A STUDY ON Brand Awareness
With reference to
Project report submitted to Andhra University, Visakhapatnam in partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree in
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Regd.No. Under the esteemed guidance of
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES
ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
This is to certify that project report entitled “BRAND
AWARENESS” with reference to AIRTEL, VISHAKAPATNAM is a bonafide work done by with Regd.No: under my guidance and supervision during May to June 2008. This project is submitted to ANDHRA UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the award of degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.
Date: Place: Vizianagaram
() Project Guide
I here by declare that this project report entitled “BRAND AWARENESS” with reference to “AIRTEL, VISHAKAPATNAM” has been prepared by me during the year 2008 in the month of June and July is partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of ANDHRA UNIVERSITY.
I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that it has not been submitted to any other university for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Introduction Need for the Study Objectives of the Study Methodology Limitations of the Study
Industrial profile Company profile
Analysis of study
Summary Findings Suggestions
• Introduction • Need for the Study • Objectives of the Study • Methodology • Limitations of the Study
They are: Product . marketing may be explained as a business function entrusted with the criterion and satisfaction of customers to achieve the aims of business itself in popular usage. brand or company. in professional usage the term has a wider meaning. goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
publicity. and persona! Selling. promotion and distribution of ideas. the term "marketing" refers to the promotion of products. Pricing – This refers to the process of setting a price for a product.INTRODUCTION
Marketing Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception. and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants.
. especially advertising and branding. It can be divided into four sections. Promotion -This includes advertising. Often called the "four Ps'".The product management aspect of marketing deals with the specifications of the actual good or service. In a most simple and non-technical language. sales promotion. And refers to the various methods of promoting the product. However. including discounts. pricing.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
The study was conducted to know the brand awareness regarding Airtel cellular providers from the customers of different cellular service providers. An opinion survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to know the users' view on the services provided by Airtel with special emphasis on the other cellular users. The study was also done to estimate the performance of the Airtel mobiles with the other cellular service providers. Understanding the level of customer satisfaction with : Reference to Airtel • Coverage • Call centers • Billing
to whether the customers know about different services provided by the Airtel mobiles. He study totally revolves around the opinions and feed back from the users.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. 4. 5. To understand the concept of Brand Awareness of Airtel Cellular. To know the customer preferences. 8. 9. 3. To know how many cellular users know about the services provided by Airtel. To compare the service of “Airtel” with that of the other market players. customers of
. 2. To study the basic need of the customer for switching from one Cell Company to another. 6. To understand the problems of mobile customers. To find out the reasons for the retention of the Airtel customers. 7. To collect the suggestions and complaints of other cellular service providers. To find the awareness strategies of the Airtel brand.
businessmen and employees. Data was also collected from the company's records and from the websites "www. Secondary Data: The secondary data comprises of various Books. Journals. When population elements are selected for inclusion in the sample on the basis of access it can be called convenience sample.METHODOLOGY
This study is done using the following primary and secondary data: Primary Data: The primary data was collected by a market survey in Visakhapatnam.Airtel.in"'. which contains different categories of consumers like students.co. Periodicals and other published magazines are included in the study.
Deliberate sampling: Deliberate sampling is known as purposive or non-
probability sampling. This sampling method involves purposive or deliberate selection of particular units of the universe for constituting a sample. Questionnaire was prepared and administrated by taking a sample of 100 consumers. which represents a universe.
Systematic sampling: In some instances the most practical way of sampling is to select every 15th name of list.Simple random sampling: This type of sampling also known as chance sampling or probability sampling. in case of finite universe. has the sample probability of being selected.
. Where each and every item in population has an equal chance of inclusion in this sample and each one of the possible sample. Sampling of this type is known as systematic sampling. every 10th house on one side of house of street and so on. the actual selection of items for sample being left to the interviewer’s judgment. Stratified sampling: If the population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group than a stratified sampling techniques applied so as to obtain representative sample. Quota sampling: In stratified sampling the cost of talking random samples from individual strata is often so expensive that interviewers are simply given quota to be filled from different strata.
This technique is meant for big enquires extending today considerably large geographical area like entire country. Sequential sampling: This is somewhat a complex sample design where the ultimate size of the sample is not fixed in advance but it is determined accordingly to the mathematical decisions on the basis of information yielded as study progress.
. Multi-stage sampling: This is the further development of the idea of cluster sampling.Cluster and area wise sampling: Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements inclusion in the sample.
There were only three open ended questions.
. The time and cost factors affected the size of the sample. A few of the questions asked were ranking based and hence there was every possibility of biased user opinion. Many of the respondents gave oral complaints. So there is a chance of receiving some wrong responses due workload from the respondents. but hesitated to write those complaints in the complaints column.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The sample size was comparatively very small compared to the population and there are chances that it may not represent the whole population. which were comparatively low when compared to the number of the number of closed ended questions in the questionnaire keeping in the respondent's precious time. Most of the samples were collected during the office time.
• Industrial profile • Company profile
were unable to locate some of the items they desired most and created an online auction clearing house as when IDEA noticed that people wanted good furniture of a substantially lower price and created knock-down furniture.INDUSTRY PROFILE MARKETING
Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest definitions of Marketing is When eBay recognized that people
“Meeting needs profitably. and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relations in ways that benefit the organization and its stoke holders. Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating.
. Modern marketing precedes and succeeds production. Modem marketing is the guiding element of business.Four Basic Features of Modern Marketing Modern marketing is consumer oriented. "Nothing happens until somebody sells something. This alone shows the importance of marketing as a potential force that commands high significance for society as a whole. Modern marketing starts and ends with the consumer.
Importance of marketing: A high level of marketing activity is a prerequisite for a high level economic activity. It has been aptly remarked. At present the urgency is for increased marketing and not merely for increase in production.
protect and enhance brands. maintain. sign. intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. or design. But a brand is an even more complex symbol. a brand identifies the seller or maker. or a combination of them. which have expiration dates. The American Marketing Association defines a brand as follows: A brand is a name. logo. or other symbol. Marketers say that "branding is the art and cornerstone of marketing. Brands differ from other assets such as patents and copyrights. trademark. In essence. benefits. term.What
Perhaps the most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create. A brand is essentially seller's promise to deliver a specific set of features. symbol.
. and services consistently to the buyers. The brands convey a warranty of quality. It can be a name. the seller is granted exclusive rights to the use of the brand name in perpetuinity. Under trademark law.
well-built. high-prestige automobiles. 4. or an austere place (object). We would expect to see a 55-year-old top executive behind the wheel of a Mercedes.
. 2.' 3.
Mercedes may suggest a no-nonsense boss (person). Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture. a reigning lion (animal). efficient. Benefits: Attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits. Mercedes suggests expensive. The attribute "I won't have to buy another car for several "expensive" translates into the
emotional benefit “the car makes me feel important and admires. not a 20-year-old secretary. culture: organized. safety and prestige.It can convey up to six levels of meaning: 1.
durable. 5. well-engineered. User: The brand suggests the kind of consumer who buys or uses the product. The attribute "durable" could translate into functional benefit years". 6. Attributes: A brand brings to mind certain attributes.
Personality: The brand can project a certain personality. Values: The brand also says something about the producer's values Mercedes stands for high performance.
The Mercedes represents German high quality.
Marketers must decide at which level(s) to anchor the brand's identity. and personality. One mistake would be to promote only attributes. Promoting the brand only on one benefit can also be risky. Second. First. it misses the point. Suppose Mercedes touts its main benefit as "high performance". Mercedes needs the freedom to maneuver into a new benefit positioning. Mercedes must project this in. The Mercedes stands for high technology. its brand strategy. Then several competitive brands emerge with high performance as compared to other benefits. the current attributes may be come less desirable later. doing so would dilute the value and personality. The most enduring meanings of a brand are its values. competitors can easily copy attributes. Mercedes has built up over the years.
. performance and success. Third. Mercedes must resist marketing an inexpensive car bearing the name. They define the brand's essence.If a company treats a brand only as a name. culture. the buyer is not as interested in attributes as in benefits. The branding challenge is to develop a deep set of positive associations for the brand.
companies are relearning the basic lessons of what makes a successful brand-mainly that you can't live on image only. Image. an integrated marketing firm in Maynard. and she could see that old-fashioned branding strategies had gone astray. and logos don't create loyalty. Consumers want to know what you arc all about
. "Basic business principles fell apart. a brandconsulting group in Cincinnati. What ultimately fell apart was the connection between companies and consumers." says Jeff Dufresne.BRAND AWARENESS
Brand. without giving consumers reason to buy. the hip. "There's been a tremendous abuse of branding. Over the past few years. that's a logo. "I think people got confused and thought branding was just throwing some ill-conceived
advertising out there to gain awareness." she says. catches all word of the New Economy. as they say. without giving consumers a reason to buy. Pat Harpell saw it up close as the CEO of Harpell Inc. managing director of Brand Storm. Eyeballs don't equal sales. Branding turned into a game of being seen for the sake of being seen.." With the dotcom fallout. was everything. many entrepreneurs have called on her to create branding programs. Massachusetts. It suggested all a company needed succeed was awareness."' Branding turned into a game of being seen for the sake of being seen. “That’s not a branding program.
no teaching of “There were no and no
communicating with consumers. Entrepreneurs need to leave their ivory
office towers and talk to people. When management and
technology consulting firm Accenture and technology research company Online Insight surveyed 2000 online consumers last
. no matter how much technology alters
dialogue. Branding a has become a monologue instead of never change. People didn't realize how hard branding really is. Branding has become a monologue instead of a dialogue.” Harpell says. Entrepreneurs need to leave their ivory office towers and talk to people.and why they should trust you enough to purchase your product. missing lately. Harpell recently studied a group of new companies to see how ingrained their branding messages were inside those companies. They have to make sure their branding messages are understood by everyone inside the company. “Over the last few years. They need to be responsive to their customers. The web's problems. She found that many employees weren't aware of their companies' branding messages at all. brand connection. This will our lives. and it's essential to any branding strategy. But its rewards are equal to is-s difficulty. Koehn says.” Koehn says. too. It’s that dialogue that's beer.
On one hand. consumer
psychologist and associate dean at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. The problem is this "one clear benefit" has been missing in plenty of branding campaigns." says Kelly Dixon. they wanted satisfying customer encounter that was Fast and convenient. the average online shopper is 35 to 44. co-author of the study and director of e-branding at Accenture in Chicago. While most of the marketing is aimed at youth.
. to discover whether you'll reveal that one clear benefit your product or service offers that'll make them try it. When the value proposition is missing. they found that a lot of the givens about the web that marketers operate under are false. Entrepreneurs also assumed that advertisements drew
consumers to their sites while customer’s survey veiled on search engines. It's about the total customer experience." Consumers developed a love-hate relationship with late-'90s branding strategies. On the other hand.year.S consumers over-exposed to branding. Observes David Schumann. "Companies haven't focused on the entire package. and Schumann sees companies facing the fallout: consumers sticking with the products they've trusted for a long time instead of taking a chance on products they don't really understand. consumers are paying attention. And the low prices companies touted weren't what customers were looking for. if only briefly. "Branding is about more than the sock puppet. seeing logos invade every inch of public space has left U.
Therefore. rather than just a catchy advertising campaign. if potential customers do not know about a company. Thus trust must be achieved through credibility. DEFINITION:
The act of creating public awareness of a specific brand in
order to maximize its recognition. Promotional
. it is important to design
communication messages that reflect the brand's unique value for specific audiences. Quite simply. successful brand awareness strategies should define a company's uniqueness and set it apart from competitors". in cost-effective manner as possible. as well as traditional advertising methods. Consumers tend to make purchasing decisions based on peer recommendations and direct experience. risk-averse consumers will go with what they know. albeit. they will not purchase from it.Schumann says. one of the preeminent goals of any business should be to build brand awareness. Med stat helps healthcare providers strengthen their brand awareness efforts with those customers likely to use their service as well as determine the most effective media for communicating their brand value to the target audience based on lifestyle and media preference. Brand Awareness: In developing brand. This is why it is necessary to build brand awareness strategies out by instilling trust among consumers.
These online brand awareness strategies can include the use of advertising including banners. The most prevalent wireless standard in the world today is GSM. development. The GSM association was formed as a result of a European community agreement on the need to adopt common standards suitable for cross border European mobile communications. etc. Mobile telephones have become a business/economy. albeit with differing levels of success. Online brand awareness strategies are used frequently.
Cellular Telephony: The technology that gives a person the power to
communicate anytime anywhere has spawned an entire industry in mobile telecommunications. sponsorships. affiliate marketing. The GSM association (Global System for Mobile
Communication) was instituted in 1987 to promote and expedite the adoption. and email/newsletter advertising. online PR. soon came to represent the global system for
increasingly effective at building trust and acquiring new customers. deployment and evolution of the GSM standards for digital wireless communications. the group special mobile as it was then called. Starting of primarily as a European standard.
Although cellular licenses were made technology neutral in September 1999. The new licenses for the 4'1 cellular licenses that were awarded in July 2001 too. the world’s leading digital standard
accounting for 68.
. The Indian government when considering the introduction of cellular services into the country. leap fogging obsolescent
technologies/standards. but also has widespread
ramifications on the entire economy of the country. all the private operators are presently offering only GSM based mobile services. have opted for GSM technology to offer their mobile services. GRM is today. a major part of the GDP of the country would be contributed by this sector.mobile communication as it achieved the status of a world wide standard. Cellular Industry in India: The government of India recognizes that the provision of a world class telecommunication infrastructure and information is the key to rapid economic and social development of the country. it is of vital importance to the country that there be a comprehensive and forward looking telecommunications policy which creates an enabling framework for the development of this industry. made a landmark decision to introduce the GSM standard.5% of the global digital wireless market. It is critical not only for the development of the technology industry. It is also anticipated that going forward. Accordingly.
While post-paid customers need to surrender their number to recover their deposits. From then to 1995. getting a telephone connection meant having contacts at the right places. There are more than 50 million subscriptions as 1st October 2007. They point out that there is some degree of over-counting by cellular service operators in the mad rush to report higher subscriber’s numbers. India’s 6th richest man with a total worth of US$27 billion. there is no such compulsion for prepaid customers. That was the beginning of India's electronic contact with the world.80 per minute) for the average Indian. Of course. A hundred years later.India
and exciting wireless markets in the world. The first telegraph line in India
History of telephony in India:
was commissioned in October 1851 for the East India Company. the first automatic telephone exchange opened in Calcutta.a revolution that has ensured that mobile phones are the most widespread
communication devices on earth. (when the first cellular phone call was made at the princely cost of Rs 16. It offers its mobile services under the Airtel brand and is headed by “Sunil Mittal”. who account for well
. the company is one of the world’s fastest growing telecom companies. Some analysis advises taking slightly more conservative figure. it is often hard to tell just how many active subscribers each operator has. what is playing out in India is just one exciting chapter in the global wireless revolution .
Even the specter of -double counting cannot take away from the fact that India's mobile party is in full swing.over 80% of the subscriber base.
And most operators allow a
pre-paid subscriber to exist in the system for anything ranging from 45days to 6 months. many of those subscribers simply do not exist. and operators -is pulling out all the stops to make sure that the party doesn't end prematurely. The introduction of the unified license has sorted out the key regulatory concerns. among the lowest in the world. capacity enhancement cost over $100 per subscriber. In just a decade. the Indian telecom sector has transformed itself from a musty tome of arcane into a growth story on
steroids. And that it is likely to continue at least for the next couple of years. even after they have stopped buying talk-time. Sure there are still a few direct investment limits to 74%. The equipment and handset vendors are keeping the growth story going. So.the Government.
Everyone . If two years ago. Vendors. it is under $40 now. Nokia is now getting increasingly aggressive in the Indian telecom equipment market. Handset manufacturers.once again. Recent data suggests that its equipment rates have
come down to S25 per subscriber.
After knowing about how an eel! Phone system works. but the cost of using the device. we will examine the various cell phone systems in existence. Since cell phones have ceased to be an exclusive status symbol of high-powered lawyers and are now in the hands of million of consumers. especially in metropolitan areas. Today. cellular phones are truly consumer electronics devices with over 75 million subscribers. Traditionally cellular phones remained out of hands of most consumers due to their high cost. paying close attention to details in system design that reduce cost and increase quality. examining the details of their
. As a result. They are now incredibly cost sensitive. In this report. cell phone carriers have invested time and resources into finding ways to give the systems higher capacity and thus lower cost. have how revolutionized we perceive the voice
Cellular communications telephones arena. Specifically it is not the cost of the device that counts. cellular companies are looking for ways to bring down the call cost to attain even higher market penetration. more than ever. we will begin by examining how eel! Phone systems work. Today. Cell systems are benefiting from this research and starting to develop into large-scale consumer products.
An Overview It is common knowledge that cellular phone? (Referred to as "cell'' phones from here on) are wireless phones. a device called a "switch" patches the cell phone's signal throughout to a channel on (he "Public Switched Telephone Network"(other\vise known as P S T N). asking to be connected to a given telephone number. many of us have confusion about how a cell phone works.
.operation and how that impacts the cost of using the system and call quality on the system. If to the tower has sufficient resources to grant the request. cell phones use high-frequency radio signals to
communicate with "cell towers" located throughout the calling area.
When the user wants to make a call.
Essentially. the cell Phone sends a
message to the tower. This call now takes a wireless channel as well as PSTN channel that will be held open until the call is completed. Cell phones communicate in the frequency range of 806-890 MHz and 1850-1990 MHz for the newly allocated "PCS" frequency range.
Micro cells may also be used to
. Additionally. This channel cannot be used for anyone else's call until the
cell phone call is discontinued. In loaded areas with many obstacles (such as tall buildings). Since the cell phones may broadcast at low power levels. the cell phones may broadcast at very low power levels (typically 200m\V 1W. Each cell in a cell phone system represents the area served by one cell phone tower. buildings interfere with cell signals coming from outside so many buildings have their own "micro cell1'. The Kingdome and New York subway are two examples of where micro cells are used. unlike amateur radios can occupy a tabletop. the cell sites may be spaced closer together. require closer cell spacing due to their higher frequency and lower power operation. CELLULAR PHONES As the name implies. Cells are typically spaced around 1-2 miles apart but can be spaced up to 20 miles apart in rural areas. and thus are able to tit in a shirt pocket. The above simple description of how ceil phones work. cell phone systems are made up of many small "cells". we will add technical details about various facets of cell phone systems throughout the remainder of this section. they use small transmitters and small batteries. some technologies. depending on system). The concept of cells is key behind the success of cell phones because by spacing many cells fairly close to each other. like PCS.
homes may have "Pico cells'' connected to the home's PSTN connection to allow the eel] phone to be used as a cordless phone.
. In fact.increase overall capacity within a heavily populated area such as city's core downtown area.
Therefore. several different techniques were developed by cell phone manufacturers to split up the available bandwidth into many channels each capable of supporting one
conversation. Analog vs. voltage representing the amplitude of the levels
voice conversation.ENCODING AND MULTIPLEXING
Overview With thousands of cellular phone calls going on at any given time within a city . analog broadcasts audio as a series of continuously changing.
. it certainly would not work for everyone to talk on the came channel at once(as in CB and short-wave radios). a short discussion is included for those who are not. we find that the amplitude can be effectively transmitted at 15 KHz due to Nyquist limitations.
When sent on the cell phone network using the standard frequency modulation (meaning voltage levels translate into frequency shifts) into channel separated by 30 KHz. Digital While the distinctions between analog and digital encoding is probably obvious to most readers. Essentially. The following sections will discuss each technology and how it works.
At the receiver. These bins are encoded as a binary number and sent as a series of Is and Os. FDMA systems arc least efficient cellular system since each wasted analog channel can only used by one user at a time. it reserves the frequency channel for the entire duration of the call. FDMA splits the allocated spectrum. but they are also whenever there is silence during the cell phone conversation. Essentially. The phone uses a common digital control channel to acquire channels. a digital signal quantizes the voltage levels into a number of bits (typically 2 or 25(5 representing an S-bit encoding). not only are those channels larger than necessary given modern digital voice compression. is exclusively used on all analog cellular systems. in many channels.Instead of sending data as various voltage levels. FDMA FDMA stands for "frequency division multiple access1' and though it could be used for digital systems. each channel is 30 KHz. The voice data is modulated into this channel frequency band (using frequency modulation) and sent over the airwaves. This allows for digital compression in the encoding stage enabling voice to be sent at as little as 8000 bits per second. the information is recovered using a Band Pass Piker. When a FDMA cell phone establishes a call. Analog signals are also especially susceptible to
. In current analog cell systems.
the channel/timeslot pair belongs to the phone tor the duration of the call. This technique allows compatibility with FDMA while enabling digital services and easily boosting system capacity by three times. A digital control channel provides synchronization functionally as well as adding
. TDMA also requires strict signaling and timeslot by synchronization. low quality voice. the system is able to offer 3 timeslots per channel in a round-robin fashion. it is easy to see why FDMA is being replaced by newer digital techniques. analog cell phones must use higher po\ver(between 0 and 3 watts) to get acceptable call quality. While TDMA is good digital system. TDMA fits three digital conversations into FDMA channel(which is 30 KHz) by sampling a persons voice for say 30 million seconds. Given these shortcomings . TDMA TDMA stands for "time division multiple access". TDMA builds on FDMA by dividing conversations by frequency and time. then transmitting it in 10 milliseconds. Given the nature of the signal. In other words . it is still somewhat inefficient since it has no flexibility for varying digital rates( high quality voice. pager traffic) and has no accommodations for silence in a telephone conversation.noise and there is no way to filter it out. once a call is initiated. Since Digital compression allows voice to be sent at well under 10 kilobits per second(equivalent to 10 KHz).
. Due to the digital signal .voice mail and message notification. TDMA phones need only broadcast at 600 milliwatts.
the noise level will be low enough to recover the digital signal. upon extracting the signal. everything else appears to be low-level noise." CDMA systems are the latest technology on the market and are already equipping TDMA in terms of cost and call quality. since CDMA offers far greater capacity and variable data rated
. if everyone speaks a different language. then they can be understood. the digital audio signal can be extracted from the other signals being broadcast by other phones on the network.CDMA CDMA stands for "Coded Division Multiplexed Access11 and is both the most interesting and the harden ro implement multiplexing method.5MHz for traditional cellular or 60MHz in PCS cellular). From the perspective of one call. no one can understand. in the digital domain. CDMA has been likened to a party. with a unique code(called a pseudo-noise code) that makes it distinguishable from the other calls in the frequency spectrum. Each conversation is modulated.25MHz "pass-bands. A CDMA system hay no channels. Each signal is not. spreads across the whole spectrum (12. but is spread across 1. in fact. when everyone talks at once. however. As long as there is sufficient separation between the codes (said to be mutually orthogonal). Using a correlation calculation and the code the call was encoded with. but instead encodes each call as a coded sequence across the entire frequency spectrum.
The current CDMA systems boast at
. many more users can be hi into a given frequency spectrum and higher audio quality can be provided.depending on the audio activity.
The downside to CDMA is the complexity of deciphering and extracting the received signals. When a call is inactive (silence) or may be compressed more.least three times the capacity of TDMA and GSM systems. As a result. Thus. especially if there are multiple signal path (reflections) between the phone and the cell tower (called Multi-path interference). GSM: GSM stands for "Global System for Mobile Communication. fewer timeslots are used. The fact that CDMA shares frequencies with neighboring cell towers allows for easier installation of extra capacity. GSM is interesting in that is uses a modified -and far more efficient version of TDMA. CDMA technology also allows lower cell phones power levels(200 milliwatts) since the modulation techniques expect to deal with noise and are well suited to weaker signals. they hold less date but allow for data rates starting at 300 bits per second. So extra capacity can be achieved by simply adding extra cell sites and shrinking power levels of nearby sites. CDMA phones are twice as expensive as TDMA phones and CDMA cell site equipment is 3-4 times the price of TDMA equivalents. Since the GSM timeslots are smaller than TDMA. To facilitate filling in
." GSM is mostly a European system and \is largely unused in the US. but corrects several major shortcomings. GSM keeps the idea of timeslots and frequency channels. a call can use many timeslots as necessary up to a limit of 13 kilobits per second.
8MHz frequency spectrum. the new cell tower picks up the call and the old drops the call as the cell phone switches frequencies. Upon finding this information. the current cell tower sends an over-the-air message to the new ceil tower and to the cell phone. and when a user travels between cells. Often these "hard" handoffs fail when the new tower tries to pick the call up. Tins is accomplished by giving each cell a slightly different chunk of the frequency spectrum(note that CDMA does do not do this) and by measuring power levels. CALL HANDOFF It is apparent that cells must somehow overlap. is should be noted that GSM requires 1 Watt of output power from the phone. In most systems. each cell tower typically receives a 1. one cell must hand the eel! off to the other cell. This type of handoff is called a 'hard handoff' since the audio feed is lost for between 10 milliseconds and l00 milliseconds while the new tower picks up the signal. calls do "frequency hopping" in GSM. When the power level of the user begins to fade. At this point. the cell tower determines which cell is the closest cell. leading to frequent dropped calls. This means that calls will jump between channels is used to communicate the frequency hopping and other information between the cell tower and the phone. In normal cellular systems that
. The cells must also not interfere with each oilier.gaps left by unused timeslots. To compare with the other systems.
have a 12. two cell towers intercept the signal where the cells overlap. Since CDMA uses the entire spectrum available.5MHz spectrum (not the high-band PCS systems that have more bandwidth). this allows for 7 ceils before ceils have to reuse frequencies. Since each cell is scattered across a whole 1. there is no real distinction between cells in terms of frequency use. SECURITY One of the largest problems in wireless communication is security. changing from one weaker audio feed to a stronger audio feed. A discussion of call handoff s not complete without CDMA technology.5 MHz spectrum(60 MHz in a PCS system). Therefore. This means no sudden switch. there are 0-2 cells and 10-20 miles separating cells using the same frequency in order minimize interference.25MHz pass band in CDMA. this means that there is no necessity to change frequencies during a handoff since everyone is using the same frequencies. every cell tower can access the whole 12.
. since this handoff (called a "soft handoff) is actually handled in the switch. There are two worries: other people listening into phone calls and other people illegally billing time to a users
account(called "phone cloning''). Generally. This technique removes the loud "pop" associated with normal "hard" handoffs and greatly reduces problems with dropped calls.
It is also important to mention that CDMA also uses its modulation code to provide increased security. the architects of digital technology designed digital phones with much more robust security. they would need to find the encryption code to make sense of the signal. When sending the information to the switch. Wireless Data In the modern times. a few years ago. even if the person with the scanner finds the channel and time slice you are using. Digital phones employ encryption to secure the phone and the conversation. Encryption is used in TDMA and COM A to make sure that works by picking a key that is used in an equation that compresses the audio. Cell phones also must be protected from cloning by encrypting the eel! phone number and related information. we depend on e-mail and on the World Wide Web. Since analog phones have such weak security. The encrypted key is sent to the cell tower so the cell tower knows how to decode the conversation. For instance. We have access to these resources at home and at the offices. and provide no security. Newt Gingrich had a cell phone conversation taped by someone using a simple police scanner. cloning is prevented. resulting in over four billion possible
encryption codes. analog phones transmit in plain FM. which is designed to receive police activity on the CB frequencies. and we would like to use these resources while
packetized digital data may be sent over this line. which would happen if two packets were sent at the same time by two different phones. This is slower than the maximum possible rate because of the inefficiency of converting digital to analog. CDPD is useful since it runs on top of Data (CDPD Over Is-136 And Amps
. Analog cellular moderns make the same squealing sounds as the ordinary desktop computers analog modem.traveling. but operate al far slower speeds. preventing it from being decoded by the receiving modem. Analog modems work on any cellular system by simply encoding the digital data as audio signals. Analog Modems Analog modems are the simplest type of wireless data. CDPD describes how every cell phone on the network may insert packets on this shared data channel without causing collisions. these modems typically average between 4800 to 9600 bits per second. On an analog modem. It should also be noted that digital systems do not support analog modems since their data compression would damage the analog modem signal. This is the goal that "wireless data" hopes to accomplish. Packet Networks) By using some of the channels of TDMA and FDMA(is-1367 and amps standards) network as large aggregated digital data lines.
FDMA systems as well as newer TDMA systems and offers 19. the CDPD protocol can be scaled by adding more frequency channels. GSM: GSM uses an antiquing method to send data by sampling sending computer data as it would send voice data. GSM allows data rates in multiples of 300 bits per second. It requires no additional hardware to support data. Since the GSM network is already a packet network of sorts because of its frequency hopping.2 kilobits per second data rate. Using a teemed system. GSM allows every phone to be "data enabled". up to 64 kilobits per second.
Indian operators. It has got wireless subscribers of 10 million and 19. It has got subscribers of 7 million and 15. c) Tata Tele Services: Tata Tele Services is a later starter but banking of new subscriptions.THE PLAYERS OF WIRELESS MARKET
a) Bharti Tele . It has got 1. It has got 5. It is poised to be one of the Pan. b) Hutchinson Telecom: Hutchinson telecom has got profitable operations. It is launching different easy recharges for the prepaid customers.
.48% of the total market share.Ventures: Bharti Tele-Ventures is the most aggressive acquirer of wireless connections and it is mainly focusing on penetrating in the circles of India. It has a strong last-mile edge that could be leveraged for data services and broadband. It is now mainly focusing on consumer prepaid market.87% d) BSNL: BSNL focused on consumer wireless and voice.66% of the total market share.2 million subscribers and 15.41% of the total market share.3 million subscribers and a market share of 1.
And AIRTEL believes that's the way it should be.
. All of us communicate whether it's mid day or mid night: Whether it's someone at the other end of the world.2005 are
1. The listings of the Bharti tele-ventures limited are The Stock Exchange. Mumbai(BSE). 2004-Audited).055 million (year ended March 31.061. or the other end of the room . About Airtel Airtel. The proportionate revenue as per the Indian GAAP Accounts are RS 81. broadband & telephone (fixed line). and The National Stock Exchange Limited of India Limited(NSE).558 million(year ended March 31. of course is a new product in Andhra Pradesh which was a product of the Bharti Tele-ventures LIMITED.369 million(year ended march 31.890. Technology shouldn't control when and with whom you can communicate. The shares in issue as at December 31. 2004-Audited) as per the Indian GAAP Accounts. Rs 50.658 million(year ended March 31.COMPANY PROFILE AIRTEL
All of us communicate all the time. The Proportionate EBITDA is Rs 30.2005Audited). long
distance(international& national) and enterprise service.2005-Audited) and RS 17. It was established as Public Limited company on July 07 in the year 1995. It provides mobile.154.
However it is to be made sure that your handset is GSM 1800 compatible handset. About our Mobile: It's the instrument that will change your life making communication simple and effective. It provides broad band(DSL) and telephone services(fixed line) in 15 telecom circles in India. Operational is that network of Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited
it provides GSM mobile services in all the 23 telecom
circles in India.2006 is Approximately Rs.290. thus being the only telecom operator having an all India presence.450. Adapter/Charger
. charge it up to 6-8 hours depending on the phone you are using.074 GSM mobile customers and 1. Before using your battery for the first time.246
broadband & telephone(fixed line) customers as at the month ended February 28. The customer base of the Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited is there are 18.727 billion and the closing BSE share price = Rs 384.65. Battery This is the heart of your phone.Market Capitalization as on March 20. besides keeping you within a phone call away from any one on the planet.2006. always.
Getting Connected Before you say "HELLO" for the first time on your AIRTEL phone.
Saying 'Hello' These keys vary depending upon the model of your cell phone or the button you use to make a call of the button you use to end a call.
. which you can access directly from the phone book built into your AIRTEL phone . Your SIM card will already have the numbers of all the Dial-in-Services and SMS based services. the AIRTEL network. It will instantly connect you to. Connect it to your phone and plug it to an electric point to make sure your batter." never lets you down. SIM card: Subscriber identification Module This little card needs to be inserted into your phone . and put you in touch with the world. The button bearing the instruction "call" key(generally in green color) or "Yes" or "Semi" or “Ok" is used to make a call and the button bearing the instruction "cancel" key(generally in red color) or "No" or "C" is used to end the call. make sure you check two things : • Your battery is full charged. • Your SIM card is properly inserted.This is the food for your battery.
Making calls from your AIRTEL mobile To make a local call If you are calling n landline in your city/town, dial 0891 followed by the landline number in case of Visakhapatnam i.e.. you have to dial the local code followed by the landline number to be called. Eg: 0891-2538791. To call a local cellular number Directly dial the 10 digit cellular number you want. Eg: 98490XXXXX, 98660XXXXX. To call a three digit landline number Dial the three digit landline number you want. E<;; 108. To call an STD number Dial the STD code followed by the landline number you want same as that of you have called a local number in Visakhapatnam. Eg: 040XXXXXXXX if called to a landline in Hyderabad. To call a cellular number outside Andhra Pradesh
Dial "0" (zero) followed by the 10 digital cellular number you want. Eg:098100XXXXX. To make a call out of the country Dial 00 or + followed by code and finally the the country code, then the area number you want. Eg:
00449743XXXX. To make a call to a cellular number in another country. Dial 00 or -t- then the country code and the cellular number you want. Eg; 001225389XXXX. To leave a message on a pager Dial the local city/town code followed by the pager number. Eg;0891XXXX. For Customer’s Security: A1RTEL phone is built with in built safety features. Getting familiar with them will prevent misuse of your phone. Personal Identification Number(PJ.N) This 4 digit password helps ensure that not just anyone can use your AIRTEL phone. To activate it we have to fellow the instructions given in the ceil phone user guide. Once activated you are given a default password 0000. You can change this through the menu setting on your AIRTEL mobile. If the incorrect PIN is entered thrice in succession, your SIM card will be blocked.
Personal Unblocked Key (PUK) This 8 digit number used to unblock your SIM card. If the PUK is incorrectly entered 10 times, your SIM card will be permanently damaged. It will (hen have to be replaced by a new one. If your card does not get blocked you can call 24 hour AIRTEL CUSTOMER CARE at 98490 98490 or 121. toll free number from your AIRTEL phone. Our personnel will help you unblock it. Be Careful The SIM card can get completely damaged if: It is inserted or removed often, or handled in a rough manner. Something is stuck onto to it, scratched or written upon, or cut. It is exposed to a very high/low temperature or to a magnetic field. An incorrect PUK is entered 10 times. Replacements A SIM card can be conveniently replaced at The AIRTEL Shop in the city, at an additional charge. Your AIRTEL phone number will not be changed when you replace the SIM card.
To prevent misuse of the AIRTEL phone in the case the owner loses it.
. The AIRTEL SIM will be disconnected till you collect your new one. he can call 24 hour AIRTEL Care at 98490-98490 or 121 toll free number from any AIRTEL phone.
so you do not have to bother about paying
deposits or having minimum balance in your account to make STD/ISD call. Himachal Pradesh. Maharashtra. you get the facility of receiving calls and sending SMS. that comes preactivated with your connection. This facility comes at no extra charge and allows you to recognize the caller. You can
. So that you can make outgoing calls in
Delhi. where Airtel is not present. Kolkata. Madhya Pradesh. Guiarat. Chennai. UP(west). Karnataka. While roaming in the rest of India like West Bengal and Bihar. Mumbai. Kerala. Goa. Punjab. Caller Line Identification Presentation This feature on your AIRTEL Prepaid facilitates the display of the calling party's number. Tamil Nadu. Prepaid National Roaming Airtel Prepaid is the first prepaid mobile card in the country to provide "All India Roaming". Calling facility till the last rupee Fun till the end! You don’t have to bother about a minimum balance required to make any calls. Ultaranchal.AIRTEL VALUE ADDED SERVICES
Preactivated STD/ISD The STD and ISD facility comes preactivated on your AIRTEL prepaid. Haryana.
International Roaming Airtel prepaid makes sure you to stay connected while you trot across the globe. Airtel Roaming makes life easy and convenient for its subscribers. no matter where they are. You can also send SMS while roaming in Delhi. ROAMING : With the Airtel roaming we will be able to whoever we want or whenever we want irrespective of which part of India or the world you are in. important reminders and rib-tickling jokes.also now make and receive calls.
. SMS(Short Messaging Service) Share those interesting one-liners. Now one can always stay connected. Punjab. BPL networks in India. on our existing Airtel number. letting you receive incoming calls and send SMS while roaming in more than 100 countries with 150 plus networks. Idea. with the Airtel Roaming facility. anywhere in the world. Hutch/Orange. anytime. Haryana. with anyone. UP (west) and Utlaranchal(northern region only). send and receive SMS while roaming on. one can use their Airtel phone in over 100 countries worldwide and over 530 cities across India.
wherever you go in India or around the world. Cheque. Pay Online. Credit Card. you will get only one bill that will include all your expenses. Airte! brings roaming along with its roaming partners. Cash. Payment Options Now the Airtel customers can pay their bills easily through the wide range of payment options.-:. So whenever you are always just a local phone call away from those who need you because you pay for the long distance part of any incoming call. With roaming you will have just one phone number wherever you travel across the world. Roaming is the best way to say in touch. ATM Networks
. And to make life much simple.
This offer covers the following: 1. Charges for Sharing of Infrastructure Elements.Reference Interconnect Offer The Reference Interconnect Offer from Bharti Cellular Limited covers the technical and commercial arrangement for interconnection between the network of Bharti Cellular Limited and the network of the interconnection seeker. Interconnect Unbundled Network Elements. Termination. wherever applicable.
Transit Traffic. Physical interconnection between the networks. 6. Charges for Other Services wherever applicable. Applicable Technical standards. 4. 2. 5. 3. Interconnect usage Charges for Origination.
• Theoretical framework
THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
sign. or design. emotional or intangible – related to what the brand represents. term. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve consumers’ lives and enhance the financial value of firms. The Role of Brands Brands identify the source or maker of a product and allow consumers – either individuals or organizations – to assign
. branding began with artists signing their works. intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.What Is Brand Equity? The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “a name.
Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer from those of another. or a combination of them.” A brand is thus product or service that adds dimensions that differentiate may be functional. symbol. They may also be more symbolic. In the fine arts. The
earliest signs of branding in Europe were the medieval
guilds’ requirement that craftspeople put trademarks on their products to protect them-selves and consumers against inferior quality. rational or tangible – related to product performance of the brand.
They find out which brands satisfy their needs and which ones do not. rushed. First. Brand loyalty
provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that make it difficult for other firms to
distributor. and packaging can be protected through copyrights and designs.3 Brands also perform valuable functions for firms. manufacturing processes can be protected through parents. The brand name can be protected through registered
trademarks. As consumers’ lives become more
complicated. they simplify product handling or tracing Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. and time-starved.
Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. A brand also offers the firm legal protection for unique features or aspects of the product. Consumers learn about brands through past experiences with the product and its marketing program. the ability of a brand to simplify decision-making and reduce risk is invaluable. These intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and reap the benefits of a valuable asset. differently
Consumers may evaluate
depending on how it is branded.
branding can be seen as a powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. they cannot easily match lasting impressions in he minds of individuals and organizations from years of marketing activity and product experience. Wall Street believes that strong brands result in better earnings and profit performance for firms. and provide the security of sustained future revenues to their owner. “Marketing Memo:
. Large earning multiples have been paid for brands in mergers or acquisitions. To firms. starting with the boom years of the mid-1980s. as well as the tremendous difficulty and expense of creating similar brands from scratch. Much of the recent interest in brands by senior management has been a result of these bottom-line financial considerations. in turn. be brought and sold. creates greater value for shareholders.enter the market. Although competitors may easily duplicate manufacturing processes and product designs. which. Loyalty also can translate into willingness to ay a higher price – often 20 to 25 percent more. brands thus represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer behavior. The price premium is often justified on the basis of assumptions of the extra profits that could be extracted and sustained from the brands. In this sense.
A brand is a perceptual entity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the idiosyncrasies of consumers. provides value to the firm. in the process. consumers must be convinced that there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service
. To brand a product. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and. For branding strategies to be successful and brand value to be created. it is necessary to teach consumers “who” the product is – by giving it a name nd using other brand elements to help identify it – as well as “what” the product does and “why” consumers should care. Branding is all about creating differences. ultimately a brand is something that resides in the minds of consumers.The Brand Report Card” lists 10 key characteristics based on a review of the world’s strongest brands.
The Scope of Branding How then do you “brand” a product? Although firms
provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of a brand.
a person (Tom Clancy. or country of Spain). a place (the city of Sydney. to continual innovation. or freedom of speech). Foot Locker specialty store. free trade. in part.
Calvin Klein. and others have been leaders in their product categories for decades due. Gucci. through Other brands create means. Gillette. or an idea (abortion rights. Pantene shampoo. or Ford Mustang automobiles). Tommy Hilfiger. Bank of America. an organization (UNICEF. a service (Singapore Airlines.
. or BlueCross/BlueShield medical insurance). a store (Nordstrom department store. competitive Coca-Cola. and others have become leaders in their product categories by understanding consumer motivations and desires and creating relevant and appealing images around their products. The key to branding is that consumers must not think that all brands in the category are the same.category. Marlboro. 3M. Brand differences often are related to attributes or benefits of the product itself. American Automobile Association. It is possible to brand a physical good (Camphell’s soup. or Safeway supermarket). Merck. or The Rolling Stones). state of Texas. or Andre Agassi). Sony. Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. Britney Spears.
A brand is said to have positive customer-based brand equity when consumers react more favorably to a product and the way it is marketed when the brand is identified as compared to when it is not. In other words. market share. thought. Customer-based brand equity can be defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. as well as the prices. learned. and act with respect to the brand. and felt about the brand over time.Defining Brand Equity Brand equity is the added value endowed to products and services. This value may be reflected in how consumers think feel. Marketers and researchers use various perspectives to study brand equity.12 The premise of customer-based equity models is that the power o a brand lies in what customers have seen. A brand is said to have negative customer-based brand equity if consumers
. Brand equity is an important intangible asset that has psychological and financial value to the firm. heard. read.Customer-based approaches view brand equity from the perspective of the consumer – either an individual or an organization. the power of a brand lies in the minds of existing or potential customers and what they have experienced directly and indirectly about the brand. and profitability that the brand commands for the firm.
If no differences occur. and unique brand associations with customers. Table 9. The challenge for marketers in building a strong brand is therefore ensuring that customers have the right type of experience with products and services and their marketing
. then the brand name product can essentially be classified as a commodity or generic version of the product. and Harley-Davidson
preferences. feelings. There are three key ingredients to this definition.1 summarizes some o these key benefits of brand equity. brand equity arises from differences in consume response. Hallmark (caring).react less favorably to marketing activity for the brand under the same circumstances. and behavior related to all aspects o the marketing of a brand. favorable. these differences in response are a result of consumer’s knowledge about the brand. In particular. Brand knowledge consists of all the thoughts. as has been the case with Volvo (safety). Third. beliefs. images. brands must create strong. Second. the differential response by consumers that makes up the brand equity is reflected in perceptions. and so on that become associated with the brand. Competition would then probably be based on price. First. experiences.
. enduring memory traces in the consumers’ minds. And there are numerous examples of brands that amass a great deal of brand equity by spending on marketing activities that create valuable. In the beverage category.programs to create the desired brand knowledge structures for the brand. beyond some minimal threshold amount. The quality of the investment in brand building is the critical factor. and 7Up saw sales decline in the 1990s despite sizable marketing support. all the marketing dollars spent each year on products and services should be thought of as investments in consumer brand knowledge. Despite being outspent by such beverage brand glants as CocaCola. brands such as Michelob. not necessarily the quantity. Pepsi. Miller Lite. arguably because of poorly targeted and delivered marketing campaigns. It is actually possible to “overspend” on brand building if money is not spent wisely. Brand Equity as a Bridge From the perspective of brand equity. and Budweiser. the California Milk Processor Board was able to reverse a decades-long decline in consumption of milk in California partly through its well-designed and executed “Got Milk?” campaign.
16. their knowledge about the brand. the true value and future prospects of a brand rest with consumers. Levi’s Tailored Classic suits. based on what they think and feel about the brand. Understanding consumer brand
knowledge – all the different things that become linked to the brand in the minds of consumers – is thus of paramount importance because it is the foundation of brand equity.
. Virgin. the brainchild of England’s flamboyant Richard Branson. and their likely response to marketing activity as a result of this knowledge. At the end of the day.At the same time. A brand promise is the marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for consumers. the brand knowledge created by these marketing investments dictates appropriate future directions for the brand. where (and how) they believe the brand should go and grnat permission (or not) to any marketing action or program. vividly illustrates the power enjoyed and responsibility assumed by a strong brand. Fruit of the Loom laundry detergent. New products such as Crystal Pepsi. Consumers will decide. and Cracker Jack cereal failed because consumers found them inappropriate. A brand is essentially a marketer’s promise to deliver predictable product or service performance.
Mr. there are three main sets of brand equity drivers: 1. From a marketing management perspective.
2.Lickyy. brand names.g. packages. and
signage). symbols. however. fun way. in a hip.Building Brand Equity Marketers building brand equity by creating the right brand knowledge structures with the right consumes.21
. Joe Boxer made its name selling colorful underwear with its signature yellow smiley face. The initial choices for the brand elements or identities
making up the brand (e. spokespeople. URLs. characters.
The product and service and all accompanying marketing
activities and supporting marketing programs. jingles.. logos. An exclusive deal with Kmart has generated strong retail support. slogans. The company spent almost zero on advertising clever stunts and events garnered publicity and word of mouth. This process depends on all brand-related contacts – whether marketerinitiated or not. Old Spice uses bright-red packaging and its familiar ocean schooner to reinforce its nautical theme while also launching deodorant and antiperspirant extensions adding the High Endurance and Red Zone brand names20.
the empowering “Just Do It” slogan.g.
Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trade markable devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. The test of the brand-building ability of these elements is what consumers would think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element. place. Nike hs the distinctive “swoosh” logo. A brand element that provides a positive contribution to brand equity for example. Subaru used the rugged Australian Outback and actor Paul Hogan of Crocodile Dundee movie fame in ads to help crafts the brand image of the Subaru Outback line of sports utility wagons. or thing). Brand elements can be chosen to build as much brand equity as possible. and the mythological “Nike” name based on the winged goddess of victory.3. Based on its name alone. a person. a consumer might expect ColorStay lipsticks to be longlasting and SnackWell to be healthful snack foods. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. would be one where consumers assumed or inferred certain valued associations or responses.
Other association indirectly transferred to the brand by
linking it to some other entity (e.
and Puffs an help. How aesthetically appealing do consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likable visually. Likeability. Meaningful. Crest. and Lean Cuisine low-calorie frozen entrees.
adaptable. Mop & Glo floor wax. To what extent is the brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it
suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand? Consider the inherent meaning in names such as DieHard auto batteries. and likable) can be characterized as “brand building” in terms of how brand equity can be built through the judicious choice of a brand element. and transferable) are more “defensive” and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in a brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of different opportunities and constraints.
meaningful. Memorable. The latter three (protectable. How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand names such as Tide.BRAND ELEMENT CHOICE CRITERIA. The first three (memorable. 1. verbally. There are six criteria in choosing brand elements (as well as more specific choice consideration in each case). 2.
4. Scotch Tape. and Fiberglass – retain their trademark rights and not become generic. Adaptable. she doesn’t look a day over 35! 6.
5. How adaptable and updatable is the brand element Betty Crocker has received over eight makeovers through the years – although she is over 75 years old.
Designing Holistic Marketing Activities
. Protectible. Unfortunately. which created a negative press backlash in the United States. Transferable. Kitty Litter.and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Sunkist. ater a tribe of colorful Saharan nomads. How legally protectible is the brand element ? How competitively protectible? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories – such as Kleenex. Touareg. historically they were also notorious slave owners. Xerox. Can the brand element be used to introduce
new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? Volkswagen chose to name its new SUV. Jell-I. Spic and Span and Firebird evoke much imagery.
. and payment transactions. event marketing. sponsorship. Brands are not built by advertising alone.
The strategy and tactics behind marketing programs have changed dramatically in recent years.
personnel. Customers come to know a brand through a range of contracts and touch points: personal with observation company and use. A brand contact can be defined as any information-bearing experience a customer or prospect has with the brand.
experiences. Marketers are
creating brand contacts and building brand equity though many avenues. trade shows. such as clubs and consumer communities. The company must put as much effort into managing these experiences as it does in producting its ads. or the market that relates to the marketer’s product or service.
. word of mouth. factory visits. and social cause marketing. Any of these experiences can be positive or negative. the primary input comes from the product or service and supporting marketing activities. the product category. public relations and press releases.Although the judicious choice of brand elements and secondary associations can make important contributions to building brand equity.
Analysis of Study
All the respondents were in the age group of 20-55 years. Sex Male Female Number of Respondents 90 10
From the tale it is incident that the number of male respondents who are considered for the survey are 90%.ANALYSIS OF BRAND AWARENESS OF AIRTEL SERVICES TO THE CUSTOMERS OF OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS Number of samples collected: 100: Out of the samples chosen. maximum respondents were male and minimum respondents were female. It is incident that 10% of the respondents were female.
Out of the chosen samples the minimum number of
respondents are using the post-paid services.
.Kind of Service Out of the 100 samples chosen. maximum people were using the Prepaid Service. Kind of Service
Number of Respondents 70 30
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 M ale
70% of respondents have chosen prepaid service since they want to be economical and can have an idea on the amount being spent.
. 30% of the respondents have chosen postpaid service since they had confidence of controlling their bill amount. And of them used Postpaid because their respective offices mostly provides them.
C on nection Type 70
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 P repaid P ostpaid 30
Occupations of the Respondents Maximum number of respondents were students. e) 5% of the customers are comprised with the other type of category. b) 30% of the customers belongs to the “Private Sector”. the survey regarding the occupations of the employees it is incident that: a) 5% of the total Airtel customers belongs to “Public Sector”.
. c) 20% of the customers are “Business Men”. d) 40% of the customers belongs to “Student Community”. mainly its SMS and its value added services. They were mostly satisfied by the services offered by Airtel to its customers. Occupation Public Sector Employee Private Sector Employee Business Men Students Others Number of Respondents 5 30 20 40 5
From the table.
.e. According to the survey the student community comprises other maximum customer proportion i.
40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Public Sector Private Sector Business Men Employee Employee Students Others 5 30
. Only very few respondents looked in for the availability and the Brand Image individually. 25% of the respondents will consider “Services” Provided by the service provider. services. ii. call charges and availability. iii. 5% of the respondents will consider “Brand Image” as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection. Factors Considered Brand Image Services Call charges Availability All the above Number of Respondents 05 25 30 10 30
From the table the following factors are observed regarding the “Factors that are considered while taking a cellular connection”. 30% of the respondents considers “Call Charges as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection. maximum respondents will look in for the services and the call charges the service provider is providing to them. Some of the respondents looked in for all the factors like Brand image.Factors Considered while taking cell connection Out of 100 respondents. i.
30 30 25 25
15 10 10 5 5
0 Brand Im age Services C all charges Availability All the above
And finally 30% of the respondents considers all the above stated factors while taking the cellular connection.
105 of the respondents considers the “Availability” factor as the main criterion while taking a cellular connection.
Rate of Satisfaction Excellent Good Satisfied Not Satisfied Number of Respondents 11 20 44 25
The above table determines the rate of satisfactions of customers who are using other than Airtel. And 25% of the respondents have said that the services provided by the current service provider are “Not Good”. Many of the respondents were unsatisfied with the services provided by their current service provider. And that they were not satisfied at all with the services. 11% of the respondents have said that the services provided by their current service provider are “Good”.
. Some of the respondents said that the services are good.Services Provided by the Current Service Provider Maximum number of respondents said that the services provided by their current service provider is satisfactory. 44% of the total respondents have said that the services provided by the current service provider were “Satisfactory”.
44 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 E xc elle n t Good S atisfied N o t S a tisfie d 11 20 25
Means of Awareness Hoardings News Papers Friends Advertisements Number of Respondents 4 20 40 36
The following are the observations that are made from the study regarding the “Means of Awareness”. Only two customers have aid that they have cam to know about the cell service providers through all the above stated means.How they are aware of various service providers Many of the respondents have answered that they have to came to know about various service providers through advertisements. Some of them have aid that they came to know about different service providers through friends and News Papers. b) 20% o the respondents are aware of the product through “News Papers”. a) Only 4% of the total respondents are aware of the cell service providers through “Hoardings”. Very less amount of people have got aware of various cell service providers through Hoardings.
The maximum number of respondents got aware of the product through “Friends” and only 4% of the respondents “Hoardings”.c) 40% of the total respondents through “Friends”.
are aware of the product
d) And 36% of the respondents are aware of the product through “Advertisements”. are aware of the product through
40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hoardings News Papers Friends Advertisements 20 36
Very few of the respondents do not know about the Airtel services and offers. 40% of the respondents are not aware of the Airtel product and the services being provided them.
. Awareness about Airtel Yes No Number of Respondents 60 40
From the survey it is incident that only 60% of the total respondents are aware of the Airtel product and its services. These respondents know about Airtel through various means and mainly through friends.Are you aware of Airtel Services
Many of the customers are aware of the Airtel Services and offers.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 40
And only few of them have used Airtel before and have shifted from Airtel to other service provider. Usage of Airtel Yes No Number of Respondents 28 72
From the survey it is incident that only 28% of the total respondents have used Airtel connection in the past. 72% of the respondents have not used the Airtel connection before
72 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 28
.Have you used Airtel Connection Before Many of the respondents said that they haven’t used the Airtel connection before.
. b.Reasons for shift to other service provider The respondents who have used Airtel and shifted to other cell service provider have answered to this question. Shifting Reasons High Call Charges Improper Signal Want to try new operator Others Number of Respondents 15 0 10 3
From the above table it is incident that the customers who have used Airtel before have shifted due to the following reasons. c. 15 respondents out of 28 respondents have shifted from Airtel due to “High Call Charges”. a. None of them have shifted due to the improper signal coverage. 10 respondents out of the total respondents have shifted from Airtel for the reason that they want to try a new cellular service
operator. Many of them said that they have shifted to other cell service provider due to high call charges in Airtel.
3 respondents have shifted from Airtel due to other reasons like. they family influences etc.
16 14 12 10 8 6
3 4 2 0 High Call Charges Im proper Signal W ant to try new operator Others 0
. Some of them don’t want to shift from their current cell service provider. They also said that if the call charges have been reduced they will be definitely using Airtel. Usage of Product Yes No Number of Respondents 64 36
From the survey conducted regarding the usage of the Airtel cellular in the future the respondents have responded in the following way: a) 64% of the total respondents have said that they are interested in using Airtel in the future. The Post-Paid customers who have shifted from Airtel said that it is the wrong billing in Airtel which made them toshift from Airtel. b) 36% of the total respondents have said that they are not interested in using Airtel connection in the future.Interested in using Airtel In future Many of the respondents want to use Airtel in the future if any customer related benefits are provided.
64 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 36
They have stated that the value added services provided by Airtel are good.
Many of the customers have accepted that the services provided by Airtel are excellent regarding the Network coverage and signal quality.
1.Rating about the services provided by Airtel
Out of 100 respondents only 60 respondents know about the Airtel services an offers. Rating for Network coverage: Network Coverage Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 30 15 05 0
From the above table the following interpretation is made regarding the network coverage of Airtel.
On an average the customers rating for the services provided by Airtel are good when compared other cell service providers.
Some of them have stated that the customer care and the call charges are satisfied and.
There were no “Unsatisfied” customers regarding the Airtel network coverage.
20 15 15
10 5 5 0
0 Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel product 40 respondents have said that the network coverage of Airtel is “Excellent”.
05 of the respondents have stated that the network coverage is “Satisfactory”.
15 respondents of the total respondents have stated that the network coverage of Airtel is “Good”.
d. c. 35 respondents have stated that the customer care regarding customer care is “Good”. 10 respondents out of 60 respondents have stated that the customer care regarding Airtel is “Excellent”. Customer Care Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 10 35 10 5
From the above table the following interpretation is made regarding the Customer Care of Airtel: a. 5 respondents have stated that the customer care of Airtelis “unsatisfied”. b. Rating for the Customer Care: Out of the 60 respondents many of the respondents have said that the customer regarding Airtel is not so good as other cell service providers do.II.
. 10 respondents have stated that the customer care is “Satisfied”.
35 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 E xcelle n t G oo d S atis fie d U n S a tisfied
And 5 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Unsatisfied”.
30 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Satisfied”. charges are excellent in Airtel.III) Rating for the Call Charges: Out of the 60 respondents many of them have said that the call charges in Airtel are somewhat high when compared to the other cell service providers.
24 respondents of the 60 respondents have stated that the call charges of Airtel are “Good”. Call Charges Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 1 24 30 5 Only one responded that the call
From the survey regarding the rating of the customers towards the call charges the following points are noted:
Only one respondent have stated that the call Airtel have been “Excellent”.
30 30 24 25
10 5 5 1
0 E xce lle nt G o od S a tisfie d U n S atisfied
IV) Rating for the value added services in Airtel: Out of the 60 respondents many of the respondents have said that the value added services provided in Airtel are good but the SMS offers are satisfactory when compared to the other cell service providers. c. d. And 10 respondents have stated that the value added services of Airtel are “Un satisfied”. b. 4 respondents of 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel have stated that the value added services provided by Airtel are “Excellent”.
. a. 16 respondents have stated that the value added services are “satisfied”. Value added services Excellent Good Satisfied Un Satisfied Number of Respondents 4 30 16 10
From the above table the survey revealed the following factors regarding the Value Added Services provided by Airtel. 30 of the respondents have stated that the value added services of Airtel are “Good”.
15 10 10 4 5
0 E x c e lle n t G ood S a tis fie d U n S a tis fie d
Customer Rating for Various Cell Services Providers 54% of the respondents have rated Airtel the First place among various cell service providers. None of the respondents have given first place TATA Indicom.
. 3% of the respondents have ranked Reliance with the first place. 8% of the respondents have ranked idea Cellular First place. 30% of the respondents have rated Hutch the First place. 5% of the respondents have ranked BSNL with the first place.
• Summary • Findings • Suggestions
25 respondents consider only the services.
Out of the 100 respondents. 44 are satisfied with their current cell service provider. ID respondents considers the availability of the services and only 5
respondents considered the Brand image of the cell service provider. 30 respondents consider only call charges. availability while choosing a cell connection.
Out of the 100 respondents 5 are public Sector Employees. 20 respondents are
Businessmen. 30 respondents considers the Brand image. Auto drivers. 30 are Private Sector Employees. services. maximum number of respondents were male (90) and minimum respondents were female (10). maximum people were using Pre~ Paid service and minimum number of people were using the Post-Paid service. Out of the 100 samples chosen. call charges.
Out of the 100 samples chosen. 25 respondents are not satisfied with
Total number of samples collected are 100.
Out of the 100 respondents. 40 respondents are students and 5 respondents are others like un employees.
Out of the 100 respondents 70% were using Pre-Paid Service and 30% of them were using the Post-Paid service.
40 of them have said that they are aware of various cell service providers through friends. 36 respondents are aware of the services through the
Out of the 100 respondents. 36 respondents are not interested in using Airtel in the future.
shifted. and 12 of the respondents have not used Airtel connection before. only 40% of the respondents are not aware of the Airtel services. 20 respondents have said that the services of the current service provider are good. Only 11 respondents have responded that the services provided by their current cell service provider are excellent. 3 of them have shifted due to other reasons. Only 4 respondents are aware through hoardings.
Out of the 100 respondents. 60% of the respondents are aware of the Airtel services.
Out of the 100 respondents only 28 respondents have used Airtel before.
15 respondents have shifted due to the high call
charges.their current service provider. 20 of the respondents are aware through the newspapers.
Out of the 100 respondents 64 of them are interested in using Airtel in the future. 10 of them wanted to shift in order that they want to try a new operator.
3% for reliance and none of them gave first place for Tata indicom. 35 of them have said that the customer care is good. 15 of them have said that the coverage is good.. 5 of them have said that the network coverage is satisfied. 24 of them have said that they are good.
Out of 60 respondents who are aware of the Airtel services. 10 of them have said that the customer care in Airtel is excellent. 10 were satisfied and 5 of them were dissatisfied with the customer care in Airtel. only one have said that the call charges in Airtel are excellent.
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of the Airtel services. 30% for Hutch.
. 40 people have stated that the network coverage is excellent. 30 of them were satisfied and 5 of them were dissatisfied with the call charges in Airtel.
Out of the 100 respondents 54% have given first place for Airtel. 5% for BSNL. 8% (or Idea.
Out of the 60 respondents who are aware of Airtel.
Many of the respondents who are using cell phones of various service providers other than Airtel arc aware of Airtel Brand; it's features and the various other services of Airtel.
Some of the respondents who are dissatisfied with their current cell service provider wanted to shift to Airtel if they provide low call charges and better customer care.
Some of the Hutch Post-Paid customers have complained about the wrong billing which is less in Airtel when compared to the other service providers.
Airtel brand has attained a good awareness mainly due to its advertisements, which clearly explains about the offers they are providing.
In many rural areas also Airtel has its network coverage and due to this aspect it gained lot of importance as well.
Seethamadhara have less coverage.
The company has many parts in the same city or in the same region having low frequency of signals due to which the customer are facing problem.
From the Survey reports the suggestions that can be made are: Awareness programs: Still more awareness programs have to be implemented in order to attract more customers like: 1. Increase advertisement campaigns. 2. Increase programs. 3. Establishment of Hoardings in rural areas also. 4. Bringing awareness through issue of pamphlets in the Electronic media usage for the awareness
newspapers. Consumer Retention: Airtel has to implement some more retention programs like: 1. Extra talktimes should be given to the potential customers who are there for more than 2 years in the subscriptions. 2. Some festival offers should be given in order to retain the customers. 3. If more messages and extra talk time benefits are given then it can help for the retain for the potential customers. Airtel has to increase the customer care centers in order to concentrate more on the customer’s queries and their problems.
The reduction in the call charges can still attract more number of customers who are willing to shift to Airtel from other service providers.
.. a) Yes b)No 7) Have you used Airtel connection before a) Yes b)No 8) If yes which type of Airtel connection have you used before ? a) Pre-paid b) Post-paid 9) What is the reason for your change to other cell service provider a) High call charges b) Improper signal
Name Age Address : : : Sex: Male/Female
Occupation: a) Public Sector Employee c) Business e) Others (please specify) Mobile No............ 3) What factors do you consider while taking a cell connection ? a) Brand image b) Services c) Call Charges d)Availability e) All the above 4) How are the services provided by your current cell service provider a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfied d) Not Satisfied 6) Are you aware of Airtel services and offers..._______________________
b) Private Sector Employee d) Student
1) Which ceil service are you using currently a)Airtel b) Hutch c)idea d) BSNL e) Reliance f) Tata Indicom 2) flow long are you using this connection ? .....
n o 1. 14) Suggestions: …………………………………………………………………………. 4. ………………………………………………………………………….c) Want to try new operator d) Others 10) Are you interested in using Airtel in future ? a) Yes b)No 11) How do you feel about different services provided by Airtel S. Description Network Coverage Customer Care Call Charges Other Benefits (Value Added services) Excelle Goo Satisfi Un nt d ed Satisfied
12) How do you rank different cell service providers? Airtel ( ) Hutch ( ) Idea ( ) BSNL ( ) Reliance ( ) Tata indicom ( ) 13) Complaints if any: …………………………………………………………………………. 2. 3.
1) MARKETING MANAGEMENT .C Beri 4) LESSONS ON SERVICES MARKETING .coai.by G.com
.Airtel.com http://www.netmba.by Ram mohan rao 5) GLOBAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT .in http://www.by Philip Kotler 2) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .R.by Keesan warren J Web Sites: http://www.Baniboovvcb. Kothari 3) STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT .com http://www.by C.
which serves to differentiate competing products or services. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive and can have varying degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments.
Realization by a consumer of the existence and availability of a particular product. association.
Brand Awareness The proportion of
brand. Both a physical and emotional trigger to create a relationship between consumers and the product/service. name or
Brand Attributes Functional or emotional association that are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects.
Brand Audit A comprehensive and systematic examination of all collateral (both tangible and intangible) which relates to a brand. Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Unaided awareness is
Brand A unique and identifiable symbol.
or distribution channel. or outside of its category.
Brand Equity The value – both tangible and intangible that a brand adds to a product/service. added or prompted awareness is when the name is recognized among others that are listed or identified. geographic market.
Brand Extension The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.
Brand Essence The core characteristic that defines a brand.
Brand Expansion The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market.spontaneous.
Brand Identify A unique set of association that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should stand for and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to note that a brand identity refers to the strategic
goal for a brand.
Brand Image A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. while brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers. consumers. (Note that brand image is what is currently in the minds of identify is inspirational). whereas brand