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Glossary ~~~

Adi Granth ~~~

Adi means first, Adi Granth is the name of the first edition of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji that was compiled by Guru Arjun Dev ji in 1604 (AD).

Ahankar~~~

Hankar. I-am-ness; egohood; Haumai.

Akaal Purkh~~~

It means One who is beyond the limits and influence of time. It is used as a name of God (Waheguru).

Akal ~~~

Beyond the limits and influence of time; deathless; immortal.

Akhand Path ~~~

An uninterrupted, continuous recitation of the entire Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji performed by a team of readers called the "Pathis". It takes approximately 48 hours.

Amrit~~~

The nectar, the drink of immortality. It refers to the holy drink. It is prepared by stirring it in an iron bowl with the double-edged sword and continuous recitation of five bani s by the five selected members of the khalsa.

Amrit~~~

Literally, to taste the Amrit, to take the sikh baptism of the double-edged sword (i.e. Khande Bate da Amrit)..After this the initiater is to observe the Rehat Maryada. Any five Singhs can initiate, in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the others to the order of the Khalsa.

Amrit Bani ~~~

A term applied to the Sikh Scriptures, meaning the words that are as sweet and immortalizing as nectar (Amrit).

Amrit Sanchar~~~

The initiation of a person or persons into the Khalsa Phanth. A Sikh when baptized becomes Khalsa. This is done by the Panj Piaras (the five beloveds, i.e. the five singhs chosen for the purpose), in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Amrit Vela (Ambrosial Hours) ~~~

The ambrosial time, the early morning hours before dawn. This is considered an appropriate time for meditation.

Amritdhari ~~~

A Sikh who has taken the baptism of the double-edged sword and has been formally initiated into the Khalsa Panth.

Anand ~~~

A state of bliss which is beyond description.

Anand Karaj ~~~

The Sikh wedding ceremony. This ceremony takes place in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The couple to be married present themselves before Sri Guru Granth Sahib and in the presence of the congregation (Sangat) take four rounds ( Lavan ) around Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji to the accompaniment of the singing of the four stanzas (know as Lavan), composed by Guru Ram Das Ji.

Anand Sahib~~~

A long composition by Sri Guru Amar Das ji, the third Guru Nanak contained in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. It is comprised of 40 stanzas. Six stanzas (the first five and last one) of this bani are recited before the congregation .

Antim Ardas~~~

The prayer performed as the last of the funeral rites of the Sikhs.

Anubhav Prakash~~~

The experience of the existence and presence of God, when one is at wish of divine feelings. The enlightened perception of reality which is enjoyed by a person who has become a Gurmukh.

Artha ~~~

Literally means Wealth. A Sikh may acquire wealth by honest means, but the acquisition of wealth should not become the sole purpose of his life.

Asa Di Var ~~~

Bani which is sung at dawn. It is sung in a special way ( Us Raja Dhun).

Atma~~~

It is the principle of life, feeling, thought and action in man, regarded as a distinct entity separate from the body. It is spiritual part of man which is immortal. The inner man or one s spiritual being, the soul. The atma is a part of Parmatma (God) and is considered immortal like Him.

Avtar~~~

Literally Descent . According to Hinduism, an incarnation of a deity, usually of the Hindu God Vishnu. According to Sikh philosophy, God is sans birth and sans death. He is neither born nor dies. Therefore, Sikhism does not recognize the avtarvad.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 01:27:48 AM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Babar Vani ~~~

It comprises some verses of Sri Guru Nanak Dev (concerning Babar), recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib (On pages 360,417-18,722-23) in which Guru Ji refers to the invasion of India by the Moghul emperor Babar. In the eyes of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Babar s army was a marriage party of the sin (Pap Ki Janj). During this invasion not even the ladies and the nobles were spared dishonour. For the first time, in the history of Indian Literature, Guru Nanak Dev Ji rises, in these verses, the word Hindustan (India).

Baisakhi ~~~

Baisakhi or Vaisakhi is celebrated every year on April 13th. Guru Amardas Ji had initiated the annual gathering of the Sikhs at Goindwal in 1567 on the occasion of Baisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa order on the Baisakhi day in 1699 (the 29th march o f 1699).

Bani~~~

This word is applied to the utterances and writings of the Gurus and the Bhagats which are recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It is thus, an abbreviated form of Gurbani or Bhagat Bani.

Barahmaha~~~

Barahmah is the name of composition in Sri Granth Sahib which mention the twelve months(indian names) in a calendar year.Some famous Baramaha have been composed byGuru Arjan Dev Ji in Raga Majh and by Guru Nanak Dev Ji in Raga Tukhari.

Benati~~~

An humble prayer or earnest entreaty, an appeal for assistance, a supplication.

Bhagat Bani~~~

The compositions of the Bhagats included by Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji, in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Bhog~~~

Conclusion of the reading of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, generally followed by recitation of Gurbani and always followed by the Ardas. The conclusion of a Sikh congregation.

Bole So Nihal ~~~

The first part of the Sikh victory slogan (jaikara) which means `Anyone who speaks will be happy `

Buddha Dal ~~~

The 'army of the veterans' formed by Nawab Kapur Singh in 1733 to look after the Sikh holy places, to preach Sikh tenets and to initiate new converts to the Khalsa order.

Chandoa~~~

The canopy which is hung above Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Chaupada~~~

A poetical composition consisting of four stanzas.

Chaupai~~~

A four line stanza form used by some of the Gurus.

Chaur~~~

Yak hair or Man-made fiber embedded in a metal placed in a wooden handle. It is ceremonially waved over Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as a symbol of respect.

Chela~~~

A disciple of the Guru.

Chola~~~

Clothing of the Guru Sahiban. Also applied to the coverings of the Nishan Sahib at a Gurudwara and the dress of the Nihangs.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 01:33:03 AM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Dasam Granth~~~

The title is a misleading one and as such it has been wrongly translated as the granth of the Tenth Guru (by Lohlin). This book was complied in 1734, that is after the death of the Tenth Master. Its authority has been disputed from the day it was complied. It contains a few writings of Guru Gobind Singh ji and most of the writings of other writers (many of them are unknown).

Daswandh~~~

The giving of one-tenth of one s income in charity.

Dhadi~~~

A minstrel. The traditional singer who used to sing in the praise of the Sikh Gurus and recount the heroic deeds of the Sikhs.

Dharam Yudh~~~

A holy struggle (or war) undertaken as a sacred duty in the defense of righteousness or the cause of religion or a way of life.

Diwali ~~~

The Hindu festival of lights. It is also celebrated by the majority of Sikhs. From the time of Guru Amar Das the Sikhs gathered every year on this day.

Diwan ~~~

Congregational worship where Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is also present.

Doha ~~~

A verse form used commonly by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Bhagat Kabir Ji. It consists of stanzas of two rhyming lines.

Five Vices (Panj dokh)~~~

Kam (lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed), Moh (attachment) and Hankar (pride).

Forty Immortals ( Chalih Mukte)~~~

Forty Sikhs who died in the battle of Muktsar in 1762 and were blessed by Sri Guru Gobind Singh ji.

Gaatra~~~

Sword belt; Kirpan as an article of Sikh faith is generally worn sheathed with a sword belt called Gaatra.

Gaddi~~~

The seat or throne of Gurus. An elevated seat of spiritual leaders.

Gatka ~~~

The Sikh martial art.

Giani~~~

Someone learned in the Sikh religion. Often leads the congregation in prayers, such as Ardas, or in singing kirtan. One who possesses knowledge (gian). A person of spiritual knowledge. A university degree in Panjabi Language, also the person who has attained this degree.

Granthi ~~~

A reader of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. It may be a man or woman, but has to be an Amritdhari. The functionary incharge of a Gurudwara.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

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Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 01:35:02 AM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Grihasth~~~

The Sikh ideal, which requires that one should lead a married life. It states that one should have a family, earn living by honest socially useful employment, serve one's fellow human beings and worship the one wonderful God (Waheguru).

Grihasthi~~~

One who follows the Sikh ideal of Grihasth.

Gurbani~~~

The ultimate guide to moral path comprising of hymns and spiritual utterances of the Gurus and bhagatas compiled in Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Gurmat~~~

A general term for Sikhism, including the teachings of the Gurus, as well as the Rehat Maryada. The Sikh code of conduct.

Gurmatta~~~

Gurmatta or Guru's decision is a special resolution passed by the corporate personality of the Sikh community, it can be taken only by one of the five Takhats in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The Gurmatta has to be unanimous; there is no question of majority view. Its binding on all Sikhs, they should respect and implement it, even if they may not be personally in favour of it.

Gurmukh ~~~

The person who keeps the Guru before self and every thing else and thereby he becomes God-oriented and God-filled. It is opposite of manmukh.

Gurmukhi~~~

The script in which Punjabi language is written. This is the script used in the Sikh scriptures. It was propagated by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Gurpurab~~~

It is religious festival of the Sikhs linked with the celebration of the anniversary of the birth (Prakash Utsav) or death (Jyoti Jot samana) of one of the Sikh Gurus. And also the anniversary of the installation of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, in 1604 and the death anniversaries of the sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Gursikh~~~

Someone who is deeply and sincerely devoted to and follows the teachings of the Guru; a true Sikh or follower of the Guru. His way of life is according to the Guru's teachings, attuned to God's Will.

Guru~~~

A preceptor, giving religious instructions, a spiritual guide. Guru is an epithet used for the founder of Sikhism, Sri Guru Nanak Dev and his nine successors. In Sikh scriptures and literature, the word `Guru does not always refer to a human being. According to the context, it is also used for God, the Guru s word, the Holy Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Panth.

Gurudwara~~~

Literally - the religious place of the Sikhs, which generally is also the center of the social activities. It means the Gateway to the Guru . A Sikh place of worship, open to anyone. Provides food and shelter to travellers and the needy.

Gutka~~~

A small book containing the daily prayers of the Sikhs. It may contain only one prayer, all the five daily prayers and also some additional bani s from Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Hanka~~~

Pride, it is one of the five weaknesses of human beings. (see Panj vikar)

Haumai~~~

The sense of selfhood, I-am ness, egohood, self consciousness or the sense of individuality in man. It is sense of self as filled against the universal soul. It is the tendency of isolating the human soul that leads it to regard as independent of the universal soul. It is main cause of separation of human soul from its creator.

Hola Mohalla~~~

Annual spring gathering of the Sikhs at Anandpur Sahib for contests, in sports and Sikh martial art and warfare. This annual celebration was initiated by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1680 as a substitute for the holi festival of the Hindus, when its believed, that Guru Gobind Singh Ji used to train the Sikhs in mock battles at Anandpur. Literally - Hola means `Hamla` or `Halla (Attack)`.

Hukam~~~

Literally means - Divine Will , the ordered will of God.

Hukamnamah ~~~

A decree issued by the Gurus or the Sikh religio-social authorities concerning the Sikh community.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 10:43:18 PM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Ik~~~

The first word in Guru Granth Sahib, its essence meaning - "God Is One" , the first word of Mool Mantar .

Jaap Sahib~~~

A composition of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. It is read by Sikhs as part of their daily morning prayers. Its in the praise of most beautiful, omnipotent and merciful God

Janam Saakhi~~~

A bibliographic account of the life of Guru Nanak, or even other Gurus.

Japji Sahib~~~

Bani written by Guru Nanak Dev ji which forms part of daily prayer in the morning . Sri Guru Granth Sahib starts with Japji Sahib.

Jathedar~~~

The leader of a jatha group of Sikhs, a leader organizer of the Shiromani Akali Dal, wrongly applied to the appointed head of one of the five Sikh Takhts.

Jhatka Meat ~~~

Meat of an animal which has been killed quickly with one stroke. Guru Gobind Singh dictated that Sikhs cannot eat Muslim Halal (Kuttha) meat, where the animal has been slowly bled to death or has been sacrificed according to a religious ceremony.

Jivan Mukti~~~

The Sikh belief that a person may achieve spiritual liberation (unity with God) during their lifetime and not necessarily only on their death.

Kaam~~~

Lust, one of the five weaknesses. (See five vices)

Kachha (Kachhera)~~~

Special kind of knee-long underpants. One of the five kakaars that an Amritdhari Sikh must wear. It is a symbol of self control.

Kakkas~~~

The five articles of faith, the name of which begins with the Gurmukhi letter -kakka, which resembles in sound to the Roman letter K . Also called that an Amritdhari Sikh must wear the five K's. These are Kesh(the uncut hair), Kirpan(the sword), Kara(the steel/iron bangle), Kanga(the comb) and Kachhera(long underpants). (Also see Panj Kakaars)

Kalyug~~~

An age in which righteousness and Godliness is forgotten, the iron age.

Kangha ~~~

The wooden comb, one of the five kakkas that every member of the Khalsa must wear. It represents hygiene and discipline.

Kar Seva~~~

The term is used to describe any voluntary work carried out for religious purposes.

Kara~~~

Iron bracelet, one of the five kakkas that every member of the Khalsa must wear. It is a symbol of restraint and remembrance of God.

Karah Parshad~~~

A standard sweet pudding like dish served at the conclusion of the religious congregations held in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. It is as sacramental food given in equal measure to all the members of the congregation.

Karma~~~

Action and also the reward or punishment of any action done by man which is given by God s order according to merit of the action, God may give it or withhold it.

Karta Purakh~~~

The Creator of the Universe. Who himself pervades its creation, a name of God (Waheguru).

Katha~~~

A religious, spiritual story or discourse. A detailed expression of Gurbani as enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib or the writing of Bhai Gurdas or one of the major books of Sikh history.

Kaur~~~

The mandatory last name for a Khalsa / Sikh female.

Kesdhari ~~~

A Sikh who does not cut hair, may or may not be Amritdhari.

Kesh~~~

The uncut hair, one of the five kakkas that every member of the Khalsa must have. It is a symbol of spirituality.

Keski~~~

A short turban, worn between the turban and the hair by some of the Sikhs. It is also worn by some Amritdhari Sikh females.

Khalsa~~~

Literally: "The personal property of a King". Khalsa is the name Guru Gobind Singh gave to the Sikhs after having administered Khande ki Pahul (Amrit) for the first time at Baisakhi day in 1699.

Khande Ki Pahul ~~~

The ceremony introduced by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in place of Charanpahul. In it, a double-edged sword is used for preparing Amrit to be dispensed to the person to be baptized.

Kirpan (Sword)~~~

One of the five kakkas that every member of the Khalsa must wear. It is a symbol of fight against injustice and religious oppression.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 10:44:06 PM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Kirtan~~~

Musical rendering of Gurbani, preferrably according to the Raag indicated there on. It is never to be sung to the tunes of film melodies or pop songs.

Kirtan Darbar~~~

An elaborate performance of Kirtan by different Kirtani Jatha s.

Kirtan Sohila~~~

Collection of 5 hymns. Three of these are by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 1 by Guru Ram Das Ji and 1 by Guru Arjun Dev Ji. Sohila is recited as part of the Nitnem at bed time. It also forms a part of the Sikh funeral rites and is recited at the crematory after fire has been set to the dead body to be cremated.

Kirtani Jatha ~~~

A group of professional musicians and singers who sing hymns from the sacred scriptures of the Sikhs.

Krodh~~~

Anger, one of the five weaknesses.

Langar (Community Kitchen)~~~

It is a free community kitchen started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and every Sikh is expected to contribute towards it.

Maghi~~~

Sikh festival held every year on 14th January to commemorate the martyrdom of the Forty Immortals who died fighting in the battle at Muktsar.

Mahant ~~~

The corrupt officials who had control of the Gurudwaras prior to the establishment of Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee in 1925. The Sikhs had to launch a long struggle against them during Gurudwara Sadhar Lahir to free the Gurudwaras from under their control.

Mahla~~~

Pronounced as Maihla. Each of the six Gurus whose compositions have been included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib has used the word Nanak as his pen name. The word Mahla has been used to specify the author of the composition following it. Thus, Mahla 1 stands for Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mahla 2 indicates Guru Angad Dev Ji and Mahla 3 means Guru Amar Das Ji.

Manji Sahib~~~

The small cot or bed upon which Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is placed as a symbol of its sovereignty. Even some of the Gurudwaras have been named as Manji Sahib.

Manmukh~~~

A person who is under the influence of ego, keeps his self or his own mana(mind) before him in relation to all other things including the Guru. He is therefore, self willed and self-centered person and has forgotten God, the opposite of a Gurmukh.

Mattha Tekna~~~

Bowing down and touching the floor with one s forehead in front of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as a sign of reverence and veneration.

Maya~~~

The illusion of the reality of sensory expressions and the feeling of being wrapped up in the material world and being attached to it.

Mela~~~

Any Sikh religious festival other than the celebration of the birth or the death anniversary of the Guru Sahiban.

Miri and Piri ~~~

The concept of spiritual and worldly sovereignty. Sikhs are expected to maintain the balance between the two. This idea was announced by Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, when at the time of his ascension to the Gur-Gaddi, he wore two swords symbolizing Miri and Piri.

Misal~~~

A combination of Sikh leaders in the eighteenh century for the purpose of defence and for the occupation of territories. A group of Sikhs headed by Jathedar in the eighteenth century. There were 12 Misals, each headed by a Jathedar. They were often fighting with each other. Maharaja Ranjit Singh united all the Misals.

Moh~~~

Attachment, one of the five weaknesses.

Mukti~~~

Spiritual liberation from the cycles of birth and death.

Mul~~~

The opening lines of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. It is considered the cornerstone of Sikhism. "God is one. His name is True. He is the Creator. His is without fear. He is inimical to none. His existence is unlimited by time. He is beyond the cycles of birth and death, self existent and can be realized through the grace of the Guru." The Mul Mantra appears over times in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, sometimes in an abbreviated form.

Mundavani~~~

The word means seal and refers to the conclusion in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji and describes the spiritual qualities of reading and following Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 10:55:16 PM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Nagar Kirtan~~~

Outdoor procession led by Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji and five Amritdhari Sikhs usually prior to the celebration of a Gurpurab.

Nagara~~~

A Kettle drum found in some Gurudwaras. It was introduced by Sri Guru Hargobind ji to be beaten when langar was ready. It is a symbol of royal authority.

Nam~~~

Name of God. Sikhism places emphasis on the rememberance of God through meditation on God s name.

Nam Japna~~~

Practice of living in the presence of God.

Nam Japna, Kirt Karna, Vand Chakna~~~

Meditation on God s name, honest hard work and sharing one s earnings with others. These are the three fundamental requirements which a Sikh householder is expected to observe. Guru Nanak Dev Ji says- those who earn their livelihood through work and give away a part of it to the charity. Such ones, know the ways to God. (See Langar)

Nam Simran~~~

The rememberance of God through meditation.

Nihang~~~

Literally means - an alligator who is supreme in the waters. It is an order of the Sikhs who follow the lifestyle of the Sikh soldiers of time of Guru Gobind Singh ji. They wear blue robes and practice martial arts.

Nirankar~~~

A name of God meaning - the One who has no physical form.

Nirgun~~~

Applied to God, meaning One without form or material attributes.

Nitnem~~~

Literally - the daily routine, the daily prayers that a Sikh is expected to read. Nitnem consists of reading Japji Sahib of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Jaap and Ten Swayyas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the morning, Rehras, a collection of nine hymns by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Amar Das Ji and Guru Arjun Dev Ji at sunset and Sohila comprising, five hymns by the three Gurus at bedtime.

Onkar~~~

God as the Primal Being. It also refers to a compositon of Guru Nanak Dev Ji which appears in Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Palki~~~

A palanquin ; the wooden, metal or marble palanquin in which Sri Guru Granth Sahib is ceremonially installed.

Panj Kakkas~~~

Literally - the five things the names of which begine with K . The five articles of faith which must be worn at all times by every member of Khalsa. These are: Kesh (uncut hairs), Kachhera (special type of resembling knickers), Kangha (a wooden comb), Kara (iron bracelet) and Kirpan (the sword). These five articles of faith are also called the five symbols, because in one sense they are merely external observances.

Panj Piaras~~~

The five beloved ones, referring to the first five Sikhs initiated into the Khalsa order by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They are the Five Khalsa Sikhs who initiate a new member into the Khalsa Panth.

Panth~~~

The entire Sikh community.

Parkarma~~~

The walkway around the sarovar found at many Gurudwaras; circum ambulation.

Path~~~

Reading of Gurbani.

Patit~~~

A Khalsa Sikh who has failed to live upto the vows of the Khalsa order and has committed one of the 4 cardinal sins (Karuhits).

Pothi~~~

A book or volume of religious hymns.

Prakash Karna~~~

The early morning ceremony when Sri Guru Granth Sahib is formally opened and the day s worship begins.

Raag~~~

One of the melodic formulae of Indian Music having the melodic shape, rhythm and ornamentation prescribed by tradition. (See some dictionary of Music)

Ragi~~~

One who sings the hymns of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Literally - an expert in the raaga vidya.

Ragi~~~

One who sings the hymns of Sri Guru granth Sahib. Literally of an expert in the raga vidya.

Raj Karega Khalsa~~~

The battle cry of the Sikhs during the rule of Banda Singh Bahadur meaning "The Khalsa shall rule".

Rehat Maryada~~~

The Sikh Code of Conduct finalized by .. institutions and representative bodies of the Sikhs published and distributed free by the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. Its English and Hindi translations have also now been published by the SGPC.

Rehat Nama~~~

A manual of conduct for the Khalsa. There are a number of them written by various Sikhs dating back to the eighteenth century.

Rehras~~~

A collection of 9 hymns, 4 by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 3 by Guru Ram Das Ji and 2 by Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji, which are read at sunset as part of Nitnem.

Rumala~~~

The piece of cloth which is used as a ceremonial cover for Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 10:56:21 PM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Saakhi~~~

Story about a Guru.

Sach Khand~~~

The realm of truth, the final stage of spiritual ascent where the believer becomes one with God.

Sadh Sangat~~~

Literally - an association or congregation of the Sadh or pious persons. A Sikh congregation or community.

Sahaj~~~

The state of spiritual equipoise resulting from the attainment of union with God.

Sahaj Path~~~

A non-continous reading of the entire Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The period of time for finishing the entire reading is not fixed.

Sahib~~~

A term of respect used for the Sikh Guru. It is also applied to the historical Gurudwaras and personages.

Sahibzada~~~

An epithet used for the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh named Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. All of them died as marytrs to the Sikh faith. While Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh died fighting in the battle at Chamkaur Sahib; the younger Sahibzadas Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh embraced martyrdown by being bricked alive at Sirhind where Gurudwara stands to their memory.

Sangat~~~

A religious assembly or congregation. A congregation of Sikhs; the collective body of the Sikhs at a particular place.

Sangrand~~~

The first day of the month according to the Indian calendar. The relevant portion of the composition Barahmaha by Guru Nanak Dev Ji or Guru Arjun Dev Ji relating to each month is read out. (See Sahib Singh- Baramaha)

Sant~~~

Literally - a holy person or saint. In Sri Guru Granth Sahib only the Gurus or God have been addressed as Sant. Even Kabir, Namdev etc. have been referred to as Bhagats and not Sants.

Sarbat Khalsa~~~

A representative meeting of all the Sikhs to consider important matters concerning the Panth.

Saropa~~~

Literally - head to foot, a robe or token of honour, gift of honour presented to a person or persons by the Sikh community. Usually a length of cloth for tying a turban or a scarf worn over the shoulders.

Sarovar~~~

The pool or a tank for bathing found at many Gurudwaras.

Sat Guru~~~

The supreme Guru, God.

Sat Sri Akal~~~

The answer to the Jaikara, the Sikh war-cry. It means "The Immortal God is True" .

Satyug~~~

An era in which Truth prevails, the opposite of Kalyug.

Seli~~~

A woolen cord worn by Guru Nanak Dev Ji around his turban. It was worn as a symbol of living in the world but not being engrossed in the worldly matters. It was passed on to each successive Guru upto Guru Hargobind Ji who chose to wear the two swords Miri and Piri instead of the Seli.

Seva~~~

Service to one s fellow beings, one of the cornerstones of the Sikh way of life.

Seva Panthi~~~

A Sikh whose life is devoted to the service of the Sikh community.

Shabad~~~

The religious hymns contained in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Shaheed ~~~

The person - Arabic meaning of this word is `A Witness`. Title used before the name of someone who has died for the Sikh faith as a martyr.

Shalok~~~

Couplet found in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.)~~~

Committee which oversees the administration of the historical Gurudwaras in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. It also publishes the literature on Sikhism alongwith undertaking the establishment and management of many Sikh educational institutions.

Sikhi~~~

The teachings of Sikhism, the Sikh way of life.

Sikhia~~~

Advice given to the couple during the Sikh marriage ceremony.

Singh~~~

Literally - a Lion, the common last name of the male Sikhs. It is a compulsory last name of the baptized male Sikhs.

Sodar~~~

Literally - that door or gate, A composition with the tittle so daru ragu Asa Mahala Pahila composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It is the hymn sung by Sikhs at Gurudwaras at sunset.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji~~~

The eternal (word) Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji bestowed the Guruship on Sri Guru Granth Sahib and thus stopped the practice of the human gurus in Sikhism. It is used by Sikhs for meditation, guidance, comfort and inspiration.

Sukh Asan~~~

The formal final closure of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, at the end of the day at a Gurudwara.

Sukhmani Sahib ~~~

A major composition of Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Jai Sai Ram~~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title: Re: Glossary ~~~ Post by: tana on October 05, 2007, 10:58:44 PM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Om Sai Ram~~~

Takht~~~

Literally - a throne, a seat of Sikh authority. There are five Gurudwaras which are designated as Takhts. These are: Sri Akal Takht Sahib (at Amritsar, opposite Sri Harimandir Sahib), Sri Damdama Sahib, Takht

Keshgarh Sahib (at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab), Sri Hazoor Sahib (at Nanded) and Takht Patna Sahib (at Patna, Bihar).

Tankhaiya~~~

A person who has committed a religious offence meriting punishment.

Waheguru~~~

The Sikh name of God.

Waheguru~~~

Sikh salutation.

Zafarnama~~~

The Zafarnama, literally meaning an Episode of Victory , is a historical letter written in haste person after the battle of Chamkaur Sahib (in 1705 AD) by Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Emperor Aurangzeb. The Zafarnama depicts Aurangzeb as a biased, cunning and a willful hypocrite and a deceitful oath-breaker whose oaths on the Quran were fraudulent and meaningless. It is the only reliable source which provides a vivid and detailed description of the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.