of training is given to employees. Employees are gaining how much benefits out of it. 9. Climate, City & Neighbours:- Employees wants to work in a good climate. Sometimes city also matters that it is affordable to him an comparison of salary. 10.Ethics & Principle:- The ways a firm is doing business. Some people are very ethical. They will never compromise with their values & principles. Relationships of the Big Five Traits With Job Satisfaction Neuroticism Because of their essentially negative nature, neurotic individuals experience more negative life events than other individuals in part, because they select themselves into situations that foster negative affect. To the extent that such situations occur on or with respect to the job, they would lead to diminished levels of job satisfaction. Neuroticism has been described as the primary source of NA, and the link between NA and job satisfaction was documented in meta-analysis. Extraversion Whereas Neuroticism is related to the experience of negative life events, extraverts are predisposed to experience positive emotions , and positive emotionality likely generalizes to job satisfaction, as demonstrated meta-analysis of PA-job satisfaction relationships. Evidence also indicates that extraverts have more friends and spend more time in social situations than do introverts and, because of their social facility, are likely to find interpersonal interactions (such as those that occur at work) more rewarding . Openness to Experience Openness to Experience is related to scientific and artistic creativity , divergent thinking, low religiosity, and political liberalism. None of these psychological states seem to be closely related to job satisfaction. Furthermore, it is noted that "Openness to Experience is a 'double-edged sword' that predisposes individuals to feel both the good and the bad more deeply" , rendering its directional influence on affective reactions like subjective well-being or job satisfaction unclear. Agreeableness McCrae and Costa (1991) argued that Agreeableness should be related to happiness because agreeable individuals have greater motivation to achieve interpersonal intimacy,

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which should lead to greater levels of well-being. Indeed, they found that Agreeableness was positively related to life satisfaction, although at a relatively low level (mean r = .16). Assuming these same communal motivations exist on the job, then the same process should operate with respect to job satisfaction. Organ and Lingl (1995) apparently agreed, commenting that Agreeableness "involves getting along with others in pleasant, satisfying relationships".

Conscientiousness Organ and Lingl (1995) argued that Conscientiousness should be related to job satisfaction because it represents a general work-involvement tendency and thus leads to a greater likelihood of obtaining satisfying work rewards, both formal (e.g., pay, promotions) and informal (e.g., recognition, respect, feelings of personal accomplishment). Indirectly, the subjective well-being literature also suggests a positive relationship between Conscientiousness and job satisfaction.

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CONCLUSIONS
ALIGNING HR AND BUSINESS STRATEGIES THROUGH HR PLANNING Strategic planning is a key tool for HR. Tony Grundy defines HR strategy as the plans, programmes and intentions to develop the human capability of an organization to meet the future needs of its external and internal environment. HR strategy may be planned, emergent or some combination of these. Research by Tyson and Witcher as well as Grundy suggests that emergent HR strategy may be damaging by organizational effectiveness. Other research projects also suggest that the more planned and timely the implementation of HR strategies, the more value is perceived to be added to the business. There are many reasons why many HR teams do not take a planned approach. Some HR teams may prefer working in an emergent way and would rather wait until there is a clear business strategy on which to model the HR strategy. This may be a long wait and opportunities for adding value may be missed. Some teams fear criticism of being seen to create their own policy in the absence of business strategy, on the one hand, or being seen to drive business strategy, on the other. The sheer complexity of the links which need to be managed between HR strategy and organizational effectiveness amy mean that the overall focus of the delivery is diffuse and therefore not appreciated. Similarly, periods of ongoing change and active organizational politics can cause the links to be undermined. This may be a question of ownership of the HRs strategy and where it sits in the organization structure. However, Lam and Schaubroecks research suggests that leaders in firms with relatively highly formalized HR planning are more likely to perceive its usefulness compared with those firms where the Hr strategic objectives are less clear. In strategic HRM, planning needs to go beyond being focused on operations and control.whether a formal or informal approach is used, the important thing is to keep the plan simple. As Hr teams move towards a strategic HRM approach, the need for integration among the different HR practices increases. These clear objectives are than likely to be useful in strategic planning activities, helping the organization, to enhance organizational performance, rather than simply being a means of making the case for more resources. HR planning is critical to the effective development of strategy since it should identify gaps and surpluses in capabilities as well as issues of utilization of talent. Indeed so central is this identification of organizational capability considered by some researchers that they argue for an enhanced role for HR planning in overall strategic palnning. Various researchers have suggested that the most effective links are made when HR strategy as such disappears and

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is more fully integrated into other resource strategies supporting the operational management process. This would mean that the role of Hr would be to facilitate the development of an organizational strategy, which is owned and developed by line managers. This would probably be issue based and directly linked to the business strategy. Indeed, Grundy argues that the key role of a strategic HRM function is to facilitate Organization and people strategy, together through joint coordination with line management of strategic programmes such as management development and succession planning. The effectiveness of HR planning very much depends on the organizational context. HR planning objectives are likely to be contingent upon different competitive strategies and different organizations will therefore be unlikely to use identical approaches to similar issues. However, unless the objectives are clear, building commitment to the strategy among line managers and employees is difficult. Lam and Schaubroek suggest three different kinds of Hr objectives:

Operational: which seek to identify current capabilities and with short term
requirements in mind.

Traditional: which attempt to incorporate forecasts about the numbers of employees


and their skill types to meet longer-term demands. This type of planning needs to take account of career development, succession planning, external recruitment and appraisal data. It can establish whether it is possible for the organization to achieve its strategic objectives.

Strategic: which is where HR planning provides valuable data and is carried out as
an integral part of the overall strategic planning process. This involves line managers in developing and evaluating HR practices since this approach recognizes that those who are most knowledgeable about the workforce should be involved in building commitment of the strategy across the organization. Often the main thrust of strategic HR planning is finding ways to establish and maintain core competencies.

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REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_resource_management Interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0090-4848 www.accel-team.com/human_resources/hrm_00.html www.mohr.gov.my books.google.com.my/books?isbn=0749441607..

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