Organizational Behavior (Moorhead & Griffin, 2004
COMMUNICATION: 1. Achieve Coordinated Action 2. Share information: Organizational Goals, Task directives, Results of Efforts, Decision Making 3. Express Feelings and Emotions Methods: 1. Written Letters, Memos, Reports, Manuals, Forms Official, Clear, etc 2. Oral Informal Conversations, Task-Related Exchanges, Group Discussions, Formal Speeches Direct Contact, allows Feedback (i.e. for time-sensitive issues), vital for Technical issues 3. Non-Verbal Human Elements (facial expressions, body language), Environmental Elements (office design, building architecture) Process: Source Receiver
Transactional Communication Model: acknowledges neither creators nor consumers. Both ends create and consume messages. Noise can be/is inserted at all phases
A Transactional Model of Communication Process (Foulger, 2004) Communication Networks (small groups): 1. 2. 3. 4. Wheel (manager in middle) Chain (pyramid: manager on top) Circle (equality) All-Channel
Communication Problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Source: Filtering Encoding/Decoding: lack of common experience, semantics/jargon, medium problems Receiver: selective attention, value judgments, lack of source credibility, overload Feedback: Omission Organizational Factors: noise, status differences, time pressures, overload, communication structure
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1959) (p. 1988) (p.MOTIVATION Content Theories (attempt to explain the particular cause(s) of human behavior (Myers. 2003):
Luthans (1989) Theories of Motivation
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. Power. 1969) (p. Friends. Two Factor theory (Herzberg. Satisfaction-Progression scheme 2. Base to top: Base salary. Pension plan.137): “focus on the method or process in which motivation occurs” (Myers. Challenging job. Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) theory (Alderfer. 2003)):
Luthans (1989) Content Theories Summary/Comparison 1. Job title. 1954) (p.126): Motivation factors affecting satisfaction and Hygiene factor determining dissatisfaction 3.125): FrustrationRegression scheme 4. and Achievement (bottom to top) Process Theories (p. Hierarchy of Needs theory (Maslow.121): Needs cause behavior.128): Needs for Affiliation. Needs theory (McClelland.
2001). i. colleagues). 1964) (p. Change Outcomes c.139): Treatment in relation to relevant others (i.143): How much something is wanted and the – perceived – likelihood of having it: Effort Performance (affected by Environment and Ability) Outcome 3.1.e. 1968) (p. Change Comparison f. Change Inputs b.e. Goal theory (Locke. 1963) (p. Perception or belief of treatment instead of objectivity (Gannon. Leave Situation 2. Expectancy theory (Vroom.191): Behaviour is result of conscious goals and intentions: Goal Difficulty & Goal Specificity Goal Directed Effort (affected by Goal Acceptance and Goal Commitment) Performance (affected by Organizational Support and Self-Abilities & Traits) Rewards (Intrinsic & Extrinsic) Satisfaction
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. Equity theory (Adams. Motivation to reduce Inequity: a. Alter Perception of Other e. Alter Perception of Self d.
Charisma Behavioral Approach (p. Friendly Situational Favorableness: 1. Achievement-Orientated: focus on challenging goals showing strong confidence on their accomplishment Situational Factors: 1. non-routine 3. Honesty and Integrity.354): how much participation subordinates should be allowed in making decisions. respect. Unstructured: complex. punishments. then decide 4.348): leadership effectiveness depends on the match of Leader’s Personality and Situation. Job-Centered: focus on Work of subordinates. Ohio Leadership Studies: a. Motivation. Consult-Group: obtain suggestions. Knowledge of business. Michigan Leadership Studies: a. Task Structure: a. Cognitive ability. 1967) (p.LEADERSHIP: is both a Process and a Property
Trait Approach (p. Subordinates’ Personal Characteristics: a. Employee-Centered: focus on Effective Work-Groups with high Performance Goals 2. Authority System c. Leader Position Power: control over subordinates’ work assignments. performance b. Decide: announce (sell) decision already made 2. well-being.342): Drive. Task Structure b. promotions
Path–Goal Theory (Evans.351): effective leaders clarify the paths (behaviors) leading to desired rewards (Goals). Leader-Member Relations: trust. tasks. Measurement: 1. needs 3. Consult-Individually: obtain suggestions. Perceived Ability: 2. work procedures. schedules 2. Consideration Behavior: focus on subordinates’ Feelings and Ideas b. Structured: simple. Supportive: focus on concern. Directive: precise goals. 1970 and House. Locus of Control: affect happenings Vs believe in happenings due to external forces b. Work Group LPC – Path-Goal DIFFERENCE: the latter assumes that leaders can change their behavior and exhibit any or all of the Path-Goal Leadership Styles
Decision Tree Approach (Vroom & Yetton. then decide
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. Initiating-Structure Behavior: focus on clear definition of subordinates’ Roles (expected outcome)
LPC (Least Preferred Coworker) Theory (Fiedler. easy. Styles are: 1. Delegate: pass-on 3. confidence. Environmental Characteristics: a. rewards. etc 2. Participative: focus on consultancy 4. Pleasant 2. Self-Confidence. Sufficient 3. Behaviors: 1. 1971) (p.344): 1. Subordinates are motivated by their leader to the extent that the behaviors of that leader influence their expectancies. 1973) (p. routine b.
Telling style: Low readiness 2. assign decision making
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. experience. 1975) (p. Leader-Member Exchange Model (Graen & Cashman.359): leader behavior depends on the Readiness (i. Selling style: Low-Mid Readiness. Delegating style: High Readiness. motivation. Depending on readiness level: 1.5. sharing decision making 4. 3.358): focus on leaders’ unique working relationships with each of their subordinates: 1.e. Facilitate: present problem and boundaries and act as group-conversation coordinator for members to reach a decision
LMX. competence. Participating style: Mid-High Readiness. Out-Group: less time ad attention (by leader)
Hersey and Blanchard Model (1977) (p. In-Group: special duties requiring responsibility and autonomy 2. responsibility acceptance) of leader’s followers.