the use of electrical or electronic equipment for detecting, collecting, and processing physical data of one form or another at a given site, and then relaying this data to a receiving station at another site where the data can be recorded and analyzed. One obvious use of telemetry, for example, is in the measuring, relaying, and recording of physical conditions encountered or produced by high-speed aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. Such data might include air temperatures, wind speeds, or radiation intensities in outer space distance in telemetry is relative however, because such systems may also be employed for obtaining data from sites that are near to the receiving instruments but that are difficult, impossible, or dangerous for human observers to encounter.  running tests of engines, for detecting flaws  for obtaining data from dangerously radioactive sites.  obtain information from the upper atmosphere for use in making their weather forecasts.  biological sensors of various kinds may be used within the human body to transmit information on medical conditions to detectors placed outside the body.


In any telemetric system, the equipment used must be able to make a measurement of a physical quantity, produce a signal that can be modified in some way to carry the measured data, and relay this encoded signal over some form of transmission link. The receiving equipment must then be able to decode the signal and to display it in some format for analysis and, probably, for recording. Usually more than one signal must be sent over the transmission link at any one time, in which case some form of multiplexing must be used. This can be done by employing different frequency bands for the measurement of different quantities or by splitting up the signal into discrete time intervals to which the quantities to be measured are assigned. The coding techniques used are commonly digital; the use of pulse-code modulation, by which continuous waves are transformed into a binary-code signal, has been enhanced in recent decades by the advances made in the digital computer field and in microelectronics.


COMPONENTS OF TELEMETRY A telemetry system is often viewed as two components, the Airborne System and the Ground System. In actuality, either or both may be in the air or on the ground.


SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant or equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and transportation. These systems encompass the transfer of data between a SCADA central host computer and a number of Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), and the central host and the operator terminals. A SCADA system gathers information (such as where a leak on a pipeline has occurred), transfers the information back to a central site, then alerts the home station that a leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and displaying the information in a logical and organized fashion. These systems can be relatively simple, such as one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or very complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water system. Traditionally, SCADA systems have made use of the Public Switched Network (PSN) for monitoring purposes. Today many systems are monitored using the infrastructure of the corporate Local Area Network (LAN)/Wide Area Network (WAN). Wireless technologies are now being widely deployed for purposes of monitoring. COMPONENTS ARE ‡ One or more field data interface devices, usually RTUs, or PLCs, which interface to field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and valve actuators ‡ A communications system used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host. The system can be radio, telephone, cable, satellite, etc., or any combination of these. ‡ A central host computer server or servers (sometimes called a SCADA Center, master station, or Master Terminal Unit (MTU) ‡ A collection of standard and/or custom software [sometimes called Human Machine Interface (HMI) software or Man Machine Interface (MMI) software] systems used to provide the SCADA central host and operator terminal application, support the communications system, and monitor and control remotely located field data interface devices TYPICAL SCADA SYSTEM

Field data interface devices form the "eyes and ears" of a SCADA system. Devices such as reservoir level meters, water flow meters, valve position transmitters, temperature transmitters, power consumption meters, and pressure meters all provide information that can tell an experienced operator how well a water distribution system is performing. In addition, equipment such as electric valve actuators, motor control switchboards, and electronic chemical dosing facilities can be used to form the "hands" of the SCADA system and assist in automating the process of distributing water. However, before any automation or remote monitoring can be achieved, the information that is passed to and from the field data interface devices must be converted to a form that is compatible with the language of the SCADA system. To achieve this, some form of electronic field data interface is required. RTUs, also known as Remote Telemetry Units, provide this interface. They are primarily used to convert electronic signals received from field interface devices into the language (known as the communication protocol) used to transmit the data over a communication channel. The protocol is a set of rules that ensures a file is transmitted properly to the receiving computer The instructions for the automation of field data interface devices, such as pump control logic, are usually stored locally. This is largely due to the limited bandwidth typical of communications links between the SCADA central host computer and the field data interface devices. Such instructions are traditionally held within the PLCs, which have in the past been physically separate from RTUs. A PLC is a device used to automate monitoring and control of industrial facilities. It can be used as a stand-alone or in conjunction with a SCADA or other system. PLCs connect directly to field data interface devices and incorporate programmed intelligence in the form of logical procedures that will be executed in the event of certain field conditions.

REFERENCES: www.marineeng.com/scada. www.modcomp.com/scada/virgina_power.html. www.electronics_x.com/electronic/waste water.html www.modular-scada.co.uk/what -is-scada.html www.electronics.com/power generation/scada.html Under the Guidance of Chinna Subbanna.

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