NCHRP Web Document 44 (Project 12-45): Contractor’s Final Report

Design Examples for
Large-Span Culverts

Supporting Material for
NCHRP Report 473




Prepared for:
National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Transportation Research Board
National Research Council



Submitted by:
T. J. McGrath
I. D. Moore
E. T. Selig
M. C. Webb
B. Taleb






April 2002

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was sponsored by the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO), in cooperation with the Federal
Highway Administration, and was conducted in the
National Cooperative Highway Research Program
(NCHRP), which is administered by the Transportation
Research Board (TRB) of the National Research
Council.







DISCLAIMER

The opinion and conclusions expressed or implied in
the report are those of the research agency. They are
not necessarily those of the TRB, the National
Research Council, AASHTO, or the U.S. Government.
This report has not been edited by TRB.
ii

CONTENTS
Examples of Simplified Design Procedures for Metal Culverts
Design 9.7 m Span by 3.7 m Rise Low Profile Arch, H = 1.0 m ...................................... 1
Design 31.2 ft Span by 19 ft Rise Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 ft........................................... 11
Design 14.3 m Span by 8.6 Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 m................................................... 21
Design 9.2 m Span by 9.0 m Rise Pear Shaped Culvert, H = 8 m................................. 31

Example of Simplified Design Procedures for Concrete Culverts
Long Span Concrete Culvert – Load Calculations ......................................................... 41
Calculations to Evaluate Reinforcing Requirements for Conspan Reinforced Concrete
Culvert – Depth of Fill = 2.0 ft (0.6 m)......................................................................... 46

iii
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
W
T
2300 mm ⋅ :·
Lane load Lane 9.3
kN
m
⋅ :·
Topchord sin
θ
top
2
¸

¸
_

,
R
t
⋅ 2 ⋅ :·
Lane load width Lane
W
3 m ⋅ :·
Topchord 8.10m ·
Impact I
mp
if H 2.44 m ⋅ < 1.33 0.33
H
2.44 m ⋅
⋅ − , 1 ,
¸

¸
_

,

I
mp
1.19 ·
Live load distribution with depth of fill LLDF 1.15 :·
Culvert Material Properties
F
y
227.6 MPa ⋅ :· E
p
200 GPa ⋅ :·
Soil Properties:
M
sN
5 MPa ⋅ :·
Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.3-1)
M
sBottom
21 MPa ⋅ :·
M
sSide
19.4 MPa ⋅ :· p
side
54kPa · p
side
γ
s
H
R
2
+
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
M
sCrown
15.5 MPa ⋅ :· p
crown
19kPa · p
crown
γ
s
H ⋅ :·
Poisson's ratio
ν 0.3 :·
Friction angle (loose) γ
s
18.84 kN ⋅ m
3 −
⋅ :· Density
φ 36 deg ⋅ :·
Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure:
Rise W 4.85 m ⋅ :· Width of Structural Backfill
S 9.7 m ⋅ :· Span H 1.0 m ⋅ :· Depth of burial
Culvert Geometry Installation Conditions
GPa 1000 MPa ⋅ :· kPa
MPa
1000

i 1 2 , 4 .. :· MPa 145.1379
lbf
in
2
⋅ :· kN 224.8 lbf ⋅ :·
Mathcad Terminology:
:= defines a term
= presents result of a calcuation
MathCad Units and Range Variables
Design 9.7 m Span by 3.7 m Rise Low Profile Arch, H = 1.0 m
Axle plus Wheel Width
S
R
2.62 · Span/ Rise Ratio
L
o
250 mm ⋅ :· Tire length:
θ
top
80 deg ⋅ :· Top Angle
mp 1.2 :· Multiple presence factor
R
t
6.3 m ⋅ :· Top Radius P 222 kN ⋅ :· Design Tandem
R
u
3.2 m ⋅ :· Upper Rise Live load
R 3.7 m ⋅ :·
H-1
1
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
φ
bck
0.7 :·
Trial Section Properties
Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 6.324 mm,
with circumferential stiffeners (2nd plate of same gage)
Basic plate: I
u
2395
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· A 7.74
mm
2
mm
⋅ :·
Stiffened plate: I
p
4790
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· M
p
54.92
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :· M
y
38.21
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :·
MINIMUM STIFFNESS
FF
max
0.17
mm
N
⋅ :·
FF
2 R
t
⋅ ( )
2
1 sin φ ( ) − ( )
3

0.07 E
p
⋅ I
p

:· FF 0.17
mm
N
·
MinimumStiffness if FF FF
max
< "OK" , "Stiffeners Required" , ( ) :·
MinimumStiffness "OK" ·
Design factors
Load factors Earth Max γ
EMax
1.3 :· Resistance factors Thrust φ
c
0.7 :·
Min γ
EMin
0.9 :·
Bending φ
b
0.9 :·
Live γ
LL
1.75 :·
Soil φ
s
0.9 :·
Buckling
H-2
2
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
VAF 1.73 · VAF F
WS
F
SR
+ F
HS
+ :·
4. VAF
F
HS
0.49 · F
HS
max F
hs
( ) :·
F
hs
i
2.5 HS
lim
H
S

¸

¸
_

,

0

HS
lim
0.30 ·
HS
lim
max hs
lim
( ) :·
hs
lim
i
0.8 0.5
S
R
⋅ −
0.3

3. F
H/S
F
SR
0.00 · F
SR
max F
sr
( ) :·
F
sr
i
1
S
R

0

2. F
S/R
F
WS
1.24 ·
F
WS
1.2 0.5 log SoilRatio ( ) ⋅ K
VAF
1.2 − ( ) + :·
SoilRatio if
M
sSide
M
sN
100 <
M
sSide
M
sN
, 100 ,
¸

¸
_

,

K
VAF
1.33 ·
1. F
W/S
K
VAF
max K
VAF
( ) :·
K
VAF
i
1.9 1.15
W
S
⋅ −
1.2

Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load
THRUST CAPACITY
H-3
3
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
Status
Thrust
if R
T
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
R
T
1234
kN
m
· R
T
φ
c
F
y
⋅ A ⋅ :· Factored Axial Resistance
Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust
T
f
616
kN
m
·
T
f
γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

Total Factored Thrust
W
LL
291
kN
m
· W
LL
0.7 mp ⋅ I
mp
⋅ P ⋅ R
t

L
L
L
W


L
W
3.45m · L
W
W
T
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
L
L
1.40m · L
L
L
o
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
7. Live Load
W
Lane
6.7
kN
m
· W
Lane
Lane
Lane
W
Lane
W
LLDF H ⋅ +
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
6. Lane Load
W
E
548
kN
m
·
W
E
VAF W
SP
⋅ :·
W
SP
317
kN
m
· W
SP
γ
s
S ⋅ H K
sp
R
u
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ :·
K
sp
0.23 · K
sp
if 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + 0.5 < 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + , 0.5 ,
¸

¸
_

,

5. Earth Load
H-4
4
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingbottom
if R
b
T
E
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
E
356
kN
m
·
R
bE
1883
kN
m
· R
bE
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
u
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sBottom
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
R
h
0.84 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
bot
+
¸

¸
_

,

H
bot
H 0.75 R ⋅ + :·
T
E
γ
EMax
W
E

2

Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust
Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingtop
if R
b
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
f
616
kN
m
·
R
b
1270
kN
m
· R
b
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
p
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sCrown
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
K
b
0.82 · K
b
1 2 ν ⋅ − ( )
1 ν − ( )
2

R
h
0.55 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
+
¸

¸
_

,

Stiffened top arc with live load thrust
Check Buckling Capacity
H-5
5
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
FlexureCheck "Required" ·
FlexureCheck if γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ 0.15 φ
b
M
p
⋅ ( ) ⋅ > "Required" , "Not Required" ,

¸
1
]

Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity
M
Lane
0.16
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
Lane
W
Lane
S ⋅ K
Lane
⋅ :·
K
Lane
0.0025 ·
K
Lane
max K
Lane
( ) :·
K
Lane
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Lane Load Moment - Compute with same formula as earth load moment
M
LL
7.02
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
LL
2 W
LL
⋅ R
t
⋅ K
LL
⋅ :·
K
LL
0.0019 ·
K
LL
max K
ll
( ) :·
K
ll
i
0.02 1.05
S
B
S
B
800 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.001

Live Load Moment
M
E
4.43
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
E
γ
s
S
2
⋅ H ⋅ K
E
⋅ :·
K
E
0.0025 ·
K
E
max K
e
( ) :·
K
e
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Earth Load Moment
S
B
16634 ·
S
B
φ
s
M
sSide
⋅ S
3

E
p
I
p


Bending stiffness factor
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
H-6
6
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
ConstructionControl if MaxConstructionM M
y
< "OK" , "Reduce Construction Moment" , ( ) :·
MaxConstructionM if M
sidemax
M
sidemin
> M
sidemax
, M
sidemin
, ( ) :·
M
sidemin
17.21 −
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
sidemin
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.018 − m
-1
·
Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.00m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
min
Topchord ⋅ − :·
R
ntrial
5.66 m ⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
times original top chord Topchord
min
0.98 :·
Minimum allowed top chord
M
sidemax
4.79kN
m
m
⋅ ·
M
sidemax
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.005m
-1
· Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.0000m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
max
Topchord ⋅ − :·
CurvMin 0.005 m
1 −
⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
R
ntrial
6.3 m ⋅ :·
times original top chord Topchord
max
1.0 :·
Maximum allowed extension of top chord
Construction Moment
H-7
7
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Total Moment
M
u
i
γ
EMax
M
sidemin
− ⋅ γ
EMin
M
E
⋅ − γ
LL
M
LL
( ) ⋅ +
γ
EMin
M
sidemax
⋅ γ
EMax
M
E
⋅ + γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ +

M
u
30.67
22.65
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
kN m ⋅
m
· M
U
max M
u
( ) :·
M
U
30.67
kN m ⋅
m
·
Check total moment against total capacity
M
n
φ
b
M
p
⋅ :· M
n
49.43
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Flexure
if M
n
M
U
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
H-8
8
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Combined
"OK" ·
Status
Combined
if Combined
Indx
1 < "OK" , "Redesign" ,
( )

Indx 1.00 · Indx if
T
fRed
R
T
0.2 ≥ 1 , 2 ,
¸

¸
_

,

M
U
M
n
0.62 ·
T
fRed
R
T
0.35 · Combined
0.90
0.80
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
·
Combined
i
T
fRed
R
T
8
9
M
U
M
n
⋅ +
T
fRed
2 R
T

M
U
M
n
+

T
fRed
435
kN
m
·
T
fRed
if T
fCr
T
fSh
> T
fCr
, T
fSh
, ( ) :·
T
fCr
435
kN
m
· T
fCr
0.5 γ
EMax
⋅ W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + 0.5γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

T
fSh
413
kN
m
· T
fSh
0.67 γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ + ( ) ⋅
2

Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location
COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING
H-9
9
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Notes
- Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement
- Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than T
f.
Topchord
min
0.98 ·
Topchord
max
1.00 ·
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
Combined
Indx
0.90 ·
Status
Combined
"OK" ·
M
p
54.92
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
FlexureCheck "Required" ·
I
p
4790
mm
4
mm
·
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
I
u
2395
mm
4
mm
· Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
M
U
30.67
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
T
f
616
kN
m
· A 7.74
mm
2
mm
· MinimumStiffness "OK" ·
DESIGN SUMMARY
H-10
10
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Lane load Lane 640
lbf
ft
⋅ :·
Topchord sin
θ
top
2
¸

¸
_

,
R
t
⋅ 2 ⋅ :·
Lane load width Lane
W
10 ft ⋅ :·
Topchord 27.00ft ·
Impact I
mp
if H 8 ft ⋅ < 1.33 0.33
H
8 ft ⋅
⋅ − , 1 ,
¸

¸
_

,

I
mp
1.25 ·
Live load distribution with depth of fill LLDF 1.15 :·
Culvert Material Properties
F
y
33 ksi ⋅ :· E
p
29000 ksi ⋅ :·
Soil Properties:
Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure:
φ 36 deg ⋅ :·
Density γ
s
120 lbf ⋅ ft
3 −
⋅ :· Friction angle (loose)
ν 0.3 :·
Poisson's ratio
p
crown
γ
s
H ⋅ :· p
crown
1.67psi · M
sCrown
2100 psi ⋅ :·
p
side
γ
s
H
R
2
+
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :· p
side
9.58psi · M
sSide
2950 psi ⋅ :·
M
sBottom
3050 psi ⋅ :·
Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.3-1)
M
sN
750 MPa ⋅ :·
Design 31.2 ft Span by 19 ft Rise Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 ft
MathCad Units and Range Variables
Mathcad Terminology:
:= defines a term
= presents result of a calcuation
ksi 1000 psi ⋅ :· i 1 2 , 4 .. :·
k 1000 lbf ⋅ :·
Installation Conditions Culvert Geometry
Depth of burial H 2.0 ft ⋅ :· Span S 31.2 ft ⋅ :·
Width of Structural Backfill W 30 ft ⋅ :· Rise R 19.0 ft ⋅ :·
W
T
7.67 ft ⋅ :· Axle plus Wheel Width
S
R
1.64 · Span/ Rise Ratio
L
o
10 in ⋅ :· Tire length:
θ
top
80 deg ⋅ :· Top Angle
mp 1.2 :· Multiple presence factor
R
t
21.0 ft ⋅ :· Top Radius P 50 k ⋅ :· Design Tandem
R
u
9.5 ft ⋅ :· Upper Rise Live load
H-11
11
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
φ
bck
0.7 :·
Trial Section Properties
Structural Plate = 6 in. by 2 in. by 0.276 in.,
with circumferential stiffeners (2nd plate of same gage)
Basic plate: I
u
0.166
in
4
in
⋅ :· A 4.119
in
2
ft
⋅ :·
Stiffened plate: I
p
0.332
in
4
in
⋅ :· M
p
167
in k ⋅
ft
⋅ :· M
y
115
in k ⋅
ft
⋅ :·
MINIMUM STIFFNESS
FF
max
30
in
k
⋅ :·
FF
2 R
t
⋅ ( )
2
1 sin φ ( ) − ( )
3

0.07 E
p
⋅ I
p

:· FF 26.40
in
k
·
MinimumStiffness if FF FF
max
< "OK" , "Stiffeners Required" , ( ) :·
MinimumStiffness "OK" ·
Design factors
Load factors Earth Max γ
EMax
1.3 :· Resistance factors Thrust φ
c
0.7 :·
Min γ
EMin
0.9 :·
Bending φ
b
0.9 :·
Live γ
LL
1.75 :·
Soil φ
s
0.9 :·
Buckling
H-12
12
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
VAF 1.79 · VAF F
WS
F
SR
+ F
HS
+ :·
4. VAF
F
HS
0.59 · F
HS
max F
hs
( ) :·
F
hs
i
2.5 HS
lim
H
S

¸

¸
_

,

0

HS
lim
0.30 ·
HS
lim
max hs
lim
( ) :·
hs
lim
i
0.8 0.5
S
R
⋅ −
0.3

3. F
H/S
F
SR
0.00 · F
SR
max F
sr
( ) :·
F
sr
i
1
S
R

0

2. F
S/R
F
WS
1.20 ·
F
WS
1.2 0.5 log SoilRatio ( ) ⋅ K
VAF
1.2 − ( ) + :·
SoilRatio if
M
sSide
M
sN
100 <
M
sSide
M
sN
, 100 ,
¸

¸
_

,

K
VAF
1.20 ·
1. F
W/S
K
VAF
max K
VAF
( ) :·
K
VAF
i
1.9 1.15
W
S
⋅ −
1.2

Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load
THRUST CAPACITY
H-13
13
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
Status
Thrust
if R
T
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
R
T
95
k
ft
· R
T
φ
c
F
y
⋅ A ⋅ :· Factored Axial Resistance
Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust
T
f
50
k
ft
·
T
f
γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

Total Factored Thrust
W
LL
35
k
ft
· W
LL
0.7 mp ⋅ I
mp
⋅ P ⋅ R
t

L
L
L
W


L
W
9.97ft · L
W
W
T
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
L
L
3.13ft · L
L
L
o
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
7. Live Load
W
Lane
0.5
k
ft
· W
Lane
Lane
Lane
W
Lane
W
LLDF H ⋅ +
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
6. Lane Load
W
E
28
k
ft
·
W
E
VAF W
SP
⋅ :·
W
SP
16
k
ft
· W
SP
γ
s
S ⋅ H K
sp
R
u
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ :·
K
sp
0.23 · K
sp
if 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + 0.5 < 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + , 0.5 ,
¸

¸
_

,

5. Earth Load
H-14
14
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingbottom
if R
b
T
E
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
E
18
k
ft
·
R
bE
141
k
ft
· R
bE
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
u
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sBottom
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
R
h
0.88 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
bot
+
¸

¸
_

,

H
bot
H 0.75 R ⋅ + :·
T
E
γ
EMax
W
E

2

Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust
Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingtop
if R
b
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
f
50
k
ft
·
R
b
67
k
ft
· R
b
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
p
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sCrown
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
K
b
0.82 · K
b
1 2 ν ⋅ − ( )
1 ν − ( )
2

R
h
0.43 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
+
¸

¸
_

,

Stiffened top arc with live load thrust
Check Buckling Capacity
H-15
15
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
FlexureCheck "Required" ·
FlexureCheck if γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ 0.15 φ
b
M
p
⋅ ( ) ⋅ > "Required" , "Not Required" ,

¸
1
]

Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity
M
Lane
0.49
in k ⋅
ft
·
M
Lane
W
Lane
S ⋅ K
Lane
⋅ :·
K
Lane
0.0025 ·
K
Lane
max K
Lane
( ) :·
K
Lane
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Lane Load Moment - Compute with same formula as earth load moment
M
LL
36.35
in k ⋅
ft
·
M
LL
2 W
LL
⋅ R
t
⋅ K
LL
⋅ :·
K
LL
0.0020 ·
K
LL
max K
ll
( ) :·
K
ll
i
0.02 1.05
S
B
S
B
800 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.001

Live Load Moment
M
E
7.01
in k ⋅
ft
·
M
E
γ
s
S
2
⋅ H ⋅ K
E
⋅ :·
K
E
0.0025 ·
K
E
max K
e
( ) :·
K
e
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Earth Load Moment
S
B
14472 ·
S
B
φ
s
M
sSide
⋅ S
3

E
p
I
p


Bending stiffness factor
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
H-16
16
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
ConstructionControl if MaxConstructionM M
y
< "OK" , "Reduce Construction Moment" , ( ) :·
MaxConstructionM if M
sidemax
M
sidemin
> M
sidemax
, M
sidemin
, ( ) :·
M
sidemin
14.44
in k ⋅
ft
·
M
sidemin
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.0015ft
1 −
·
Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.0002 − ft · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
min
Topchord ⋅ − :·
R
ntrial
20.40 ft ⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
times original top chord Topchord
min
0.995 :·
Minimum allowed top chord
M
sidemax
14.44
in k ⋅
ft
·
M
sidemax
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.0015ft
1 −
· Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.0001 − ft · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
max
Topchord ⋅ − :·
CurvMin 0.0015 ft
1 −
⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
R
ntrial
21.254 ft ⋅ :·
times original top chord Topchord
max
1.002 :·
Maximum allowed extension of top chord
Construction Moment
H-17
17
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Total Moment
M
u
i
γ
EMax
M
sidemin
− ⋅ γ
EMin
M
E
⋅ − γ
LL
M
LL
( ) ⋅ +
γ
EMin
M
sidemax
⋅ γ
EMax
M
E
⋅ + γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ +

M
u
38.53
86.57
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
in k ⋅
ft
· M
U
max M
u
( ) :·
M
U
86.57
in k ⋅
ft
·
Check total moment against total capacity
M
n
φ
b
M
p
⋅ :· M
n
150.30
in k ⋅
ft
·
Status
Flexure
if M
n
M
U
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
H-18
18
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Combined
"OK" ·
Status
Combined
if Combined
Indx
1 < "OK" , "Redesign" ,
( )

Indx 1.00 · Indx if
T
fRed
R
T
0.2 ≥ 1 , 2 ,
¸

¸
_

,

M
U
M
n
0.58 ·
T
fRed
R
T
0.42 · Combined
0.94
0.79
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
·
Combined
i
T
fRed
R
T
8
9
M
U
M
n
⋅ +
T
fRed
2 R
T

M
U
M
n
+

T
fRed
40
k
ft
·
T
fRed
if T
fCr
T
fSh
> T
fCr
, T
fSh
, ( ) :·
T
fCr
40
k
ft
· T
fCr
0.5 γ
EMax
⋅ W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + 0.5γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

T
fSh
33
k
ft
· T
fSh
0.67 γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ + ( ) ⋅
2

Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location
COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING
H-19
19
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Notes
- Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement
- Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than T
f.
Topchord
min
1.00 ·
Topchord
max
1.00 ·
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
Combined
Indx
0.94 ·
Status
Combined
"OK" ·
M
p
167.00
in k ⋅
ft
·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
FlexureCheck "Required" ·
I
p
0.3320
in
4
in
·
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
I
u
0.1660
in
4
in
· Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
M
U
86.57
in k ⋅
ft
·
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
T
f
50
k
ft
· A 4.12
in
2
ft
· MinimumStiffness "OK" ·
DESIGN SUMMARY
H-20
20
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
W
T
2300 mm ⋅ :·
Lane load Lane 9.3
kN
m
⋅ :·
Topchord sin
θ
top
2
¸

¸
_

,
R
t
⋅ 2 ⋅ :·
Lane load width Lane
W
3 m ⋅ :·
Topchord 12.34m ·
Impact I
mp
if H 2.44 m ⋅ < 1.33 0.33
H
2.44 m ⋅
⋅ − , 1 ,
¸

¸
_

,

I
mp
1.06 ·
Live load distribution with depth of fill LLDF 1.15 :·
Culvert Material Properties
F
y
227.6 MPa ⋅ :· E
p
200 GPa ⋅ :·
Soil Properties:
M
sN
5 MPa ⋅ :·
Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.3-1)
M
sBottom
24 MPa ⋅ :·
M
sSide
23.1 MPa ⋅ :· p
side
119kPa · p
side
γ
s
H
R
2
+
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
M
sCrown
18.1 MPa ⋅ :· p
crown
38kPa · p
crown
γ
s
H ⋅ :·
Poisson's ratio
ν 0.3 :·
Friction angle (loose) γ
s
18.84 kN ⋅ m
3 −
⋅ :· Density
φ 36 deg ⋅ :·
Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure:
Rise W 14.3 m ⋅ :· Width of Structural Backfill
S 14.3 m ⋅ :· Span H 2.0 m ⋅ :· Depth of burial
Culvert Geometry Installation Conditions
GPa 1000 MPa ⋅ :· kPa
MPa
1000

i 1 2 , 4 .. :· MPa 145.1379
lbf
in
2
⋅ :· kN 224.8 lbf ⋅ :·
Mathcad Terminology:
:= defines a term
= presents result of a calcuation
MathCad Units and Range Variables
Design 14.3 m Span by 8.6 m Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 m
Axle + Wheel Width
S
R
1.66 · Span/ Rise Ratio
L
o
250 mm ⋅ :· Tire length:
θ
top
80 deg ⋅ :· Top Angle
mp 1.2 :· Multiple presence factor
R
t
9.6 m ⋅ :· Top Radius P 222 kN ⋅ :· Design Tandem
R
u
4.3 m ⋅ :· Upper Rise Live load
R 8.6 m ⋅ :·
H-21
21
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
φ
bck
0.7 :·
Trial Section Properties
Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 7.112 mm,
with circumferential stiffeners of same structural plate
Basic plate: I
u
2717
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· A 8.72
mm
2
mm
⋅ :·
Stiffened plate: I
p
5434
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· M
p
62.08
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :· M
y
42.79
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :·
MINIMUM STIFFNESS
FF
max
0.17
mm
N
⋅ :·
FF
2 R
t
⋅ ( )
2
1 sin φ ( ) − ( )
3

0.07 E
p
⋅ I
p

:· FF 0.34
mm
N
·
MinimumStiffness if FF FF
max
< "OK" , "Stiffeners Required" , ( ) :·
NOTE: Use longitudinal stiffeners in
addition to circumferential stiffeners
(Longitudinal stiffeners not designed
in this example)
MinimumStiffness "Stiffeners Required" ·
Design factors
Load factors Earth Max γ
EMax
1.3 :· Resistance factors Thrust φ
c
0.7 :·
Min γ
EMin
0.9 :·
Bending φ
b
0.9 :·
Live γ
LL
1.75 :·
Soil φ
s
0.9 :·
Buckling
H-22
22
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
VAF 1.60 · VAF F
WS
F
SR
+ F
HS
+ :·
4. VAF
F
HS
0.40 · F
HS
max F
hs
( ) :·
F
hs
i
2.5 HS
lim
H
S

¸

¸
_

,

0

HS
lim
0.30 ·
HS
lim
max hs
lim
( ) :·
hs
lim
i
0.8 0.5
S
R
⋅ −
0.3

3. F
H/S
F
SR
0.00 · F
SR
max F
sr
( ) :·
F
sr
i
1
S
R

0

2. F
S/R
F
WS
1.20 ·
F
WS
1.2 0.5 log SoilRatio ( ) ⋅ K
VAF
1.2 − ( ) + :·
SoilRatio if
M
sSide
M
sN
100 <
M
sSide
M
sN
, 100 ,
¸

¸
_

,

K
VAF
1.20 ·
1. F
W/S
K
VAF
max K
VAF
( ) :·
K
VAF
i
1.9 1.15
W
S
⋅ −
1.2

Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load
THRUST CAPACITY
H-23
23
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
Status
Thrust
if R
T
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
R
T
1390
kN
m
· R
T
φ
c
F
y
⋅ A ⋅ :· Factored Axial Resistance
Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust
T
f
990
kN
m
·
T
f
γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

Total Factored Thrust
W
LL
162
kN
m
· W
LL
0.7 mp ⋅ I
mp
⋅ P ⋅ R
t

L
L
L
W


L
W
4.60m · L
W
W
T
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
L
L
2.55m · L
L
L
o
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
7. Live Load
W
Lane
5.3
kN
m
· W
Lane
Lane
Lane
W
Lane
W
LLDF H ⋅ +
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
6. Lane Load
W
E
1298
kN
m
·
W
E
VAF W
SP
⋅ :·
W
SP
811
kN
m
· W
SP
γ
s
S ⋅ H K
sp
R
u
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ :·
K
sp
0.24 · K
sp
if 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + 0.5 < 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + , 0.5 ,
¸

¸
_

,

5. Earth Load
H-24
24
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingbottom
if R
b
T
E
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
E
844
kN
m
·
R
bE
2296
kN
m
· R
bE
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
u
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sBottom
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
R
h
0.90 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
bot
+
¸

¸
_

,

H
bot
H 0.75 R ⋅ + :·
T
E
γ
EMax
W
E

2

Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust
Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingtop
if R
b
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
f
990
kN
m
·
R
b
1676
kN
m
· R
b
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
p
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sCrown
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
K
b
0.82 · K
b
1 2 ν ⋅ − ( )
1 ν − ( )
2

R
h
0.63 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
+
¸

¸
_

,

Stiffened top arc with live load thrust
Check Buckling Capacity
H-25
25
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
FlexureCheck "Not Required" ·
FlexureCheck if γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ 0.15 φ
b
M
p
⋅ ( ) ⋅ > "Required" , "Not Required" ,

¸
1
]

Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity
M
Lane
0.19
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
Lane
W
Lane
S ⋅ K
Lane
⋅ :·
K
Lane
0.0025 ·
K
Lane
max K
Lane
( ) :·
K
Lane
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Lane Load Moment - Compute with same formula as earth load moment
M
LL
3.98
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
LL
2 W
LL
⋅ R
t
⋅ K
LL
⋅ :·
K
LL
0.0013 ·
K
LL
max K
ll
( ) :·
K
ll
i
0.02 1.05
S
B
S
B
800 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.001

Live Load Moment
M
E
19.26
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
E
γ
s
S
2
⋅ H ⋅ K
E
⋅ :·
K
E
0.0025 ·
K
E
max K
e
( ) :·
K
e
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Earth Load Moment
S
B
55939 ·
S
B
φ
s
M
sSide
⋅ S
3

E
p
I
p


Bending stiffness factor
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
H-26
26
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
ConstructionControl if MaxConstructionM M
y
< "OK" , "Reduce Construction Moment" , ( ) :·
MaxConstructionM if M
sidemax
M
sidemin
> M
sidemax
, M
sidemin
, ( ) :·
M
sidemin
5.44
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
sidemin
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.005m
-1
·
Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.00m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
min
Topchord ⋅ − :·
R
ntrial
9.6 m ⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
times original top chord Topchord
min
1.00 :·
Minimum allowed top chord
M
sidemax
5.44kN
m
m
⋅ ·
M
sidemax
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.005m
-1
· Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.0003m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
max
Topchord ⋅ − :·
CurvMin 0.005 m
1 −
⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
R
ntrial
9.9 m ⋅ :·
times original top chord Topchord
max
1.005 :·
Maximum allowed extension of top chord
Construction Moment
H-27
27
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Total Moment
M
u
i
γ
EMax
M
sidemin
− ⋅ γ
EMin
M
E
⋅ − γ
LL
M
LL
( ) ⋅ +
γ
EMin
M
sidemax
⋅ γ
EMax
M
E
⋅ + γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ +

M
u
17.44 −
37.23
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
kN m ⋅
m
· M
U
max M
u
( ) :·
M
U
37.23
kN m ⋅
m
·
Check total moment against total capacity
M
n
φ
b
M
p
⋅ :· M
n
55.87
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Flexure
if M
n
M
U
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
H-28
28
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Combined
"Redesign" ·
Status
Combined
if Combined
Indx
1 < "OK" , "Redesign" ,
( )

Indx 1.00 · Indx if
T
fRed
R
T
0.2 ≥ 1 , 2 ,
¸

¸
_

,

M
U
M
n
0.67 ·
T
fRed
R
T
0.48 · Combined
1.07
0.90
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
·
Combined
i
T
fRed
R
T
8
9
M
U
M
n
⋅ +
T
fRed
2 R
T

M
U
M
n
+

T
fRed
663
kN
m
·
T
fRed
if T
fCr
T
fSh
> T
fCr
, T
fSh
, ( ) :·
T
fCr
566
kN
m
· T
fCr
0.5 γ
EMax
⋅ W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + 0.5γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

T
fSh
663
kN
m
· T
fSh
0.67 γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ + ( ) ⋅
2

Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location
COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING
H-29
29
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Notes
- Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement
- Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than T
f.
Topchord
min
1.00 ·
Topchord
max
1.00 ·
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
Combined
Indx
1.07 ·
Status
Combined
"Redesign" ·
M
p
62.08
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Flexure
"OK" ·
FlexureCheck "Not Required" ·
I
p
5434
mm
4
mm
·
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
I
u
2717
mm
4
mm
· Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
M
U
37.23
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
T
f
990
kN
m
· A 8.72
mm
2
mm
· MinimumStiffness "Stiffeners Required" ·
DESIGN SUMMARY
H-30
30
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
E
p
200 GPa ⋅ :· F
y
227.6 MPa ⋅ :·
Culvert Material Properties
LLDF 1.15 :· Live load distribution with depth of fill
I
mp
1.00 ·
I
mp
if H 2.44 m ⋅ < 1.33 0.33
H
2.44 m ⋅
⋅ − , 1 ,
¸

¸
_

,
:· Impact
Topchord 7.40m ·
Lane
W
3 m ⋅ :· Lane load width
Topchord sin
θ
top
2
¸

¸
_

,
R
t
⋅ 2 ⋅ :·
Lane 9.3
kN
m
⋅ :· Lane load
R
side
7.4 m ⋅ :· Side Radius
W
T
1800 mm ⋅ :·
M
sN
5 MPa ⋅ :·
Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.3-1)
M
sBottom
30 MPa ⋅ :·
M
sSide
28.8 MPa ⋅ :· p
side
235kPa · p
side
γ
s
H
R
2
+
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
M
sCrown
24.6 MPa ⋅ :· p
crown
151kPa · p
crown
γ
s
H ⋅ :·
Poisson's ratio
ν 0.3 :·
Friction angle (loose) γ
s
18.84 kN ⋅ m
3 −
⋅ :· Density
φ 36 deg ⋅ :·
Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure:
Soil Properties:
R 9.0 m ⋅ :· Rise W 4.6 m ⋅ :· Width of Structural Backfill
S 9.2 m ⋅ :· Span H 8.0 m ⋅ :· Depth of burial
Culvert Geometry Installation Conditions
GPa 1000 MPa ⋅ :· kPa
MPa
1000

i 1 2 , 4 .. :· MPa 145.1379
lbf
in
2
⋅ :· kN 224.8 lbf ⋅ :·
Mathcad Terminology:
:= defines a term
= presents result of a calcuation
MathCad Units and Range Variables
Design 9.2 m Span by 9.0 m Rise Pear Shaped Culvert, H = 8 m
Wheel Spacing
L
o
250 mm ⋅ :· Tire length:
S
R
1.02 · Span/ Rise Ratio
W
o
500 mm ⋅ :· Tire width:
θ
top
67 deg ⋅ :· Top Angle
mp 1.2 :· Multiple presence factor
R
t
6.7 m ⋅ :· Top Radius P 222 kN ⋅ :· Design Tandem
R
u
3.0 m ⋅ :· Upper Rise Live load
H-31
31
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
I
u
2395
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· A 7.74
mm
2
mm
⋅ :·
Stiffened plate: I
p
2395
mm
4
mm
⋅ :· M
p
27.46
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :· M
y
19.11
kN m ⋅
m
⋅ :·
MINIMUM STIFFNESS
Top Plates
FF
max
0.17
mm
N
⋅ :·
FF
2 R
t
⋅ ( )
2
1 sin φ ( ) − ( )
3

0.07 E
p
⋅ I
p

:· FF 0.37
mm
N
·
MinimumStiffness if FF FF
max
< "OK" , "Stiffeners Required" , ( ) :·
MinimumStiffness "Stiffeners Required" ·
Side Plates
FF
max
0.17
mm
N
⋅ :·
FF
side
2 R
side
⋅ ( )
2
1 sin φ ( ) − ( )
3

0.07 E
p
⋅ I
p


FF
side
0.46
mm
N
·
MinimumStiffness
side
if FF FF
max
< "OK" , "Increase Side Stiffness" , ( ) :·
MinimumStiffness
side
"Increase Side Stiffness" ·
NOTE: Use heavier gage for side plates
or adjust flexibility requirement, or increase control
of side compaction
Design factors
Load factors Earth Max γ
EMax
1.3 :· Resistance factors Thrust φ
c
0.7 :·
Min γ
EMin
0.9 :·
Bending φ
b
0.9 :·
Live γ
LL
1.75 :·
Soil φ
s
0.9 :·
Buckling φ
bck
0.7 :·
Trial Section Properties
Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 6.324 mm,
without circumferential stiffeners
Basic plate:
H-32
32
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
VAF 1.25 · VAF F
WS
F
SR
+ F
HS
+ :·
4. VAF
F
HS
0.00 · F
HS
max F
hs
( ) :·
F
hs
i
2.5 HS
lim
H
S

¸

¸
_

,

0

HS
lim
0.30 ·
HS
lim
max hs
lim
( ) :·
hs
lim
i
0.8 0.5
S
R
⋅ −
0.3

3. F
H/S
F
SR
0.00 · F
SR
max F
sr
( ) :·
F
sr
i
1
S
R

0

2. F
S/R
F
WS
1.25 ·
F
WS
1.2 0.5 log SoilRatio ( ) ⋅ K
WS
1.2 − ( ) + :·
SoilRatio if
M
sSide
M
sN
100 <
M
sSide
M
sN
, 100 ,
¸

¸
_

,

K
WS
1.33 ·
1. F
W/S
K
WS
max K
ws
( ) :·
K
ws
i
1.9 1.15
W
S
⋅ −
1.2

Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load
THRUST CAPACITY
H-33
33
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
Status
Thrust
if R
T
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
R
T
1234
kN
m
· R
T
φ
c
F
y
⋅ A ⋅ :· Factored Axial Resistance
Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust
T
f
1234
kN
m
·
T
f
γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

Total Factored Thrust
W
LL
11
kN
m
· W
LL
0.7 mp ⋅ I
mp
⋅ P ⋅ R
t

L
L
L
W


L
W
11.50m · L
W
W
o
W
T
+ LLDF H ⋅ + :·
L
L
9.45m · L
L
L
o
LLDF H ⋅ + :·
7. Live Load
W
Lane
2.3
kN
m
· W
Lane
Lane
Lane
W
Lane
W
LLDF H ⋅ +
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ :·
6. Lane Load
W
E
1879
kN
m
·
W
E
VAF W
SP
⋅ :·
W
SP
1506
kN
m
· W
SP
γ
s
S ⋅ H K
sp
R
u
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ :·
K
sp
0.23 · K
sp
if 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + 0.5 < 0.172 0.019
S
R
u
⋅ + , 0.5 ,
¸

¸
_

,

5. Earth Load
H-34
34
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingbottom
if R
b
T
E
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
E
1221
kN
m
·
R
bE
2789
kN
m
· R
bE
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
u
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sBottom
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
R
h
0.98 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
bot
+
¸

¸
_

,

H
bot
H 0.75 R ⋅ + :·
T
E
γ
EMax
W
E

2

Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust
Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingtop
if R
b
T
f
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
T
f
1234
kN
m
·
R
b
2338
kN
m
· R
b
1.2 φ
bck
⋅ C
n
⋅ E
p
I
p
⋅ ( )
1
3
⋅ φ
s
M
sCrown
⋅ K
b
⋅ ( ) ( )
2
3

¸
1
1
1
]
R
h
⋅ :·
C
n
0.55 :·
K
b
0.82 · K
b
1 2 ν ⋅ − ( )
1 ν − ( )
2

R
h
0.94 · R
h
11.4
11
S
H
+
¸

¸
_

,

Stiffened top arc with live load thrust
Check Buckling Capacity
H-35
35
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
FlexureCheck "Not Required" ·
FlexureCheck if γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ 0.15 φ
b
M
p
⋅ ( ) ⋅ > "Required" , "Not Required" ,

¸
1
]

Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity
M
Lane
0.05
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
Lane
W
Lane
S ⋅ K
Lane
⋅ :·
K
Lane
0.0025 ·
K
Lane
max K
Lane
( ) :·
K
Lane
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Lane Load Moment - Compute with same formula as earth load moment
M
LL
0.21
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
LL
2 W
LL
⋅ R
t
⋅ K
LL
⋅ :·
K
LL
0.0014 ·
K
LL
max K
ll
( ) :·
K
ll
i
0.02 1.05
S
B
S
B
800 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.001

Live Load Moment
M
E
31.89
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
E
γ
s
S
2
⋅ H ⋅ K
E
⋅ :·
K
E
0.0025 ·
K
E
max K
e
( ) :·
K
e
i
0.05 1
S
B
S
B
400 +

¸

¸
_

,

0.0025

Earth Load Moment
S
B
42137 ·
S
B
φ
s
M
sSide
⋅ S
3

E
p
I
p


Bending stiffness factor
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
H-36
36
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
ConstructionControl if MaxConstructionM M
y
< "OK" , "Reduce Construction Moment" , ( ) :·
MaxConstructionM if M
sidemax
M
sidemin
> M
sidemax
, M
sidemin
, ( ) :·
M
sidemin
11.42 −
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
sidemin
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.024 − m
-1
·
Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.00m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
min
Topchord ⋅ − :·
R
ntrial
5.778 m ⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
times original top chord Topchord
min
0.98 :·
Minimum allowed top chord
M
sidemax
2.40
kN m ⋅
m
·
M
sidemax
E
p
I
p
⋅ Curv ⋅ :·
Curv 0.005m
-1
· Curv if
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− CurvMin < CurvMin ,
1
R
t
1
R
ntrial
− ,
¸

¸
_

,

δ
chord
0.0000m · δ
chord
2 R
ntrial
⋅ sin
θ
top
R
t

2 R
ntrial

¸

¸
_

,
⋅ Topchord
max
Topchord ⋅ − :·
CurvMin 0.005 m
1 −
⋅ :·
Select R
ntrial
to give δ
chord
= 0.0
R
ntrial
6.7 m ⋅ :·
times original top chord Topchord
max
1.0 :·
Maximum allowed extension of top chord
Construction Moment
H-37
37
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Total Moment
M
u
i
γ
EMax
M
sidemin
− ⋅ γ
EMin
M
E
⋅ − γ
LL
M
LL
( ) ⋅ +
γ
EMin
M
sidemax
⋅ γ
EMax
M
E
⋅ + γ
LL
M
LL
M
Lane
+ ( ) ⋅ +

M
u
13.49 −
44.08
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
kN m ⋅
m
· M
U
max M
u
( ) :·
M
U
44.08
kN m ⋅
m
·
Check total moment against total capacity
M
n
φ
b
M
p
⋅ :· M
n
24.71
kN m ⋅
m
·
Status
Flexure
if M
n
M
U
> "OK" , "Redesign" , ( ) :·
Status
Flexure
"Redesign" ·
H-38
38
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Status
Combined
"Redesign" ·
Status
Combined
if Combined
Indx
1 < "OK" , "Redesign" ,
( )

Indx 1.00 · Indx if
T
fRed
R
T
0.2 ≥ 1 , 2 ,
¸

¸
_

,

M
U
M
n
1.78 ·
T
fRed
R
T
0.67 · Combined
2.26
2.12
0.00
0.00
¸

¸
_

,
·
Combined
i
T
fRed
R
T
8
9
M
U
M
n
⋅ +
T
fRed
2 R
T

M
U
M
n
+

T
fRed
826
kN
m
·
T
fRed
if T
fCr
T
fSh
> T
fCr
, T
fSh
, ( ) :·
T
fCr
622
kN
m
· T
fCr
0.5 γ
EMax
⋅ W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + 0.5γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ +
2

T
fSh
826
kN
m
· T
fSh
0.67 γ
EMax
W
E
⋅ γ
LL
W
LL
⋅ + γ
LL
W
Lane
⋅ + ( ) ⋅
2

Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location
COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING
H-39
39
NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. 96232
Notes
- Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement
- Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than T
f.
Topchord
min
0.98 ·
Topchord
max
1.00 ·
ConstructionControl "OK" ·
Combined
Indx
2.26 ·
Status
Combined
"Redesign" ·
Status
Flexure
"Redesign" ·
M
p
27.46
kN m ⋅
m
·
FlexureCheck "Not Required" ·
I
p
2395
mm
4
mm
· Status
Bucklingbottom
"OK" ·
Status
Bucklingtop
"OK" ·
I
u
2395
mm
4
mm
· Status
Thrust
"OK" ·
M
U
44.08
kN m ⋅
m
·
MinimumStiffness
side
"Increase Side Stiffness" ·
T
f
1234
kN
m
· A 7.74
mm
2
mm
·
MinimumStiffness "Stiffeners Required" ·
DESIGN SUMMARY
H-40
40
Example Calculations for
Loads on Concrete Culverts
Comm. 96232
Date: 11/30/2001
γ
s
120
lbf
ft
3
⋅ :·
Lat
2
if Soil "Sn95" = Soil "Sn90" = ∨ Soil "Si95" = ∨ 0.4 , Lat
2
, ( ) :·
Depth of fill H 2.0 ft ⋅ :· Lat
2
if Soil "Sn85" = Soil "Si90" = ∨ Soil "Cl95" = ∨ 0.4 , Lat
2
, ( ) :·
Lateral pressure coefficient Final Values Lat
1
0.050 · Lat
2
0.40 ·
K
H
Lat
2
Lat
1
H
3.28 ft ⋅
⋅ + :· K
H
if K
H
0.6 < K
H
, 0.6 , ( ) :· K
H
0.43 ·
- No groundwater above footings of culvert
- Native soil: dense granular
Live load
Design Tandem, Load per axle P 25000 lbf ⋅ :·
Multiple presence factor mp 1.2 :·
Impact Factor
I
0
1 0.33
8
H
ft

8
¸

¸
_

,
⋅ + :·
I
1
1 :·
IM max I ( ) :· IM 1.25 ·
Long Span Concrete Culvert - Load Calculations
English Units
Input
Span, s
Rise, r
Upper
Rise, r
u
H
Top radius, R
t
Geometry
Outside span s
o
460 in ⋅ :·
Rise r 138 in ⋅ :·
Upper rise r
u
54.18 in ⋅ :·
Top Radius R
t
486 in ⋅ :·
Thick. Side
t
14 in ⋅ :· Arch
t
12 in ⋅ :·
Soil & Backfill Initial Values: Lat
1
0 :· Lat
2
0.3 :·
Backfill type: Soil "Sn95" :· Lat
1
if Soil "Sn95" = 0.05 , 0 , ( ) :·
Lat
1
if Soil "Sn90" = Soil "Si95" = ∨ .025 , Lat
1
, ( ) :·
Soil unit weight
Concrete Culvert Load Calculation 41
Example Calculations for
Loads on Concrete Culverts
Comm. 96232
Date: 11/30/2001
P
Lat
4604
lbf
ft
· P
Lat
p
lattop
p
latbot
+ ( )
2
r ⋅ :·
Total lateral load
p
latbot
58.12
lbf
in ft ⋅
· p
latbot
K
H
γ
s
⋅ H r + ( ) ⋅ :·
Bottom
p
lattop
8.61
lbf
in ft ⋅
· p
lattop
K
H
γ
s
⋅ H ⋅ :·
Top
Lateral Pressure
p
edge
78.18
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
p
edge
938
lbf
ft
2
· p
edge
1.2 γ
s
⋅ H r
u
+ ( ) ⋅ :·
Soil pressure at edge
p
cr
20.00
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
p
cr
240
lbf
ft
2
· p
cr
γ
s
H ⋅ :·
Soil pressure over crown
W
sp
16123
lbf
ft
·
W
sp
γ
s
s
o
⋅ H K
VAF
r
u
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ :·
K
VAF
0.33 · K
VAF
0.172 0.019
s
o
r
u
⋅ + :·
Soil prism load
Vertical Pressure
Earth Loads
H
S
o
/ 2
p
lat
= K
h
?
s
(H+h)
r
o
p
edge
= 1.2 ?
s
( H + r
u
)
p
cr
= 1.0 ?
s
H
Centerline
r
u
h
R
t
x
H
S
o
/ 2
p
lat
= K
h
?
s
(H+h)
r
o
p
edge
= 1.2 ?
s
( H + r
u
)
p
cr
= 1.0 ?
s
H
Centerline
r
u
h
R
t
x
Concrete Culvert Load Calculation 42
Example Calculations for
Loads on Concrete Culverts
Comm. 96232
Date: 11/30/2001
Note: Frame model used in analysis will be based on centerline dimensions. To assure that all
load on culvert is placed on the model the pressures need to be scaled up by the ratio of the
outside dimensions to the centerline dimensions.
Vertical Pressures:
Scv
s
o
s
o
Side
t

:· Scv 1.03 · p
cr
p
cr
Scv ⋅ :· p
cr
20.63
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
p
edge
p
edge
Scv ⋅ :· p
edge
80.63
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
Lateral Pressures
Scl
r
r 0.5 Arch
t
⋅ −
:· Scl 1.05 · p
lattop
p
lattop
Scl ⋅ :· p
lattop
9.00
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
p
latbot
p
latbot
Scl ⋅ :· p
latbot
60.76
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
Concrete Culvert Load Calculation 43
Example Calculations for
Loads on Concrete Culverts
Comm. 96232
Date: 11/30/2001
WS
1
159.60in ·
Depth of interaction: H
wint
W
1
W
o
− D
w
− ( )
LLDF
:· H
wint
0.87ft ·
Effective patch width: W
s
if H H
wint
< WS
0
, WS
1
,
( )
:· W
s
159.60in ·
P
wa
if H H
wint
< P
w
, 2P
w
, ( ) :· P
wa
37425lbf ·
Patch length for single wheel: LS
0
L
o
LLDF H ⋅ + ( ) :· LS
0
37.60in ·
Patch length for multiple wheels:
i.e. wheel pressures interact.
LS
1
L
o
L
1
+ ( ) LLDF H ⋅ +

¸
1
]
:· LS
1
85.60in ·
Depth of interaction: H
lint
L
1
L
o
− ( )
LLDF
:· H
lint
2.754ft ·
Effective patch length: L
s
if H H
lint
< LS
0
, LS
1
,
( )
:· L
s
37.60in ·
P
wb
if H H
lint
< P
wa
, 2P
wa
, ( ) :· P
wb
37425lbf ·
Live Load
L
o
W
o
W
1
L
1
a) Single tire
b) Multiple tires
Live load distribution factor: LLDF 1.15 :·
Wheel length: L
o
10 in ⋅ :·
Wheel width W
o
20.in :·
Wheel spacing W
1
72 in ⋅ :·
Axle spacing (width) L
1
48 in ⋅ :·
Distribution width D
w
40 in ⋅ :·
Single wheel load*
*includes multiple presence
and impact factors
P
w
P mp ⋅ IM ⋅
2

P
w
18713lbf ·
At depth of structure:
Patch width for single wheel: WS
0
W
o
LLDF H ⋅ + D
w
+ :· WS
0
87.60in ·
Patch width for multiple wheels:
i.e. wheels interact.
WS
1
W
o
W
1
+ ( ) LLDF H ⋅ + D
w
+ :·
Concrete Culvert Load Calculation 44
Example Calculations for
Loads on Concrete Culverts
Comm. 96232
Date: 11/30/2001
Effective live load pressure on structure:
p
P
wb
W
s
L
s

:· p 74.84
lbf
in ft ⋅
·
Length of effective pressure
L
s
if L
s
s
o
< L
s
, s
o
, ( ) :· L
s
37.60in ·
Total live load P L
s
p ⋅ :· P 2814
lbf
ft
·
Notes: 1. This analysis assumes that the length dimension is parallel to the direction of travel and
that the direction of travel is across the culvert span.
2. If H is less than H
lint
, than the structure must be loaded with two loads of magnitude, P,
and length L
s
, spaced a distance L
1
.
Concrete Culvert Load Calculation 45
R
type
2 :=
1 = smooth wire or plain bars
2 = welded smooth wire fabric with 8 in. maximum spacing of longitudinals
3 = welded deformed wire fabric, deformed wire, deformed bars or any reinforcement
with stirrups
Load factor for selfweight................................................................................................ γ
SW
1.35 :=
Load factor for earth pressure......................................................................................... γ
E
0.9 1.35 , := 0.9 1.35 ,
Load factor for live load.................................................................................................. γ
L
1.35 :=
Resistance factor for flexure............................................................................................. φ
f
0.95 :=
Resistance factor for radial tension................................................................................... φ
r
0.90 :=
Resistance factor for diagonal tension.............................................................................. φ
v
0.90 :=
Radial tension process factor........................................................................................... F
rp
1.0 :=
Diagonal tesion process factor.......................................................................................... F
vp
1.0 :=
Crack control factor......................................................................................................... F
cr
0.9 :=
S I M P S O N G U M P E R T Z & H E G E R INC.
ARLINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
CLIENT NCHRP - Project 12-45 ________
SUBJECT Calculations for flexural and shear reinforcement _________________
SHEET NO.
COMM. NO. 96232
DATE 26 JUL 01
BY TJM
CHECK BY
CALCULATIONS TO EVALUATE REINFORCING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSPAN
REINFORCED CONCRETE CULVERT - Depth of Fill = 2.0 ft (0.6 m)
DIMENSIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTHS
Horizontal span of culvert................................................................................................ S
i
36 ft ⋅ :=
Crown radius................................................................................................................... r
t
72 ft ⋅ :=
Clear cover over reinforcement.......................................................................................... t
b
1.5 in ⋅ :=
Width of section being designed....................................................................................... b 12 in ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
Design compressive strength of concrete.......................................................................... f
cp
6 ksi ⋅ :=
Yield strength of steel reinforcement................................................................................. f
y
65 ksi ⋅ :=
Maximum developable stirrup material strength (not greater than f
y
or anchorage strength).... f
v
60 ksi ⋅ :=
Spacing of circumferential reinforcement........................................................................... s 2 in ⋅ :=
Circumferential reinforcemenT provided in one (n=1) or multiple (n=2) layers......................... n 1 :=
Reinforcement Type........................................................................................................
Concrete Reinforcement Design
46
DESIGN FORCES (See next sheet for definitions and units)
Array index: i 1 2 , 17 .. :=
Design Forces From Frame Analysis:
M
uactual
0.00
208.05 −
431.82 −
669.29 −
796.93 −
927.41 −
1060.47 −
804.51 −
580.65 −
381.99 −
203.63 −
41.14 −
108.06
246.50
376.38
473.09
497.71
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= N
u
22.33
21.98
21.63
21.28
21.09
20.87
21.67
20.21
19.05
18.13
17.36
16.74
16.22
15.78
15.42
15.05
14.98
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= M
s
0.00
129.55 −
276.57 −
438.81 −
528.03 −
620.41 −
715.65 −
532.10 −
375.01 −
238.77 −
119.33 −
13.13 −
82.00
168.13
247.01
304.89
319.81
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= N
s
16.21
15.95
15.68
15.41
15.26
15.09
15.61
14.60
13.79
13.16
12.65
12.24
11.90
11.62
11.39
11.17
11.12
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= V
vuactual
10.84 −
11.75 −
12.54 −
13.23 −
13.55 −
13.83 −
12.34
10.77
9.53
8.53
7.75
7.11
6.58
6.16
5.80
2.96
0.36
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
Concrete Reinforcement Design
47
Forces from frame analysis:
Moments are in.-k/ft
Thrusts and shears are k/ft
M
uactual
= factored moment with proper sign + for tension on inside, - for tension on outside
M
u
= moment with all signs positive.
N
u
= factored thrust, + is compression
V
vuactual
= factored shear with proper sign
V
vu
= factored shear with all signs positive
M
s
= service load moment
N
s
= service load thrust
Add Units to arrays and convert moments and shears to all positive signs:
M
u
M
uactual
in k ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
V
vu
V
vuactual
k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
M
u
i
if M
u
i
0 < M
u
i
− , M
u
i
,
( )
:=
V
vu
i
if V
vu
i
0 < V
vu
i
− , V
vu
i
,
( )
:=
N
u
N
u
k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
M
vu
i
M
u
i
:=
N
vu
i
N
u
i
:=
M
s
M
s
in ⋅ k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
M
s
i
if M
s
i
0 < M
s
i
− , M
s
i
,
( )
:=
N
s
N
s
k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
Note: Structure and all loads are symmetric, only Nodes 1 to 17 are presented in analysis.
Node 1 is base of leg
Node 7 is corner of segment
Node 17 is crown
Concrete Reinforcement Design
48
Wall Thickness and Depth to Centroid from Compression Face
i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
=
h
14.00
14.00
14.00
14.31
15.91
20.04
23.24
20.84
16.14
13.30
12.21
12.0
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:= d
12.02
12.02
12.02
12.33
13.93
18.06
21.26
18.96
14.16
11.32
10.23
10.02
10.02
10.02
10.02
10.02
10.02
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
:=
Add units:
h h in ⋅ :=
d d in ⋅ :=
Concrete Reinforcement Design
49
1.1 Reinforcement for Flexural Strength
Define the compressive strength per inch of thickness as......................... g 0.85 b ⋅ f
cp
⋅ :=
g 5.10 ksi =
Required area of flexural steel
A
sf
i
1
f
y
g φ
f
⋅ d
i
⋅ N
u
i
− g g φ
f
d
i

( )
2
⋅ N
u
i
2 φ
f
⋅ d
i
⋅ h
i

( )
⋅ − 2 M
u
i
⋅ −

¸
(
¸
⋅ −

¸
(
(
¸
⋅ :=
A
sf
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
-0.210
0.081
0.403
0.730
0.780
0.675
0.641
0.528
0.514
0.397
0.165
-0.094
0.021
0.259
0.488
0.663
0.708
in
2
ft
=
1.2 Minimum Flexural Reinforcement
Minimum reinforcement area....
A
smin
i
if i 7 < 0.002 12 ⋅ 14 ⋅ , .002 12 ⋅ 12 ⋅ , ( ) in
2
⋅ ft
1 −

( )
j i ∈ for :=
A
sf
i
if A
smin
i
A
sf
i
> A
smin
i
, A
sf
i
,
( )
:=
Governing Reinforcement.........
A
sf
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0.336
0.336
0.403
0.730
0.780
0.675
0.641
0.528
0.514
0.397
0.288
0.288
0.288
0.288
0.488
0.663
0.708
in
2
ft
=
Concrete Reinforcement Design
50
A
smax
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
3.17
3.18
3.18
3.28
3.73
4.92
5.82
5.18
3.82
3.02
2.72
2.67
2.67
2.68
2.68
2.69
in
2
ft
=
A
smax
1
f
y
55 φ
f
⋅ β
1
⋅ d ⋅ f
cp

87 f
y
ksi
1 −
⋅ +
0.75 N
u
⋅ −
|

\
|
.
⋅ :=
β
1
0.75 = β
1
if f
cp
4 ksi ⋅ < 0.85 , if f
cp
8ksi > 0.65 , 0.85 0.05
f
cp
ksi
4 −
|

\
|
.
⋅ − ,

¸
(
(
¸
,

¸
(
(
¸
:=
Maximum Reinforcement Area
R
rt
0.06 = R
rt
M
max
0.45 N
u
nndx
⋅ d
nndx
⋅ −
1.2 b ⋅ d
nndx
⋅ φ
r
⋅ r
s
⋅ f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅ F
rt
⋅ F
rp

:=
d
nndx
21.26in = N
u
nndx
21.67k ft
1 −
⋅ = M
max
1.06 10
3
× in k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ =
Parameters at Critical Radial Tension Section
nndx 7.00 = nndx max a ( ) :=
a
i
if
M
max

in k ⋅ ft
1 −

M
uactual
i
≠ 0 , i ,
|

\
|
.
j i ∈ for :=
M
max
min M
uactual
( ) − in ⋅ k ⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ :=
Radial tension index:
Size factor for radial tension, fixed value for large span culverts.................................................
F
rt
0.8 :=
r
s
865.50 in = ......................................... r
s
r
t
t
b
+ := Radius of the inside layer of reinforcement...................
1.3 Maximum Flexural Reinforcement without Stirrups (Radial Tension)
Concrete Reinforcement Design
51
Evaluate limits on Maximum Reinforcement
RadialTension if R
rt
1 < "ok" , "Stirrups Required" , ( ) := RadialTension "ok" =
MaxCompression
i
if A
sf
i
A
smax
i
< "ok" , "NotOK" ,
( )
:=
MaxCompression
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
"ok"
=
Note: If maximum compression is "NotOK" then the
options for redesign include:
- increase concrete strength
- increase depth of section
- design section as a compression member with ties
Concrete Reinforcement Design
52
j
i
0.86
0.86
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.87
0.86
0.86
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
= edratio
i
1.15
1.15
1.89
2.73
2.91
2.72
2.61
2.37
2.35
2.02
1.33
1.15
1.15
1.85
2.57
3.13
3.27
=
A
scr
i
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.36
0.39
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.05
0.34
0.41
in
2
ft
1 −

= i
cr
i
3.90
3.90
1.91
1.49
1.45
1.49
1.53
1.61
1.62
1.81
2.93
3.90
3.90
1.95
1.54
1.40
1.38
= e
i
5.02
13.14
22.66
33.65
40.58
49.15
55.49
44.99
33.28
22.81
13.56
5.09
10.91
18.49
25.71
31.32
32.78
in
=
A
scr
i
if A
scr
i
( )
0 < 0 , A
scr
i
,

¸
(
¸
:=
A
scr
i
B
1
psi
1 −

30000 φ
f
⋅ d
i
⋅ F
cr

K
i
C
1
h
i
( )
2
⋅ f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅ −

¸
(
¸
⋅ :=
Required area of flexural reinforcement steel for
crack width control at service load design based
upon Equation B.7.............................................
K
i
1
i
cr
i
j
i

M
s
i
N
s
i
d
i
h
i
2

|

\
|
.
⋅ +

¸
(
(
¸
⋅ := Moment-thrust contribution factor.........................
i
cr
i
1
j
i
edratio
i

|

\
|
.
1 −
:= Flexural design parameter..................................
j
i
if 0.9 0.74
edratio
i
10
+ < 0.9 , 0.74
edratio
i
10
+ ,
|

\
|
.
:= Flexural design parameter..................................
edratio
i
if
e
i
d
i
1.15 >
e
i
d
i
, 1.15 ,
|

\
|
.
:= Lower bound enforced for
e
/
d
ratio........................
e
i
M
s
i
N
s
i
d
i
+
h
i
2
− := Service level load eccentricity..............................
C
1
1.50 = ..................................... C
1
if R
type
3 ≥ 1.9 , if R
type
2 ≥ 1.5 , 1.0 , ( ) , ( ) :=
...................................................................... Crack control coefficients........
B
1
1.145 = B
1
t
b
s ⋅
2 n ⋅ in
2

|

\
|
.
0.333
:=
1.4 Flexural Reinforcement Requirements for Crack Width Control
Concrete Reinforcement Design
53
d
g
10.02
12.02
|

\
|
.
in =
A
sg
0.71
0.78
|

\
|
.
in
2
ft
=
d
g
2
d
3
:=
d
g
1
d
17
:=
User input is required
Depth to tension reinforcement at governing locations:
A
sg
2
0.78
in
2
ft
=
A
sg
2
max A
smneg
( ) :=
A
smneg
i
if M
uactual
i
0 < A
s
i
, 0
in
2
ft
⋅ ,
|

\
|
.
:=
Governing Negative reinforcement
A
s
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0.34
0.34
0.40
0.73
0.78
0.67
0.64
0.53
0.51
0.40
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.49
0.66
0.71
in
2
ft
=
A
sg
1
0.71
in
2
ft
=
A
sg
1
max A
smpos
( ) :=
A
smpos
i
if M
uactual
i
0 > A
s
i
, 0
in
2
ft
⋅ ,
|

\
|
.
:=
Governing positive reinforcement
M
uactual
1
0.00 = i2 1 2 , 2 .. :=
A
s
i
if A
scr
i
A
sf
i
> A
scr
i
, A
sf
i
,
( )
:= Select limiting area based on cracking & flexure:..
Concrete Reinforcement Design
54
F
c
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
= F
n
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
= F
d
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.91
0.89
0.88
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
= ρ
g
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.89·10
-3
5.41·10
-3
5.41·10
-3
5.41·10
-3
5.41·10
-3
5.41·10
-3
= M
nu
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
87
313
550
666
765
866
642
461
287
120
0
31
172
303
402
427
in k ⋅
ft
=
F
c
i
if i 7 < 1 , if i 26 > 1 , F
c
i
,
( )
,
( )
:= F
c
i
1
d
i
r
t
0.5 h
i
⋅ +
+ := F
c
factor for shear capacity calculation...........
F
n
i
1
N
vu
i
psi
1 −

24000 h
i

+ := Thrust factor ..........................................
F
d
i2
if F
d
i2
1.3 > 1.3 , F
d
i2
,
( )
:= F
d
i
0.8
1.6 in ⋅
d
i
+ := Factor for depth of section .......................
ρ
g
i
if M
uactual
i
0 > ρ
2
, ρ
1
,
( )
:=
ρ
i2
0.0059
0.0054
= ρ
i2
if 0.02
A
sg
i2
b d
g
i2

< 0.02 ,
A
sg
i2
b d
g
i2

,
|

\
|
.
:= Reinforcement ratio.................................
M
nu
i
if M
nu
i
0 < 0 , M
nu
i
,
( )
:= M
nu
i
M
vu
i
N
vu
i
4 h
i
⋅ d
i

8
|

\
|
.
⋅ − := Moment for
M
/
Vd
ratio ..............................
1.5 Shear Strength Calculations
Concrete Reinforcement Design
55
Shear capacity at critical section................... V
b
i
φ
v
b ⋅ d
i
⋅ F
vp
⋅ f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅ 1.1 63 ρ
g
i
⋅ +
( )

F
d
i
F
n
i

F
c
i
⋅ :=
MVD
i
if
M
nu
i
V
vu
i
d
i

3 > 3 ,
M
nu
i
V
vu
i
d
i

,
|

\
|
.
:=
V
c
i
if V
b
i
4
MVD
i
1 +
⋅ 4.5 f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅ d
i
⋅ > 4.5 f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅ d
i
⋅ ,
V
b
i
4 ⋅
MVD
i
1 +
,
|

\
|
.
:=
Diagonal tension index.................................. R
dt
i
V
vu
i
V
c
i
:=
DT
strength
i
if R
dt
i
1 > "Strength Exceeded" , "OK" ,
( )
:=
Evaluate Diagonal Tension Strength
V
c
i
50.28
34.32
18.05
14.18
15.76
19.82
22.43
20.27
15.72
13.10
19.05
41.91
31.31
12.18
11.51
11.51
11.51
k
ft
= R
dt
i
0.22
0.34
0.69
0.93
0.86
0.70
0.55
0.53
0.61
0.65
0.41
0.17
0.21
0.51
0.50
0.26
0.03
=
MVD
i
0.00
0.62
2.08
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.97
1.51
0.00
0.47
2.78
3.00
3.00
3.00
=
V
b
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
13.88
13.88
13.88
14.18
15.76
19.82
22.43
20.27
15.72
13.01
11.96
11.76
11.51
11.51
11.51
11.51
11.51
k
ft
=
DT
strength
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
=
Concrete Reinforcement Design
56
Note - If As is listed as 10^5 in^2/ft, the shear strength cannot be
adequately increased by increasing the circumferential reinforcement.
Stirrup reinforcement, a thicker section or increased concrete strength are
possible adjustements to the design.
A
soutside
0.78
in
2
ft
=
A
sg
0.71
0.78
|

\
|
.
in
2
ft
=
A
sinside
0.71
in
2
ft
= Flexural
Criteria
Only
Flexure, crack,
and diagonal
tension criteria
Design Summmary:
DT
inc
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
"OK"
=
A
sinc
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0.336
0.336
0.403
0.730
0.780
0.675
0.641
0.528
0.514
0.397
0.288
0.288
0.288
0.288
0.488
0.663
0.708
in
2
ft
=
ρ
inc
i
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.005
0.005
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.006
=
A
so
i
0.00
0.34
0.40
0.73
0.78
0.67
0.64
0.53
0.51
0.40
0.29
0.29
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
in
2
ft
= A
si
i
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.29
0.29
0.49
0.66
0.71
in
2
ft
=
A
soutside
max A
so
( ) :=
A
so
i
if M
uactual
i
0 < A
sinc
i
, 0
in
2
ft
⋅ ,
|

\
|
.
:=
A
sinside
max A
si
( ) :=
A
si
i
if M
uactual
i
0 > A
sinc
i
, 0
in
2
ft
⋅ ,
|

\
|
.
:= Governing Design
If increased reinforcement ratio is greater than 2% than stirrups must be used
DT
inc
i
if ρ
inc
i
0.02 > "Stirrups Requ'd" , "OK" ,
( )
:=
A
sinc
i
if ρ
inc
i
0.02 > 10
5
in
2
⋅ ft
1 −
⋅ , A
sinc
i
,
|
\
|
.
:= ρ
inc
i
A
sinc
i
b d
i

:=
A
sinc
i
if R
dt
i
1 >
0.01587 V
vu
i

φ
v
F
vp
⋅ f
cp
psi ⋅ ⋅
F
c
i
F
d
i
F
n
i

|

\
|
.
⋅ 0.01746 ( ) ( ) d
i
⋅ − , A
s
i
,

¸
(
(
(
¸
:=
Check if Circumferential Reinforcement Can Be Increased to Improve Shear Strength
Concrete Reinforcement Design
57

ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, and was conducted in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Research Council.

DISCLAIMER The opinion and conclusions expressed or implied in the report are those of the research agency. They are not necessarily those of the TRB, the National Research Council, AASHTO, or the U.S. Government. This report has not been edited by TRB.

ii

CONTENTS Examples of Simplified Design Procedures for Metal Culverts Design 9.7 m Span by 3.7 m Rise Low Profile Arch, H = 1.0 m ...................................... 1 Design 31.2 ft Span by 19 ft Rise Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 ft........................................... 11 Design 14.3 m Span by 8.6 Elliptical Culvert, H = 2 m................................................... 21 Design 9.2 m Span by 9.0 m Rise Pear Shaped Culvert, H = 8 m ................................. 31 Example of Simplified Design Procedures for Concrete Culverts Long Span Concrete Culvert – Load Calculations ......................................................... 41 Calculations to Evaluate Reinforcing Requirements for Conspan Reinforced Concrete Culvert – Depth of Fill = 2.0 ft (0.6 m)......................................................................... 46

iii

33⋅  H 2.7⋅ m R := 3.7⋅ m Ru := 3.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.7 m Span by 3. 1  Imp = 1. 4 Mathcad Terminology: := defines a term = presents result of a calcuation Installation Conditions Depth of burial Width of Structural Backfill Live load Design Tandem Multiple presence factor Tire length: Axle plus Wheel Width Lane load Lane load width LaneW := 3⋅ m  θ top   ⋅ Rt ⋅ 2  2  Topchord = 8..15   Live load distribution with depth of fill Culvert Material Properties Fy := 227.44⋅ m. 1.8⋅ lbf MPa := 145.62 2 i := 1 .3⋅ kN m Span/ Rise Ratio Span Rise Upper Rise Top Radius Top Angle S := 9. H = 1. 2 .3-1) M sN := 5⋅ MPa 1 H-1 .0⋅ m W := 4.10 m Impact Imp := if  H < 2.33 − 0.7 m Rise Low Profile Arch. 96232 Design 9.84⋅ kN⋅ m −3 Friction angle (loose) Poisson's ratio φ := 36⋅ deg ν := 0.6⋅ MPa Soil Properties: Ep := 200⋅ GPa Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure: Density γ s := 18.3 p crown := γ s⋅ H p side := γ s⋅  H +  p crown = 19 kPa R 2 M sCrown := 15.5⋅ MPa M sSide := 19.1379⋅ lbf in kPa := MPa 1000 GPa := 1000⋅ MPa Culvert Geometry H := 1.85⋅ m P := 222⋅ kN mp := 1.2⋅ m Rt := 6.4⋅ MPa M sBottom := 21⋅ MPa    p side = 54 kPa Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.0 m MathCad Units and Range Variables kN := 224.44⋅ m .3⋅ m θ top := 80⋅ deg S R Topchord := sin  = 2.2 Lo := 250⋅ mm W T := 2300⋅ mm Lane := 9.19 LLDF := 1.

7 φb := 0.17 mm N MinimumStiffness := if ( FF < FFmax.9 γ LL := 1.92⋅ MINIMUM STIFFNESS FFmax := 0.324 mm. 96232 Design factors Load factors Earth Max Min Live γ EMax := 1.75 Soil Buckling Resistance factors Thrust Bending φc := 0.17⋅ FF := mm N (2⋅ Rt ) ⋅ (1 − sin (φ)) 2 3 0.74⋅ mm 2 mm kN⋅ m m M y := 38.7 Trial Section Properties Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 6. "Stiffeners Required" ) MinimumStiffness = "OK" 2 H-2 .9 φbck := 0.3 γ EMin := 0. "OK" .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.21⋅ kN⋅ m m Stiffened plate: mm M p := 54. with circumferential stiffeners (2nd plate of same gage) Basic plate: Iu := 2395⋅ Ip := 4790⋅ mm 4 mm mm 4 A := 7.9 φs := 0.07⋅ Ep ⋅ Ip FF = 0.

9 − 1. FW/S i KVAF := max( KVAF) W S KVAF = 1.3 Fhs := i S R HSlim := max( hs lim) HSlim = 0. M sSide M sN . VAF VAF := FWS + FSR + FHS VAF = 1.49 2.5⋅ log( SoilRatio ) ( KVAF − 1.15⋅ 1.00 hs lim := i 0.2 SoilRatio := if   MsSide  MsN < 100 .33 1.5⋅  HSlim −    0 4.2 + 0.24 FWS := 1. FH/S S R FSR := max( Fsr) FSR = 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.30 FHS := max( Fhs) H S FHS = 0. 96232 THRUST CAPACITY Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load KVAF := 1.73 3 H-3 . 100    FWS = 1.8 − 0.5⋅ 0. FS/R Fsr := i 1− 0 3.2) 2.

019⋅ S Ru .5 . Earth Load Ksp := if  0.7 LL := Lo + LLDF⋅ H LW := W T + LLDF⋅ H W LL := Total Factored Thrust 0. "OK" . "Redesign" ) StatusThrust = "OK" 4 H-4 . 96232 5.5    Ksp = 0. Live Load     LaneW + LLDF⋅ H  LaneW LL = 1.45 m W Lane = 6.7⋅ mp ⋅ Imp ⋅ P⋅ Rt LL⋅ LW W LL = 291 kN m Tf := γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 Tf = 616 kN m Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust kN m Factored Axial Resistance RT := φc⋅ Fy ⋅ A RT = 1234 StatusThrust := if ( RT > Tf .23 W SP := γ s⋅ S⋅ ( H + Ksp ⋅ Ru) W E := VAF⋅ W SP W SP = 317 kN m kN m kN m W E = 548 6. 0.40 m LW = 3.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.019⋅  S Ru  < 0. Lane Load W Lane := Lane⋅  7.172 + 0. 0.172 + 0.

55 Kb := ( 1 − 2⋅ ν ) (1 − ν )2 Kb = 0. "OK" .2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Iu) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsBottom⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh RbE :=   RbE = 1883 TE = 356 kN m kN m StatusBucklingbottom := if ( Rb > TE .55  11 + S    H  Cn := 0.4 Rh = 0. 96232 Check Buckling Capacity Stiffened top arc with live load thrust Rh := 11.55 2 1     1.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.75⋅ R Rh := 11.82 2 1     1. "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingtop = "OK" Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust TE := γ EMax⋅ W E 2 Hbot := H + 0.84  11 + S    Hbot   Cn := 0.4 Rh = 0.2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Ip ) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsCrown⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh Rb :=   Rb = 1270 Tf = 616 kN m kN m StatusBucklingtop := if ( Rb > Tf . "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" 5 H-5 . "OK" .

0025 M Lane = 0.0019 0. "Required" .15⋅ φb⋅ M p .001 M LL := 2⋅ W LL⋅ Rt ⋅ KLL M LL = 7.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.02⋅  1.02 kN⋅ m m Lane Load Moment .Compute with same formula as earth load moment KLane := i SB   0.0025 M E = 4. 96232 FLEXURAL CAPACITY Bending stiffness factor SB := φs⋅ M sSide⋅ S Ep ⋅ Ip 3 SB = 16634 Earth Load Moment Ke := i SB   0.0025 M E := γ s⋅ S ⋅ H⋅ KE 2 KE := max( Ke) KE = 0.0025 M Lane := W Lane⋅ S⋅ KLane KLane := max( KLane) KLane = 0.43 kN⋅ m m Live Load Moment Kll := i KLL := max( Kll) SB SB + 800  0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. "Not Required"   FlexureCheck = "Required" ( ) 6 H-6 .16 kN⋅ m m Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity FlexureCheck := if γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane) > 0.05 −     KLL = 0.

21 kN⋅ m m MaxConstructionM := if ( M sidemax > M sidemin .NCHRP Project 12-45 Construction Moment Maximum allowed extension of top chord Topchord max := 1. "OK" .79 kN⋅ m m Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.018 m -1 M sidemin := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv M sidemin = −17.66⋅ m δchord = 0.005⋅ m −1 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Curv := if   1 − 1  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord max⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin . CurvMin .0000 m Curv = 0. M sidemax .00 m  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord min⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin .005 m -1  Rt Rntrial   Rntrial  1 M sidemax := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv Minimum allowed top chord Topchord min := 0. 96232 Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.98 times original top chord M sidemax = 4.3⋅ m Comm. 1 Rt − 1 Curv := if   1 Rt  − 1 Rntrial Rntrial    Curv = −0.0 times original top chord Rntrial := 6. M sidemin ) ConstructionControl := if ( MaxConstructionM < M y . "Reduce Construction Moment" ) ConstructionControl = "OK" 7 H-7 .0 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Rntrial := 5.0 CurvMin := 0. 1 Rt − δchord = 0. CurvMin .

"Redesign" ) M n = 49.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.00  m  0. "OK" . 96232 Total Moment M u := i γ EMax ⋅ −M sidemin − γ EMin⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL) γ EMin⋅ M sidemax + γ EMax⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane)  30.67 kN⋅ m m Check total moment against total capacity M n := φb⋅ M p StatusFlexure := if ( M n > M U .00    M U := max( M u) M U = 30.67     22.65  kN⋅ m Mu =  0.43 kN⋅ m m StatusFlexure = "OK" 8 H-8 .

TfSh ) Combined := i TfRed = 435 TfRed RT TfRed 2⋅ RT + + 8 MU ⋅ 9 Mn MU Mn  0. 1 . 2    Indx = 1.35 = 0. "OK" . "Redesign" ) StatusCombined = "OK" 9 H-9 .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.80  Combined =  0.5⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + 0.67⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 ( ) TfSh = 413 kN m kN m kN m TfCr := 0.2 .5γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 TfCr = 435 TfRed := if ( TfCr > TfSh . TfCr .00    TfRed RT MU Mn = 0.00   0.90     0.00 StatusCombined := if Combined ( Indx < 1 . 96232 COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location TfSh := 0.62 Indx := if   TfRed  RT ≥ 0.

98 Notes .Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement . 96232 DESIGN SUMMARY MinimumStiffness = "OK" StatusThrust = "OK" StatusBucklingtop = "OK" StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" FlexureCheck = "Required" StatusFlexure = "OK" StatusCombined = "OK" Combined Indx A = 7.67 mm mm 4 Ip = 4790 mm kN⋅ m m M p = 54.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.92 = 0.90 ConstructionControl = "OK" Topchord max = 1.00 Topchord min = 0.Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than Tf. 10 H-10 .74 Iu = 2395 mm 2 mm mm 4 Tf = 616 kN m kN⋅ m m M U = 30.

00 ft Impact Imp := if  H < 8⋅ ft .15   Live load distribution with depth of fill Culvert Material Properties Fy := 33⋅ ksi Soil Properties: Ep := 29000⋅ ksi Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure: Density γ s := 120⋅ lbf⋅ ft −3 Friction angle (loose) Poisson's ratio φ := 36⋅ deg ν := 0.2 ft Span by 19 ft Rise Elliptical Culvert.3-1) M sN := 750⋅ MPa 11 H-11 .33 − 0.3 p crown := γ s⋅ H p side := γ s⋅  H +  p crown = 1.0⋅ ft W := 30⋅ ft Culvert Geometry Span Rise Upper Rise Top Radius Top Angle Span/ Rise Ratio S := 31. 96232 Design 31.33⋅  H 8⋅ ft . 1  Imp = 1.. 1.0⋅ ft θ top := 80⋅ deg S R Topchord := sin  = 1.64 LaneW := 10⋅ ft  θ top   ⋅ Rt ⋅ 2  2  Topchord = 27.5⋅ ft Rt := 21.2 Lo := 10⋅ in W T := 7.0⋅ ft Ru := 9. 4 Mathcad Terminology: := defines a term = presents result of a calcuation Installation Conditions Depth of burial Width of Structural Backfill Live load Design Tandem Multiple presence factor Tire length: Axle plus Wheel Width Lane load Lane load width P := 50⋅ k mp := 1.2⋅ ft R := 19.67⋅ ft Lane := 640⋅ lbf ft H := 2.67 psi R 2 M sCrown := 2100⋅ psi M sSide := 2950⋅ psi M sBottom := 3050⋅ psi    p side = 9.58 psi Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. H = 2 ft MathCad Units and Range Variables ksi := 1000⋅ psi k := 1000⋅ lbf i := 1 . 2 .25 LLDF := 1.

3 γ EMin := 0. by 0.166⋅ Ip := 0.276 in.75 Soil Buckling Resistance factors Thrust Bending φc := 0.7 φb := 0. "OK" .119⋅ M p := 167⋅ in ft in ⋅ k ft M y := 115⋅ in ⋅ k ft Stiffened plate: in MINIMUM STIFFNESS FFmax := 30⋅ FF := in k (2⋅ Rt ) ⋅ (1 − sin (φ)) 2 3 0.07⋅ Ep ⋅ Ip FF = 26. 96232 Design factors Load factors Earth Max Min Live γ EMax := 1.9 γ LL := 1.7 Trial Section Properties Structural Plate = 6 in.40 in k MinimumStiffness := if ( FF < FFmax.. "Stiffeners Required" ) MinimumStiffness = "OK" 12 H-12 .9 φs := 0.332⋅ in in in 4 A := 4. with circumferential stiffeners (2nd plate of same gage) 4 2 Basic plate: Iu := 0.9 φbck := 0. by 2 in.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.

5⋅ log( SoilRatio ) ( KVAF − 1.20 1.8 − 0. FH/S S R FSR := max( Fsr) FSR = 0. FW/S i KVAF := max( KVAF) W S KVAF = 1.00 hs lim := i 0.9 − 1. M sSide M sN .79 13 H-13 . 100    FWS = 1.30 FHS := max( Fhs) H S FHS = 0.2 SoilRatio := if   MsSide  MsN < 100 . FS/R Fsr := i 1− 0 3.20 FWS := 1.5⋅  HSlim −    0 4.59 2.5⋅ 0. 96232 THRUST CAPACITY Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load KVAF := 1.15⋅ 1.2 + 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.2) 2.3 Fhs := i S R HSlim := max( hs lim) HSlim = 0. VAF VAF := FWS + FSR + FHS VAF = 1.

NCHRP Project 12-45

Comm. 96232

5. Earth Load Ksp := if  0.172 + 0.019⋅  S Ru

< 0.5 , 0.172 + 0.019⋅

S Ru

, 0.5  

Ksp = 0.23

W SP := γ s⋅ S⋅ ( H + Ksp ⋅ Ru) W E := VAF⋅ W SP

W SP = 16

k ft k ft k ft

W E = 28 6. Lane Load

W Lane := Lane⋅  7. Live Load

   LaneW + LLDF⋅ H 
LaneW LL = 3.13 ft LW = 9.97 ft

W Lane = 0.5

LL := Lo + LLDF⋅ H LW := W T + LLDF⋅ H

W LL := Total Factored Thrust

0.7⋅ mp ⋅ Imp ⋅ P⋅ Rt LL⋅ LW

W LL = 35

k ft

Tf :=

γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 Tf = 50

k ft

Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust k ft

Factored Axial Resistance

RT := φc⋅ Fy ⋅ A

RT = 95

StatusThrust := if ( RT > Tf , "OK" , "Redesign" ) StatusThrust = "OK"

14 H-14

NCHRP Project 12-45

Comm. 96232

Check Buckling Capacity Stiffened top arc with live load thrust Rh := 11.4 Rh = 0.43

 11 + S    H 

Cn := 0.55

Kb :=

( 1 − 2⋅ ν ) (1 − ν )2

Kb = 0.82

2 1     1.2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Ip ) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsCrown⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh Rb :=  

Rb = 67 Tf = 50

k ft k ft

StatusBucklingtop := if ( Rb > Tf , "OK" , "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingtop = "OK" Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust TE := γ EMax⋅ W E 2

Hbot := H + 0.75⋅ R Rh := 11.4 Rh = 0.88

 11 + S    Hbot  

Cn := 0.55
2 1     1.2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Iu) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsBottom⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh RbE :=  

RbE = 141 TE = 18 k ft

k ft

StatusBucklingbottom := if ( Rb > TE , "OK" , "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingbottom = "OK"

15 H-15

NCHRP Project 12-45

Comm. 96232

FLEXURAL CAPACITY Bending stiffness factor SB := φs⋅ M sSide⋅ S Ep ⋅ Ip
3

SB = 14472

Earth Load Moment Ke :=
i

SB   0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.0025 M E := γ s⋅ S ⋅ H⋅ KE
2

KE := max( Ke) KE = 0.0025

M E = 7.01

in ⋅ k ft

Live Load Moment Kll :=
i

KLL := max( Kll) SB SB + 800 

0.02⋅  1.05 −

 

 

KLL = 0.0020

0.001 M LL := 2⋅ W LL⋅ Rt ⋅ KLL M LL = 36.35 in ⋅ k ft

Lane Load Moment - Compute with same formula as earth load moment KLane :=
i

SB   0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.0025 M Lane := W Lane⋅ S⋅ KLane

KLane := max( KLane) KLane = 0.0025

M Lane = 0.49

in ⋅ k ft

Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity FlexureCheck := if γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane) > 0.15⋅ φb⋅ M p , "Required" , "Not Required"   FlexureCheck = "Required"

(

)

16 H-16

0015 ft −1  Rt Rntrial   Rntrial  1 M sidemax := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv Minimum allowed top chord Topchord min := 0. M sidemax . "Reduce Construction Moment" ) ConstructionControl = "OK" 17 H-17 .0015 ft −1 M sidemin := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv M sidemin = 14. M sidemin ) ConstructionControl := if ( MaxConstructionM < M y .0 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  M sidemax = 14.0 CurvMin := 0. 1 Rt − δchord = −0.0015⋅ ft −1 Comm. "OK" . 1 Rt − 1 Curv := if   1 Rt  − 1 Rntrial Rntrial    Curv = 0.40⋅ ft δchord = −0.44 in ⋅ k ft Rntrial := 20.0001 ft Curv = 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Construction Moment Maximum allowed extension of top chord Topchord max := 1.0002 ft  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord min⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin . 96232 Rntrial := 21. CurvMin .254⋅ ft δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Curv := if   1 − 1  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord max⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin .44 in ⋅ k ft MaxConstructionM := if ( M sidemax > M sidemin .002 times original top chord Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0. CurvMin .995 times original top chord Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.

96232 Total Moment M u := i γ EMax ⋅ −M sidemin − γ EMin⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL) γ EMin⋅ M sidemax + γ EMax⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane)  38. "OK" .57  in⋅ k Mu =  0.00    M U := max( M u) M U = 86.53     86.57 in ⋅ k ft Check total moment against total capacity M n := φb⋅ M p StatusFlexure := if ( M n > M U .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. "Redesign" ) M n = 150.30 in ⋅ k ft StatusFlexure = "OK" 18 H-18 .00  ft  0.

1 . 96232 COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location TfSh := 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.5⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + 0.94     0.42 = 0.67⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 ( ) TfSh = 33 k ft k ft TfRed = 40 k ft TfCr := 0.2 .58 Indx := if   TfRed  RT ≥ 0.00   0. 2    Indx = 1. TfSh ) Combined := i TfRed RT TfRed 2⋅ RT + + 8 MU ⋅ 9 Mn MU Mn  0.00 StatusCombined := if Combined ( Indx < 1 . "Redesign" ) StatusCombined = "OK" 19 H-19 .5γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 TfCr = 40 TfRed := if ( TfCr > TfSh . "OK" .79  Combined =  0. TfCr .00    TfRed RT MU Mn = 0.

Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than Tf.Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement .00 = 0.3320 M U = 86.57 in in 4 in in ⋅ k ft M p = 167.00 Topchord min = 1.00 Notes .12 in 2 ft in 4 Tf = 50 k ft in ⋅ k ft Iu = 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.94 ConstructionControl = "OK" Topchord max = 1. 20 H-20 . 96232 DESIGN SUMMARY MinimumStiffness = "OK" StatusThrust = "OK" StatusBucklingtop = "OK" StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" FlexureCheck = "Required" StatusFlexure = "OK" StatusCombined = "OK" Combined Indx A = 4.1660 Ip = 0.

6⋅ MPa Soil Properties: Ep := 200⋅ GPa Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure: Density γ s := 18.33 − 0.33⋅    Live load distribution with depth of fill Culvert Material Properties Fy := 227. H = 2 m MathCad Units and Range Variables kN := 224.3 m Span by 8.3⋅ m Rt := 9.3-1) M sN := 5⋅ MPa 21 H-21 .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm..0⋅ m W := 14.1⋅ MPa M sBottom := 24⋅ MPa    p side = 119 kPa Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2. 1.6⋅ m Ru := 4.3⋅ kN m Topchord := sin  Span Rise Upper Rise Top Radius Top Angle Span/ Rise Ratio S := 14. 2 .3⋅ m R := 8.15 Impact Imp := if  H < 2.2 Lo := 250⋅ mm W T := 2300⋅ mm Lane := 9. 4 Mathcad Terminology: := defines a term = presents result of a calcuation Installation Conditions Depth of burial Width of Structural Backfill Live load Design Tandem Multiple presence factor Tire length: Axle + Wheel Width Lane load Lane load width LaneW := 3⋅ m .6 m Elliptical Culvert.66 2 i := 1 . 1   θ top   ⋅ Rt ⋅ 2  2  Topchord = 12.8⋅ lbf MPa := 145.1⋅ MPa M sSide := 23.06 LLDF := 1.44⋅ m Imp = 1.84⋅ kN⋅ m −3 Friction angle (loose) Poisson's ratio φ := 36⋅ deg ν := 0.3 p crown := γ s⋅ H p side := γ s⋅  H +  p crown = 38 kPa R 2 M sCrown := 18. 96232 Design 14.1379⋅ lbf in kPa := MPa 1000 GPa := 1000⋅ MPa Culvert Geometry H := 2.6⋅ m θ top := 80⋅ deg S R = 1.44⋅ m.34 m H 2.3⋅ m P := 222⋅ kN mp := 1.

75 Soil Buckling Resistance factors Thrust Bending φc := 0.3 γ EMin := 0.9 φbck := 0.7 φb := 0.07⋅ Ep ⋅ Ip FF = 0. "Stiffeners Required" ) MinimumStiffness = "Stiffeners Required" NOTE: Use longitudinal stiffeners in addition to circumferential stiffeners (Longitudinal stiffeners not designed in this example) 22 H-22 .9 φs := 0. "OK" .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.72⋅ mm 2 mm kN⋅ m m M y := 42.79⋅ kN⋅ m m Stiffened plate: MINIMUM STIFFNESS mm M p := 62.7 Trial Section Properties Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 7.17⋅ FF := mm N (2⋅ Rt ) ⋅ (1 − sin (φ)) 2 3 0.112 mm.08⋅ FFmax := 0. with circumferential stiffeners of same structural plate Basic plate: Iu := 2717⋅ Ip := 5434⋅ mm 4 mm mm 4 A := 8. 96232 Design factors Load factors Earth Max Min Live γ EMax := 1.9 γ LL := 1.34 mm N MinimumStiffness := if ( FF < FFmax.

9 − 1. M sSide M sN .8 − 0.20 FWS := 1.00 hs lim := i 0. FW/S i KVAF := max( KVAF) W S KVAF = 1.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.60 23 H-23 .5⋅  HSlim −    0 4.15⋅ 1.5⋅ log( SoilRatio ) ( KVAF − 1. 100    FWS = 1.30 FHS := max( Fhs) H S FHS = 0. FH/S S R FSR := max( Fsr) FSR = 0.40 2. VAF VAF := FWS + FSR + FHS VAF = 1.20 1.2 SoilRatio := if   MsSide  MsN < 100 . 96232 THRUST CAPACITY Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load KVAF := 1.2 + 0. FS/R Fsr := i 1− 0 3.2) 2.3 Fhs := i S R HSlim := max( hs lim) HSlim = 0.5⋅ 0.

0.019⋅  S Ru  < 0.5    Ksp = 0.7⋅ mp ⋅ Imp ⋅ P⋅ Rt LL⋅ LW W LL = 162 kN m Tf := γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 Tf = 990 kN m Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust kN m Factored Axial Resistance RT := φc⋅ Fy ⋅ A RT = 1390 StatusThrust := if ( RT > Tf . "Redesign" ) StatusThrust = "OK" 24 H-24 .3 LL := Lo + LLDF⋅ H LW := W T + LLDF⋅ H W LL := Total Factored Thrust 0. 96232 5. "OK" . Lane Load W Lane := Lane⋅  7. 0.5 .55 m LW = 4.019⋅ S Ru .60 m W Lane = 5.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.172 + 0.24 W SP := γ s⋅ S⋅ ( H + Ksp ⋅ Ru) W E := VAF⋅ W SP W SP = 811 kN m kN m kN m W E = 1298 6.172 + 0. Live Load     LaneW + LLDF⋅ H  LaneW LL = 2. Earth Load Ksp := if  0.

55 Kb := ( 1 − 2⋅ ν ) (1 − ν )2 Kb = 0. "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" 25 H-25 .2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Ip ) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsCrown⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh Rb :=   Rb = 1676 Tf = 990 kN m kN m StatusBucklingtop := if ( Rb > Tf .82 2 1     1.63  11 + S    H  Cn := 0.90  11 + S    Hbot   Cn := 0. "OK" . "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingtop = "OK" Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust TE := γ EMax⋅ W E 2 Hbot := H + 0.4 Rh = 0.2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Iu) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsBottom⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh RbE :=   RbE = 2296 TE = 844 kN m kN m StatusBucklingbottom := if ( Rb > TE .55 2 1     1. 96232 Check Buckling Capacity Stiffened top arc with live load thrust Rh := 11.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. "OK" .4 Rh = 0.75⋅ R Rh := 11.

"Required" .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.05 −     KLL = 0.26 kN⋅ m m Live Load Moment Kll := i KLL := max( Kll) SB SB + 800  0. 96232 FLEXURAL CAPACITY Bending stiffness factor SB := φs⋅ M sSide⋅ S Ep ⋅ Ip 3 SB = 55939 Earth Load Moment Ke := i SB   0.98 kN⋅ m m Lane Load Moment .0013 0. "Not Required"   FlexureCheck = "Not Required" ( ) 26 H-26 .02⋅  1.0025 M Lane := W Lane⋅ S⋅ KLane KLane := max( KLane) KLane = 0.15⋅ φb⋅ M p .19 kN⋅ m m Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity FlexureCheck := if γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane) > 0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.001 M LL := 2⋅ W LL⋅ Rt ⋅ KLL M LL = 3.0025 M E := γ s⋅ S ⋅ H⋅ KE 2 KE := max( Ke) KE = 0.0025 M E = 19.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.Compute with same formula as earth load moment KLane := i SB   0.0025 M Lane = 0.

1 Rt − 1 Curv := if   1 Rt  − 1 Rntrial Rntrial    Curv = 0.0 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Rntrial := 9. 1 Rt − δchord = 0.005 m -1 M sidemin := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv M sidemin = 5.0 CurvMin := 0. M sidemax .44 kN⋅ m m Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0. "OK" .005 m -1  Rt Rntrial   Rntrial  1 M sidemax := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv Minimum allowed top chord Topchord min := 1. CurvMin . M sidemin ) ConstructionControl := if ( MaxConstructionM < M y .NCHRP Project 12-45 Construction Moment Maximum allowed extension of top chord Topchord max := 1.005⋅ m −1 Comm.005 times original top chord Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.00 times original top chord M sidemax = 5. "Reduce Construction Moment" ) ConstructionControl = "OK" 27 H-27 .00 m  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord min⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin .44 kN⋅ m m MaxConstructionM := if ( M sidemax > M sidemin .0003 m Curv = 0. CurvMin .6⋅ m δchord = 0.9⋅ m δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Curv := if   1 − 1  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord max⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin . 96232 Rntrial := 9.

44     37.00    M U := max( M u) M U = 37.23  kN⋅ m Mu =  0. 96232 Total Moment M u := i γ EMax ⋅ −M sidemin − γ EMin⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL) γ EMin⋅ M sidemax + γ EMax⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane)  −17. "OK" .23 kN⋅ m m Check total moment against total capacity M n := φb⋅ M p StatusFlexure := if ( M n > M U . "Redesign" ) M n = 55.00  m  0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.87 kN⋅ m m StatusFlexure = "OK" 28 H-28 .

NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.90  Combined =  0.00   0.00    TfRed RT MU Mn = 0.48 = 0.07     0. TfSh ) Combined := i TfRed = 663 TfRed RT TfRed 2⋅ RT + + 8 MU ⋅ 9 Mn MU Mn  1.5⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + 0. TfCr .2 . "OK" . 1 . "Redesign" ) StatusCombined = "Redesign" 29 H-29 . 96232 COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location TfSh := 0.67 Indx := if   TfRed  RT ≥ 0.67⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 ( ) TfSh = 663 kN m kN m kN m TfCr := 0.5γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 TfCr = 566 TfRed := if ( TfCr > TfSh . 2    Indx = 1.00 StatusCombined := if Combined ( Indx < 1 .

00 Topchord min = 1.Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than Tf.23 mm mm 4 Ip = 5434 mm kN⋅ m m M p = 62. 30 H-30 .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.08 = 1. 96232 DESIGN SUMMARY MinimumStiffness = "Stiffeners Required" StatusThrust = "OK" StatusBucklingtop = "OK" StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" FlexureCheck = "Not Required" StatusFlexure = "OK" StatusCombined = "Redesign" Combined Indx A = 8.72 Iu = 2717 mm 2 mm mm 4 Tf = 990 kN m kN⋅ m m M U = 37.07 ConstructionControl = "OK" Topchord max = 1.Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement .00 Notes .

96232 Design 9.15 Live load distribution with depth of fill Culvert Material Properties Fy := 227.33⋅    Topchord = 7.40 m Imp = 1.0⋅ m Rt := 6.7⋅ m θ top := 67⋅ deg S R = 1.2 m Span by 9.00 LLDF := 1.6⋅ m P := 222⋅ kN mp := 1.1379⋅ lbf in kPa := MPa 1000 GPa := 1000⋅ MPa Culvert Geometry H := 8.0⋅ m Ru := 3.2 W o := 500⋅ mm Lo := 250⋅ mm W T := 1800⋅ mm Lane := 9.0 m Rise Pear Shaped Culvert.8⋅ MPa M sBottom := 30⋅ MPa    p side = 235 kPa Native soil: Soft Clay (See Table C2.44⋅ m.4⋅ m LaneW := 3⋅ m  θ top   ⋅ Rt ⋅ 2  2  Imp := if  H < 2.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.0⋅ m W := 4. 1.44⋅ m .02 2 i := 1 . H = 8 m MathCad Units and Range Variables kN := 224.33 − 0.3 p crown := γ s⋅ H p side := γ s⋅  H +  p crown = 151 kPa R 2 M sCrown := 24.84⋅ kN⋅ m −3 Friction angle (loose) Poisson's ratio φ := 36⋅ deg ν := 0.6⋅ MPa Soil Properties: Ep := 200⋅ GPa Structural Backfill (Sn95): Ms selected from table in Specifications based on vertical pressure: Density γ s := 18.. 2 .2⋅ m R := 9.6⋅ MPa M sSide := 28. 1  Span/ Rise Ratio Side Radius Span Rise Upper Rise Top Radius Top Angle S := 9.8⋅ lbf MPa := 145.3-1) M sN := 5⋅ MPa 31 H-31 .3⋅ kN m Topchord := sin  H 2. 4 Mathcad Terminology: := defines a term = presents result of a calcuation Installation Conditions Depth of burial Width of Structural Backfill Live load Design Tandem Multiple presence factor Tire width: Tire length: Wheel Spacing Lane load Lane load width Impact Rside := 7.

9 γ LL := 1. "OK" .3 γ EMin := 0.46⋅ FFmax := 0.75 Soil Buckling Trial Section Properties Structural Plate = 150 mm by 50 mm by 6.7 Basic plate: Iu := 2395⋅ Ip := 2395⋅ mm 4 mm mm 4 A := 7.46 mm N FFside := (2⋅ Rside) ⋅ (1 − sin (φ)) 2 3 0. "Stiffeners Required" ) MinimumStiffness = "Stiffeners Required" Side Plates FFmax := 0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. without circumferential stiffeners Resistance factors Thrust Bending φc := 0.17⋅ FF := mm N (2⋅ Rt ) ⋅ (1 − sin (φ)) 2 3 0.07⋅ Ep ⋅ Ip FF = 0.11⋅ kN⋅ m m Stiffened plate: MINIMUM STIFFNESS Top Plates mm M p := 27.9 φbck := 0. 96232 Design factors Load factors Earth Max Min Live γ EMax := 1.9 φs := 0. or increase control of side compaction 32 H-32 .07⋅ Ep ⋅ Ip mm N MinimumStiffnessside := if ( FF < FFmax.74⋅ mm 2 mm kN⋅ m m M y := 19. "Increase Side Stiffness" ) MinimumStiffnessside = "Increase Side Stiffness" NOTE: Use heavier gage for side plates or adjust flexibility requirement.17⋅ FFside = 0. "OK" .7 φb := 0.37 mm N MinimumStiffness := if ( FF < FFmax.324 mm.

30 FHS := max( Fhs) H S FHS = 0.5⋅  HSlim −    0 4.5⋅ log( SoilRatio ) ( KWS − 1.2) 2. 100    FWS = 1. M sSide M sN .15⋅ 1.9 − 1.25 FWS := 1. FW/S i KWS := max( Kws) W S KWS = 1.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.25 33 H-33 .2 SoilRatio := if   MsSide  MsN < 100 .3 Fhs := i S R HSlim := max( hs lim) HSlim = 0. VAF VAF := FWS + FSR + FHS VAF = 1.5⋅ 0. 96232 THRUST CAPACITY Compute Vertical Arching Factor and Earth Load Kws := 1.2 + 0.00 2.00 hs lim := i 0.33 1. FH/S S R FSR := max( Fsr) FSR = 0.8 − 0. FS/R Fsr := i 1− 0 3.

0. "Redesign" ) StatusThrust = "OK" 34 H-34 .172 + 0. Lane Load W Lane := Lane⋅  7. Live Load     LaneW + LLDF⋅ H  LaneW LL = 9. 0.23 W SP := γ s⋅ S⋅ ( H + Ksp ⋅ Ru) W E := VAF⋅ W SP W SP = 1506 kN m kN m kN m W E = 1879 6.50 m W Lane = 2. "OK" .172 + 0.5 .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm. Earth Load Ksp := if  0.7⋅ mp ⋅ Imp ⋅ P⋅ Rt LL⋅ LW W LL = 11 kN m Tf := γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 Tf = 1234 kN m Check Capacity for Hoop Thrust kN m Factored Axial Resistance RT := φc⋅ Fy ⋅ A RT = 1234 StatusThrust := if ( RT > Tf .45 m LW = 11.019⋅  S Ru  < 0.3 LL := Lo + LLDF⋅ H LW := W o + W T + LLDF⋅ H W LL := Total Factored Thrust 0. 96232 5.019⋅ S Ru .5    Ksp = 0.

"OK" .98  11 + S    Hbot   Cn := 0.55 Kb := ( 1 − 2⋅ ν ) (1 − ν )2 Kb = 0.2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Ip ) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsCrown⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh Rb :=   Rb = 2338 Tf = 1234 kN m kN m StatusBucklingtop := if ( Rb > Tf .2⋅ φbck⋅ Cn⋅ ( Ep ⋅ Iu) 3 ⋅ ( ( φs⋅ MsBottom⋅ Kb) ) 3  ⋅ Rh RbE :=   RbE = 2789 TE = 1221 kN m kN m StatusBucklingbottom := if ( Rb > TE .4 Rh = 0. 96232 Check Buckling Capacity Stiffened top arc with live load thrust Rh := 11.55 2 1     1.75⋅ R Rh := 11. "OK" .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.4 Rh = 0.82 2 1     1. "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" 35 H-35 . "Redesign" ) StatusBucklingtop = "OK" Unstiffened bottom arc without live load thrust TE := γ EMax⋅ W E 2 Hbot := H + 0.94  11 + S    H  Cn := 0.

15⋅ φb⋅ M p .0025 M E := γ s⋅ S ⋅ H⋅ KE 2 KE := max( Ke) KE = 0. "Required" .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.21 kN⋅ m m Lane Load Moment .Compute with same formula as earth load moment KLane := i SB   0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0. 96232 FLEXURAL CAPACITY Bending stiffness factor SB := φs⋅ M sSide⋅ S Ep ⋅ Ip 3 SB = 42137 Earth Load Moment Ke := i SB   0.05 kN⋅ m m Check if total live load moment is greater than 15% of plastic moment capacity FlexureCheck := if γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane) > 0. "Not Required"   FlexureCheck = "Not Required" ( ) 36 H-36 .0025 M Lane := W Lane⋅ S⋅ KLane KLane := max( KLane) KLane = 0.89 kN⋅ m m Live Load Moment Kll := i KLL := max( Kll) SB SB + 800  0.0014 0.001 M LL := 2⋅ W LL⋅ Rt ⋅ KLL M LL = 0.05⋅  1 −  SB + 400   0.05 −     KLL = 0.0025 M E = 31.02⋅  1.0025 M Lane = 0.

0 CurvMin := 0.42 kN⋅ m m MaxConstructionM := if ( M sidemax > M sidemin . M sidemin ) ConstructionControl := if ( MaxConstructionM < M y .NCHRP Project 12-45 Construction Moment Maximum allowed extension of top chord Topchord max := 1.0 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Rntrial := 5. CurvMin .00 m  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord min⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin .7⋅ m Comm.005 m -1  Rt Rntrial   Rntrial  1 M sidemax := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv Minimum allowed top chord Topchord min := 0.98 times original top chord M sidemax = 2.0000 m Curv = 0. 1 Rt − δchord = 0. "OK" . "Reduce Construction Moment" ) ConstructionControl = "OK" 37 H-37 . M sidemax . CurvMin . 1 Rt − 1 Curv := if   1 Rt  − 1 Rntrial Rntrial    Curv = −0.005⋅ m −1 δchord := 2⋅ Rntrial⋅ sin  Curv := if   1 − 1  θ top ⋅ Rt   − Topchord max⋅ Topchord  2⋅ Rntrial  < CurvMin .778⋅ m δchord = 0.0 times original top chord Rntrial := 6.40 kN⋅ m m Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.024 m -1 M sidemin := Ep ⋅ Ip ⋅ Curv M sidemin = −11. 96232 Select Rntrial to give δchord = 0.

00    M U := max( M u) M U = 44.08 kN⋅ m m Check total moment against total capacity M n := φb⋅ M p StatusFlexure := if ( M n > M U . 96232 Total Moment M u := i γ EMax ⋅ −M sidemin − γ EMin⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL) γ EMin⋅ M sidemax + γ EMax⋅ M E + γ LL⋅ ( M LL + M Lane)  −13.08  kN⋅ m Mu =  0.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.71 kN⋅ m m StatusFlexure = "Redesign" 38 H-38 . "Redesign" ) M n = 24.49     44.00  m  0. "OK" .

00 StatusCombined := if Combined ( Indx < 1 .00   0. 96232 COMBINED THRUST AND BENDING Reduce thrust to reflect that peak thrust and moment do not occur at same location TfSh := 0. 2    Indx = 1.2 . 1 .67⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 ( ) TfSh = 826 kN m kN m kN m TfCr := 0.67 = 1. TfCr .NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.5⋅ γ EMax⋅ W E + γ LL⋅ W LL + 0. TfSh ) Combined := i TfRed = 826 TfRed RT TfRed 2⋅ RT + + 8 MU ⋅ 9 Mn MU Mn  2.78 Indx := if   TfRed  RT ≥ 0.26     2.00    TfRed RT MU Mn = 0.5γ LL⋅ W Lane 2 TfCr = 622 TfRed := if ( TfCr > TfSh . "OK" . "Redesign" ) StatusCombined = "Redesign" 39 H-39 .12  Combined =  0.

Seam strength must also be checked and must be greater than Tf. 96232 DESIGN SUMMARY MinimumStiffness = "Stiffeners Required" MinimumStiffnessside = "Increase Side Stiffness" StatusThrust = "OK" StatusBucklingtop = "OK" StatusBucklingbottom = "OK" FlexureCheck = "Not Required" StatusFlexure = "Redesign" StatusCombined = "Redesign" Combined Indx A = 7.00 Topchord min = 0. 40 H-40 .Circumferential stiffeners are used to meet minimum stiffness requirement .74 Iu = 2395 mm 2 mm mm 4 Tf = 1234 kN m kN⋅ m m M U = 44.08 mm mm 4 Ip = 2395 mm kN⋅ m m M p = 27.26 ConstructionControl = "OK" Topchord max = 1.46 = 2.NCHRP Project 12-45 Comm.98 Notes .

KH .025 . 0.Example Calculations for Loads on Concrete Culverts Comm.Load Calculations English Units Input Geometry Outside span Rise Upper rise Top Radius Thick. Lat2) Lat2 := if ( Soil = "Sn85" ∨ Soil = "Si90" ∨ Soil = "Cl95" .3 Lat1 := if ( Soil = "Sn95" .2 8− H   ft  I := 1 + 0. Soil & Backfill Backfill type: Soil unit weight Depth of fill Soil := "Sn95" γ s := 120⋅ lbf ft H := 2.18⋅ in Rt := 486⋅ in Sidet := 14⋅ in Archt := 12⋅ in Initial Values: H Top radius. Lat1) Lat2 := if ( Soil = "Sn95" ∨ Soil = "Sn90" ∨ Soil = "Si95" . 96232 Date: 11/30/2001 Long Span Concrete Culvert . ru Rise.25 41 Concrete Culvert Load Calculation . 0. Rt Span.43 .No groundwater above footings of culvert . r Lat1 := 0 Lat2 := 0. Lat2) Final Values Lat1 = 0.05 .4 .0⋅ ft 3 s o := 460⋅ in r := 138⋅ in ru := 54.40 Lateral pressure coefficient KH := Lat2 + Lat1⋅ H 3. Load per axle Multiple presence factor Impact Factor P := 25000⋅ lbf mp := 1. s Upper Rise. . 0. 0.4 .6 .Native soil: dense granular Live load Design Tandem.33⋅   0  8  I := 1 1 IM := max( I) IM = 1. 0) Lat1 := if ( Soil = "Sn90" ∨ Soil = "Si95" .050 Lat2 = 0.28⋅ ft KH := if ( KH < 0.6) KH = 0.

2 ?s ( H + ru ) Centerline Earth Loads pcr = 1.0 ?s H H h ru ro Rt Vertical Pressure Soil prism load x So / 2 plat = Kh?s(H+h) KVAF := 0.33 W sp = 16123 lbf ft W sp := γ s⋅ s o⋅ ( H + KVAF⋅ ru) Soil pressure over crown p cr := γ s⋅ H Soil pressure at edge p cr = 240 lbf ft 2 p cr = 20.00 lbf in ⋅ ft p edge := 1. 96232 Date: 11/30/2001 pedge = 1.172 + 0.019⋅ so ru KVAF = 0.12 (plattop + platbot ) 2 ⋅ r PLat = 4604 lbf ft 42 Concrete Culvert Load Calculation .61 lbf in ⋅ ft lbf in ⋅ ft p latbot = 58.18 lbf in ⋅ ft p lattop := KH⋅ γ s⋅ H Bottom p latbot := KH⋅ γ s⋅ ( H + r) Total lateral load PLat := p lattop = 8.Example Calculations for Loads on Concrete Culverts Comm.2⋅ γ s⋅ ( H + ru) p edge = 938 Lateral Pressure Top lbf ft 2 p edge = 78.

03 p cr := p cr⋅ Scv p edge := p edge⋅ Scv Lateral Pressures Scl := r r − 0. 96232 Date: 11/30/2001 Note: Frame model used in analysis will be based on centerline dimensions.76 43 Concrete Culvert Load Calculation . To assure that all load on culvert is placed on the model the pressures need to be scaled up by the ratio of the outside dimensions to the centerline dimensions. Vertical Pressures: Scv := so s o − Sidet Scv = 1.05 p lattop := p lattop ⋅ Scl p lattop = 9.00 lbf in ⋅ ft lbf in ⋅ ft p cr = 20.63 p latbot := p latbot ⋅ Scl p latbot = 60.Example Calculations for Loads on Concrete Culverts Comm.5⋅ Archt Scl = 1.63 lbf in ⋅ ft lbf in ⋅ ft p edge = 80.

60 in Hlint = 2.e. Depth of interaction: Effective patch length: LS := ( Lo + LLDF⋅ H) 0 1 LS := ( Lo + L1) + LLDF⋅ H   Hlint := LS = 85.Example Calculations for Loads on Concrete Culverts Live Load Live load distribution factor: Lo Comm. Pw .87 ft (W 1 − W o − Dw) LLDF 0 W s := if H < Hwint .60 in 0 1 Patch length for single wheel: Patch length for multiple wheels: i.754 ft (L1 − Lo) LLDF Ls := if H < Hlint . LS . wheels interact. LS 0 Pwb := if ( H < Hlint . 2Pw) ( 1 ) W s = 159. 96232 Date: 11/30/2001 LLDF := 1. WS .60 in 0 1 WS := ( W o + W 1) + LLDF⋅ H + Dw 1 Hwint := WS = 159.60 in Pwa = 37425 lbf LS = 37.in W 1 := 72⋅ in L1 := 48⋅ in Dw := 40⋅ in Pw := P⋅ mp ⋅ IM 2 Wheel length: Wo Wheel width a) Single tire Wheel spacing Axle spacing (width) Distribution width L1 Single wheel load* *includes multiple presence and impact factors W1 Pw = 18713 lbf b) Multiple tires At depth of structure: Patch width for single wheel: Patch width for multiple wheels: i. 2Pwa) ( 1 ) Ls = 37. Depth of interaction: Effective patch width: WS := W o + LLDF⋅ H + Dw 0 WS = 87.15 Lo := 10⋅ in W o := 20. WS Pwa := if ( H < Hwint .60 in Hwint = 0. Pwa .e. wheel pressures interact.60 in Pwb = 37425 lbf 44 Concrete Culvert Load Calculation .

84 Comm.60 in Total live load P := Ls⋅ p P = 2814 lbf ft Notes: 1.Example Calculations for Loads on Concrete Culverts Effective live load pressure on structure: p := Pwb W s⋅ Ls p = 74. This analysis assumes that the length dimension is parallel to the direction of travel and that the direction of travel is across the culvert span. and length Ls. 45 Concrete Culvert Load Calculation . 96232 Date: 11/30/2001 lbf in ⋅ ft Length of effective pressure Ls := if ( Ls < s o . spaced a distance L1. s o) Ls = 37. 2. than the structure must be loaded with two loads of magnitude. P. If H is less than Hlint. Ls .

.......... n := 1 Reinforcement Type......9 46 Concrete Reinforcement Design ............................................................................................. NO..9 ......................................................................................................................................................Depth of Fill = 2............ Yield strength of steel reinforcement..... 1 = smooth wire or plain bars 2 = welded smooth wire fabric with 8 in......5⋅ in b := 12⋅ in⋅ ft −1 Design compressive strength of concrete.................................................................................... SHEET NO..... Si := 36⋅ ft rt := 72⋅ ft tb := 1..... s := 2⋅ in Rtype := 2 Circumferential reinforcemenT provided in one (n=1) or multiple (n=2) layers......... Width of section being designed................ γ SW := 1..................................... Resistance factor for radial tension................................0 Fvp := 1.. CALIFORNIA Calculations for flexural and shear reinforcement _________________ CALCULATIONS TO EVALUATE REINFORCING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSPAN REINFORCED CONCRETE CULVERT ........................................................................................................................0 ft (0................. Load factor for earth pressure........Project 12-45 ________ SAN FRANCISCO. DATE BY CHECK BY 96232 26 JUL 01 TJM ARLINGTON............................ fcp := 6⋅ ksi fy := 65⋅ ksi Maximum developable stirrup material strength (not greater than fy or anchorage strength)....................................35 Resistance factor for flexure............95 φr := 0.....90 Frp := 1.........................SIMPSON CLIENT SUBJECT GUMPERTZ & HEGER INC...................................................................35 γ E := 0................................................................................ Radial tension process factor............................................................................... Crown radius................................ Clear cover over reinforcement.......................................................................... Diagonal tesion process factor............. 1..............6 m) DIMENSIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTHS Horizontal span of culvert.................................................. MASSACHUSETTS NCHRP .............................................0 Fcr := 0............. Resistance factor for diagonal tension..............................................................90 φv := 0.......... deformed wire......... φf := 0.... maximum spacing of longitudinals 3 = welded deformed wire fabric............................................... Crack control factor.......................... fv := 60⋅ ksi Spacing of circumferential reinforcement.............................................................................35 γ L := 1..... deformed bars or any reinforcement with stirrups Load factor for selfweight......................................... COMM............................................................................... Load factor for live load...............................................

00    −208.55   −13.23     −13.22   15.09     15.50     376.99   −203.41     −1060.71    22.06   246.09   497.82   −669.54   −13.60  Ns :=  13.63   21.00    −129.13     82.96   0.33    21.98   21.75   7.79     13.47   −804.83     12.65   12.01   304.87     21.58   6.DESIGN FORCES (See next sheet for definitions and units) Array index: i := 1 .14     108.29     −796.13   17.28     21. 2 .81     −528.61   14.00   168.89   319.41     −715.33   −13.90   11.13     247.34   10.10  M s :=  −375. 17 Design Forces From Frame Analysis:  0.74     16.55   −276.77  Vvuactual :=  9.67   20.11     6.36   16.63   −41.62     11.42   15.09   20.78     15.12    −10.21    15.16     5.38   473.39   11.84    −11.26   15.53     8..51  M uactual :=  −580.65   −532.95   15.80   2.77   −119.41     15.68   15.98    0.93   −927.05   −431.53   7.21  Nu :=  19.81    16.05   14.75   −12.57   −438.03   −620.05     18.01     −238.17   11.65     −381.36   47 Concrete Reinforcement Design .24     11.16   12.

Forces from frame analysis: Moments are in.for tension on outside = moment with all signs positive. = factored thrust.-k/ft Thrusts and shears are k/ft Muactual Mu Nu V vuactual V vu Ms Ns = factored moment with proper sign + for tension on inside. Vvu i i i i M vu := M u i i ( ) Nu := Nu⋅ k⋅ ft −1 M s := M s⋅ in⋅ k⋅ ft −1 Nvu := Nu i i M s := if M s < 0 . Node 1 is base of leg Node 7 is corner of segment Node 17 is crown 48 Concrete Reinforcement Design . −M s . M s i i i i Ns := Ns⋅ k⋅ ft −1 ( ) Note: Structure and all loads are symmetric. + is compression = factored shear with proper sign = factored shear with all signs positive = service load moment = service load thrust Add Units to arrays and convert moments and shears to all positive signs: M u := M uactual⋅ ( in⋅ k) ⋅ ft i −1 M u := if M u < 0 . only Nodes 1 to 17 are presented in analysis. −M u . −Vvu . M u i i ( i ) Vvu := Vvuactual⋅ k⋅ ft −1 Vvu := if Vvu < 0 . .

26   18.02     10.23   10.02     12.16     11.33   13.Wall Thickness and Depth to Centroid from Compression Face i = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  14.32   10.21   12.31   15.02   Add units: h := h⋅ in d := d⋅ in 49 Concrete Reinforcement Design .96  d :=  14.00     12.00   12.02   10.14     13.04     23.00   12.93   18.30   12.00   14.02   12.02    12.02   10.00   12.06     21.0     12.24   20.00    14.91   20.00     14.02     10.02   10.84  h :=  16.00    12.

.730 0..730 0..488 16 0...641 0. Asf Governing Reinforcement.336 0... Asmin .288 14 0...528 0.....641 0. 0.708 50 Concrete Reinforcement Design ..675 0.514 0.165 0.403 0. g := 0..85⋅ b⋅ fcp g = 5..780 0.288 15 0.1.....397 11 0.397 0.094 1..081 0.336 0.021 0.10 ksi Required area of flexural steel 1 2 3 4 5 2   Asf := ⋅  g⋅ φf ⋅ d − Nu − g⋅ g⋅ φf ⋅ d − Nu ⋅ 2⋅ φf ⋅ d − h − 2⋅ M u   i i i i i i i i   fy  6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 1 -0.288 13 0.488 0. sf i i i i i in 2 ft 10 0.002⋅12⋅ 12)⋅ in2⋅ ft− 1) ( ) Asf = A := if Asmin > Asf .288 12 0.663 17 0..514 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Minimum reinforcement area...780 0...1 Reinforcement for Flexural Strength Define the compressive strength per inch of thickness as.528 0.210 0.403 0..663 0.2 Minimum Flexural Reinforcement 1 1 0. Asmin := for j ∈ i i (if (i < 7..002⋅ 12⋅ 14 ...675 0..259 0.... ..708 1 ( ) ( ) Asf = in 2 ft 12 -0.

69 in 2 ft 51 Concrete Reinforcement Design . i i   nndx := max( a) nndx = 7.85 . rs = 865..26 in Rrt := M max − 0...65 .92 5..45⋅ Nu 1..75⋅ Nu −1 fy   87 + fy⋅ ksi  Asmax = 8 5.......67 13 2..... Size factor for radial tension.........73 4.85 − 0.....72 12 2.....75  ksi    1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 3...00 Parameters at Critical Radial Tension Section M max = 1. 0... if  fcp > 8ksi ........02 11 2.05⋅       fcp    − 4  β 1 = 0.....8 Radial tension index: M max := −min( M uactual) ⋅ in⋅ k⋅ ft a := for j ∈ i i −1 if   −Mmax  in⋅ k⋅ ft −1 ≠ M uactual ....06 × 10 in⋅ k⋅ ft Nu 3 −1 nndx = 21...68 16 2.. 0 ........67 14 2..3 Maximum Flexural Reinforcement without Stirrups (Radial Tension) Radius of the inside layer of reinforcement..50 in Frt := 0... 0....06 Maximum Reinforcement Area β 1 := if  fcp < 4⋅ ksi .......1..........67 k⋅ ft −1 d nndx = 21.17 3.18 3...... rs := rt + tb .28 3.2⋅ b⋅ d nndx ⋅d nndx ⋅ φ ⋅ r ⋅ f ⋅ psi⋅ Frt ⋅ Frp nndx r s cp Rrt = 0.18 3..82 3... fixed value for large span culverts...68 15 2........82  1  55⋅ φf ⋅ β 1⋅ d⋅ fcp Asmax := ⋅  − 0...18 10 3..... 0...

"ok" .increase depth of section .Evaluate limits on Maximum Reinforcement RadialTension := if ( Rrt < 1 . "NotOK" i i i RadialTension = "ok" 1 1 "ok" 2 "ok" 3 "ok" 4 "ok" 5 "ok" 6 "ok" 7 "ok" ( ) MaxCompression = 8 "ok" Note: If maximum compression is "NotOK" then the options for redesign include: . "ok" .design section as a compression member with ties 9 "ok" 10 "ok" 11 "ok" 12 "ok" 13 "ok" 14 "ok" 15 "ok" 16 "ok" 52 Concrete Reinforcement Design . "Stirrups Required" ) MaxCompression := if Asf < Asmax .increase concrete strength .

......90 3...28 22.....41 in ⋅ ft 2 −1 53 Concrete Reinforcement Design .........00 0..........86 0.. e := i i h +d − i i i 2 e > 1..65 40..90 0........00 0.145 C 1 = 1.72 2.90 3... i i i Lower bound enforced for e /d ratio.90 0.....00 0.90 0...15 1...61 1.49 44...7.............57 3......90 0..02 1...... edratio := if   ei  di  d ...15 55.90 0.53 1...36 0.32 32..54 1.74 + 10  j i  Moment-thrust contribution factor. Required area of flexural reinforcement steel for crack width control at service load design based upon Equation B......90 1.81 13.34 0........05 0....87 0...91 2...15   edratio i Flexural design parameter.00 0...40 1....38 0...90 0..13 3...61 2..91 1..86 0............35 2....00 0........66 33...90 0..78 edratio = i j = i 0...27 3.00 0.. 1.89 2...93 3.90 1....02 13.333 .........49 25..0) ) . B 1 = 1..90 0.........99 33......81 2.00 0...1....15 .74 + i  edratio −1 Flexural design parameter.. i cr := 1 − i      10 .....00 0.90 icr = i Ascr = i in 1.86 0.86 0.. Ms Ns i Service level load eccentricity.. 1... 1................ i h    1 i  K := ⋅  M s + Ns ⋅  d − i i i  i 2  icr ⋅ j  i i edratio Ascr := i B1⋅ psi −1 i 30000⋅ φf ⋅ d ⋅ Fcr ⋅  K − C 1⋅ h ⋅ fcp⋅ psi i  i  ( )2 i Ascr := if  Ascr < 0 .... j := if  0..... 0.9 < 0...91 18.90 0.95 1.....49 1.00 0. 0 .... Ascr   ( i ) i  e = i 5....62 1......90 0.39 0.....71 31.14 22..50 C1 := if ( Rtype ≥ 3 .....09 10.. 2  2⋅ n⋅ in  0.....58 49..4 Flexural Reinforcement Requirements for Crack Width Control  tb⋅ s  B1 :=  Crack control coefficients..90 0....45 1..73 2....15 1..00 0...........85 2.......56 5............00 0..15 1...37 2.....9 ..15 1...... 1.......49 1.00 0.. if ( R type ≥ 2 ..... 0..33 1.9 .....5 .

67 0.78  ft 2 dg =  10. As := if Ascr > Asf . As .64 0.71 Asg := max( Asmneg) 2 Asg = 0.29 14 0.51 i2 := 1 .34 0. 2 Governing positive reinforcement M uactual = 0. 0⋅ i i i ft   Asg := max( Asmpos) 1 Asg = 0.78 0. Ascr .. 2 ..02  54 Concrete Reinforcement Design .66 17 0.53 0. 0⋅ i i i ft   10 0.29 12 0.40 0.40 11 0.49 16 0.02  in   12.29 13 0.73 0.71 1 in 2 ft As = 8 9 in 2 ft Governing Negative reinforcement 2  in  Asmneg := if  M uactual < 0 .29 15 0. As .71  in   0.Select limiting area based on cracking & flexure:. Asf i i i i ( i ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0.34 0.78 2 in 2 ft Depth to tension reinforcement at governing locations: User input is required dg := d 1 2 17 3 dg := d Asg =  0.00 1 2  in  Asmpos := if  M uactual > 0 .

..89·10 -3 6 5.. 0 .....01 14 172 15 303 16 402 17 427 14 5.00 1... 1 .00 15 1.94 11 0.41·10 -3 -3 -3 Fd = Fn = Fc = 10 287 11 120 12 13 0 31 10 0.01 1.........01 15 1....93 0.00 1..89·10 9 5......91 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1.....02 1..01 13 1.01 12 1...... ρ 1 i i ( ) ( i2 Factor for depth of section .41·10 15 5..6⋅ in d i Fd := if Fd > 1..02 <    Asg i2 i2   b⋅ dg b⋅ dg ρ i2 = 0.. ρ i2 := if  0..01 1....0054 ρ g := if M uactual > 0 . 1 ... ρ 2 .00 1.3 . Fc := 1 + i rt + 0..00 13 1....00 1.88 0....96 13 0.01 16 1.96 14 0.00 10 1.89·10 -3 7 5.02 2 5.. if i > 26 .01 14 1.93 0.89·10 13 5..89·10 -3 -3 M nu = in⋅ k ft ρg = 8 5.  Asg i2 i2 M nu := if M nu < 0 .41·10 16 5.89·10 -3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.... 0.01 11 1.00 1..41·10 -3 55 Concrete Reinforcement Design ..8 + i 1...00 14 1.... M nu := M vu − Nvu ⋅  i i i  4⋅ hi − di   8 .00 1..89·10 -3 10 5...00 11 1..00 1....5 Shear Strength Calculations Moment for M/ Vd ratio ...91 0.89·10 3 5...1.5⋅ h Fc := if i < 7 ..96 17 0.93 0..96 12 0.02 1...00 17 1.. M nu i i ( i ) Reinforcement ratio.41·10 -3 -3 -3 17 5. Fc i i ( ( i )) 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 87 313 550 666 765 866 642 461 1 1 5... Fd i2 i i2 ) Thrust factor .89·10 12 5.... Fd := 0..........89·10 4 5..01 1......01 17 1..89 0..89·10 -3 11 5.........96 15 0.88 0. 1.00 16 1.93 0...89·10 -3 -3 -3 5 5.......00 12 1....02 ...3 .96 16 0..0059 0..00 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1..00 1...00 1. Fn := 1 + i Nvu ⋅ psi −1 24000⋅ h d i i Fc factor for shear capacity calculation..01 1....96 10 1...

..76 19.86 0.70 0..72 0. 4.00 3.18 15.96 12 11. 3...76 13 11....51 56 Concrete Reinforcement Design ..5⋅ fcp⋅ psi⋅ d .5⋅ fcp⋅ psi⋅ d .78 3.28 34... "Strength Exceeded" .27 15.41 0..51 15 11.01 11 11..61 0.22 0.51 0.00 3..69 0.97 1.. M nu   Mnui i MVD := if  > 3...55 0.88 13..72 13.82 22.00 3...43 20..00 50.00 3.34 0.26 0... i  Vvu ⋅ di Vvu ⋅ d i i  i Vc := if  Vb ⋅ i Vb := φv⋅ b⋅ d ⋅ Fvp⋅ fcp⋅ psi⋅ 1....08 3.00 2.51 11..76 19..88 14.27 15...03 1 1 "OK" 2 "OK" 3 "OK" 4 "OK" 5 "OK" 6 "OK" 7 "OK" 8 "OK" 9 "OK" 10 "OK" 11 "OK" 12 "OK" 13 "OK" 14 "OK" 15 "OK" 16 "OK" 17 "OK" Vb = k ft DTstrength = 10 13.51 11.1 + 63⋅ ρ g ⋅ i i ( i ) Fd ⋅ Fn i i Fc i    4 MVD + 1 i i > 4.10 19. i Vb ⋅ 4 i  i MVD + 1 i  Diagonal tension index.91 31.32 18..51 16 11.18 11.00 3.93 0..00 3.51 0.. "OK" i i Vc = i ( ) R dt = i 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13.53 0..00 0.Shear capacity at critical section..51 17 11.47 2.05 14..05 41.65 0. Rdt := i Vvu Vc i i Evaluate Diagonal Tension Strength MVD = i DTstrength := if R dt > 1 ..17 0...31 12.00 0.82 22.00 3.51 k ft 0.18 15.88 13.21 0.50 0.43 20...51 14 11.62 2...........

78 0.66 0.If As is listed as 10^5 in^2/ft.00 0.00 0.01587⋅ Vvu i i φv⋅ Fvp⋅ fcp⋅ psi ⋅  Fci   Fd ⋅ Fn  i i − ( ( 0. Asinc .00 0.00 0. "OK" i i ( i  5 2 −1 i .288 15 0.64 0.288 14 0.780 0.006 0.641 0. i    0.00 0. Stirrup reinforcement.02 .00 0.663 17 0.51 0.78 Note . 0⋅ i i i ft   Asinside := max(Asi) Asoutside := max( Aso ) Asi = i Aso = i ρ inc = i 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0. 0⋅ i  i i ft   2  in  Aso := if  M uactual < 0 .78  ft 2 Flexure. As  i i    ρ inc := i Asinc b⋅ d i Asinc := if  ρ inc > 0.00 0.004 0.002 0.403 0.71  in   0.675 0.002 0.003 0.71 in 12 "OK" 13 "OK" 14 "OK" 15 "OK" 16 "OK" 17 "OK" ft in ft Asoutside = 0.01746) ) ⋅ d . and diagonal tension criteria Asinside = 0.29 0.34 0.00 0.29 0.67 0.003 0.397 11 0.730 0.53 0.003 0.336 0.488 16 0. Asinc . 57 Concrete Reinforcement Design .00 0.005 0.708 DTinc = Design Summmary: Flexural Criteria Only Asg =  0.336 0.003 0.49 0. the shear strength cannot be adequately increased by increasing the circumferential reinforcement.003 0.005 0.288 12 0.00 0.002 0.002 0. "Stirrups Requ'd" .002 0.00 0.00 0.02 .29 0.00 in 2 0. 10 ⋅ in ⋅ ft i DTinc := if ρ inc > 0. crack.002 0.00 0.73 0.00 0.29 0.40 0.40 0.002 0.71 in 2 0.00 0.006 ft ft Asinc = in 2 1 1 "OK" 2 "OK" 3 "OK" 4 "OK" 5 "OK" 6 "OK" 7 "OK" 8 "OK" 9 "OK" 10 "OK" 11 "OK" 2 2 ft 10 0. a thicker section or increased concrete strength are possible adjustements to the design.288 13 0.528 0.514 0.Check if Circumferential Reinforcement Can Be Increased to Improve Shear Strength Asinc := if R dt > 1 .00 0.00 0. Asinc  i  ) in 2 If increased reinforcement ratio is greater than 2% than stirrups must be used Governing Design Asi := if  M uactual > 0 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful