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Management in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives.Management is the attainment of organization goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources,financial resources,technological resources and natural resources.Management can also defined as human action,including design,to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system.This view opens the opportunity to manage oneself or others. Moreover,management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act of management.

Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating andmaintaining a plan.It also the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale.As such,it is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior.This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan,or integration of it with other plans,that is,it combines forecasting of developments.Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them.An important,albeit often ignored aspect of planning,is the relationship it holds with forecasting.Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will looks like,whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.Planning is a process for accomplishing purpose.It is a blue print of business growth and a road map of development.It helps in deciding objectives both in quantitative and qualitative terms.It is setting of goals on the basicsof objectives and keeping in the resources.A plan can play a vital role in helping to avoid mistakes or recognize hidden opportunities.Preparing a satisfactory plan of the organization is essential.The planning known the business and that they have thought through its development in terms of products,management, finances,and most importantly,markets and competition. Two attitudes to planning need to be held in tension are on the one hand we need to be prepared for what may lie ahead,which may mean contingencies and flexible processes.On the other hand,our future is shaped by consequences of our own planning and actions.

Organization is the function employed to achieve the overall goals.Organization harmonies the individual goals of the employees with overall objectives of the firm.Individuals form a group and the groups form an organization.Thus,organization is the composition of individual and groups.Individuals are grouped into departments and their work is coordinated and directed towards organizational goals.The organization divides the entire work and assigns the tasks to individual in-order to achieve the organizational objectives each ones have to perform a different

task and tasks of one individual must be coordinated with the tasks of others.Furthermore, an organization is a group of people with defined relationship to each other that allows them to work together achieve the goals of the organization.This relationship does not come to end after completing a task.Organization is a never ending process.

Leadership is stated as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.Definitions more inclusive of followers have also emerged. Alan Keith stated that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen.Tom DeMarco says that leadership needs to be distinguished from posturing.Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co-operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. It is not dependent on title or formal authority.Leaders are recognized by their capacity for caring for others, clear communication, and a commitment to persist.An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. However, she or he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority, because authority is only potentially available to him. In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge her/his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority.Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. Every organization needs leaders at every level.In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In this situation, more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or downsizing. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. In some situations, the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive - either by draining the resources of the group as a whole, or by impeding the creativity within the team, even unintentionally.A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues, but more commonly uses rotating leadership. The team members best able to handle any given phase of the project become the temporary leader. Additionally, as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment, it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success.Leaders who demonstrate persistence, tenacity, determination and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success.


Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner.Control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected. Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. Thus, control comprises these three main activities.Furthermore,control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring.Moreover,control is checking current performance against pre-determined standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance.Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished.Control consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued, and principles established. It is object to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify and prevent recurrence.Management control can be defined as a systematic effort by business management to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans, or objectives in order to determine whether performance is in line with these standards and presumably in order to take any remedial action required to see that human and other corporate resources are being used in the most effective and efficient way possible in achieving corporate objectives.Also control can be defined as "that function of the system that adjusts operations as needed to achieve the plan, or to maintain variations from system objectives within allowable limits". The control subsystem functions in close harmony with the operating system. The degree to which they interact depends on the nature of the operating system and its objectives. Stability concerns a system's ability to maintain a pattern of output without wide fluctuations. Rapidity of response pertains to the speed with which a system can correct variations and return to expected output.A political election can illustrate the concept of control and the importance of feedback. Each party organizes a campaign to get its candidate selected and outlines a plan to inform the public about both the candidate's credentials and the party's platform. As the election nears, opinion polls furnish feedback about the effectiveness of the campaign and about each candidate's chances to win. Depending on the nature of this feedback, certain adjustments in strategy and tactics can be made in an attempt to achieve the desired result. Thus, planning and control are often referred to as siamese twins of management.

From these it can be stated that there is close link between planning,organizing,leading and controlling. Planning is a process by which an organization's objectives and the methods to achieve the objectives are established,organizing is a arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals,leading is a working with and through people to accomplish the goals and controlling is a process which measures and directs the actual performance against the planned objectives of the organization. Thus, planning,organizing, leading and control are important management main function of an organization to accomplish the goals. ( 1671 words )