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THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
The number of neutrons can vary slightly for a given element (isotopes) Atomic weight is equal to average number of nucleons in nucleus
Radioactivity: Birth of a new science
Milestones (important events) leading to establishment of nuclear science as a subject Discovery of X-Rays by W.C. Roentgen XDiscovery of Radioactivity by H. Becquerel Discovery of Polonium and Radium by Marie and Pierre Curies Discovery of electron by J.J. Thompson Classification of radioactive emissions by E. Rutherford Discovery of atomic nucleus by E. Rutherford Enunciation of Rutherford-Soddy displacement law RutherfordDiscovery of neutron by J. Chadwick Discovery of artificial radioactivity by Irene and J. Curies Discovery of nuclear fission by O. Hahn and Strassmann
Inner electron shell Proton Nucleus
Neutron Outer electron shell
Relative scale model of an atom and the solar system
Do you perceive a gold ring to contain a larger fraction of solid matter than the solar system?
On this scale, the nearest star would be a little over 10,000 miles away
• Z = atomic number or proton number, is the number of protons in the nucleus. • N = neutron number, is the number of neutrons in the nucleus. • A = Z + N = mass number, is the number of nucleons in the nucleus. A • In general, the notation is Z X N • For example, 12 C6 has atomic mass 12.000 6
Radioactivity • Questions
– How and why do nuclei decay? – How do we use nuclear decay to tell time? – What is the evidence for presence of now extinct radionuclides in the early solar system? – How much do you really need to know about secular equilibrium and the U-series?
– First-order ordinary differential equations
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)
fermi (f) = 10-15 m
r = 1.2 A1/3 (in f) ------------------------Helium: A = 4 r = 1.2 (4)1/3 = 1.9 f ------------------------Uranium: A = 238 r = 1.2 (238)1/3 = 7.4 f
Protons which would otherwise strongly repel at close distances are held in place by an extremely strong, but extremely short range force called the strong force. Other names for the strong force are strong nuclear force, or nuclear force. STRONG FORCE Protons and neutrons in the nucleus are collectively referred to as nucleons. The strong force between two protons is about the same as the strong force between two neutrons, or a proton and a neutron.
Beyond about one fermi the strong force declines extremely rapidly. As more protons are added to the nucleus, more neutrons are needed to bind the protons together, but the larger the nucleus becomes, the farther apart are the protons and the less effective is the strong force
Isotopes: Nuclides with same atomic number but different atomic weight (or different neutron number) All the nuclides belong to the same element 1 2 3 12 13 1H , 1H (D), 1H (T) 6C , 6C 234, U235, U238 92U 92 92
39 40 41 19K , 19K , 19K
Isobars: Nuclides with same atomic weight but different atomic number (Nuclides belong to different elements) Ar40, 19K40, 20Ca40 18 Isotones: Nuclides with the same number of neutrons. 12 13 5B , 6C both have 7 Neutrons Mirror nuclei: Nuclides with neutron and proton number interchanged N15 and 8O15 7
In general, the mass defect is calculated by summing the mass of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom, and subtracting the atom’s actual atomic mass. The general formula is: Md = Zmp + Nmn - Ma Where Z is the atomic number, N is the number of neutrons in the atom, and Ma is the actual measured mass of the atom. Placing Md into Einstein's equation for relating mass and energy gives the energy release from forming the atom from its constituent particles: E = Mdc2
Electric force is longer range than the strong force. Eventually separation becomes too great for the strong force to compensate for the repulsive forces. Nuclei spontaneously disintegrate for proton numbers larger than 83. The release of light and or particles which accompanies the disintegration is called radiation, first discovered by Henri Becquerel in 1896.
Fundamental law of radioactive decay
• Each nucleus has a fixed probability of decaying per unit time. Nothing affects this probability (e.g., temperature, pressure, bonding environment, etc.)
[exception: very high pressure promotes electron capture slightly]
• This is equivalent to saying that averaged over a large enough number of atoms the number of decays per unit time is proportional to the number of atoms present. dN • Therefore in a closed system: (Equation 3.1) = − λN dt
– N = number of parent nuclei at time t – λ = decay constant = probability of decay per unit time (units: s–1)
• To get time history of number of parent nuclei, (3.2) integrate 3.1: N (t ) = No e− λt
– No = initial number of parent nuclei at time t = 0.
• The mean life τ of a parent nuclide is given by the number present divided by the removal rate (recall this
later when we talk about residence time):
N 1 τ= = λN λ
– This is also the “e-folding” time of the decay:
− λτ −1
N (τ ) = No e
No = e
• The half life t1/2 of a nucleus is the time after which half the parent remains: No ln 2 .693 − λt1/2 ⇒ λt1/ 2 = ln2 ⇒ t1/2 = (3.3) N (t1/ 2 ) = = Noe ≈ 2 λ λ • The activity is decays per unit time, denoted by parentheses: ( N ) = λN (3.4)
Decay of parent
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5
λNo 2 λNo e
slope = -1
t 1/2 τ
t 1/2 τ
Some dating schemes only consider measurement of parent nuclei because initial abundance is somehow known.
• cosmic rays create a roughly constant atmospheric 14C inventory, so that living matter has a roughly constant 14C/C ratio while it exchanges CO2 with the environment through photosynthesis or diet. After death this 14C decays with half life 5730 years. Hence even through the daughter 14N is not retained or measured, age is calculated using: 14
ln 14 λ14 ( C) / C
( C) / C
Modes of decay
• A nucleus will be radioactive if by decaying it can lower the overall mass, leading to larger (negative) nuclear binding energy
– Yet another manifestation of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics
• Nuclei can spontaneously transform to lower mass nuclei by one of five processes
– – – – – α-decay β-decay positron emission electron capture spontaneous fission
• Each process transforms a radioactive parent nucleus into one or more daughter nuclei.
Emission of an α-particle or 4He nucleus (2 neutrons, 2 protons)
# pr ot ons
92 91 90
The parent decreases its mass number by 4, atomic number by 2. Example: 238U -> 234Th + 4He Mass-energy budget: 238U 238.0508 amu 234Th –234.0436 4He –4.00260 mass defect 0.0046 amu = 0.0046 x 930.5 = 4.5 MeV
2 2 2 2 2 35 35
23 23 8
144 145 146 # neutrons
23 23 7 7 7 7 3 3 3 36 4 4
on le uc
AX → A−4Y + 4He Z Z −2 2
X is called the parent nucleus and Y is called the daughter nucleus
This is the preferred decay mode of nuclei heavier than 209Bi with a proton/neutron ratio along the valley of stability
Emission of an electron (and an antineutrino) during conversion of a neutron into a proton The mass number does not change, β-decay the atomic number increases by 1.
# prot ons
n eo l uc s
49 50 # neutrons
Example: 87Rb -> 87Sr + e– + ν Mass-energy budget: 87Rb 86.909186 amu 87Sr –86.908882 mass defect 0.0003 amu = 0.0003 x 931 = 0.28 MeV
The emission of the electron is from the nucleus The nucleus contains protons and neutrons The process occurs when a neutron is transformed into a proton and an electron Energy must be conserved
This is the preferred decay mode of nuclei with excess neutrons compared to the valley of stability
87 87 86 86 86 86
A Z A Z
X→ Y + e + ν
A X→ Z−1Y + e + + ν
A Z +1
– ν is the symbol for the neutrino – ν is the symbol for the antineutrino
• To summarize, in beta decay, the following pairs of particles are emitted
– An electron and an antineutrino – A positron and a neutrino
β+-decay and electron capture
Emission of a positron (and a neutrino) or capture of an inner-shell electron during conversion of a proton into a neutron Electron Capture The mass number does not change, 19 K the atomic number decreases by 1.
# prot ons
n eo cl s
21 22 # neutrons
Examples: 40K -> 40Ar + e+ + ν 50V+ e– -> 50Ti + ν + γ
In positron emission, most energy is liberated by remote matter-antimatter annihilation. In electron capture, a gamma ray carries off the excess energy.
4 41 4 4 0 0 39 39 39 39
These are the preferred decay modes of nuclei with excess protons compared to the valley of stability
• Gamma rays are given off when an excited nucleus “falls” to a lower energy state
– Similar to the process of electron “jumps” to lower energy states and giving off photons
• The excited nuclear states result from “jumps” made by a proton or neutron • The excited nuclear states may be the result of violent collision or more likely of an alpha or beta emission • Example of a decay sequence 12 B→12 C * + e − + ν 5 6
– The first decay is a beta emission 12 C*→12 C + γ 6 6 – The second step is a gamma emission
Certain very heavy nuclei, particular those with even mass numbers (e.g., 238U and 244Pu) can spontaneously fission. Odd-mass heavy nuclei typically only fission in response to neutron capture (e.g., 235U, 239Pu)
10 235 1
There is no fixed daughter product but rather a statistical distribution of fission products with two peaks (most fissions are asymmetric). Because of the curvature of the valley of stability, most fission daughters have excess neutrons and tend to be radioactive (β-decays). You can see why some of the isotopes people worry about in nuclear fallout are 91Sr and 137Cs. Recoil of daughter products leave fission tracks of damage in crystals about 10 µm long, which only heal above ~300°C and are therefore useful for low-temperature thermochronometry.
Fission Yield ( %)
Atomic Mass (amu)
• Classification of nuclei – Unstable nuclei found in nature • Give rise to natural radioactivity – Nuclei produced in the laboratory through nuclear reactions • Exhibit artificial radioactivity • Three series of natural radioactivity exist – Uranium-235 (4n + 3 series) Uraniumends at Pb-207 Pb– Uranium-238 (4n + 2 series) Uraniumends at Pb-206 Pb– Thorium-232 (4n series) Thoriumends at Pb-208 Pb4n + 1 series starting from Neptunium-237 is extinct Neptuniumends at Bi-209 Bi-
Uses of Radioactivity
• Carbon Dating – Beta decay of 14C is used to date organic samples – The ratio of 14C to 12C is used • Smoke detectors – Ionization type smoke detectors use a radioactive source to ionize the air in a chamber – A voltage and current are maintained – When smoke enters the chamber, the current is decreased and the alarm sounds • Radon pollution – Radon is an inert, gaseous element associated with the decay of radium – It is present in uranium mines and in certain types of rocks, bricks, etc that may be used in home building – May also come from the ground itself
• Structure of nuclei can be changed by bombarding them with energetic particles
– The changes are called nuclear reactions
• As with nuclear decays, the atomic numbers and mass numbers must balance on both sides of the equation
Which of the following are possible reactions?
(a) and (b). Reactions (a) and (b) both conserve total charge and total mass number as required. Reaction (c) violates conservation of mass number with the sum of the mass numbers being 240 before reaction and being only 223 after reaction.
Determine the product of the reaction What is the Q value of the reaction?
7 Li + 4 He → X ? + n Y 3 2
In order to balance the reaction, the total amount of nucleons (sum of A-numbers) must be the same on both sides. Same for the Z-number. Number of nucleons (A): Number of protons (Z): Thus, it is B, i.e.
7 + 4 = X + 1 ⇒ X = 10 3+ 2 = Y + 0 ⇒ Y = 5
Find: Q=? The Q-value is then
4 Li + 2 He → 10 B + 01n 5
Q = ( ∆m ) c 2 = m7 Li + m 4 He − m10 B − mn c 2 = −2.79MeV
Processes of Nuclear Energy
– A nucleus of large mass number splits into two smaller nuclei
– Two light nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus
• Large amounts of energy are released in either case
• A heavy nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei • The total mass of the products is less than the original mass of the heavy nucleus • First observed in 1939 by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman following basic studies by Fermi • Lisa Meitner and Otto Frisch soon explained what had happened • Fission of 235U by a slow (low energy) neutron
n+ 235 U→236 U* → X + Y + neutrons 92 92
– 236U* is an intermediate, short-lived state – X and Y are called fission fragments
• Many combinations of X and Y satisfy the requirements of conservation of energy and charge
Sequence of Events in Fission
• The 235U nucleus captures a thermal (slow-moving) neutron • This capture results in the formation of 236U*, and the excess energy of this nucleus causes it to undergo violent oscillations • The 236U* nucleus becomes highly elongated, and the force of repulsion between the protons tends to increase the distortion • The nucleus splits into two fragments, emitting several neutrons in the process
Natural (radioactive) decay (fission) Neutron-induced fission
• Many heavy elements (eg. Uranium) decay (slowly) into lighter elements (natural decay) • However, this fission can also be induced by an incoming neutron. • Fission reaction release a lot of energy. • Fission often creates new neutrons!!
Fission and chain reaction
Fission releases neutrons … … these neutrons cause new fission reactions in surrounding Uranium … … creating more neutrons … … chain reaction
Energy in a Fission Process
• Binding energy for heavy nuclei is about 7.2 MeV per nucleon • Binding energy for intermediate nuclei is about 8.1 MeV per nucleon • Therefore, the fission fragments have less mass than the nucleons in the original nuclei • This decrease in mass per nucleon appears as released energy in the fission event • An estimate of the energy released – Assume a total of 236 nucleons – Releases about 0.9 MeV per nucleon • 8.1 MeV – 7.2 MeV – Total energy released is about 212 Mev • This is very large compared to the amount of energy released in chemical processes
• Neutrons are emitted when 235U undergoes fission • These neutrons are then available to trigger fission in other nuclei • This process is called a chain reaction –If uncontrolled, a violent explosion can occur –The principle behind the nuclear bomb, where 1 g of U can release energy equal to about 20000 tons of TNT
Carbon dating is a variety of radioactive dating which is applicable only to matter which was once living and presumed to be in equilibrium with the atmosphere, taking in carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis. Cosmic ray protons blast nuclei in the upper atmosphere, producing neutrons which in turn bombard nitrogen, the major constituent of the atmosphere . This neutron bombardment produces the radioactive isotope carbon-14. carbonThe radioactive carbon-14 combines with carbonoxygen to form carbon dioxide and is incorporated into the cycle of living things. The carbon-14 forms at a rate which appears to be constant, so that by carbonmeasuring the radioactive emissions from once-living matter and oncecomparing its activity with the equilibrium level of living things, a measurement of the time elapsed can be made. made.
Radioactive half-life of a given radioisotope is not affected halfby temperature, physical or chemical state, or any other influence of the environment outside the nucleus. nucleus. Radioactive samples continue to decay at a predictable rate. rate. This makes several types of radioactive dating feasible. feasible. There are two main uncertainties in the dating process: process: 1. What was the amount of the daughter element when the rocks were formed? 2. Have any of the parent or daughter atoms been added or removed during the process?
Balancing Nuclear Decay Equations
--------> 90Th234 + 2He4 ----------------------------------------Subscripts are "proton numbers" Superscripts are "nucleon numbers"
Proton and nucleon counts must be the same: 92 = 90 + 2 238 = 234 + 4
Distribution of Energy in Alpha Emission
∆m = 0.0046 u E = 0.0046 x 931 = 4.3 MeV ----------------------Which particle has the greater kinetic energy?
Energy Distribution in Radioactive Decay Conservation of momentum: Mv = mV Ratio of kinetic energies: KEm / KEM: (1/2 mV2) / (1/2 Mv2) = (m/M)(V2/v2) = (m/M)(V/v)2
Rearranging, we get V/v = M/m (3) Substitute (3) into (1): Ratio = (m/M)(M/m)2 (4) = M/m Smaller mass gets more energy
Alpha particles emitted from source ionize the air and provide the charge necessary to conduct current through the air. Charges stick to the heavy smoke particles and the current drops, causing the alarm to buzz.
Wavelength of a Gamma Ray What is the wavelength of a 1 MeV gamma ray? Using the 1234 rule: λ = 1234 eV-nm / E = 1234 eV-nm / 1 x 106 eV = 1.23 x 10-6 nm = 1.23 x 10-15 m = 1.23 fermi This gamma radiation is extraordinarily harmful to humans and other living things since its wavelength is comparable to the diameter of a nucleon; transmutations are likely when such radiation reaches nuclei.
Measuring the Age of Organic Matter
A German tourist in the Italian Alps discovered the remains of the "Iceman" in the ice of a glacier in 1991
Calculating the Iceman's Age
The current activity per gram of carbon is 0.23 Bq per gram. Iceman's carbon showed 0.121, or about half what it would be if the Iceman were alive. Since the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5700 years, the Iceman's remains are about 5700 years old.
The Shroud of Turin Since the1354 AD, a yellowing piece of linen 14-ft long has been stored in Turin, Italy. It bears the image of a person who seems to be wearing a crown of thorns. Could the Shroud of Turin have been the burial cloth of a person who died two thousand years ago?
Dating of the Shroud of Turin
At the time of the public exhibition of the shroud in 1354, a bishop declared it to be fraud. Most religious bodies take a neutral stance on the shroud's authenticity. In 1988, three laboratories were given four pieces of fabric; three were control pieces similar in appearance, and one was a piece from the shroud. The labs all agreed that the shroud was 608728 years old, which means that it came into existence sometime between1260 and 1380 AD, a time span which includes the year the shroud was first shown to the public.
In 1934, Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie discover the artificial radioactivity, making a great step toward the use and the control of radioactivity. For this discovery, they received the Nobel price of chemistry in 1935. They were the first to show that mankind could build under control some news radioactive nuclei. By shooting an aluminium sheet with alpha particles (helium nuclei), they were able to make radioactive phosphorus, a new isotope of the stable phosphorus that was never observed in nature. They demonstrated it by chemically isolating the phosphorus produced before it becomes silicium by its radioactivity. The creation an unnatural radioactive element is what we call the creation of artificial radioactivity.
In 1930 Paul Dirac calculated the existence of electrons with positive charges. These "anti-electrons" would be expected to have the same mass as the electron, but opposite electric charge. In 1932 Carl Anderson was examining tracks produced by cosmic rays in a cloud chamber. One particle made a track like an electron, but the curvature of its path in the magnetic field showed that it was positively charged. He named this positive electron a positron. We know that the particle Anderson detected was the anti-electron predicted by Dirac. An electron and positron annihilate one another producing two gamma rays (β- + β+® γ + γ). Irene Curie-Joliot (1897-1956), the daughter of Marie & Pierre, and her husband Frédéric Joliot prepared phosphorus-30 by bombarding aluminum with alpha particles..
Phosphorus-30 does not occur in nature and is radioactive. This was the first artificial radioactive substance ever prepared. Aside from the three natural types of radioactivity (α,β,γ), artificially made nuclei can undergo: Both positron emission and electron capture tend to occur for radioactive isotopes that need to convert a proton into a neutron. The Curie-Joliots were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935 for discovering artificial radioactivity.
Atoms are rearranged by Elements (or isotopes of the breaking and formation the same elements) are of chemical bonds converted from one to another Only electrons in atomic Protons, neutrons, orbitals are involved in the electrons and other breaking and forming of elementary particles may bonds be involved Absorption or release of Absorption or release of small amounts of energy tremendous amounts of energy Rates of reactions are Rates of reactions are NOT affected by temperature, affected by temperature, pressure, concentration pressure, concentration and catalysts and catalysts
Producing Radioactive Isotopes: TRANSMUTATION is the process of changing one element into another. A stable atom can be bombarded with fast-moving a particles, protons, or neutrons. A radioactive isotope is called a RADIOISOTOPE.
Half-Life: The HALF-LIFE of a radioisotope is the amount of time it takes for half of the sample to decay. A DECAY CURVE is a graph of the decay of a radioisotope (amount vs. time). Some radioisotopes have long half-lives. For other radioisotopes, the half-life can be short.
Radioactivity Penetrating power of different forms of radiation:
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CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + some energy
One molecule or element reacts with another one. Get a rearrangement (different combination) of elements.
No new elements are created (C, H, O before and C, H, O after)
– a nuclear reaction As an example, when uranium 238 emits an alpha particle, it loses 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
U −− >
Th + He
– Nuclear reactions must balance just like any other chemical reaction, but we must also be aware of balancing protons and neutrons
Nuclear reactions occur when a nucleus is struck by a particle or other nucleus.
1 4C 6
1 7O 8
1 + 1H
14 N 7
•The second reaction was observed by Rutherford and is the first nuclear reaction observed. •It should be noted that in the first reaction, the neutron can enter the nucleus with very little energy but the 4He is repelled by the nucleus and thus has to overcome the Coulomb barrier in order to come close enough to cause a nuclear reaction.
Parameter Reaction Mechanism Species Energy change
Chemical Reaction H + H → H2 Interaction of electrons Do not change
Nuclear Reaction H + H → 2H (D) Interaction of nuclei New species form
∆H = 104.2 kCal/mol Q = 33.47 x 106 1.73 x 10-22 kCal.atom kCal/mol 5.56 x 10-17 kCal/atom (4.5 eV/atom) (1.452 MeV/atom) Conservatio Maintained Maintained n of mass and energy
Radioactivity in Nature Our world is radioactive and has been since it was created Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive isotopes) can be found in nature. Radionuclides are found in air, water, food and soil Radionuclides are even found in our body Everyday we ingest and inhale radionuclides
In addition to radionuclides found in nature We have Cosmogenic radionuclides: formed as a result of cosmic ray interactions Man-made radionuclides
Number of radionuclides > 2000 Number of elements: 111
Natural Radioactivity in soil How much natural radioactivity is found in a volume of soil that is 2.6 sq KM, 30 cm deep (total volume = 7.894 x 105 m3)
Every day, we ingest/inhale nuclides in our air we breath, in the food we eat and the water we drink. Radioactivity is common in the rocks and soil that makes up our planet, in the water and oceans, and even in our building materials and homes. It is just everywhere. There is no where on Earth that you can get away from Natural Radioactivity. Radioactive elements are often called radioactive isotopes or radionuclides. There are over 1,500 different radioactive nuclides
Natural Radioactivity in Food
Food Banana Carrot White potatoes Beer Red meat Drinking water
3,520 3,400 3,400 390 3,000 -----
1 0.6 - 2 1 – 2.5 ---0.5 0 – 0.17
Handbook of radiation measurement and protection
Radionuclides in building materials
Material Granite Sandstone Cement Limestone concrete Sandstone concrete Dry wallboard Byproduct gypsum Natural gypsum Wood Clay brick
Uranium (µg/g) (µg/g) 4.7 0.45 3.4 2.3 0.8 1 13.7 1.1 8.2
Thorium (µg/g) (µg/g) 2 1.7 5.1 2.1 2.1 3 16.1 1.8 10.8
Potassium (µg/g) (µg/g) 4 1.4 0.8 0.3 1.3 0.3 0.02 0.5 11.3 2.3
Some radionuclides in human body
Nuclide Total mass Total of nuclide activity in the body 90 µg 30 µg 1.1 Bq 0.11 Bq 4.4 kBq 1.1 Bq 15 kBq 23 Bq Daily intake 1.9 µg 3 µg 0.39 mg 2.3 pg 1.8 µg 0.003 pg
Potassium- 17 mg 40 Radium 31 pg Carbon-14 95 µg Tritium 0.06 pg
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