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Late in the third century A.D, the Roman empire was divided into eastern and western regions. The eastern provinces thrived while the western regions we re weakened by the Germanic tribes. The new civilization that took shape in the east was called Byzantine civilization
A New eastern empire y y A new capital was built for the Roman Empire In AD 330 the emperor Constantine founded a new capital city for the empire called Constantinople. It was built on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium.
Byzantine civilization develops in a new empire. -Constantinople became the center of the new Byzantine empire. - Its language and traditions we re Greek. And its system of law and administration is Romans. - Its religion followed the beliefs and practices of the early Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean. - Byzantine artist we re influenced by Greek, Asian, and early Christian sources. -The Byzantine emperors considered themselves the successor of the Roman emperor and so claimed to rule all the lands. They we re also absolute rulers. y Justinian and Theodora lead the empire. The first great Byzantine ruler was Justinian who reigned nearly forty years. His long lasting achievement is the field of law. He often relied on the advice of his wife Theodora. Theodora had been an actress a profession most people look as degrading. When she became Justinian s wife she showed great political skills.
y Justinian tries to restore the grandeur of Rome Early in his reign, Byzantine forces retook North Africa, Sicily and Southern Spain from the Goths and Vandals. Later they recaptured all of Italy, establishing a western capital at Ravenna in about 585. y Invaders threaten Byzantine lands.
Taxes also provide money needed to run the government. They try to capture the city but could not break throught the thick city wall. the Persians attacked Syria. Western Christians learn to accept the Pope at Rome as the head of all Christians. - - y Byzantium protects Christian Europe. (Roman Catholic Church) and the Orthodox church in the east ruled from Constantinople. In 717-718. After this defeat and the defeat by the franks at Tours 732. the Muslims would have overrun the Balkans and sailed up the Danube river into the heart of Europe. The Muslim Arabs had taken Egypt. The Germanic Lombards conquered much of the Byzantine lands in Italy and by 631 the Visigoths recaptured the Sapin. The greatest threat to the Byzantines comes from the Arabs who followed the new religion Islam. the Byzantine learned the carefully guarded secret of making paper from rags. Byzantine emperors objected when the Pope crowned Charlemagne as Holy roman emperor. Syria and Palestine from the Byzantium. A massive naval Arab attack on Constantinople failed. The Bulgars from Central asia conquered the Slavic tribes and became a constant threat to Byzantine. a people originally from Central Asia. y A new power threatens the Byzantine empire. In 1054. Then by Avars. first by Slavic tribes from lands around the Black sea. but the Byzantium is equipped with a new invention called Greek fire . While the Byzantine regarded the Patriarch of Constantinopleas leader of the Eastern Orthodox. After traders smuggled silk worms from China. - - . the Muslim invaders made no more conquers in Europe. the Balkans we re invaded from the north. holy days and the display of religious images and the rights of the clergy. y The Byzantine and the Roman churches grow apart The two churches differed over ceremonies.- Early in the 600 s. The Byzantine empire remained the center of wealth and culture Byzantine artisans contributed to the empires prosperity. y The Byzantine empires prospers. By 673 they regularly attacked the Byzantine empire. the Christian church split into Latin church in the west. If Constantinople was fallen. Palestine and Egypt. From the east.
the Seljuk Turks. during the fourth Crusade. the Byzantine empire consisted of only the city of Constantinople and two small territories in Greece. By the beginning of 15th century. This were regarded as holy and kept in homes and Orthodox church. In 1204. The crusaders devastated the city of Constantinople. Byzantine arts we re influenced by classical Greco-Roman style and the arts of near east They often use religious themes and symbol. conquered Islam. Another typical form of Byzantine art was the icon. y - Byzantine arts blends several traditions. a small religious image usually painted on wood. y Constantinople falls to the Turks. vandalized churches and carried gold and jewels and works of art back to western Europe.The decline of Byzantium y New enemies weaken the empire To protect their lands the emperor relied on shrewd diplomacy in addition to well-trained military forces. The Ottoman Turks had accepted Islam and begun to build an empire in Asia minor. They destroyed the Byzantine army at the town of Manzikert on the empire s eastern frontier. Two Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodjus invented an alphabet for writing Slavic language so the slavs could read the bible. the western European knights and the venetian merchants decided to capture to the cioty of Constantinople. outnumbering the Byzantines sixteen to one. In 1453 the Turks attacked the Constantinople itself. the Byzantine kept much ancient knowledge from being lost. A form of this Cyrillic alphabet is still used in Russian and other Slavic languages. The deathblow to the empire dealt by another group of Turks. They destroyed sacred books. - - The influence of Byzantium y The Byzantine influence history Although they made few original contributions. . They we re specially noted for their skill in making mosaics from thousands of stones and glass. For themselves rather than fight the muslims. In the early eleventh century a formidable new enemy appeared in the east . originnaly from Central Asia. The invaders looted the city and slaughtered thousands of people.
the fortified town of Kiev became the center of the first Russian state. In the 9th century. Novrogod had close trade towns with the towns of Hanseatic League. The rulers of Kiev who had the title of grand prince we re merchant warriors. feudalism as practiced in the western Europe was unknown. amber and slaves we re the basis of the Rus trade with the Byzantine. The Vikings first attack the Constantinople but later became traders. landownerships counted less than control of trade . The other early Russian river town. Early Russia y Russia has ties with Constantinople. In designing it.A band of Vikings called Rus moved into this area of Slavic people and set up a string of fortified towns along rivers. One of this forts was at Kiev and another was at Novrogod. In about 988 her grandson Vladimir I converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity and all the Kievans became Christians In Kiev. It was the most magnificent church in the mediterranean world at that time. y - - Invaders attack Kiev and Novgorod By 1240 the city was devastated and all Kievan Russia has fallen under the Mongol rule. y - The Russian state forms around Kiev. lay farther north and escaped the Mongol s destruction. Protected by wide marshes the Novrogods was able to resist the attempts of Swedes and the Teutonic knights to expand to Russia. Prince Alexander of Novrogod defeated the invading Swedes at the Neva.the Byzantine developed a new way of placing a dome over a rectangular building.Sophia or the church of the holy wisdom .- The city s new cathedral finished in five years was Hagia. then he became known as Alexander Nevsky. Located in a high bluff overlooking the Dnieper. y Mongol s rule Russia . Wirth their aristocratic followers called Boyars. they collected tribute from their subjects and profited from trade. Furs. Its ties with the byzantine strengthened in 957 when the princess Olga visited Constantinople and became Christian. Novrogod.
for the Mongols did not interfere with the church or demand tributes from it. Not all Arabs we re nomads. Most people of Arabia are nomads called Bedouin who spoke semitic language. there was little political. They from tribal groups moving their tents from one oases to another. The followers of Islam we re called Muslims those who submit to Allah s will. Towns grew up around oases on the coast where ocean winds brought moisture in the land. Many arabs travels to Mecca to worship at an Ancient holy well and shrine called the Kaaba. y - Arabs follows different Religions The trading town of mecca was a holy city. Muslim believes that it contains the word of Allah as it was revealed to Mohammed. The Koran is the holy book of Islam. economic and cultural development. leaders in the northeast become strong enough to bring Russians together to resist Mongol rule.- - During this period of isolation from both Byzantium and Western Europe. The new faith that he offered to Arabs was monotheistic. y - - Mohammed establishes a new faith Mohammed was an Arab born in Mecca about year 570. Mohammed married Khadija. Not until the late 14th century did the princes of Moscow. Islam spreads in Asia and Africa y Most Arabs are nomads The Arabian peninsula is mainly a dry and rocky plateau. Mohammed rejected the many deities of the tribal religion s. a widow who ran her own prosperous business and became a successful trader. like Judaism and Christianity. Mohammed was convinced that he had been chosen a prophet and bring the Arabs to new faith. Arabic. The wealth and influence of Orthodox church grew. . y - The Koran outlines Muslim beliefs. When he was 4o hebelieved that he had a vision of the angel Grabiel who ordered him: Recite in the name of thy Lord . The Shrine contained statues of many deities as well as a black stone that the arabs believed was sacred. It is called Islam which in Arabic means surrender to Allah or God.
he now began to persecute Arabian Jews. To escape persecution . Under the four caliphs.Muslim have five religious duties called the Five Pillars of Islam : 1.- Muslims view Allah as the ruler of heaven and earth. Muslim armies conquered Palestine. 3. y - Islam makes converts by force Mohammed began to preach a holy war against pagans and nonbelievers. or infidels. Mohammed and a small band of followers left Mecca in 622 for Medina. y - . y Muslim have religious obligations . In 630 Mecca surrendered to a Muslim army without a fight. During the holy month of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Muslim calendar). Their flight is known as Hegira or breaking of former ties Not all people of Medina accepted Mohammed s leadership. Arab warriors went into battle with a sword and a militant faith. Mohammed s successors extends Islamic power After Mohammed s friend. 5. as Mohammed came to be called. seizing their farmlands they held around Medina. Muslims believes that Islam is the completion of the beliefs of Judaism and Christianity. The jews of Medina in particular would not accept Mohammed as a prophet. a town about 280 miles away. compassionate and just. Syria and Egypt and most of Persia. Although Mohammed had adopted some Jewish customs. 2. They regard Jesus and the Hebrew prophets as messengers of God but they believe that Mohammed is the last and greatest of the prophets. Bedouin tribes all over Arabia began to accept Islam and recognized the authority of the Prophet. At least five times a day. Abu Bakr became his successor and wasn given the titlen of caliph. an all-powerful god who is merciful. y - Mohammed flees from Mecca. The caliph was regarded the Defender of faith who was given Authority by Allah. believers do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset. They believe they we re engaged in a holy war to spread ISalm to non-believers. who ruled 632-661. 4. They have a religious duty to be generous to the poor. A Muslim must accept and repeat the statement of faith: There is no god but Allah and Mohammed is His prophet. Muslim s are expected to make at least one pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca if they can afford to do so.the Muslims faces the city of Mecca and pray.
rebelled against the Umayyad rulersand put a new dynasty in power. several discontented groups. The fourth caliph Ali.The Muslims began to move farther northward in Europe but we re stopped by the franks at the The Battle of Tours in 732.. Rivalry broke out between the Umayyad supporters and the Shi a. those who died in the holy war or jihad we re assured of a special place in Paradise. a member of powerful Umayyad family claimed the caliphate. y - - The Umayyad s create an empire Islam s territory extended to India and the borders of China. The Umayyads move the capital to Damascus.- According to Koran. They move the capital to Baghdad in 763. Over time the Shi ite Muslims developed some beliefs and traditions Muslims . those who thought that only directs descendants should rule. y - New rulers cause a division in Islam. y - The Muslim empire flourishes The new ruling family was the Abbasids who remain the ruler of Islam for 500 years. Arabs and Moors took north Africa and Byhzantines and most of sapins Visigoth. both Arabs and Non-Arabs. . known as Sunni. To the west. In 750. was married to Mohammed s daughter Fatima. Syria. When he was murdered in 661.
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