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Submitted To: Sir Aqeel
Speci l T nks t D . Z f , Si
eel nd Si Saqi f
arran in t is
educati nal trip f r us t be able t understandin t e geology of t e Hazara Kas ir area wit t eir expert opinions. Specially t anks to Mr. Shahab of
Azad Jammu Kashmir University for guiding us and helping us to understand the Geology and stratigraphy and the Tectonic of the assigned area.
Physiography of Azad Kashmir Physiography of Hazara 1 3
General Geology of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis Tectonics Stratigraphic of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis 5 6 9
Field Observation DAY-1 DAY-2 DAY-3 DAY-4 11 13 17 24 26
RE ERENCE GLOSSARY
The Purpose for this field trip was to study and to cover the Lithology, sedimentary structures, rock types, contacts and structural feature of these areas. Another Main objective of our field trip was to enhance our General knowledge about Geology and Stratigraphy especially to concentrate on Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and to study the structures, Lithology, depositional environments and rock types. The areas were easily accessible and we went there through university bus. The journey was pleasant and smooth. The field which we visited was Accessible and was mostly along the road side.
1.1 Physiography of Azad Kashmir
1.1.1 Geography & Climate
Azad Jammu and Kashmir lies between longitude of 730 - 750 and latitude of 33o - 36o and comprises an area of 5134 Square Miles (13297 Square Kilometers). t is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. With its capital at Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir covers an area of 13,297 square kilometers (5,134 sq mi). Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan both constitute an area known as Pakistan-administered Kashmir which is referred to in India as Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.The northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir encompasses the lower area of the Himalayas, including Jamgarh Peak (15,531 feet [4,734 meters]). However, Hari Parbat peak in Neelum Valley is the highest peak in the state. Fertile, green, mountainous valleys are characteristic of Azad Kashmir's geography, making it one of the most beautiful regions of the subcontinent. The elevation from sea level ranges from 360 meters in the south to 6325 meters in the north. The snow line in winter is around 1200 meters above sea level while in summer, it rises to 3300 meters. The climate is sub-tropical highland type with and humid region in the access of monsoon .Due to difference of variations in altitude there is small scale difference of humidity and rainfall. In summer the temperature may rise to 45 C but in winter the maximum temperature drops to 3 C. The region receives rainfall in both the winter and the summer. Muzaffarabad and Pattan are among the wettest areas of Pakistan. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad (around 1800 mm). During the summer season, monsoon floods of the rivers Jhelum and Leepa are common due to extreme rains and snow melting.
According to the 1998 population census the state of Azad Jammu & Kashmir had a population of 2.973 million, which is estimated to be grown to 3.5 million in 2006. Almost 100% population is comprised of Muslims. The Rural: urban population ratio is 88:12. The population density is 270 persons per Sq. Km. The literacy rate which was 55% in 1998
census has now risen above 60%. Approximately the infant mortality rate is 56 per 1000 live births, whereas the immunization rate for the children under 5 years of age is more than 95%.
1.1.3 Language and people
The area is mostly populated by the Híndko people, who speak the Hindko language as their mother tongue, and by those who speak Pashto. Pashto is spoken in Batagram and Toorghar district, 70% of the population of Mansehra speaks Hindko while most of the remaining speak Pash to. Kohistaniare spoken in Kohistan. In all the hilly areas of Abbottabad and Haripur districts most people speak Hinkdo, but Gujjar tribes speaks Gojri and Abbasi tribe speaks Pothohari. In all, according to the 2001 Census of Pakistan, Hazara has an ethn o-linguistic majority of Hindko -speakers of around 87% whereas about 13% speak Pashto and other languages.
1.1.4 Soil Condition
The soil Condition varies along the area like Kohala is about 35km from muzaffrabad. The soils are mainly composed of red clays, silts, sand, gravel, pebble, cobble and boulder, of murre formation. The maximum value of limit was found to be 26.6% whereas the minimum value is 22.6% and the average value is 24.8%. The increase of water content is more at landslide area 2km from kohala and decreased toward murre due to decrease in clayey material. The moisture content in the soil is more than 40% as the slope angle increases from 10 degree to 75 degree. The plastic limit of soil decrease with decrease in clayey content. The soil shrinks and swells as well causing landslide because the soil absorb moisture due to poor drainage.
1.1.5 Road Condition
The road network which connect Islamabad with Azad Kashmir are i. ii. Muzaffarabad-Kohala (34 km), Murree-Islamabad highway (53 km) and Muzaffarabad-Grahi Habibullah-Mansehra (57 km), AbbottabadIslamabadHighway (112 km). The Road condition from Islamabad to Muzaffrabad along Murree Highway was fair but from Kohala- Muzaffarabad the road condition was poor. The road was not completely developed.
1.1.6 Accessi ility to Area
The accessibility to area were ease mostly the field study were done along the road side.
1.2 Physiography of Hazara
1.2.1 Geography & Climate
Hazara is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km². Hazara lies close to the crossroads formed by the river Indus and the Grand Trunk
Karakoram Highway begins at the town of Havelian and goes north through the
division towards China via the Northern Areas. Hazara lies at elevation of 4100 from mean seal level. Hazara lies along south of the main Himalaya Range, and is exposed to moist winds from the Arabian Sea, Hazara is the wettest part of Pakistan. At Abbottabad, annual rainfall averages around 1,200 millimeters (47 in) but has been as high as 1,800 millimeters (71 in) , whilst in parts of Mansehra District such as Balakot the mean annual rainfall is as high as 1,750 millimeters (69 in) . Due to its location on the boundary between the monsoonal summer rainfall regime of East Asia and the winter-dominant Mediterranean climate of West Asia, Hazara has an unusual bimodal rainfall regime, with one peak in February or March associated with frontal southwest cloud bands and another monsoonal peak in July and August. The driest months are October to December, though in the wettest parts even these months average around 40 millimeters (1.6 in) .Due to the high altitude, temperatures in Hazara are cooler than on the plains, though Abbottabad at 1,200 meters (3,900 ft) still has maxima around 32°C (90°F) with high humidity in June and July. Further up, temperatures are cooler, often cooler than the Northern Areas valleys due to the cloudiness. In winter, temperatures are cold, with minima in January around 0°C (32°F) and much lower in the high mountains. Snowfalls are not uncommon even at lower levels. 1.2.2 Populations The population of the Hazara region was estimated to be over 4.5 million in 2005. The total area of Hazara is 18013 km². With population of Abbottabad nearly million and Manshera 1.4 million.
1.2.3 Soil Condition
The soil mostly absorbs the moisture which causes landslide which indicates the presence of high quantity of clayey contents. The soil get swell and shrinks as well
1.2.4 Road Condition
The road Condition from AJK to Hazara were fine, the road were developed. The condition were quite ease for travelling.
2.1 General Geology of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis 2.1.1 Types of rocks
Most of the rocks expose are Sedimentary rocks with some minor Metamorphic and igneous rocks and dikes. The formation exposed in the area mostly comprised of sedimentary rocks which ranges from Cambrian to Miocene. The division of rocks is as follow.
220.127.116.11 Sedimentary rocks
The sedimentary rocks are present in the following formations
Abbottabad Formation: is of Cambrian age and consists rocks of fine grained dolomite & cherty dolomite.
Margalla Hill Limestone : is of Eocene age and consist Fine to coarse, dark grey, thin to thick bedded Limestone with subordinate shale Murree Formation: is of Miocene and consist of Purple red greenish grey sandstone. Siltstone, Mudstone and some conglomerate. Lockhart Formation: is light grey, pale grey to khaki grey, bluish grey and blackish grey on weathered surface and dark grey on fresh surface.
Patala Formation: The formation is composed of shale and occasional limestone of upper Paleocene to lower Eocene age.
The Chorgali Formation: It is mainly composed of medium grey shale and silty shale, light grey to dark grey foraminifer¶s mudstone to pack stone, dolomitic limestone and dolomite.
The Kuldana Formation: is of Middle Eocene and composed of greenish to maroonish colored shale¶s with occasional limestone.
Alluvium Deposits: River deposit, gravel sand, silts and clayey material.
18.104.22.168 Metamorphic rocks
Hazara Formation: Fine Grain, dark grey, thin to thick bedded, highly fractured and sheared slates.
Tanol Formation: is of upper Cambrian age consist Metapelitic Schist¶s, Phyllite
22.214.171.124 Igneous rocks
Salakhala Formation: Manshera granite (light color acidic) with xenoliths of Cambrian Age.
Panjal Volcanics : Volcanic rock basaltic knows as Green stones and Marble of upper carboniferous.
Tanol Fornation : A dike intrusion know as quartzite.
The overall structure of the area forms anticline and syncline. The main structure in Muzaffarabad area is asymmetrical anticline in the east of Muzaffarabad proper, the trend of the anticline is NW-SE. The asymmetrical anticline is thrusted over the older slate series to the west and south west. The thrusted junction is seen in the nelum valley.Folding in the Hazara slate and faulting has also affected the rocks in the area.
2.2.1 Formation of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis
The Himalayan mountain belts have developed as a result of collisions between various continental and micro continental plates of Gondwana and Euresia. Early separated plates of Gondwana (Cimmeria) separated during the Permo-Triassic times and collided with Euresia in the Mid-Mesozoic in association with the closing of the Paleotethys Sea. Between the Late Cretaceous and Mid-Eocene, the IndoPakistani Plate collided with Cimmeride Blocks and the Neotethys ocean was closed initiating the formation of current system of Himalayan folded Belts. The complete closer of the Neotethys Ocean occurred in the Middle Eocene, followed by initiation of the main phase of thrusting and folding in the northwest Himalayas. The Kashmir Himalayas including the Panjal Block, Karakuram Range, Harmosh Range as well as the Nangaparbat Dome are all essentially closely related units. During the lower Cretaceous period the Tethys was well in place with India on one shore and Asia on the other. At least part of the Pir Panjal Range was not submerged. It formed part of the Indian mass. Transgression of the sea took place in Paleocene and during Paleocene to Middle Eocene sea conditions persisted. However, sedimentation took place under unstable
shelf basin conditions. The collision resulted in cyclic up and down movements resulting in the deposition of a sequence of limestones and shales. During part of Paleocene fairly shallow water restricted sea conditions developed where by coal and ironstones were formed followed again by the local deepening and deposition of limestones, shales and sandstones of Lockhart Limestone, Patala Formation, Margala Hill Limestone, Chor Gali Formation, Kuldana Formation and Murrree Formation. The Indian plate started under thrusting the Asian plate in Early Miocene. Structurally the area is characterized by severe tectonic effects. It is highly folded, faulted and jointed. This is because the area lies close to one of the major syntaxial bend of the Himalayas know as Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. The Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis is one of the most important structural features of the region and displays prominent scar on the geological map (Fig. 2). The southern range of the Himalaya extend northward in a gentle unbroken curve of northern India, continue into Kashmir and Hazara District of Pakistan, where they from the eastern limb of the Syntaxis. The two main boundary faults wrap around the Syntaxis are considered equivalent to Punjal and Murree Faults. Stratigraphically the syntaxis contain the youngest rocks in the core and successively older rocks wrap around the periphery.
Hazara Kashmir Syntax has three parts
1. Hazara Segment :It is present in Ghari Habibbulah, Abbottabad, Kohala, Nathiagali area. In this area Basement rock is Hazara Formation which is composed of Slates. 2. Kaghan Segment: It is present in Ghari Habibullah, Sharda, Babusar Top. In this area Basement rock in NE is Salkhalah formation or Shardah group and in NW Tanawal Formation. 3. Kashmir Segment: It extends from east of Ghari Habibullah to Kotli area. In this area basement rock is Abbottabad Formation.
126.96.36.199 Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) A hairpin shaped system of fault truncate the murree formation on the east north and west. It abuts the Mesozoic and earlier rocks against the murree formation. West and north of this fault zone, within the short distance of few 5 km, there is a parallel thrust fault along which Precambrian sequence has been pushed over the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. These two
faults were name as Murree and panjal thrust. Some worker called murree fault on both limbs of syntaxis as the Main Boundary Thrust. Vertical stratigraphic displacement is 3300 km. 188.8.131.52 Balakot-Bagh Fault (BBT) The Balakot-Bagh thrust running from Balakot through Muzaffarabad to Bagh Azad Kashmir along the eastern limb of Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. Stratigraphically this fault occurred between the late Cambrian Abbottabad Formation and the Miocene Murree Formation from Balakot to Muzaffarabad city which is a major unconformity, while from Muzaffarabad city to Bagh through Chikar it runs within the Murree Formation.The BBT is a shallow thrust which enters upto the depth of Middle Eocene Kuldana Formation. Along the BBT, the Murree Formation thrusting over Siwalik Group due to under lying shales of the Kuldana Formation which act as a de collement. The two unconformities have been observed during this study. First major unconformity is marked between the late Cambrian Abbottabad Formation and the Paleocene Hangu Formation and the second minor one occur between the middle Eocene Kuldana Formation and the Miocene Murree Formation. 184.108.40.206 Jehlum Fault (JF) The fault alonge the western margin of the axial zone of the syntaxis is Jehlum Fault. It is a Left lateral strike-slip fault and reported that alonge this fault Murree, Abbottabad and Hazara Formation are highly deformed between that alonge this fault Murree, Abbottabad and Hazara Formations are highly deformed between balakot and muzaffarad. The Jhelum fault apparently dislocates the MBT and terminates the westward continues of some of the structure of NW Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt which shows that it is the youngest major tectonic feature in the syntaxial zone. 220.127.116.11 Panjal Thrust The panjal thrust runs alonge the MBT on the eastern limb of the syntaxis. The two faults curved around the apex of the syntaxis then bend southward. The two faults join about 5km north of balakot. A separate left lateral strike-slip fault truncates the panjal thrust and MBT north of Balakot.
ic Sub-divi i
i i e i to three mai eleme t : the S b Himalaya the the Higher Himalaya
he Hazara Ka hmir y taxi area i Le er Himalaya a
HAZARA-KASHMIR SYNTAXIS & UPPER KAGHAN VALLEY Cry talli e it : Co er o Permia a Me ozoic with pa jal a i itie Pre Cambria etritic lower to mi le ba eme t o Lower Paleozoic Paleozoic gra ite (Ma hera type Pa jal U it : Pa jal Imbricate zo e o ria ic/J ra ic ± Lime to e a olomite o Permia ± Pa jal Volca ic o Upper Carbo i ero - tilloi Murre U it: Late Paleoce e to Mi le Eoce e Murre Fm - Upper Precambria to lower Cambria Abbottaba Group
2.3 Stratigraphic of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis
Recent to sub-Recent
Pliocene to Pleistocene
Oligocene to lower Miocene
Chor Gali Formation
Margala Hill Limeston
Field Obser ation
DAY - 1 Murre Highway Kohala Upper Chattar Ambore Tunnel Murree Formation Murree Formation/Landslide Kashmir Hazara Syntax Tunnel DAY - 2 AJK university new campus Murree Formation Siltstone, Sandstone Intraformational Conglomerate Argillaceous Shale¶s Sandstones, Shales Dolomites Argillaceous Sandstone, Claystone, Shales Argillaceous Sandstone Material Dolomite, sandstone shale etc. Boulder and Cobble
Murree Formation Abbottabad Formation / Balakot Bagh Fault (BBT), Jhelum Fault/ Degraded Scarp Hangu Formation Laterite Deposits Patala Formation Shales with Limestone Bands Lockhart Limestone Nodular Limestone Kuldana Formation Gypsiferous Clays Murree Formation Sandstones, Shales Abbottabad Formation Dolomites, Cherty Dolomites Chorgali Formation Black stone Punjal Volcanics Marble Murree Formation Sandstones, Shales Green Stone
DAY - 3 Ambore Murree and Hazara Formation/Jhelum Fault Murree Formation Hazara Formation/Local fault Boulder /Lake Sandstone, Shale Dolomite, Claystone,slates Sandstone, Shale Dolomite Stones
DAY - 4 Lohar Gali Hazara Formation / Meandering River, Alluvial Fan Abbottabad Formation : Sanghar Gali Member Mohammada Gali Member Mirpur Member / Garhi Habib Ullah Mansehra Granet / Chitta Batta Dike Slates
Sandstone Cherty Dolomite Sandstones, Shales Granet : Quartz, Feldspar, Muscovite, Biotite, Black Tormaline, Pyrite Dike : Quartzite Stauralite Garnet Mica Schist Biotite, Muscovite Oolitic Limestone Sandstone, Siltstone
Ashoka Park Salhad
Tanol Formation Samana Suk Formation Hazira Formation / Fault between Hazira Formation & Samana Suk Formation Hazara Formation (Tanakki Boulder Beds) / Angular Relationship between Boulder Beds & Slates
Boulder Beds, Slates
Stop-1: Murre Hi hway
Formation & Litholo y: Murre Formatio ha i g Sa y y to e which are o two type
Argillaceous : I Re Colour Clay Co te t More Arri aceous : I grey Colour Clay Co te t Less
Age: Mioce e Oligo ce e Observed: Mostly sa Lami a a be s i sto e a shale which is Argillaceous (RE i color See o
Photo 1: Argillaceous sa
sto e o Murre Formatio
ear Bara oh
y Also obser atio o pre e tio o la sli es by usi g Gabbe s, weep holes ,
Pi chi g Sto es, Be chi g or erraci g
Photo 2: rai i g alo g murre highway
Formation & Lithology: Murre Formatio with Argillaceous Sandstone abundant Clay Content, Expansive Soils. Age: Mioce e, Oligoce e Observed: The presence of Argillaceous Sandstonein Kohala is the reason for Active Landslide Area. Another reason is the presence of Steep Slopes due to Kashmir Hazara Uplifting which causes steep slopes. Landslides Start from Kohala Bridge to Barnala Area.
` Photo 3: Khola la sli i g
Stop-3: Chattar Kalas Formation & Lithology: Formatio o Hazara-Kashmir Sy taxis with omi a t
lithology o Sa sto e, olomite, shale, Schist, Phyllites, Slates, g eisses. o is
Description: he NW-tre i g Hazara-Kashmir sy taxis (HKS lies i the hi terla
the Himalaya collisio zo e. he NW-tre i g I associate with a acti e bli us-Kohista Seismic o e (IKS we ge o thic -ski re erse aults which exte ormatio s.
across the HKS. Ha e three segme ts a y
Hazara Segme t: It is prese t i Ghari Habibbulah, Abbottaba , Kohala, Nathiagali area. I this area Baseme t rock is Hazara Formatio which is compose o Slates. Kagha Segme t: It is prese t i Ghari Habibullah, Shar a, Babusar op. I this area Baseme t rock i NE is Salkhalah ormatio or Shar ah group a i NW a awal Formatio . Kashmir Segme t: It exte s rom east o Ghari Habibullah to Kotli area. I this area baseme t rock is Abbottaba Formatio .
Hazara Kashmir Sy tax is i i e i to hree Parts: Lower Part: ow war to MB , Mi le Part: Westwar to Pa jal Fault a MB . MB , Upper Part: Northwar to Pa jal Fault a
Photo 4: Formatio o Hazara-Kashmir Sy taxis
Stop-4: Ambore Tunnel Formation & Lithology: Lithology was mostly boul er a
Description: he selectio or tunnel construction must Compacte , urable and
hard. In tunnels a erage Joints are counted by examining joints in 1m/m area. hen joints are packed by grouting to pre ent strata collapse. The Tunnel consists o our parts 1. Top most Crown 3. Wall 2.Spring line (Cur ature , 4.Inward (Bed).
Photo 5: Tunnel iew in Ambore
Stop-1: AJK University Campus Latitude (33` 96 44 ) Longitude (72` 54 53 ) Formation & Lithology: The Formation present is Siltstone band Sandstone,
Intra ormational Conglomerates and Argillaceous Shale.
Age: Miocene Observation: Murre Formation Ha ing Alternate Bed o sand and shale with Subordinate
intra-Formational Conlomerate. Sandstone color is grey. Cross bedded ha ing Calcite ein in Abundance. Mapping was done also or this area.
Photo 6: Red shale o Murre ormation AJK uni
Photo 7: Sandstone o Murre ormation AJK uni
Stop-2: Chahla Bandi Formation and Lithology: Abbotabad Formation, Murree Formation, Kuldana
Formation. Ha ing Sandstones, Shale and olomites lithology.
Observation: Balakot-Bagh ault is present. egraded scarp is obser ed o ault between
Abbottabad Formation and Murree Formation. It is a cur ed thrust ault plane. On the right,
Photo 8: Fault scarp and BBT There is contact between Kuldana Formation in Black colour and Murree Formation with Alluvium cover. This ault is an active ault and the olds ormed are anticline. This ault extends up to Chillikot-Sirinagar area. The aults have been ormed in Abbottabad ormation due to extensive racturing. Mapping were done also or this area Travelling a distance o about 10minute we were able to see Folds.
Photo 9: Folds near Chela bandi
Stop-3: Yaadgar Formation and Lithology: Abbottabad Formation: Cherty olomites, Chert Bands
Hangu Formation: Sandstone, Laterite etc. Lockhart Formation: Nodular Limestone. Patala Formation: Shales with Limestone Bands Margalla Hill Formation: Nodular Limestone Chorgali Formation: Marls and Shale. Kuldana Formation: Gypsi erous Shales Murree Formation : Sandstone, Shales.
Age: Paleocene / Eocene Observation: Abbottabad ormation ends at this location a terward Hangu, Lockhart and
Patala ormations starts. We also observed transitional contact o Paleocene rocks with Chorgali ormation and the eatures we observed exist on the eastern limbs o anticline. A ter Chorgali ormation, Kuldana Formation starts. Coal Seam is also present in this area.
Photo 10: Bedded stone o Muzza rabad Formation at Yaadgar
Photo 11: Presence o Coal seams in Formation
Photo 12: Abbottabad, Hangu, Lochrat Formation at Yaadgar
Photo 13: Chorgali and Kuldana Formation at Yaadgar
Stop-4: Noseri Formation & Lithology: Panjal Volcanic: Marble and Green Stone. Murree Formation:
Age: Panjal Volcanic o Permian and Murree Formation o Miocene. Observation: At the top o terrace there were yellow colored marble and distinguishing green colored Panjal volcanoes o Permian age. Here we ound primary volcanic structures
Photo 14: Marble and Freen stone o Panjal volcanic in Nosheri
like amygdule, vesicle and pillow lava like structure. Vesicles are the air bubbles trapped in magma and i these vesicles are illed with secondary minerals, they are known as Amygdule e.g. Pillow like lava.
Stop-1: Ambore Formation & Lithology: Murree Formation Sandstone and Hazara Formation olomite. Age: Murree Formation Miocene and Hazara Formation Precambrian. Observation: There is a ault between Murree Formation and Hazara Formation, known as
Jhelum Fault which is a Le t Lateral Strike Slip Fault with Reverse Component that runs through the Jhelum River and terminates along EW salt ranges. It extended rom Mangla to Balakot. Fault Gouge is present at the ault zone which is the crushed dolomite. Mostly the local scientists treat the dolomite as upper portion o Hazara ormation but according to the research Greek scientist named this portion as Rara.
Photo 15: Jhelum ault between Murre and Hazara Formation in Ambore
Some Micro olds were also indenti ied. These olds are developed in association with aults and their development depends upon the properties o material being involved during ormation which can either be plastic, elastic or ductile.Some local ault were also located.
Photo 16: Micro Folds in olomite o Hazara Formation in Ambore
Photo 17: Local Fault in olomite in Ambore
Stop-2: Subrhi Structure: Lake and River Observation: About 25 years ago heavy rain all occurred and stream carried depleted
material with it and deposited on the path o Neelam River and a Lake was ormed. ue to this lake Basin became wider. Later on the depleted material was blasted and the path o the River was cleared. This area is the region between two aults. Then we studied a method to measure the attitude o the bed, i.e.-e strike and dip o the bed which is either inaccessible or is located very ar by Shooting method and plotting strike and dip in stereo net and ind the type o Fold.
Photo 18: Neelam River view at Subheri
Stop-1: Lohar Gali Formation & Lithology: Hazara Formation is o regional metamorphism and Lithology
Age: Precambrian Geomorphology: Meandering River. In this river, deposition is on the Inner side o the
river and outer side is cutting the area. River change its course due to ault upli t.
Photo 19: Meander River From Lohar gali
Photo 20: Hazara slates in Lohar Gali
Stop-2: Barar Kot Formation & Lithology: Abbottabad Formation It is divided into three groups:
y y y Sandstone (Sanghar Gali Member) Cherty olomite (Mohammada Gali Member) Sandstone, Shales, Cross Bedded Sandstone (Mirpur Member)
. Observation: Chopboard weathering is present in the sandstone o Abbottabad Formation
Photo 21: Chopboard weathering in the sandstone o Abbottabad Formation.
Stop-3: Batrasi Formation & Lithology: Tanawal Formation mainly consist Schist and Pyrite. Pyrite is
called ool¶s gold because o rusty appearance it look like iron.
Photo 22: Pyrite rusty appearance in Batarsi.
Stop-4: Chitta Batta Formation & Lithology: Mansehra Granet Formation having Lithology Granet. Age: Cambrian (Mansehra Granet) Observation: White Colour grains that are shiny are Muscovite grains. Black shiny grains
are biotite. Tormaline and Schroal. Pyrite is also present. It is an Intrusive Igneous rock with higher silica content. It is an intrusion in the country rock . The country rock at this place is Tanol Formation o Precambrian Age.
Dike: A dike has intruded a Granet body, the dike composition is Quartzite. There is a cross
cutting relationship between granet and quartzite which is a Metamorphic Rock.
Photo 23: Granite in Manshera Formation in Chitta Batta
Photo 24: ike Intrusion Quartzite in Chitta Batta
Stop-5: Manshera Ashoka Park Formation & Lithology: Tanol Formation having Lithologies Stauralite Garnet Mica
Schist Schist, Brown Garnet, Needle Like Structures are Stauralite, Biotite (More), Muscovite.
Age: Precambrian Observation: Granite Rock with xenoliths, Phyllite Shiny appearance in the rock is due to the presence o cerasite.
Photo 25: Xenolith in Granite at Asoka Park, Manshera
Photo 26: Phyllite Shiny appearance due to the presence o cerasite.
Stop-5: Selhad Formation & Lithology: Oolitic Limestone o Samana Suk Formation. Observation: Oolictic Limestone present at this place is o Yellow Colour due to
Photo 27: Yellow Colour Oolitic Limstone
Stop-5: Khota Kabar Formation & Lithology: Tanaki Boulder Beds with Lithologies Boulder Beds in Red
Colour, Slate in Black colour.
Age: Precambrian Observation: Tanaki boulder Bed is above Hazara slates. There is Angular Relationship
between Tanaki Boulder Beds and Hazara Formation At this place there is an unconformity . between Hazara and Abbottabad Formation.
Tanaki Boulder Beds
Photo 28: Angular Relationship between Tanaki Boulder Beds and Hazara Formationat Khotha Kabar.
1. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HAZARA_PAKISTAN 2. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/AZAD_KASHMIR 3. HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.COM/PK 4. STRATIGRAPHIC ASPECT OF RECENT EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED ALONG THE BALAKOT-BAGH FAULT, NORTH-WEST HIMALAYAS, PAKISTAN BY MUNIR-UL- HASSAN MUNIR 5. STRATIGRAPHY, METAMORPHIC AND TECTONIC OF THE HAZARA KASHMIR SYNTAXIS AREA BY GRECO ANTONIO SWITERLAND 6. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL OF MUZAFFARABAD KHOLA AREA AJK BY M.ARSHAD KHAN AND M.SHOIAB QURESHI AJK UNIVERSITY. 7. GEOLOGY AND TECTONIC OF PAKISTAN BY KAZMI AND JAN 8. GEOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN BY KAZMI AND ABBASI 9. GEOLOGY OF THE HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS BY WADIA 10. GEOLOGY OF HETTANGIAN TO MIDDLE EOCENE ROCKS OF HAZARA AND KASHMIR BASINS, NORTHWEST LESSER HIMALAYAS, PAKISTAN BY NAVEED AHSAN 11. LITHOSPHERIC SCALE FOLDING MODELLING AND APPLICATION TO HIMALAYAN SYNTAXS BY J.P BURG
Alluvium: Unconsolidated terrestrial sediment composed of sorted or unsorted sand, gravel, and clay that has been deposited by water. Angle of repose: The steepest slope angle in which particular sediment will lie without cascading down. Banded iron ore: A sediment consisting of layers of chert alternating with bands of ferric iron oxides (hematite and limonite) in valuable concentrations. Basalt: A fine-grained, dark, mafic igneous rock composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Basement: The oldest rocks recognized in a given area, a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks that underlies all the sedimentary formations. Usually Precambrian or Paleozoic in age. Bedding: A characteristic of sedimentary rocks in which parallel planar surfaces separating different grain sizes or compositions indicate successive depositional surfaces that existed at the time of sedimentation. Cataclastic rock: A breccia of powdered rock formed by crushing and shearing during tectonic movements. Chert: A sedimetary form of amorphous or extremely fine-grained silica, partially hydrous, found in concretions and beds. Coal: The metamorphic product of stratified plant remains. It contains more than 50 percent carbon compounds and burns readily. Dip: The angle by which a stratum or other planar feature deviates from the horizontal. The angle is measured in a plane perpendicular to the strike. Fault: A planar or gently curved fracture in the Earth's crust across which there has been relative displacement.
Fault-block Mountain: A mountain or range formed as a horst when it was elevated between parallel normal faults. Fold: A planar feature, such as a bedding plane, that has been strongly warped, presumably by deformation. Geomorphology: The science of surface landforms and their interpretation on the basis of geology and climate. Gravel: The coarsest of alluvial sediments, containing mostly particles larger than 2 mm in size and including cobbles and boulders. Meander: Broad, semicircular curves in a stream that develop as the stream erodes the outer bank of a curve and deposits sediment against the inner bank. Monocline: The S-shaped fold connecting two horizontal parts of the same stratum at different elevations. Its central limb is usually not overturned. Orogenic belt: A linear region, often a former geo-syncline, that has been subjected to folding, and other deformation in a mountain-building episode. Schistosity: The parallel arrangement of shaly or prismatic minerals like micas and amphiboles resulting from nonhydrostatic stress in metamorphism. Syntaxis: A sharp bend in orogeny mountain belt. Xenoliths: A piece of country rock found engulfed in an intrusion.
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