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Running head: The Spiraling Developments

The Spiraling Developments and Impacts of Technology in Education Amber Bryant ETC 567: Technology, Society, and Education Tammy Sherrard, Instructor Northern Arizona University September 29, 2008

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Abstract The origins of technology in education seem to be deeply rooted in the Industrial Revolution. The development of technology may have had what some term as a slow beginning, but the rapid pace of recent developments has led to major changes in society. Technology is one of the most frequently named means of improvement for schools. In order to shape the future of technology in education, we must begin with a look at technology in the past and the progression of education and society.

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Introduction Many definitions of technology exist in the world today. Some resources state that technology is the practical application of knowledge in a particular area. Other resources acknowledgethat it is the capability given by the application of mechanical sciences. And still yet, many resources state that technology is the tools or methods that civilization has developed in order to facilitate solutions to problems. Whether technology is seen as knowledge, capabilities, or tools, it has shaped and reformed the way that society relates to its environment. Curiosity may have killed the cat, but humans have harnessed the curiosity they have about the world around them into developing tools that enhance their abilities and perceptions. History While technology may have had its beginnings with the invention of many ancient tools such as the wheel, the Industrial Revolution is credited with bringing about major transformations to the world. The shift of the labor force from agriculture to industry also brought about notable changes in education. Workers needed higher levels of technical competence as technological and economical progress continued. Schools were expected to produce youth that were technically proficient workers (Baker, Boser, & Householder, 1992). In response to that need, manual training, manual arts, and industrial arts became a component of education. These “learning by doing” forms of instruction all supported learning technology-based content during the 20th century (Snyder, 2004). As a leader in the Progressive education era, Dewey articulates pragmatism as a philosophy that dealt with the instrumentalism of technology and the experimentalism of science as inquiry. (Zuga, 1992) He is later credited with the

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emergence of the definition for technology literacy. (Braundy, 2007) Progressive education put industrial arts at the axis of school reform. Industrial education of the 1920’s supported the inception of technology education in the 1940’s and 1950’s. (Petrina, 2003) After World War II, audiovisual equipment became more prevalent in schools. Film and slide projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, tape recorders, and television all eventually became tools used by teachers in hopes of increasing comprehension and retention. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner‘s research led to a movement in the 1950’s of programmed in instruction. This instruction was based on the ability to complete one set of objectives before moving on to the next set. (Cambre & Hawkes, 2004) In 1957, Sputnik’s launch had spurred the United States government into becoming involved in curriculum reform. With the passing of the NDEA, schools began to focus on science, math, chemistry and technology literacy. The educational focus shifted from social and individual development being academically rigorous. (Herschbach, 1997) In the 1960’s and 1970’s education was being influenced by cognitive learning theories. In 1964 DeVore wrote an article that established technology as the organizing framework for curriculum (Dugger & Yung 1995). Apple II computers made their initial appearance in a few classrooms across the United Sates in the late 1970’s. By the mid 1980’s, the use of computers in the classroom was becoming more prevalent. The efforts of teachers to use these computers primarily resulted in students using programs for application not understanding. (Petrina, 2003) Then in April of 1983, a report called Nation at Riskwas released. Society began to clamor again for educational reform. In response to the past 30 years of educational ups and downs, industrial arts became firmly established as educational technology. (Baker et al., 1992) In the Professional Improvement Plan issued by the America Industrial Arts Society in 1983, three major

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goals for technology were established. The plan was to improve the technological literacy of all people through modern programs that would entail more of the cognitive and affective content of technology and utilize it to solve problems. (Snyder, 2004)

Technology in Education Today In the past decade the thought of technology of a tool has given way to the thought of technology as a system for problem solving. “While many varieties of technology education are currently practiced and proposed, the common features of most programs include: (a) an emphasis on problem-solving capabilities; (b) an interdisciplinary approach that emphasizes alternatives and compromises, (c) the integration of context in an approach to recognize systemic functions, and (d) an assessment of the consequences of technological activities.” (Baker, et al., 1992, p.12) Today’s technologically savvy teachers are using tools such as social networks, office applications, and media sharing to enhance the education of their students. They are able to present students with the ability to acquire knowledge and then apply that knowledge to solving meaningful problems. The students are able use technology to enhance cognition, and they are then able to devote more time to the metacognitive process. Problems have developed in the integration of technology into the present day classroom due to “organizational, administrative, pedagogical, or personal constraints.” (Leh, 2005, p. 19) Cambre et al. (2004) suggest that those problems may have resulted from lack of communication between those who have developed and evaluated successful learning technologies with classroom teachers and teacher prep programs. No matter what technology tools are used in today’s classroom most researchers agree that it is important to connect technology as an integral part of instruction, not as anindependent unit. Okojie, Olinzock, and Okojie-Boulder (2006) have determined that

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it is essential when planning to integrate technology into lessons, the teacher should make every effort to select and/or adapt instructional technology to match the objectives based on the students’ needs, choose methods that are relevant to the objectives, and select appropriate and accessible follow-up materials that are relevant to the objectives of the instruction and technologies. They also believe that the teacher should provide the chance for students to investigate issues associated to the course materials using technology in ways that increase their problem-solving skills, use the internet and multimedia networks to develop supplementary learning materials and expand instructional resources, and select appropriate evaluation techniques.

Technology and Society Technological advancements have brought about many positive and negative impacts on society. The rampant availability of online pornography is one such negative facet. Pornography has been sent over the internet since the 1980’s, but the 1991 invention of the World Wide Web and the accessibility of the internet led to a sudden increase in online pornography. The amount of available online pornography has increased with the availability of webcams and video streaming programs. According to Michael Arrington (2007), 12% of all websites, 25% of all internet searches, and 35% of all downloads in 2007 were pornographic in nature. Billions of dollars have been made by the online porn industry. How and why has online pornography become such a problem in today’s society? Neuroscientists have determined that the endorphins released when viewing pornography produce a “high” that becomes addictive. The online pornography boom is synonymous to its accessibility, affordability, anonymity, and aggressiveness (Knutson, 2008). Opponents to online pornography are callingfor the government to regulate these sites. Schools, parents and other agencies are

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working to keep this online pornography from reaching our youth. Filters are being used and constantly updated as the creators of online pornography get more creative about slipping past the walls that have already been put into place.

Conclusion Technology is an integral part of our past, present and future. As the economy and technology of our society have continued to evolve so has our education system. Major transformations of technology in education started in the Industrial Revolution era and have continued at a rapid pace. The world is constantly changing. While the prospect of new advancements is continuous, successful integration of technology in the classroom depends largely on the training of teachers and the funding to support it. Educators must be diligent in their efforts to implement technology to enhance instruction. The technology cannot control the learning objective. Government regulations of internet content may be part of our future. Monitoring the domains that we create and assiduously updating internet filters can protect children from obscene material on the internet. Dr. Michael Wesch put it best, “the machine is us” (2007) and with that we need to consider the effects of technology on the rights and responsibilities of each and every person in our society.

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References Arrington, M. (Producer). (2007, May 12). Internet Pornography Stats. TechCrunch. Video retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/12/internetpornography-stats/ Baker, G. E., Boser, R. A., & Householder, D. L. (1992). Coping at the Crossroads: Societal and Educational Transformation in the. Journal of Technology Education, 4(1), pp. 5-17.Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v4n1/html/baker.html#Bureau. Braundy, M. (2004). Dewey's Technological Literacy: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 41, Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019 b/80/2b/26/b8.pdf Cambre, M., & Hawkes, M. (2004). Toys, tools, and teachers: The challenges of technology. Lanham, Maryland: ScarecrowEducation. Dugger, Jr., W. E., & Yung, J. E. (1995). Technology Education Today. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa. Herschbach, D. R. (1997). From Industrial Arts to Technology Education: The Search. Journal of Technology Studies, 5, Retrieved September 19, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/Winter-Spring-1997/PDF/5-Haerschbacharticle.pdf Kutson, C. (Producer). (2008, July 15-22). Dr. Charles Knutson interviews Mark B. Kastleman, author of “The Drug of the New Millennium”. Internet Safety Podcast. Podcast retrieved http://www.internetsafetypodcast.com/

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Leh, A. S. (2005). Learned from service learning and reverse mentoring in faculty development: A case study in technology training. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(1), pp.25-41 Okojie, M., Olinzock, A. A., & Okojie-Boulder, T. C.(2006). The Pedagogy of Technology Integration. Journal of Technology Studies, 32, Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/v32/v32n2/pdf/okojie.pdf. Petrina, S. (2003). The Educational Technology is Technology Education Manifesto. Journal of Technology Education, 15, Retrieved September 19, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v15n1/petrina.html Snyder, M. S. (2004). Defining the Role of Technology Education by Its Heart and Its Heritage. Journal of Technology Studies, 30, Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/v30/v30n1/pdf/snyder.pdf Wesch, M. (2007) Web 2.0 ... The Machine is Us/ing Us [Video file]. Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE Zuga, K. F. (1992). Social Reconstruction Curriculum and Technology Education. Journal of Technology Education, 3, Retrieved September 21, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v3n2/html/zuga.html

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