Creative Commons: Changing the Landscape of Copyright and Plagiarism Towns and cities of the 18th and 19th

centuries often had a place called a commons: a centrally located unfenced area that was free for all to use. The Creative Commons is, in essence, an intellectual and artistic commons of creativity. The Creative Commons organization is one of many grassroots organizations fighting a Congress that has acted to shrink the public domain, and the business community that has exploited it. In a Washington Post news article, Lawrence Lessig, the Stanford University law professor who co-founded the nonprofit Creative Commons, and is the brainchild behind the Creative Commons licenses is quoted as saying that the aim of the organization, is to "help artists and authors give others the freedom to build upon their creativity -- without calling a lawyer first" (Cha, 2005). In other words, open access to works without the worry of legal ramification is the main purpose behind the Creative Commons licenses. In my research on this subject, I found myself overwhelmed by legalese surrounding copyrights. In my experience, organizations like Creative Commons are involved in trying to reform copyright. Creative Commons takes the concepts surrounding copyrights and makes them much simpler to understand and much easier to implement. The best protection against plagiarism is detection, and detection is easier when the original work is freely available. Issues The authors of scientific works sometimes assign copyright to journals and proprietary online databases, thereby giving the publishers ownership of their work. This is a central problem in scientific publishing today. The control enjoyed by publishers over specific scientific works allows them to charge access fees to anyone needing access to material they cannot get elsewhere. Scientific research

Wakefield 2 depends on the timely free flow of ideas and information. These very same publishers will state that it is often very challenging to distinguish between quality content and less-than-credible information when sifting through long lists of search results from internet search engines or directories. Also, publishers often question open access as being no different than file-sharing. In the creative arts, copyright protects the rights of content producers who need to make money from their song, book, or film, and there is tension between the content producer's interest to profit from their labor and the consumers' desire to get it as cheaply as possible. In scientific publishing this tension is nonexistent. First, the producers and consumers of information are largely the same people. And, second, scientists don't make money from the sale of their work. Today, copyright is used almost exclusively as a means to restrict access to scientific publishing. Copyright protects the interests of publishers and the works they publish, and not the rights of scientists and researchers. Librarians and library institutions have special rights granted via US Copyright law and are in a position to help educate the public about copyrights, plagiarism and public domain importance, unite for its preservation, and encourage copyright owners to dedicate their works to the public using Creative Commons licensing. In doing so, they can provide a haven for scientists and researchers to place their works in the public domain where detection of copyright violations and plagiarism would be easier and also to promote the progress of human knowledge as our founding fathers intended in the Constitution. History In 1787, the US Constitution included a copyright provision in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8, that read “the Congress shall have power…to promote the progress of

Wakefield 3 science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.” In 1790, the First Congress implemented this copyright provision via the law: The Copyright Act of 1790, an Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by Securing the Copies of Maps, Charts, and Books to the Authors and Proprietors of Such Copies (Understanding Copyright Law, 2004). The first US copyright law was enacted in the Copyright Act of 1790. In 1909 the Copyright Act of 1909, U.S. Code, vol. 17, sec. 4 expanded the scope of copyright with the words, “all writings of an author.” The US Copyright Act was again revised in 1976. The Copyright Act of 1976, US Code, vol. 17, sec. 102(a) states that a work is protected the moment it is “fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” This revision was as a result of the US joining the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary & Artistic Works. The Berne Convention is an international copyright body. As a result, US Copyright law now preempts all state laws. The 1992 Copyright Renewal Act was drafted because of the NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement) and GATT (General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade) agreements in 1994. These agreements obliged the US to make further changes with regards to the international Berne Convention and subsequent changes to copyright law as a result. In 1998, the DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) was another revision of US copyright law. This law was an attempt to address electronic commerce and copyright issues. The late Sony Bono, as a Senator from Florida, further extended copyrights with the passage of the 1998 Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. This extended copyrights 70 years after the passing of the author. The TEACH (Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act) Act of 2002 included updates to copyright law pertaining to transmissions of performances and displays of

Wakefield 4 copyrighted materials. Such transmissions are critical to current higher education distance education efforts, including online courses (McChord-Hoffman, 2005). According to the Copyright Act of 1976, a protected work is an expression that is an original work of authorship with a modicum of creativity and that is (a) fixed in a tangible medium of expression whether now known or later developed and (b) from which work can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, whether directly or with the aid of a machine or device (Copyright Act of 1976, US Code, vol. 17, sec. 101, 499, 340). As was recognized by our founding fathers, it is important for the progress of science and the arts to have factual works published and distributed to the public. If this is so, then why do publisher’s acquire the rights to scientific works and then publish them in journals and proprietary online databases and then, subsequently charge the very same consumers for access to the works they originally published? Although information in a journal is factual, the publishers chose what to include, how to organize it, and how to present it. As a result journals and online databases of the journals are copyrightable. The facts contained in the journal, however, are not themselves copyrightable. In academia, for example, it is common for the institution to allow faculty to retain the copyright in the works they create. As stated previously, our founding fathers reasoned that we need copyrights to encourage authors to create new works and therefore promote the progress of human knowledge. Now, the ultimate goal is to foster the creation of new works that will one day enter the public domain where they can be freely used to enrich everyone’s lives. Incidentally, facts and ideas contained in a work of nonfiction as well as US government works are denied copyright protection completely (What is Copyright, 2006).

Wakefield 5 In determining the nature of the protected works, the courts usually consider whether the work is factual or creative. Recall that a work must show a “modicum of creativity” to be protected by copyright (What is Copyright, 2006). Pure facts cannot be protected. However, many factual works, such as biography, or even a collection of statistics, include original work as well as the facts. In a biography, original work would include the language the author chooses to tell the story (Understanding Copyright law, 2004). In a statistical collection, the selection and organization of the facts may be sufficiently original enough to allow copyright protection. Protecting factual works encourages publication and distribution of the information. At the same time, however, we have to consider the ability to access and use scientific works as more important to education and society, and thus to the progress of science and the arts, than the ability to access and use purely fictional works. Therefore, courts are more likely to judge use of a factual work to be a fair use than use of a purely fictional work (Understanding Copyright Law, 2004). Causes Currently, the way that publishers wield copyright actually weakens authors' protection against misuse of their works. While copyright offers some legal protection against plagiarism, there are few cases in which copyright has been used to prosecute plagiarists. The real protection against plagiarism in scientific publishing comes from a scientific culture that does not tolerate these practices. Scientists' careers have been ruined when it is discovered that they have stolen someone else's work (Wiener, 2005). What does copyright have to do with plagiarism and what is the difference between plagiarism and copyright? Plagiarism has nothing to do with copyright law. Although they may be similar at first glance in that an infringer is “stealing” someone

Wakefield 6 else’s work, they differ in several ways. One may infringe a copyright without claming to be the author of a work. Likewise, one may commit plagiarism with a work not protected by copyright (Simpson, 2005). Therefore, my position is that the best protection against plagiarism is detection, and detection is much easier when the original work is freely available. Scientific works exist as a result of the broader scientific community, and the whole reason you publish them is so that other people will read and use them. If research is paid for by the public through a federal agency or public institution, it's likely the scientists doing the research are interested in producing public knowledge. If the product of that research doesn't belong in the public domain, then the public domain doesn't have any meaning. What is public domain? Once a work falls into the Public Domain it will stay there indefinitely. This means that the work no longer has copyright protection. These creative works for some reason or another are not protected by copyright law and are ordinarily free for all to use (McCord-Hoffman, 2005). Since the goal of scientists is to publish into the public domain in order to expand human knowledge, then open access appears to be the best way to enable public access, peer review and plagiarism detection. And if other scientists have equal and open access to this knowledge then it makes it easier to peer review their colleagues published scientific works to facilitate these other objectives as well. Effects So, what would be the effectsof open access on scientific works? Everyone who has access to a computer and an Internet connection will have unlimited access to the scientific knowledge. This would be an invaluable resource for science education, could lead to more informed healthcare decisions by doctors and patients,

Wakefield 7 and could level the playing field for scientists at small or less wealthy institutions and developing world by ensuring that no one will be unable to read an important paper just because their institution does not subscribe to a particular journal. Open access will also enable scientists to begin transforming scientific works into something far more useful than just the electronic equivalent of rows and rows of journals on library shelves. The ability to search an entire scientific library for particular terms, concepts, methods, data, and images and then retrieve the results is only a beginning. By freeing information in scientific works from the fixed arrangement of pages and random boundaries drawn by the publishers who are fixated on their relics of paper publication, open access opens up countless new possibilities for navigating, integrating, "mining," annotating, and mapping out connections in this new dimension of accessibility. Hopefully, even the most reluctant publisher will come to understand that open access is a viable means of publishing scientific journals and a financially viable economic model. Once this happens, I suspect many publishers will respond positively either on their own or in response to the market pressure of scientists supporting the open access model. We have already seen success in genetics with open access to freely available archives of DNA sequences. It was decided in the early 1980s that published DNA sequences should be deposited in a central repository, in a common format, where they could be freely accessed and used by anyone. Simply giving scientists free and unrestricted access to the raw DNA sequences led them to develop methods, tools, and resources to complete whole sequences, including the human genome (Public Library of Science, 2006). If open access in the scientific arena is an accomplishment, then we should expect an even bigger creative expansion stimulated by open access to published scientific works.

Wakefield 8 Conclusion We need to see a shift in how the publishers are paid for distributing scientific ideas and discoveries. From a model in which publishers are given permanent, exclusive control over the scientific works and allowed to charge for access to a model in which the literature is effectively placed in the public domain and publishers are paid a fair price for the service they provide in getting the works there. Internally, I am sure most scientists would agree strongly with the general principles of what is being advocated here. What remains is the challenge of convincing them that they should publish in established journals and support this new model of publishing in the public domain at the same time. Publication records play a major role in landing jobs, getting grants, and achieving tenure. The more prestigious the journal, the better it looks on your resume. What is being advocated is a chicken-before-the-egg scenario. Many scientists perceive publishing in a new journal, no matter how much they agree with its principles, as a risky career move. As a result, a tremendous amount of energy has to go into creating an open access journal with the highest editorial and production standards that publishes outstanding works from all areas of science. Once established as prestigious journals, scientists will no longer feel they have to choose between what is right for them and what is right for science. Libraries can help to encourage open access to scientific works by designating themselves as protected Online Service Providers (OSP) under Section 512 of the Copyright Act. Librarians can limit the caching of information to the very minimum necessary to qualify for the Section 512 protections (Copyright Act of 1976, US Code, vol. 17, sec. 512). Libraries must follow strict regulations of Section 512 to qualify as an OSP. Although most libraries would qualify as an OSP, protection is not automatically granted. The Copyright Act does not protect a library (a) unless and

Wakefield 9 until it takes specified action to indicate its desire to be protected by Section 512, which includes registering an agent (someone who will receive complaints) with the US Copyright Office; and (b) when accused of infringement, follows specific regulations in responding to the accusation of copyright infringement or plagiarism. OSP’s are protected from legal ramifications of copyrights infringement on behalf of its users but must investigate any and all complaints of copyright infringement or plagiarism. Because this protection as an OSP could be quite burdensome, each library should consider seriously the trade-offs of complying with the Section 512 of the Copyright Act (Simpson, 2005). A library can facilitate access to open works and licensed works as far as the First Sale Doctrine. The first sale doctrine permits libraries to lend copies of copyrighted works to users without seeking permission or paying fees to the copyright holder. Sharing those resources with other libraries is another matter. Under the Fair Use Doctrine, resources the library has purchased fall under the First Sale Doctrine. This does not give them the right to reproduce a work and forward to another library. They can only reproduce the work in the library for onsite use. A library could make a copy of a Creative Common licensed work and forward it to another library (Simpson, 2005). The bigger question would be for licensed works. The answer to this would mean reviewing the license. According to Blake’s Law Dictionary a license is “A personal privilege to do some particular act or series of acts on [a piece of property] without possessing any estate or interest therein, and is ordinarily revocable at will of the licensor and is not assignable.” So, a license is the ability to use a piece of property that belongs to someone else without obtaining any ownership rights in the property. You could think of licensing of electronic resources as renting those resources; you may be allowed

Wakefield 10 to download or print items from the database and information, but you do not obtain any ownership of the resources. Why should libraries be concerned about right of access on behalf of a copyright holder? As stated previously, the first sale doctrine permits libraries to lend copies of copyrighted works to users without seeking permission or paying fees to the copyright holder. Access controls, however, could disrupt traditional library service because of a pay-per-use system. Most libraries don’t have a budget to provide access to all patrons. This would create information have and ‘have-nots’. Another reason why libraries and librarians should be part of the solution is archives. Publishers have control of their archives and works can disappear according to the publishers’ policies. Even though some publishers automatically make the works publicly available after a specific period of time, as we mentioned earlier in this paper, there is no guarantee that these works will be archived or placed into the public domain with access to all. Ultimately, libraries and librarians have the special rights and skills to educate the public about public domain works and shepherd open access to scientific works. I surmise that we will see market forces change the landscape of copyright and nudge publishers in this direction as well eventually. The Library of Congress would be a good place to start as far as a clearinghouse and archive as they have the resources and expertise to do so. Like other issues in our government, public opinion and adoption could swing things this way if our new informational science graduates and educators plant the seeds into our future librarians minds now.

Wakefield 11 Works Cited Cha, Ariana E.. "Creative Commons Is Rewriting Rules of Copyright." The Washington Post E. Mar 15, 2005 01. 18 Nov. 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.academic.bcc.ctc.edu/pqdweb?index=44&did =807644851&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT= 309&VName=PQD&TS=1164609716&clientId=2680. “Copyright & Fair Use.” Stanford University Libraries. 2004. 30 Oct. 2006 <http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter0/0a.html>. "Copyright Law of the United States of America." U.S. Copyright Office. 2006. 4 Nov. 2006 <http://www.copyright.gov/title17/>. “Copyright Licensing and Compliance Solutions from Copyright Clearance Center.” 2006. 20 Nov. 2006 <http://www.copyright.com/>. "Copyright Office Basics." US Copyright Office. Jul. 2006. US Copyright Office. 2 Nov 2006 <http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html>. "Crash Course in Copyright." University of Texas System. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm>. “Fair Use Project - Stanford Center for Internet and Society.” 2 Nov. 2006 <http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/fair-use-project>. Fishman, Stephen. The Copyright Handbook: How to Protect & Use Written Works. 8th ed. Berkley: Nolo, 2004.

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---. “The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More.” Berkley: Nolo, 2002. Francis, Barbara. Other People’s Words: What Plagiarism Is and How to Avoid It. Berkley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2005. Gilbert, Jill. The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, Trade Secrets, & Licensing. New York: Berkley, 2004. Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2002. Kozak, Ellen M. Every Writer’s Guide to Copyright and Publishing Law. 3rd ed. New York: Henry Holt, 2004. Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College: How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, And Achieve Real Academic Success. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004. McCord-Hoffman, Gretchen. Copyright in Cyberspace 2: Questions and Answers for Librarians. New York: Neal-Schumen, 2005. “Public Library of Science: About.” Public Library of Science. 2006. 10 Nov. 2006 <http://www.plos.org/about/index.html>. Simpson, Carol. Copyright for Schools: A Practical Guide. 4th ed. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing, 2005. "Son of Citation Machine." The Landmark Project. April 2006. 30 Oct. 2006

Wakefield 13 <http://citationmachine.net/index.php>.

“Stanford Copyright & Fair Use - Copyright Basics FAQ.” 2006. 14 Nov. 2006 <http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter0/0a.html>. Sundt, Christine L. “Copyright & Art Issues.” 2006. 25 Oct. 2006 <http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/%7Ecsundt/copyweb/>. “Timeline: A History of Copyright in the United States.” Association of Research Libraries. 2006. 30 Oct. 2006 <http://www.arl.org/info/frn/copy/timeline.html>. “Understanding Copyright Law: What You Need to Know.” Dir. D. Spotted Eagle. Perf. Kenneth L. Wallentine. DVD. VASST, 2004. “What is Copyright?” U.S. Copyright Office. 2006. 4 Nov. 2006 <http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html>. Wiener, Jon. Historians in Trouble: Plagiarism, Fraud, and Politics in the Ivory Tower. New York: The New Press, 2005.

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