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## LO4 Measures of central tendency and spread: Mean,

mode, median, variance, deviation, percentiles,
quartiles, range and outlier.
1. Calculate the mean, median and mode for each of the following
datasets:
1.1

1.2

## {14; 24; 35; 46; -46; -47; 55; -55; -15}

1.3

{121; 454; 76; 65; 92; 111; 76; 131; 990; 111}

## 1.4 How would the mean differ if the outlier

(a data value significantly different from the other values in the set)
were excluded from 1.1 above?
2. The variance of a set of data is the measure of the average
difference between each number in the dataset and the mean (
Sum of (x - x)2
), while the standard deviation ( ) is the
n
square root of the variance ( 2 ). Consider the following set of

2 =

## data and determine the mean, variance and standard deviation.

{5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40}

3.

## Consider the following dataset: {1; 5; 6; 8; 9; 13} The mean for

this dataset is 7.

xx
( x x )2

3.2

1
1-7 = -6
(-6) = 36

5
6
5-7 = -2

13

## 3.3 Determine the standard deviation of the dataset.

4. If the standard deviation of asset of numbers is 1, what does this
5. Write down the lower, middle and upper quartiles of the following
data and then the inter-quartile range.
{21; 22; 22; 23; 25; 26; 27}
6. Write down the 25th, 75th and 90th percentile of the following data:
21; 30; 33; 25; 20; 30; 35; 25; 20; 30; 35; 40;
30; 37; 35; 25; 20; 40; 20; 25; 25; 30; 20; 20

## 7. Mrs Smith, the Mathematical Literacy teacher, recorded her Grade

12 examination results as follows.
38
48
67
39
88

78
65
47
39
48

29
78
90
66
69

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8

72
82
58
48
48

46
59
69
80
92

1.1

## {43; 61; 18; 22; 46; 1 003; 35}

Mean:

( 43 + 61 + 18 + 22 + 46 + 1003 + 35)
7

= 175,43

## Median: 18; 22; 35; 43; 46; 61; 1 003

= 43
Mode: 18; 22; 35; 43; 46; 61; 1003
They are all the mode as they appear an equal number of
times.
1.2

## {14; 24; 35; 46; -46; -47; 55; -55; -15}

Mean:
= 1,22

(14 + 24 + 35 + 46 46 47 + 55 55 15)
9

## Median: -55; -47; -46; -15; 14; 24; 35; 46; 55

= 14
Mode: 55; -47; -46; -15; 14; 24; 35; 46; 55
1.3

{121; 454; 76; 65; 92; 111; 76; 131; 990; 111}
Mean:

## (121 + 454 + 76 + 65 + 92 + 111 + 76 + 131 + 990 + 111)

10

Median: 65; 76; 76; 92; 111; 111; 121; 131; 454; 990
=

(111 +111 )
2

= 111

## Maths & Science Marketing

( 43 + 61 + 18 + 22 + 46 + 35 )
6

1.4 Mean:

= 37,5
The mean is more realistic and more in line with the median.
2.

## {5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40}

Mean:
= 22,5

(5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30 + 35 + 40 )
8

Variance:

(5 22,5) 2 + (10 22,5) 2 + (15 22,5) 2 + ( 20 22,5) 2 + ( 25 22,5) 2 + (30 22,5) 2 + (35 22,5) 2 + ( 40
8
306 ,25 + 156 ,25 + 56,25 + 6,25 + 6,25 + 56,25 + 156 ,25 + 306 ,25
=
8

= 131,25

Standard deviation:

= 131 ,25

= 11,46
3.1

xx
( x x )2

3.2

1
1-7 = -6
(-6) = 36

5
6
8
5-7 = -2 6-7 = -1 8-7 = 1
4
1
1

9
9-7 = 2
4

13
13-7 = 6
36

Variance:

36 + 4 + 1 + 1 + 4 + 36
6
2 = 13,67

2 =

3.3

Standard deviation:

= 13,67

= 3,7
4. The numbers in the set of data are not widely dispersed, they are
close together. The closer the data are together, the nearer the
standard deviation is to 0.

5.

## There are 7 data scores, so the median is 23.

21

22
Q1

22

23
Q2

25

26

27

Q3

Inter-quartile range: Q3 Q1 = 26 22 = 4

## 6. First sort the data in numerical order:

20; 20; 20; 20; 20; 20; 21; 25; 25; 25; 25; 25; 30; 30; 30; 30; 33;
35; 35; 35; 35; 35 ; 37; 40
25th percentile

25
( 24 +1)
100

= 6,25
= 25th percentile = 20,25
50th percentile

50
( 24 +1)
100

= 12,5
= (25+30)2
= 50th percentile = 27,5
75th percentile

75
( 24 +1)
100

= 18,75
= 75th percentile = 35,75
90th percentile

90
( 24 +1)
100

= 22,5
= 90th percentile = 36

7.1 Mean:

1543
25

= 61,72

7.2

## Mode: 48 (appears 3 times)

7.3

Median: 65

7.4

Range: 92 29 = 63

7.5

Variance:
Data
29
38
39
39
46
47
48
48
48
48
58
59
65
66
67
69
69
72
78
78
80
82
88
90
92
Variance

## Maths & Science Marketing

Mean Difference ( x x )
Square ( x x )2
61.72
-32.72
1070.5984
61.72
-23.72
562.6384
61.72
-22.72
516.1984
61.72
-22.72
516.1984
61.72
-15.72
247.1184
61.72
-14.72
216.6784
61.72
-13.72
188.2384
61.72
-13.72
188.2384
61.72
-13.72
188.2384
61.72
-13.72
188.2384
61.72
-3.72
13.8384
61.72
-2.72
7.3984
61.72
3.28
10.7584
61.72
4.28
18.3184
61.72
5.28
27.8784
61.72
7.28
52.9984
61.72
7.28
52.9984
61.72
10.28
105.6784
61.72
16.28
265.0384
61.72
16.28
265.0384
61.72
18.28
334.1584
61.72
20.28
411.2784
61.72
26.28
690.6384
61.72
28.28
799.7584
61.72
30.28
916.8784
7855.04
7855 ,04
= 2 =
25

= 314,2
7.6 Standard Deviation:

= 314 ,2

= 17,73
7.7
29

38

39

39

Quartiles:
46

47

48

48

48

48

Q1
Q1 =

7.8

58

59

65

Q2 = 65

60
( 25 +1)
100
=15 ,6
68

67

69

69

72

Q2

( 47 + 48 )
= 47,5
2

60th percentile:

66

78

78

80

Q3
Q3=

(78 + 78 )
= 78
2

82

88

90

92