I

VALUATION AND EVALUATION OF
TREES-OUTSIDE-FORESTS (TOF) OF
INDIA




SUMMARY
Growing trees in home gardens, farmlands, sacred places, along the
courses of water bodies and roads is an old age practice in India. Such trees
have been important source for timber, fuel wood, fruit, fodder shade and
shelter. The emphasis to plant more trees outside forests increased after the
launch of social forestry programmes in India in late 1970s. The basic theme
of the social forestry project was to plant trees in vacant lands, private as well
as public, for meeting the domestic needs of local people through the
involvement of the people. The extent of trees outside forests and their
contribution in meeting the requirement of wood and other forest products has
not been studied in depth.
Under the aegies of social forestry projects many states undertook wood
balance studies to understand the gap between supply and demands of wood. In
a few states where trees outside forests provide substantial contribution, some
rough estimates were made but acurate assessment was not done as the time
available to generate primary data was inadequate and methodology was also
not developed.
The Forest Survey of India (FSI) charged with the responsibility of
assessment of the forest resource of the country, undertook the field inventory
/survey of the trees in non-forest areas during 1992. The inventory has been
with a slow pace until 1998-99. The pace of the inventorization has accelerated
with the refinement of the methodology in the recent past. The inventory has
been confined to rural non-forest areas only. The trees available in the nonforest
areas are classified into 8 categories for the purpose of data processing
and analysis. These categories are farm forestry, roadside/railside / pond side/
canal plantations, village wood lot, block plantations and others. The sampling
design followed is the stratified random sampling where village is treated as a
final sampling unit. All the trees in the randomly selected villages are
enumerated and measured. Some of the results of inventories are presented in
the following para.
In Haryana, 291 villages against a total of about 7000 villages were
sampled and inventoried. The total volume of wood estimated in the entire
rural area of Haryana was 10.34 million m3 corresponding to 55.14 million
tree. The estimated number of trees per ha. was about 13. In West Bengal,
only 25 villages were selected. The number of trees based on pilot survey gave
25.4 trees per ha. This number is almost twice the number found in Haryana
State. In Karnataka, only 10 villages were selected representing all agroecological
regions and covering 8512 ha area. The number of trees obtained
per ha was around 16. In the Western UP, 62 villages were selected covering a
total area of 15802 ha. The number of trees obtained per ha was about 19.7.
ii
Farm forestry has highest contribution in Haryana, Western UP and Karnataka
States. In West Bengal, maximum contribution comes from other category.
In Kerala, the study was done by KFRI where 30 villages against a
total of 1505 villages were selected . The study has revealed that homesteads
contribute the maximum in production of wood. The total number of trees in
home steads were estimate as 442 million excluding the area of plantations and
palms. It is noted that the distribution and living style in Kerala is different as
compared to other states. A small group of households called ³desom´ has a
large area around for cultivation and growing trees. In Kerala and West Bengal
the trees have been measured upto 5-cm diameter which may be one reason of
more number of trees per unit area. Further, growing of trees in homesteads is
more prevalent in these two states perhaps due to favourable climatic
(moist/humid) conditions as obtained in these states. It has been found that
their exist a positive co-relation between village area and number of trees and
also between population of a village and number of trees.
Since trees outside forest have become a major source of wood, it is
imperative that such resources are accurately assessed on a periodic interval.
With the advancement in the space technology and increasing resolution of
stellites, it is contemplated to apply remote-sensing technology combining
ground inventory to assess the trees growing outside, quickly.
iii
CONTENTS
Page
1. India¶s Profile
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Flora and Fauna 2
1.3 Recorded Forest Areas 3
1.4 Forest Cover Estimates 3
1.5 Trees Outside Forests 5
1.6 Assessment of Trees Outside Forests 6
2. Design and Methodology of the Field Inventory
in Non Forest Areas (Rural)
2.1 Definition 7
2.2 Category of Plantations 7
2.3 Sampling Design 8
2.4 Method of Selection of Sample Villages 8
2.5 Estimation Procedure 9
2.6 Field Procedure 11
3. Inventory Reports
3.0 Haryana
3.01 Brief Background of the State 13
3.02 Forest Resources 14
3.03 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 14
3.04 Estimate of the Study 15-20
3.1 West Bengal
3.11 Brief Background of the State 21
3.12 Forest Resources 22
3.13 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 22
3.14 Estimate of the Study 22-28
3.2 Karnataka
3.21 Brief Background of the State 29
3.22 Forest Resources 29
3.23 Agro Ecological Regions 30
3.24 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 30
3.25 Estimate of the Study 31-34
3.3 Western U.P.
3.31 Brief Background of the State 35
3.32 Forest Resources 36
3.33 Agro Ecological Regions 36
3.34 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 37
3.35 Estimate of the Study 37-41
3.4 Kerala
3.41 Brief Background of the State 42
3.42 Forest Resources 42
3.43 Social Forestry in Kerala 43
iv
3.44 Need for the Study 44
3.45 Methodology adopted by KFRI 44
3.46 Estimation of Growing Stock of Trees in Homesteads 45
3.47 Estimate of the Inventory 46-47
3.48 Species Preference 48
3.49 Pattern of Growing Stock Distribution 49
4. Conclusions 54
5. Appendix I
(Names of trees in Homesteads of Kerala) 55-56
6. Appendix 2.1
(Haryana: Name of species and uses) 57-58
Appendix 2.2
(West Bengal: Name of species and uses) 59-60
Appendix 2.3
(Karnataka: Name of species and uses) 61-62
Appendix 2.4
(Western U.P.: Name of species and uses) 63-64
7. Appendix 3.0
(Definitions) 65-66
8. References 67
v
LIST OF TABLES
Page
1.1 Land use in India 1
1.2 Extent of Dense Forest, Open Forest and Mangrove 4
in 1997 Assessment
Haryana
3.11 Distribution of trees by Species and Diameter 15
3.12 Distribution of Trees by Category and Diamter 17
3.13 Distribution of Trees by Species and Category 18
3.14 Distribution of Volume by Species and Diamter 19
3.15 Distribution of Volume by Category and Diameter 20
3.16 Distribution of Volume by Species and Category 20
West Bengal
3.21 Distribution of Trees by Species and Diameter 23
3.22 Distribution of Trees by Species and Category 26
3.23 Distribution of Trees Specie by Agro Ecological Zones 27
Karnataka
3.31 Distribution of Trees by Categories 31
3.32 Distribution of Tree Species by Agro Ecological Zones 32
3.33 Distribution of Trees Species by Diameter 33
Western U.P.
3.41 Distribution of Trees Species by Diamter 38
3.42 Distribution of Trees Species by Category 40
3.43 Distribution of Trees Species by Diameter 41
Kerala
3.51 Number of Trees in the Growing Stock in Homestead 47
3.52 Volume of Growing Stock of Trees in Homestead 48
3.53 Commercial Volume of Growing Stock of Trees in Homesteads49
3.54 Pattern of Growing Stock of Trees in Homestead 50
3.55 Number of Trees Growing in Homesteads by Diameter 51
3.56 Volume of Important Trees in Growing Stock in Homesteads 52
3.57 Commercial Volume of Important in the Growing Stock 53
in Homesteads
1
1. INDIA¶S PROFILE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
India is the seventh largest country in the world having an area of 328.72 m ha. It
is bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north and crossed over by the Tropic of Cancer
in the south and tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east
and the Arabian Sea on the West. The mainland extends betwe en latitudes 804' and 3706'
north, longitudes 6807' and 97025' east with land frontier of about 15,200 km. Countries
having borders with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to north-west, China, Bhutan and
Nepal to north, Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east . Neighbouring country Sri Lanka is
separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of
Mannar.The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of
the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern Peninsula. The plains of the
Ganga and the Indus are one of the world¶s greatest stretches of flat alluvium and densely
populated areas.
The Minstry of Agriculture, Government of India is responsible for the maitenace
of land use statistics o f the country. The land use pattern in 1992-93 was as per Table 1.1
Table 1.1: Land use in India as on 1992-93 (in million ha)
Forests 67.0
Area under non-agricultural uses 21.8
Permanent pastures & other grazing lands 12.0
Land under Misc. tree crops & groves 3.0
Culturable waste land 16.0
Fallow lands 24.0
Barren and unculturable land 19.4
Cropped area 142.5
Use not reported 23.0
Total land area 328.7
India is one of the most densely populated country having 267 persons per sq.km.
The population as per 1991 census stood at 846.30 million out of which 628.69 million
people reside in rural India. The estimated population on 1 April 1998 was 955 million.
The cattle population in the country in 1992 was 445 million.
The climate of India is broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There are
four seasons: winter (January-February), (ii) hot weather summer (March-May); (iii)
rainy south-western monsoon (June -September) and (iv) post-monsoon, also known as
north-east monsoon in the southern peninsula (October -December). India¶s climate is
affected by two seasonal winds ± the northeast monsoon and the southwest monsoon. The
north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea
2
whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon, blows from sea to land after
crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The southwest
monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to
make forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained
manpower.
1.2 FLORA AND FAUNA
With a wide range of climatic conditions India has rich and varied vegetation.
India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions, namely, the western Himalayas,
the e astern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus Plain, the Ganga plain, the Deacon, Malabar and
the Andamans.
The Western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon is temperate
zone and rich in forests of chir, pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees.
Higher up, forests of deodar, blue pine, spruce and silver fir occur. The alpine zone
extends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4,750 metres to higher. The
Characteristic trees of this zone are high-level silver fir, silver birch and junipers. The
eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjiling,
Kurseong and the adjacent tract. The temperate zone has forests of oaks, laurels, maples,
rhododendrons, alder and birch. Many conifers, junipers and dwarf willows also occur
here.
The Assam region comprises of evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of
bamboo¶s and tall grasses. The Indus plain region is dry and hot and supports tropical
dry vegetation. The Ganga plain region covers the area, which is alluvial plain and is
under cultivation for wheat, sugarcane and rice and only small areas support forest. The
decan region comprises the tableland and supports tropical vegetation from scrub jungles
to mixed deciduous forests. The Malabar region covers the excessively humid belt of
mountain country parallel to the West Coast and support rich forest vegetation. This
region produces important commercial crops, such as coconut, betelnut, pepper and
coffee. The Andaman region abounds in tropical evergreen and mangrove forests. About
49,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India.
India has a great variety of fauna numbering more than 81,000. Of these, insects
constitute about 60,000, molluscs a little over 5,000, mammals 372, birds 1,228, reptiles
446, amphibians 204, and fishes 2,546.
Main mammals include the majestic elephant, gaur, Indian bison, the great Indian
rhinoceros, the gigantic wild sheep of the Himalayas, swamp deer, spotted deer, nilgai,
the four-horned antelope, the Indian antelope or black-buck, tiger, lion and clouded
leopard. Rivers and lakes harbour crocodiles and gharials. The salt water crocodile is
found along the eastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
3
1.3 RECORDED FOREST AREAS
At the time of independence, the recorded forest area of the country was 39.94
million ha. The government owned forest was 26.16 million ha and community
(ownership resting with clans, councils) and privately owned forest was 13.78 million ha.
The area increased to 68.02 million ha in 1950-51 with the addition of ex-princely and
ex-proprietary forests. Out of this 53.82 million ha was government forest and 14.20
million ha community and private forests. The area further increased to 75.18 million ha
due to consolidation by the early eighties. Of this government and community owned
forests were 66.65 and 8.53 million ha, respectively. Per capita forest is 0.08 ha (as per
1991 Census) against the world average per capita forest 0.64 ha (MoEF 1997).
Presently, the recorded forest area is 76.52 million ha. In terms of legal status the
forest area has been classified into Reserve, Protected and unclassed forests which
constitute 54.4%, 29.2% and 16.4% respectively. It is to be noted here that the recorded
forest area has been rising inspite of the fact that large forest areas were diverted for
various development purposes. The total forest area diverted for non-forestry purposes
between 1950 and 1980 was 4.5 million ha i.e. at an annual rate of 150,000 ha. To
regulate unabated diversion of forest land for non forestry purposes, Forest Conservation
Act was enacted in 1980 which has resulted in the reduction of diversion of forest land
to about 16,000 ha annually at present. Due to compensatory afforestation against the
diversion, the forest area has establised. A large forest area in the country has been
brought Protected Area (PA) network by declaring them as national parks, sanctuaries
and other µreserves¶. At present Pas in India cover about 14.8 million ha representing
about 4.5% of geographical area of the country and consists of 84 national parks, 447
wildlife sanctuaries and 8 Biosphere reserves.
1.4 FOREST COVER ESTIMATES
The first assessment of the forest cover of the country was done in 1987 by the
Forest Survey of India using Landsat-MSS satellite data on 1:1 million scale. Since then
assessments are done on a two year cycle. The three assessments, done in 1989, 1991
and 1993 used Landsat-TM satellite data having better resolution and on 1:250,000 scale.
Thereafter, with the availability of data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1B)
the fifth and sixth assessments were done in 1995 and 1997. The seventh assessment is
using IRS-1C/1D data.
As per the last assessment, the total forest cover of the country is estimated as
633,397 sq.km. constituting 19.27% of country¶s geographic area. The status of actual
forest cover in terms of dense, open and mangrove forests of all the 25 states and 7 union
territories is presented in following table no. 1.2.
4
Table 1.2: Extent of Dense Forest, Open Forest and Mangrove in 1997 Assessment
(area in sq.km.)
State/UT Dense
forest
Open forest
Mangrove
Total forest Per
capita
(ha)
Andhra Pradesh 23,048 19,859 383 43,290 0.07
Arunachal Pradesh 54,155 14,447 - 68,602 7.93
Assam 15,548 8,276 - 23,824 0.11
Bihar 13,300 13,224 - 26,524 0.03
Delhi 16 10 - 26 Nil
Goa 995 252 5 1,252 0.11
Gujarat 6,337 5,250 991 12,578 0.03
Haryana 370 234 - 604 Nil
Himachal Pradesh 9,560 2,961 - 12,521 0.24
Jammu & Kashmir 11,020 9,420 - 20,440 0.26
Karnataka 24,854 7,546 3 32,403 0.07
Kerala 8,454 1,880 - 10,334 0.04
Madhya Pradesh 82,745 48,450 - 131,195 0.20
Maharashtra 23,622 22,397 124 46,143 0.06
Manipur 4,937 12,481 - 17,418 0.95
Meghalaya 4,044 11,613 - 15,657 0.88
Mizoram 4,348 14,427 - 18,775 2.72
Nagaland 3,487 10,734 - 14,221 1.18
Orissa 26,101 20,629 211 46,941 0.15
Punjab 511 876 - 1,387 0.01
Rajasthan 3,690 9,663 - 13,353 0.03
Sikkim 2,423 706 - 3,129 0.77
Tamil Nadu 8,676 8,367 21 17,064 0.03
Tripura 1,819 3,727 - 5,546 0.20
Uttar Pradesh 22,958 11,036 - 33,994 0.02
West Bengal 3,557 2,669 2,123 8,349 0.01
A&N Islands 6,520 127 966 7,613 2.71
Chandigarh 6 1 - 7 Nil
Dadra & Nagar
Haveli
159 45 - 204 0.15
Daman & Diu - 3 - 3 Nil
Lakshdweep* - - - - Nil
Pondicherry* - - - - Nil
Total 367,260 261,310 4,827 633,397 0.07
* No discernible forest cover.
5
1.5 TREES OUTSIDE FORESTS
Trees outside forests have been providing timber, fuel wood, fruite, fodder and
other useful products to the rural population in India particularly in States and localities,
which have been deficient in natural forest resources. Though most of the States in India
have some pockets deficient in forest resource, there are more than 60% States in India
where tree outside forests have been contributing in a big way in meeting the domestic
timber and fuel wood needs of the people. Some of the states to be mentioned here are
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu,
Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
Growing trees and bamboos have been a common practice of the rural people
since time immemorial. They have been grown in home gardens, farm boundaries, road
and canal side in the country for providing fruits, shade for keeping the cattle, as a source
of fuel wood, timber and income during scarcity. People also planted trees to develop
sacred groves around the places of worship. There are several tree species identified
whose leaves and fruits are utilized for worshipping God and Goddesses. Trees also
provide protection to bunds of the sacred ponds.
The pace of tree planting outside forest area gained momentum after launching of
tree planting programmes specially under externally aided social forestry project in late
1970s. The basic theme of most of these projects was to plant trees in vacant lands,
private as well as public for meeting the domestic needs of the local people. Almost all
states in India except a few which have extensive forest resource implemented the social
forestry programmes through the involvement of the people. Plant a tree for every child
every year became a popular slogan in the country.
A lot of trees have been planted in India outside forests particularly after the
implementation of the social forestry projects. About 35% to 40% of the total plantation
targets have been achieved by distribution of seedlings after 1985. Such distributed
seedlings are converted into notional area by a standard number 2000 seedlings = 1 ha. to
The distributed seedlings are meant exclusively for planting outside forests by private and
other agencies. In addition, a lot of trees have been planted in the common lands; land
available along the road side, rail side, canal side, ponds and village Panchayat lands by
the Government and other agencies. The percentage of total tree plantations outside
forests is expected to be quite high (say 60% to 70%).
It is possible that all such plantations might not have survived and many of them
must have been harvested after attaining maturity, specially the species of short rotation
(8 to 10 years). The uncertainty, therefore, prevails about the extent of trees growing
outside forests at the state as well as national level as there has been no mehanism of
monitoring these plantations on regular basis.
6
1.6 ASSESSMET OF TREES OUTSIDE FORESTS
No seriuos effort has been made at the national level to conduct and assess the
extent of tree outside forests resource and their actual contribution in meeting the timber,
fuel wood and other needs of the rural population in the country. In some states wood
balance studies were undertaken as an important component of the externally aided
social forestry projects in 1980s. The State Governments like Himachal Pr adesh,
Haryana, Gujarat, West Bengal, Orissa etc. made wood balance studies to estimate the
total consumption and production of wood. Since the data on trees growing outside
forests were not available the production of wood from such source was either
guesstimated or ignored if their contribution was not considered so significant. The time
available to generate primary data on trees outside forests was inadequate and the
methodology was also not clear. Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) estimated the
tree outside forest resource in Kerala State during 1987-88 on sound statistcal basis.
The Forest Survey of India (FSI) in its biennial assessment of forest cover through
remote sensing satellite data misses most of the trees planted outside because of their
scattered nature and small patchiness. The resolution of satellite censors has not been
adequate to receive the signatures of such trees growing in isolation.
The forest cover of the country has reached to a critical mass and a sizeable area
of the forest has been brought under protected area net work. The emphasis on the
conservation of forest for ecological restoration has also increased after the promulgation
of National Forest Policy 1988. This has resulted in the decline of the total wood
production from the natural forests. The requirement of wood is being met mainly
from the trees growing out side forests and partly by importing it.
Considering the increasing role of trees growing outside forests in meeting the
timber and fuel wood needs o f the country, the FSI charged with the responsibility of the
assessment of forest resources of the country, decided to undertake field inventory/survey
of trees in non-forest area during 1991. Initially pilot surveys were conducted in five
states to asess the size of he sample. The detailed inventory started subsequently. The
field inventory went with a slow pace and it took about 5 years to complete inventory of
only one state i.e. Haryana in 1997. Now the pace of the inventorization has been
accelarated and the design / methodology of the inventory has been modified to cover the
entire country in a shorter period. It is expected that with further refinement in the
methodolgy the resources would be assesed in the next 4-5 years. The field works of four
states (West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, West U.P. and Gujarat) are nearing completion.
7
2. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF THE
FIELD INVENTORY IN NON-FOREST AREAS (RURAL)
Forest Survey of India started inventory of trees, growing outside the
conventional forest areas in the country, in 1992. Since these trees have been
providing great support to rural economy, inventory has been confined to rural nonforest
areas only. Estimates of number of trees and their growing stock by species,
available in the non-forest area are generated. Pilot surveys are carried out before the
commencement of the main surveys.
2.1 Definition
Non-Forest Area (rural): The Non forest area includes all areas outside the
traditional /notified Reserved and Protected Forests but excludes areas of
Municipality, Corporation, Cantonment Board or a notified area Committee etc. which
has population more than 5000 and more than 75% male working population are
engaged in non-agricultural persuit.
2.2 Category of Plantations
Trees available in the non-forest area were classified into 8 categories for the
purpose of data processing and analysis. These categories are:
(i) Farm forestry: Trees along the farm bunds and in small patches up to 0.1 ha. in
area
(ii) Roadside plantation: Trees planted along the road side
(iii) Village woodlot: Naturally growing or planted trees on community /private
land
(iv) Block plantation: Compact plantations covering an area of more than 0.1 ha.
and not falling in any of the above
(v) Pond side plantation: Trees planted in and around water po nds
(vi) Railway side plantation: Trees planted along the railway lines
(vii) Canal side plantation: Trees planted along the canals
(viii) Others: Trees not falling in any of the above categories.
8
2.3 Sampling Design
The sampling technique followed in the field inventory is stratified random
sampling. District or group of districts in a state are treated as strata and villages as
sampling units. List of villages in each district were available from the latest District
Census Book (1991). The number of sample vi llages to be surveyed in the States was
decided by undertaking a pilot study. The precision level fixed is usually 10% at 95%
probability level.
2.4 Method of Selection of Sample Villages
Firstely pilot study is undertaken in randomly 20-25 villages. Each of these
selected villages, with its area and boundaries as per the revenue records, was treated
as a sampling unit. Each village randomly selected. All the trees of diameter 10 cms.
And above at breast height over bark (DBOH) are enumerated.
On the basis of pilot survey variability of the growing stock /no. of trees are
calculated and the number of sample villages required for the detailed field inventory
by using the following formula are estimated.
Where,
c.v. is coefficient of variation
s is standard deviation
Dx is sample mean
r is permissible error to be fixed by investigator
tE,k-1 is the value of t distribution at E level of probability and (k-1) degrees of
freedom.
K is the number of villages considered for pilot study.
2
,k 1
2
,k 1
r
t c.v.
N
1
1
r
t c.v.
n
¦ ¦'
+
'
-
+
¦ ¦'
+
'
-
=
E
E
100
x
s
c.v. = -
9
And N = total no. of villages in the State/group of districts.
For large N, it will be equal to
After getting the number of sample villages by using the above formula, they
are distributed among different districts proportionate to the rural geographical area of
the districts. In case the fraction comes to 0.5, it should be rounded off to the nearest
integer.
The sample villages in each district are selected by using random number table.
Complete enumeration of all the trees of 10 cm and above diameter in the randomly
selected villages in each district in carried out.
2.5 Estimation Procedure
To estimate the total number of trees and their growing stock, the following
ratio estimate procedure is applied.
Let n = number of sample villages in the district/state
N = total number of villages in the district/state
xI = Area of ith village
yI = volume/no. of trees for the ith village
Then the mean volume/no. of trees per unit area for the population (District/State) is
Average area per village in the sample
n
x
x
n
i 1
i = = ¿
=
¿=
= =
N
i 1
i Average area per village in the population ( stratum / state )
N
x
X
¿= =
=
n
i 1
i Average volume / no. of trees in the sample
n
y
y
Average volume / no. of trees in the population (District / State )
N
y
Y
N
i 1
i = = ¿
=
2
,k 1
r
t c.v
n ¦ ¦
'
+
'
-
= E
A x Total area of all villages in the population (District / State )
N
i 1
i = = ¿
=
10
given by
The estimate of R is the sample ratio.
The estimate of total vol./no. of trees in the population is given by
›
Estimated variance of R is given by
When N is large, then
›
Estimated variance of T is given by
X
Y

=
X
Y
X
Y

n
i 1
i
n
i 1
i
= =
¿
¿
=
=

A
x
Axy

= = -
¸ ) ¦
|
¦
¸

+

-


= ¿ ¿ ¿
= = =
n
i 1
n
i 1
2
i i i
n
i 1
2
2 i x RÖ x y RÖ y 2
n 1
1
N 1 nx
N n
) RÖ ( VÖ
¸ ) ¦
|
¦
¸

+

= ¿ ¿ ¿
= = =
n
i 1
n
i 1
n
i 1
2
i
2
i i
2
2 i x RÖ x y RÖ 2 y
n n 1 x
1
) RÖ ( VÖ
) RÖ ( VÖ A ) TÖ ( VÖ = 2 -
) RÖ ( VÖ

S.E.of =
11
2.6 Field Procedure
The crew leader is provided with the list of sample villages to be inventoried
along with map of 1:50,000 scale with the location of villages duly marked on the
maps. The crew leader finds the convenient route to make the field party reach the
village with minimum traverse by jeep or on foot. The boundary of the village is
obtained from the maps of revenue department in support of village level authorities.
For data collection, the centre of the village is selected as a starting/reference
point which may not necessarily be the actual centre of the village but a prominent
permanent feature. The details of location of reference point are recorded in the
³Village Description Form´.
Once the fixing of the reference point is over, the entire village is divided into
suitable angular quadrants with the help of compass in such a way that enumeration
within each angular quadrant could be completed in one working day. The
enumeration of trees commence from the line making due north from the reference
point and proceed in clockwise direction (i.e. north to east). The enumerated trees are
suitably marked with chalk along the boundary of the quadrants completed to avoid
double counting/omission of tree. All living trees of diameter 10 cm and above are
enumerated and dead trees.
Borderline trees of NW and SW boundary of the village are enumerated, and
of NE and SE boundary are treated as µout trees¶.
2.7 Data collection forms
Village Description Form (VDF)
It provides information of the reference point of the village, number of angular
quadrants, size of each angular quadrant and number of trees enumerated in each
quadrant.
Village Tree Enumeration Form (VTEF)
It provides information of all trees enumerated, their diameter and species.
District Tree Form (DTF)
It provides detailed information of the sampled villages selected in the district
mentioning the geographical area and number of trees falling in different category of
plantations.
12
2.8 New Methodology/Design
To hasten the process of field inventory of the non forest area the design has
benn modified since mid 1999. The new design improves the efficiency of estimate
with the help of previous study and reduce the work load, so as to complete the task in
a reduced time frame. The following three modifications have been implemented.
(a) It was found from the inventory of non-forest area of Haryana, West U.P. and
West Bengal that there exist positive correlation (0.6-0.8) between village area
and number of trees and also between population of a village and number of
trees. This relationship has been utilised to fix the sample size of other states
and dispense with the additional job of pilot study. The time spent in pilot
survey of each state is being saved.
(b) The state is divided into Ag ro- Climatic Zones and each zone treated as a
strata. The allocation of sample villages in a zone is done proportionate to the
geographical area of the stratum. A permissible error of 15% at 95%
confidence level has been given instead of 10% error for deciding the sample
size.
(c) Reduction in the number of trees enumerated
Previously, all the trees in the selected village were enumerated which
consumed a lot of time. The new scheme is based on the presumption that the
diameter distribution can be prepared with the help of only 2000 trees. If the number
of trees in a village is more than 2000, a sampling technique should be applied to
reduce the number. A tree diameter class distribution in a village can be built up with
the ratio estimate technique, when the total population of trees is known.
Preliminary estimate about number of trees in a village are made with the help
of Land record/ village officials/ knowledgeable persons of the village and
(a) if the total number of trees is below 2000, all tree are measured and recorded
(b) if the total number of trees is in the range of 2000 to 5000, only alternate tree
i.e. 1,3,5,«« is measured and recorded,
(c) if the total number of trees is more than 5000 but less than 10,000 every fourth
tree i.e. 1,5,9,13,«« is measured and recorded and
(d) if the total number of trees is more than 10,000 every tenth tree i.e.
10,20,30,40««««is measured and recorded.
13
3. INVENTORY REPORTS
In following pages reports of the systematic inventory conducted by FSI and
KFRI of a few states have been presented. The report of Haryana is basd on detailed
inventory where about 3.6% villages distributed over the state were completely
enumerated. Reports of West Bengal, Karnataka and West UP are based on pilot
study of FSI conducted during 1993-94. The number of villages selected were only a
few. In case of West Bengal and Karnataka only total number of trees were estimated
alongwith species and not their volumes. The study of Kerala state was undertaken by
KFRI during 1988-89.
3.0 HARYANA
3. 01 Brief background of the state
Haryan is comparatively a small state of Indian Union having a total
geographic area of 4.42 million ha. The state is situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains
and bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the
north and Rajasthan in the south. It is located between North latitudes 27 0 39' and 300
55' 5¨ and 740 27' 8¨ and 770 36' 5¨ East longitudes and
Except for some hills of the Shiwalik system in the north and of Aravalli in the
south, it has mostly plain area. The four distinct zones are recognised in the state are:
(a) Shiwalik hill and foot hills
(b) The Plains
(c) Aravalli hills
(d) Semi arid Sandy Plains of South and South West Haryana.
The climate of Haryana is a semi-arid in the south-west and of the Gangetic
type in the rest of the state due to its continental location on the outer margins of the
Monsoon region between the Thar Desert and the Himalayas in the north-west of the
Indian sub-continent. There are wide variations in day-night temperature especially in
the western part of Haryana. Summer temperature goes upto 480 C and winter
temperature falls below 50 C in the western paerts of the Haryana. Monsoon brings
rains from July to September. From October to June the weather remains generally
dry. The annual rainfall varies from 1400 mm (Ambala) to 213 mm (Sirsa).
The population of the state as per 1991 census was 16.47 millions. 75.4% of
the population was rural and rest urban. Average density of the population was 372
with literacy rate 55.9%. The economy of the state is predominantly agricultural.
The livestock population of the state has risen to alarming proportion from
79184 to 99469 in 1992 as per Live stock Census 1992. Since all cattle owners do not
have sufficient land for growing fodder or for grazing, the cattle population has put
unbearable pressure on the forests and the plantations all over the state.
14
Sources of energy in the state are fuelwood, Dung cakes, Crop residues,
Kerosene, L.P.G. and others (wood, charcoal, electricity, coal etc.). 35.8% of the
energy requirement of the rural population comes from dung cakes and 30% from fuel
wood for cooking. Crop residue includes cotton sticks and Sesbania grandiflora. Rest
of the energy requirement s come from Kerosene, L.P.G., Coal, Wood charcoal,
Electricity etc.
3.02 Forest Resources
Haryana is deficient in natural forest resource. Out of the total area of 4.42 m
ha, 82.8% (3.51 m ha) is under cultivation and 3.85% (0.17 m ha.) is under forests.
The category-wise breakup of the forest area is as under:
Reserved forests 24,700 ha.
Protected forests 108,100 ha.
Unclassed forests 8,900 ha.
Other 28,600 ha.
Total 170,300 ha.
Species occupying major area of the fores ts are Acacia spp, Anogeissus spp,
Prosopis spp, Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus spp. Azadirachta indica, Shorea robusta and
Bombax ceiba etc.
The plantation activities in this state has been taken up extensively since early
eighties. Social forestry has played a pivotol role in increasing the tree cover in the
state. Large scale plantations have been raised on panchyat lands, along the roads,
canals, railway lines and water courses, in the sand dunes, on the available
institutional and above all on the farm lands. The tree cover in the state has increased
to 8% of the geographical area as per the estimatee of the Haryana Forest Department.
Since the creation of the State in 1966, Haryana has been able to increase the forest
area from 3.08% to 3.85% (0.17 m ha). As a result of the implementation of the social
forestry programmes, the forest department has been able to bring substanial nonforest
areas under the tree cover in the state.
3.03Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory
As per 1991 Census, Haryana State has a total of 6988 villages having an area
of 4.3 millin ha. Out of these, 219 villages (decided on the basis of pilot study)
having an area of 0.18 m ha. Were randomly selected and surveyed. The survey
started in 1992 and completed in 1996 including pilot study in 31 villages.
15
3.04 Estimates of the Study
The data collected from 219 villages were processed for estimating ³number of
trees/ha´ and ³volume/ha ³. As per the estimate, the entire rural area of Haryana State
has a total volume of 10.34 million cubic metres corresponding to the total number of
55.14 million trees. The estimated number of trees/ ha was 12.94 and the
corresponding volume was 2.426 cum./ha. for the entire state of Haryana.
The distribution of estimated total number of stems and stems/ha and
corresponding estimated volume and volume/ha. are on the basis of survey for the
entire state have been shown in Table 3.11 to 3.16.
In the entire rural area of Haryana state having estimated 55.141 million trees
and volume 10.34 million cubic meters and the distribution thereof is given in above
mentioned tables and charts.
Table No. 3.11
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF TREES BY SPECIES AND BY DIAMETER
CLASS
(000 no.)
SL. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age
NO. SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+
1 Acacia catechu 562 5 0 0 567 1.03
2 Acacia nilotica 8741 3445 1246 419 13851 25.12
3 Acacia spp. 214 30 9 3 257 0.47
4 Acacia tortilis 1720 525 135 24 2404 4.36
5 Albizia spp. 118 53 24 15 210 0.38
6 Azadirachta indica 801 344 166 122 1432 2.6
7 Dalbergia sissoo 2852 1465 771 425 5514 10
8 Eucalyptus spp. 8010 2216 420 72 10718 19.44
9 Ficus spp. 199 111 65 146 520 0.94
10 Mangifera indica 580 223 90 80 973 1.77
11 Melia azedarach 589 153 28 7 777 1.41
12 Morus spp. 935 326 112 46 1419 2.57
13 Populus spp. 1700 439 19 2 2161 3.92
14 Prosopis cineraria 2476 2841 1265 331 6912 12.53
15 Prosopis juliflora 1588 267 39 7 1901 3.45
16 Psidium guyava 313 11 1 0 325 0.59
17 Salvadora spp. 815 382 193 200 1590 2.88
18 Syzygium cumini 469 141 54 29 692 1.26
19 Tamarix aphylla 62 28 12 10 111 0.2
20 Zizyphus spp. 941 285 98 47 1370 2.49
21 Misc. 908 316 129 83 1436 2.6
Total 34591 13606 4875 2069 55141 100
%age 62.73 24.67 8.84 3.75 100
16
Chart 1
The distribution of the total number of trees, specieswise and dia-classwise (all
categories combined), is shown in Table 3.11 and Chart 1.The maximum number of
trees occur in 10-20 cm diameter class i.e. 34.6 million trees (62.7%) followed by 13.6
million trees (24.7%) in 20-30 cm diameter class, 4.87 million trees ( 8.8%) in 30-40
cm diameter class and 2.07 million trees (3.8%) in 40 cm and above diameter class.
Distribution of stems(ooo) in Haryana NFA by Dia.Classes
62%
25%
9%
4%
10-20 cm
20-30 cm
30-40 cm
40+ cm
17
Table No. 3.12
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF TREES CATEGORY-WISE AND
DIAMETER CLASSWISE
(000 no.)
SL. CATEGORY DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL
NO. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ %age
1 Farm Forestry 15524 5432 1807 881 23644 42.88
2 Road side 2894 1749 683 215 5541 10.05
3 Village Woodlot 4792 3672 1634 650 10748 19.49
4 Block Plantation 8771 1186 181 64 10203 18.5
5 Ponds 142 52 25 31 249 0.45
6 Railway Line 413 190 33 14 650 1.18
7 Canalside 2041 1316 510 213 4079 7.4
8 Others 14 10 3 1 28 0.05
TOTAL STEMS 34591 13606 4875 2069 55141 100
% age 62.73 24.67 8.84 3.75 100
Stem/ha 8.12 3.19 1.14 0.49 12.94
The Table 3.12 shows that when all species and all diameter classes are
combined, the representation of trees in category I ±Farm Forestry is the highest i.e.
23.64 million trees (42.9%) followed by category III- village wood lot having 10.75
million trees (19.5%) and category IV ± Block Plantation 10.20 million trees (18.5%).
Table 3.13 shows that Acacia nilotica has the largest representation i.e. 13.85
million trees (25.12%), followed by Eucalyptus spp. 10.72 million trees (19.44%)
Prosopis cineraria 6.91 million trees (12.5%), Dalbergia sissoo 5.51 million trees
(10.0%).
18
Table No. 3.13
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TREES BY SPECIES AND BY CATEGORY
(000 no.)
SL. NAME OF Category TOTAL % age
NO. SPECIES I II III IV V VI VII VIII
1 Acacia catechu 10 0 0 556 0 0 1 0 567 1.03
2 Acacia nilotica 5613 2459 283 2994 118 233 2139 12 13851 25.12
3 Acacia spp. 57 8 154 29 0 3 6 0 257 0.47
4 Acacia tortilis 259 353 1 1351 0 115 325 0 2404 4.36
5 Albizia spp. 134 24 20 22 1 1 6 1 210 0.38
6 Azadirachta indica 1285 36 28 42 13 5 23 1 1432 2.6
7 Dalbergia sissoo 4273 210 267 439 6 5 313 0 5514 10
8 Eucalyptus spp. 5093 1960 7 2394 11 244 1001 8 10718 19.44
9 Ficus spp. 339 11 107 13 18 1 32 0 520 0.94
10 Mangifera indica 715 2 8 246 0 0 2 0 973 1.77
11 Melia azedarach 707 25 29 12 1 1 2 0 777 1.41
12 Morus spp. 1303 15 64 19 2 1 14 0 1419 2.57
13 Populus spp. 1054 7 0 1096 0 0 5 0 2161 3.92
14 Prosopis cineraria 4 215 6482 104 10 25 73 0 6912 12.53
15 Prosopis juliflora 1367 120 113 197 9 5 86 4 1901 3.45
16 Psidium guyava 174 0 3 147 0 0 1 0 325 0.59
17 Salvadora spp. 0 11 1464 86 20 7 2 0 1590 2.88
18 Syzygium cumini 477 6 152 47 8 0 2 0 692 1.26
19 Tamarix aphylla 88 1 19 1 0 0 0 0 111 0.2
20 Zizyphus spp. 185 33 867 253 2 1 29 0 1370 2.49
21 Misc. 506 44 680 157 29 2 17 0 1436 2.6
Total 23644 5541 10748 10203 249 650 4079 28 55141 100
%age 42.88 10.05 19.49 18.5 0.45 1.18 7.4 0.05 100
It may be seen from the above table 3.14 that the bulk of the volmue contributed
by Eucalyptus spp. An assessment of dia-classwise and specieswise distribution of
volume (all categories combined) has been presented in Table 3.14 and Chart 2. It
also reveals that the total volume per hectare contributed by trees of all species of all
dia-classes combined is 2.43 cu.m.
The distribution of total volume, category wise and dia-classwise is given in
Table no.3.15.Table no.3.16 indicates that maximum volume is contributed by
Eucalyptus spp. 21.6% followed by Acacia nilotica 21.2% & Prospis cineraria 15.9%.
Maximum volume is under Farm forestry 41.2% followed by Village woodlot,
23.85%, roadside plantation 12.9% and block plantation 10.6%.
19
Table No. 3.14
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL VOLUME (cu.m.) SPECIESWISE AND DIA
CLASSWISE
(in 000 cum)
SL. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age
NO. SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+
1 Acacia catechu 56.20 1.01 0.14 0.15 57.50 0.56
2 Acacia nilotica 524.44 482.33 709.94 473.98 2190.68 21.19
3 Acacia spp. 12.82 4.26 5.30 3.72 26.10 0.25
4 Acacia tortilis 103.18 73.57 76.86 27.28 280.89 2.72
5 Albizia spp. 7.06 7.42 13.80 16.95 45.23 0.44
6 Azadirachta indica 48.04 48.11 94.53 138.05 328.72 3.18
7 Dalbergia sissoo 171.13 205.10 439.75 480.27 1296.25 12.54
8 Eucalyptus spp. 800.97 908.36 399.33 123.35 2232.01 21.59
9 Ficus spp. 11.96 15.47 36.83 164.95 229.21 2.22
10 Mangifera indica 34.79 31.26 51.53 90.24 207.82 2.01
11 Melia azedarach 35.33 21.37 16.06 8.08 80.84 0.78
12 Morus spp. 56.11 45.64 63.70 52.03 217.49 2.1
13 Populus spp. 119.03 153.75 14.11 2.81 289.70 2.8
14 Prosopis cineraria 148.54 397.60 720.69 373.94 1640.77 15.87
15 Prosopis juliflora 95.30 33.64 19.24 7.55 155.74 1.51
16 Psidium guyava 18.77 1.57 0.47 0.30 21.10 0.2
17 Salvadora spp. 48.87 53.07 107.22 226.42 435.58 4.21
18 Syzygium cumini 28.14 19.05 28.74 32.55 108.48 1.05
19 Tamarix aphylla 3.71 3.88 6.53 10.91 25.03 0.24
20 Zizyphus spp. 56.45 39.31 55.59 52.75 204.10 1.97
21 Misc. 54.50 43.58 71.63 94.00 263.72 2.55
Total 2435.34 2589.37 2931.99 2380.26 10336.96 100
%age 23.56 25.05 28.36 23.03 100
Vol/ha 0.572 0.608 0.688 0.559 2.426
Chart 2
Distribution of Volume in (000)cum.in Haryana NFA
by Dia. Classes(in cms)
62%
25%
9%
4%
10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm
20
Table No. 3.15
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL VOLUME (cu.m.) BY CATEGORY AND
DIAMETER
(in 000 cum)
SL. CATEGORY DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL
NO. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ %age
1 Farm Forestry 1096.36 1075.89 1081.53 1005.37 4259.14 41.2
2 Road side 221.72 393.51 454.61 264.89 1334.73 12.91
3 Village Woodlot 287.67 514.03 929.43 734.46 2465.59 23.85
4 Block Plantation 644.13 266.85 109.11 74.98 1095.06 10.59
5 Ponds 8.85 7.80 14.09 34.63 65.36 0.63
6 Railway Line 30.38 51.83 21.49 18.08 121.79 1.18
7 Canalside 145.15 277.43 320.21 247.18 989.97 9.58
8 Others 1.09 2.03 1.51 0.67 5.31 0.05
TOTAL 2435.34 2589.37 2931.99 2380.26 10336.96 100
% age 23.56 25.05 28.36 23.03 100
Table No. 3.16
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTALVOLUME (cu.m.)- BY SPECIES AND CATEGORY
(in 000 cum)
SL. NAME OF Category TOTAL % age
NO. SPECIES I II III IV V VI VII VIII
1 Acacia catechu 1.37 0.00 0.04 56.04 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 57.50 0.56
2 Acacia nilotica 865.27 514.50 42.21 229.46 16.83 30.69 489.05 2.66 2190.68 21.19
3 Acacia spp. 8.67 1.19 12.76 2.20 0.11 0.22 0.95 0.00 26.10 0.25
4 Acacia tortilis 27.21 59.75 0.06 121.50 0.00 10.97 61.39 0.01 280.89 2.72
5 Albizia spp. 28.79 5.62 4.11 2.81 0.58 0.11 3.11 0.11 45.23 0.44
6 Azadirachta indica 294.88 8.96 6.67 6.38 5.80 2.67 3.21 0.15 328.72 3.18
7 Dalbergia sissoo 1002.75 83.13 50.21 59.78 2.75 2.27 95.35 0.03 1296.25 12.54
8 Eucalyptus spp. 977.24 571.85 2.36 321.14 1.83 65.02 290.92 1.65 2232.01 21.59
9 Ficus spp. 151.14 4.79 48.75 5.53 12.12 0.64 6.23 0.00 229.21 2.22
10 Mangifera indica 165.93 0.56 2.18 37.99 0.00 0.01 1.15 0.00 207.82 2.01
11 Melia azedarach 72.25 4.27 2.80 0.87 0.07 0.21 0.36 0.00 80.84 0.78
12 Morus spp. 200.26 2.28 9.36 2.38 0.18 0.28 2.75 0.00 217.49 2.1
13 Populus spp. 136.61 2.86 0.03 148.41 0.00 0.00 1.79 0.00 289.70 2.8
14 Prosopis cineraria 1.34 40.06 1564.66 11.31 3.26 5.77 14.38 0.00 1640.77 15.87
15 Prosopis juliflora 107.81 15.59 9.28 13.35 0.62 0.56 7.97 0.56 155.74 1.51
16 Psidium guyava 11.56 0.00 0.18 9.24 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.00 21.10 0.2
17 Salvadora spp. 0.25 3.51 401.89 19.94 8.11 1.30 0.59 0.00 435.58 4.21
18 Syzygium cumini 84.08 1.14 14.12 7.04 1.30 0.06 0.72 0.00 108.48 1.05
19 Tamarix aphylla 19.44 0.89 4.35 0.11 0.09 0.00 0.15 0.00 25.03 0.24
20 Zizyphus spp. 22.10 6.02 147.76 21.81 0.39 0.36 5.66 0.00 204.10 1.97
21 Misc. 80.20 7.76 141.81 17.76 11.32 0.66 4.07 0.13 263.72 2.55
Total 4259.14 1334.73 2465.59 1095.06 65.36 121.79 989.97 5.31 10336.96 100
%age 41.2 12.91 23.85 10.59 0.63 1.18 9.58 0.05 100
21
3.1 WEST BENGAL
3.11 Brief background of the state
The geographical area of the State is 8.87 million ha and is bounded on the
East by Bangladesh and Assam, on the West by Bihar and Orissa, on the North by
Nepal and Bhutan and on the South by the Bay of Bengal. It is located between 210
30' N and 27 012' N latitudes at the head of the Bay of Bengal and between 850 50' E
and 890 52' E longitudes.
West Bengal¶s physiography has two natural divisions: the Himalayan North
and the fertile alluvial Gangetic plain. The topography of the northern territory varies
from a maximum elevation of 3600 metres in Darjeeling district to an elevation of 89
metres in the low-lying areas in Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts, watered by the
swift-flowing rivers like Teesta, Torsa and Jaldhaka.
Moist wind from the Bay of Bengal makes the climate of the State highly
humid, specially in the rainy season; but in cold weather, from September to February,
the climate over the entire State is exceedingly pleasant. Annual rainfall varies from
1019 mm (Gangetic W.B.) to 3903 mm (Sub-Himalayan W.B.).
West Bengal has five agro-ecological regions. These agro-ecological regions
are; (a) Sub-humid ecosystem with red and lateritic soils and growth period of 150-
180 days (b) Sub-humid ecosystem with alluvium derived soils and growth period
between 180 and 210 days (c) Humid perhumid eco System with alluvium derived
soils and growth period more than 210 days (d) Humid perhumid ecosystem with
brown and red hill soils and growth period more than 210 days and (e) Coastal ecosystem
with coastal alluvium derived soils.
Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the state¶s economy and nearly three out of
four persons in the State are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. About 45 per
cent of the gross cropped area of the state has been brought under irrigation. The State
occupies a leading position among the principal rice growing states of India by
contributing 16.2 per cent of the total production of rice. The total foodgrain
production has attained an all time record production of 12.8 million tonnes in 1991-
92. The State accounted for 63.4% of the country¶s jute, including mesta, in 1991-92
and 21.8% of tea production in 1991 (calendar year). Other important crops, include
potatoes, oilseeds, betel -vine, tobacco, wheat, barley and maiza.
22
3.12 Forest Resources
The forests cover about 13.4% of the total geographic area and lie chiefly in
the districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, 24 Parganas (South), Midnapore, Bankura,
Purulia district and in some parts of Burdwan and Birbhum districts against 18 total
districts of the state. Stray and scattered forests are present in Murshidabad, Nadia,
Malda and West Dinajpur districts. The principal tree species are Shora robusta,
Anogeissus spp., Terminalia spp. Lagerstroemia spp. and mangroves. Jaldapara
Sanctuary in the State is famous for the one horned Rhinoceros inhabitating the area,
while SundarbansTiger Reserve and National Park with mangroves as a principal spp
is famous for the Royal Bengal Tiger.
3.13 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory
In West Bengal, 25 villages were randomly selected for the pilot survey. All
the trees of 10 cm. And above diameter at DBH (OB) were enumerated in the selected
villages. However, in South Bengal, trees down to 5 cm dia were recorded. Each of
these selected villages with its area and boundaries as per the revenue records was
treated as a sampling unit.
3.14 Estimates of the Study
In the pilot survey only total number of trees were estimated and not their volume. The
total number of trees in the State of West Bengal comes to approximately 196 million
or 25.4 trees/ha. The distribution of trees are shown in table no. 3.21 to 3.25.
It is noticed that the main species were Azadirachta indica, Acacia arabica,
Terminalia arjuna, Shorea robusta, Eucalyptus hybrid, Mangifera indica, Acacia
auriculiformis, Madhuca latifolia, Albizzia species, Alnus nepalensis, Ailanthus
altissima, Artocarpus, Machilus, Dalbergioa sissoo and Cocos nucifera.
23
Table No.3.21
Distribution of trees by diameter class & Species
Sl. Diameter Class (in cm) Total %
No
Name of Species
05-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+
Est.
trees/ha
1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Acacia arabica 1381 5650 1168 204 30 8433 6.71 1.71
2 Acacia auriculliformis 9393 3073 123 11 0 12600 10.03 2.55
3 Ailanthus altissima 0 43 46 11 8 108 0.09 0.02
4 Albizzia species 209 2110 938 462 218 3937 3.13 0.8
5 Alnus nepalensis 0 317 4 0 0 321 0.26 0.06
6 Artocarpus species 0 546 303 146 165 1160 0.92 0.23
7 Azadirachta indica 44 2247 540 109 54 2994 2.38 0.61
8 Betula alnoides 0 32 24 1 1 58 0.05 0.01
9 Bombax ceiba 0 25 19 12 13 69 0.05 0.01
10 Borassus flabellifer 0 135 1456 3392 1363 6346 5.05 1.28
11 Butea monosperma 0 3599 569 157 26 4351 3.46 0.88
12 Cassia species 119 686 36 1 0 842 0.67 0.17
13 Casurina equisetifolia 266 150 7 1 0 424 0.34 0.09
14 Cocos nucifera 0 152 4732 1572 23 6479 5.16 1.31
15 Cratseva unilojcularis 0 4 1 0 0 5 0 0
16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 192 454 223 0 869 0.69 0.18
17 Dalbargia sissoo 801 1462 291 60 32 2646 2.11 0.54
18 Enterolonbium saman 0 95 56 41 32 224 0.18 0.05
19 Eucalyptus hybrid 1531 1247 139 6 1 2924 2.33 0.59
20 Eucalyptus species 10573 2893 217 9 2 13494 10.74 2.73
21 Ficus species 3 9 9 8 21 50 0.04 0.01
22 Gmelina arborea 16 44 44 3 0 107 0.09 0.02
23 Holoptalea integrifolia 0 24 5 1 0 39 0.02 0.01
24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 185 47 4 1 237 0.19 0.05
25 Lannea coromondalica 0 950 119 30 7 1106 0.88 0.22
26 Leucacna leucocephala 643 267 35 3 0 948 0.75 0.19
27 Lichi chinensis 0 24 17 1 1 43 0.03 0.01
28 Machilus species 0 11 1 0 0 12 0.01 0
29 Madhuca latifolia 0 16 1 1 54 72 0.06 0.01
30 Mangifera indica 13 5442 3544 1804 4446 15249 12.14 3.08
31 Melia azadirachta 0 75 16 4 0 95 0.08 0.02
32 Michelia champaca 0 69 14 1 0 84 0.07 0.02
33 Ostodes panicuiata 0 28 2 0 0 30 0.02 0.01
34 Phoenix sylvestris 0 365 1885 305 1 2556 2.03 0.52
35 Pongomea pinnata 0 65 10 8 4 87 0.07 0.02
36 Pridian guava 0 139 16 0 0 155 0.12 0.03
37 Schima wallichii 0 235 127 52 46 460 0.37 009
38 Shorea robusta 0 114 18 6 6 144 0.11 0.03
39 Spondios pinnata 0 30 18 7 2 57 0.05 0.01
40 Syzygium cumini 0 97 50 16 10 173 0.14 0.03
41 Tectona grandis 2 2 1 0 0 5 0 0
42 Terminalia arjun a 43 381 168 105 71 768 0.61 0.16
43 Zizyphus species 1 401 74 15 2 493 0 39 01
44 Misc. 1738 21765 7208 2319 1359 34389 27.37 6.95
Grand Total 26776 55196 24552 11111 7999 125634 100 25.41
Percentage 21.31 43 93 19.54 8.84 6.37 100
Estimated trees/ha 5.41 11.16 4.96 2.25 1.61 25.41
24
Chart 3
Chart 4
Percetage distribution of Stems in West Bengal NFA by Dia classes
9% 6%
21%
44%
20%
05-10 cm 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm
Percetage Distribution of Stems in NFA of West Bengal by Category wise
16%
17%
13%
8%
4%
0%
6%
36%
Farm Forestry
Road side
Village Woodlot
Block Plantation
Ponds
Railway Line
Canalside
Others
25
It can be seen from Table 3.21 and chart 4 that the maximum number i.e. about
43% of trees occur in 10-20 cm diameter class followed by about 21% trees in 05-10
cm diameter class, then 20% in 20-30 cm. Diameter class. It may also be seen that
only 6% of trees occurred in 40 cm. And above diameter class.
It also reveals that in West Bengal, Miscellaneous species has the largest
representat ion i.e. 27% followed by Mangifera indica 12%, Eucalyptus species 10%,
Acacia auriculiformis 10%, Acacia arabica 7% etc.
Table 3.22 and chart 5 shows total number of trees specieswise and
categorywise. The representation of trees in the category ³Other´ is the highest i.e.
36% followed by the category ³Block Plantation´ (17%), ³Ponds´ (16%), ³Village
woodlot´ (13%) etc. Farm forestry has only 4% contribution.
26
Table No. 3. 22
Distribution of tree specis by category of plantations
Sl. Category of trees Total %
No
Name of Species
I II III IV V VI VII VIII
1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 Acacia arabica 596 698 546 197 146B 0 2639 2039 8433 6.71
2 Acaciaauriculliformis 436 4277 379 6016 193 0 1194 115 12600 10.03
3 Ailanthus altissima 0 0 101 - 0 0 0 0 7 108 0.09
4 Albizzia species 139 107 375 1611 652 20 145 666 3937 3.13
5 Alnus nepalensis 0 14 307 0 0 0 0 0 321 0.26
6 Artocarpus species 11 1 232 1 62 0 0 653 1160 0.92
7 Azadirachta indica 209 13 1265 93 710 0 3 701 2994 2.38
8 Betula alnoides 0 30 28 0 0 0 0 0 58 0.05
9 Bombax ceiba 1 3 13 1 2 0 0 49 69 0.05
10 Borassus flabellifer 328 5 932 27 2216 0 38 2600 6346 5.05
11 Butea monosperma 5 0 45 2 159 0 0 4140 4351 3.46
12 Cassia species 0 114 0 712 1 0 1 14 642 0.67
13 Casurina equisetifolia 0 12 0 168 5 0 217 2 424 0.34
14 Cocos nucifera 137 1 2023 0 3383 0 7 928 6479 5.16
15 Crataeva unilojcularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 S 0
16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 694 163 0 0 0 0 12 869 0.69
17 Dalbargia sissoo 294 524 13 21 225 0 1052 517 2646 2.11
18 Enterolonbium saman 3 0 129 0 74 0 0 18 224 0.18
19 Eucalyptus hybrid 252 273 154 1348 - 26 0 474 397 2324 2.33
20 Eucalyptus species 751 1536 262 10766 118 0 0 21 13494 10.74
21 Ficus species 5 0 1 0 7 0 0 37 50 0.04
22 Gmelina arborea 10 0 1 1 6 0 10 79 107 0.03
23 Holoptalea integrifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 30 0.02
24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 237 237 0.19
25 Lannea coromondalica 74 0 252 0 49 0 0 731 1106 0.88
26 Leucaena leucocephala 0 0 0 32 31 0 715 107 948 0.75
27 Lichi chinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43 43 0.03
28 Machilus species 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 2 12 0.01
29 Madhuca latifolia 1 0 11 2 1 0 0 57 72 0.06
30 Mangifera indica 88 36 1130 10 1875 0 8 12102 15249 12.14
31 Melia azadirachta 3 4 0 29 0 0 0 59 95 0.08
32 Michelia champaca 0 49 31 0 0 0 0 4 84 0.07
33 Ostodes paniculata 0 0 26 0 0 0 0 4 30 0.02
34 Phoenix sylvestris 0 10 0 0 1106 0 142 1299 2556 2.03
35 Pongomea pinnata 4 0 25 0 5 0 0 53 67 0.07
36 Pridian guava 0 1 0 0 12 0 0 142 155 0.12
37 Schima wallichii 0 0 451 0 0 0 0 9 460 0.37
38 Shorea robusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 144 144 0.11
39 Spondios pinnata 5 0 8 0 9 0 0 35 57 0.05
40 Syzygium cumini 0 0 0 0 71 0 6 96 173 0.14
41 Tectona grandis 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
42 Terminalia arjuna 301 1 100 3 95 0 51 217 768 0.61
43 Zizyphus s pecies 0 0 213 0 11 0 0 269 493 0.39
44 Misc. 1443 928 6955 522 7768 10 1168 15595 34389 27.37
Grand Total 5096 9594 16205 21602 20550 30 7870 44686 125634 100
Percentage 4.06 7.64 12.9 17.19 16.36 0.02 6.26 35.57 100
Estimatedtrees/ha 1.03 1.94 326 437 4.16 001 1.59 9.04 25.41
27
Table No. 3.23
Distribution of tree species in various Agro Ecological Zones.
Sl. Agro Ecological Zones
No
Name of Species
SHCN HAPB HEH ECP
Total % age
1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Acacia arabica 861 6053 0 1519 8433 6.71
2 Acacia auricullifommis 3872 8379 3 346 12600 10.03
3 Ailanthus albssima 0 0 108 0 108 0.09
4 Albizzia species 118 1622 1630 567 3937 3.13
5 Alnus nepalensis 0 0 321 0 321 0.26
6 Artocarpus species 5 753 157 245 1160 0.92
7 Azadirachta indica 617 851 0 1526 2994 2.38
8 Betula alnoides 0 0 58 0 58 0.05
9 Bombax ceiba 20 49 0 0 69 0.05
10 Borassus flabellifer 544 5482 0 320 6346 5.05
11 Butea monospemma 4059 292 0 0 4351 3.46
12 Cassia species 0 159 683 0 842 0.67
13 Casurina equisetifolia 0 424 0 0 424 0.34
14 Cocos nucifera 0 1743 0 4736 6479 5.16
15 Crataeva unilojoularis 0 5 0 0 5 0
16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 0 869 0 869 0.69
17 Dalbargia sissoo 1084 1561 1 0 2646 2.11
18 Enterolonbium saman 0 224 0 0 224 0.18
19 Eucalyptus hybrid 492 2432 0 0 2924 2.33
20 Eucalyptus species 883 11739 0 872 13494 10.74
21 Ficus species 18 32 0 0 50 0.04
22 Gmelina arborea 0 25 82 0 107 0.09
23 Holoptalea integrifolia 30 0 0 0 30 0.02
24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 237 0 0 237 0.19
25 Lannea coromondalica 0 1045 61 0 1106 0.88
26 Leucasna leucocephala 0 948 0 0 948 0.75
27 Lichi chinensis 0 43 0 0 43 0.03
28 Machilus species 0 0 12 0 12 0.01
29 Madhuca latifolia 72 0 0 0 72 0.06
30 Mangifera indica 108 13101 26 2014 15249 12.14
31 Melia azadirachta 0 31 64 0 95 0.08
32 Michelia champaca 0 0 84 0 84 0.07
33 Ostodes paniculata 0 0 30 0 30 0.02
34 Phoenix sylvestns 0 2556 0 0 2556 2.03
35 Pongomea pinnata 87 0 0 0 87 0.07
36 Pridian guava 20 124 11 0 155 0.12
37 Schima wallichii 0 0 460 0 460 0.37
38 Shorea robusta 113 31 0 0 144 0.11
39 Spondios pinnata 35 22 0 0 57 0.05
40 Syzygium cumini 0 173 0 0 173 0.14
41 Tectona grandis 0 2 0 3 5 0
42 Terminalia arjuna 631 137 0 0 768 0.61
43 Zizyphus species 469 24 0 0 493 0.39
44 Misc. 4711 16631 2502 10545 34389 27.38
Grand Total 18849 76930 7162 22693 125634 100
Percentage 15.0 61.23 5.70 18.06 100
Estimated trees/ha 20.42 26.74 8.89 67.13 25.41
* No. of trees per ha. in Note:
Agroecological zone = * 18849 78930 7162 22693 SHCN - Semi Humid Chhota Nagpur
Total no. of enumerated 923.22 2877.62 805.35 333.02 HAPB- Humid Alluvial Plain Bengal
trees in the respective HEH- Humid Eastern Himalaya
zonel Total area of the ECP - Eastern Coastal Plain
same zone.
28
The number of stems per hectare varies considerably from one agro-ecological
region to another. In the Bengal Assam Alluvial humid perhumid ecoregion it is
about 26 trees/ ha, in the Western lateritic sub-humid eco-region 20 to 21 trees/ha and
in the Eastern Himalayan humid perhumid ecoregion in the region it is about 8
trees/ha.
It may be indicated in this connection that in the hills, most of the samples of
villages fell in µforest¶ or µkhasmahal¶ villages. Such village s have very few trees in
the habitable portion while the surrounding portion have dense forests within the
recorded village area. As it was impossible to enumerate all tree in the surrounding
areas, only the inhabited portions of such villages were taken up for enumeration.
In the Bengal Assam Alluvial region, a large number of spp. (at least 33) have
been found. The predominant ones being Barassus flabellifer, Acacia arabica,
Mangifera indica, Phoenix sylveetrie, Acacia auriculiformis, Coconut, Siris, Sissoo,
Jeol and Eucalyptus in order of occurrence. The principal species in the lateritic South
Western districts, in order of occurrence are Butea monosperma followed by Acacia
arabica, Dalbergia sissoo, Azartichtata indica, Terminalia arjuna, Eucalyptus hybrid,
Borassus flabellifer and Zizyphus mauritania.
In Eastern Himalayas warm per humid eco-region, Cryptomeria japonica, the
exotic that has almost naturalised (although without natural regeneration) in the forests
of higher elevations in Darjeeling district, appears to be equally popular in the village
areas. The other prevalent species are Albizzia spp., Cassia siamea, Gmelina arborea,
Ailanthus spp., Schima wallichii, Alnus nepalensis, Michelia champaca and Betula
ainoides.
The predominant species of the various agro-ecological regions can thus be
identified with a fair amount of accuracy from the tabulated data. The conclusions
sought to be drawn may be taken as more indicative than conclusive in nature,
considering the limited sample size in each agro-ecological region.
29
3.2 KARNATAKA
3.21 Brief background of the state
The geographic area of the State is 19.18 m ha. It is situated on the Western
edge of the Deccan Plateau and lies between 11030' and 18025' North latitude and
74010' and 87035' East longitude. Physiographically the State can be divided into two
distinct regions the µMaland¶ or the hilly region comprising mainly the Western Ghats,
and the µMaidan¶ or the plain region forming an inland plateau of varying height. The
Western Ghats run from north to south with an altitude rising upto 1800 m. The main
rivers, the Cauvery, the Tungbhadra and the Krishna flow from west to east, and the
Sharavati and the Kalindi from east to west. The population of the State in 1991 was
44.98 million and rural population is 31.07 million. Livestock population as per 1992
census was 29.56 millions.
Geologically, three fourth of the state is occupied by Arachean rocks and
remaining by younger rocks. The northern margins of the state are covered by a series
of sedimentary rocks of post ± Dharwar age. Soil varies from clayey black in northern
part, red sandy in central and southern parts, red loamy, laterite and mountain soil in
the Western Ghats to mixed red and black soil in the central parts of the State.
The annual rainfall in the state varies from 2000-3200 mm in the Western Ghat
to 400-500 mm in the northern and north-eastern part of the state. Average summer
temperature varies from 260 C to 350 C and average winter temperature varies from
140 C to 250 C.
3.22 Forest Resources
Recorded forests of the State are 3.87 m.ha. constituting 20.19% of the total
geographical area. However, the actual forest cover of the State as assessed by the
Forest Survey of India was only 3.24 m.ha. Of the actual forest cover, 2.48 m.ha. was
under dense and 0.75 m.ha. under open category. Important forest types with major
species found in Karnataka are as follows ³as per Champion and Seth¶s classification´
Forest types Important species
Tropical West Evergreen Dipterocarpus indicus, Calophyllum elatum,
Forests Hopea wightiana, Mesua ferrea, Disoxylum
Malabaricum etc.
Tropical Semi-Evergreen Terminalia paniculata, Lagerstroemia spp.
Forests Hopea parviflora, Machilus spp.
30
Tropical moistdeciduous Terminalia tomentosa, T. paniculata, Tectona
Forests grandis, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Adina
Cordifolia, Bambusa arundinacia,
Dendrocalamus strictus etc.
Tropical dry deciduous Tectona grandis, Acacia species, Anogeissus
Forests latifolia, Terminalia tomentosa, T. chebula etc.
Tropical thorn forests Acacia catechu, A. leucophloea, Chloroxylon
Swietenia spp. Santalum album etc.
3.23 Agro Ecological Regions
Karnataka has four agro-ecological regions as per National Bureau of Soil
Survey and Landuse Planning. These regions can be described as under.
Region I: Western Ghats and coastal plains of Karnataka comprising mainly of Uttar
Kannada, Dakshin Kannada and Kodagu districts. This region is characterised by hot
humid to pre-humid climate with red lateritic alluvial soil. The growth period is more
than 210 days.
Region II : It is the part of the Deccan plateau in Southern Karnataka having hot and
semi arid climate and red loamy soil. The growth period is 90 to 150 days.,
Chitradurga and Shimoga.
Region III : It is the part of Deccan plateau in Northern Karnataka having hot and
semi-arid climate and black soils. The growth period is between 90 to 150 days. The
main districts in the region are Dharwad, Belgaum, Bijapur, Bidar and Gulbarga.
Region IV: It is also a part of Deccan Plateau having hot and arid climate with mixed
red and black soils. The growth period is less than 90 days. The main districts in this
region are Bellary and Raichur.
3.24 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory
In Karnataka, 10 villages were randomly selected for the pilot survey one in
each in a district in such a manner that major regions of the State was covered. All the
trees of 10 cm. And above diameter at DBH (OB) were enumerated in the selected
villages. The dead trees having utility less than 70% were excluded from the
enumeration. The trees were enumerated separately for different categories of
31
plantation such as Farm forestry, Road side plantation, Block plantation, Village
woodlot etc. The survey was completed during 1993-94
3.25 Estimates of the Study
In the pilot survey only total number of trees were estimated and not their volume. The
estimated total number of trees in rural areas of the state were found to be 296 million.
.
Table No. 3.31:
Distribution of trees by different categories
Sl. Area Farm Block Village Roadside Others Total No. of
No. Surveyed Forestry Plantation Woodlot plantation trees
(sq.km.) per ha
1 20.41 14790 720 3763 0 200 19473 954
2 4.43 4973 2762 2597 0 748 11080 2501
3 1.48 4423 330 41 0 228 5022 3313
4 21.83 10626 1540 761 2098 1607 16632 762
5 7.32 5813 703 1526 0 264 8306 1135
6 17.7 5294 616 1097 104 859 7970 450
7 1.84 193 3046 0 0 141 3380 1837
8 5.7 23051 25747 825 55 5171 54849 9623
9 1.44 394 232 0 0 0 626 435
10 2.97 5420 1329 0 0 170 6919 2330
85.12 74977 37025 10610 2257 9388 134257 15.77
Percentage 55.85 27.58 7.90 1.68 6.99 100.00
Chart 5
Percentage Distribution of stems in kanataka NFA by Category wise
2%
7%
55%
28%
8%
Farm Forestry
Block Plantation
Village Woodlot
Roadside Plantation
Others
32
Table no.3.31& Chart 6 indicates that out of the total number of trees farm
forestry have the maximum number (55.80%) followed by block plantation (27.6%)
village woodlot (7.9%) and roadside plantation (1.78%). 7% of the tree comes in
other categories.
Table no. 3.32
Karnataka
Percentage of tree species distributed in different agro-ecological regions
Sl. Species Agro-Ecological Regions
No. I II III IV
1 Anacardium occidentale 35.7 0 0 0
2 Azadirachta indica 0 8.3 35.8 29.9
3 Cocus nucifera 19.0 18.2 2.5 6.8
4 Acacia spp. 0 9.3 37.3 22.8
5 Mangifera indica 11.9 2.3 1.5 0.8
6 Pongamia pinnata 0 18.1 0.2 0.1
7 Diospyros candolleano 8.3 0 0 0
8 Tamarindus indica 0.6 7.7 2 1.6
9 Artocarpus spp. 6.8 0.5 0 0
10 Prosopis juliflora 0 2.2 0.6 8.1
11 Areca catechu 4.6 0.4 0 0
12 Eucalyptus spp. 0 9.6 1.5 3.3
13 Ficus spp. 0.5 8.2 0.5 0.6
14 Casuarina equisetifolia 1.6 2.3 0 0
15 Albizzia spp. 0.1 2.5 0.5 1.3
16 Syzigium spp. 1.4 1.4 0.2 0
17 Terminalia belerica 0.4 0 2.4 0
18 Terminalia arjuna 0 0 0.6 0
19 Santalum album 0 0 1.1 0.2
20 Madhuca latifolia 0 0 1 0
21 Zizyphus maurastiana 0.1 0.5 1 1.6
22 Tectona grandis 0.3 0 0.6 0
23 Vateria indica 0.4 0 0 0
24 Citrus spp. 0 0 0.1 0.6
25 Butea monosperma 0 0.4 2.2 0
26 Terminalia spp. 0.1 0 0.3 0
27 Euphoribia spp. 0 0 0 15.7
28 Rest of spp. 8.2 8.1 8.1 6.6
Total 64.3 100 100 100
Distribution of species found in non-forest area with reference to agro-ecological
regions of Karnataka is presented in Table No.3.32. Azadiracta indica (Neem) and
Acacia species (Babul) are the prominent species found in semi -arid northern
Karnataka and arid zone of the Karnataka. The percentage of these species in these
33
two zones are 35.8%, 37.3%, and 29.9% & 22.8% respectively. In semi-arid Southern
Karnataka the major species occurring in rural areas are Cocos nucifera (18.2%),
Pongamia pinnata (18.1%), Eucalyptus species (9.6%), Acacia species (9.3%), Ficus
species (8.2%) and Tamarindus indica (7.7%). In non-forest areas of Western Ghat
and Coastal areas (Region I), three spe cies constitute 66.6% of the total trees, found in
rural areas. These are Anacardium occidentale (35.7%), Cocos nucifera (19%) and
Mangifera indica (11.9%).
Table no. 3.33
Percentage of tree species distributed in different diameter classes
Surveyed area 8512 ha.
Sl. Species DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL %age
No. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+
1 Acacia spp. 12546 3789 1215 207 17757 13.23
2 Albizzia spp. 685 282 149 25 1141 0.85
3 Anacardium occidentale 13417 4049 1292 56 18814 14.02
4 Artocarpus spp. 765 426 747 479 2417 1.80
5 Azadirachta indica 12977 5319 1127 221 19644 14.63
6 Butea monosperma 542 71 109 0 722 0.54
7 Casuarina equisetifolia 954 484 0 55 1493 1.11
8 Diospyros candolleano 3245 1101 275 0 4621 3.44
9 Eucalyptus spp. 2949 837 296 40 4122 3.07
10 Euphoribia spp. 4171 0 0 0 4171 3.11
11 Ficus spp. 560 857 590 731 2738 2.04
12 Madhuca latifolia 67 140 61 40 308 0.23
13 Mangifera indica 3106 2143 1699 855 7803 5.81
14 Pongamia pinnata 3877 695 264 28 4864 3.62
15 Prosopis juliflora 2591 127 24 0 2742 2.04
16 Santalum album 380 8 0 0 388 0.29
17 Syzigium spp. 1001 119 11 18 1149 0.86
18 Tamarindus indica 901 994 707 666 3268 2.43
19 Tectona grandis 132 306 0 0 438 0.33
20 Terminalia arjuna 160 0 0 0 160 0.12
21 Terminalia belerica 485 302 40 60 887 0.66
22 Terminalia spp. 153 0 0 0 153 0.11
23 Vateria indica 110 110 0 0 220 0.16
24 Zizyphus maurastiana 896 158 20 0 1074 0.80
25 Areca catechu 2666 0 0 0 2666 1.99
26 Citrus spp. 168 0 0 0 168 0.13
27 Cocus nucifera 808 13409 2403 3 16623 12.38
28 Rest of spp. 7327 3839 1623 899 13688 10.20
Total 77639 39565 12652 4383 134239 100.00
% age 57.84 29.47 9.42 3.27 100.00
Stem/ha 9.12 4.65 1.49 0.51 15.77
34
Anacardium occidentale (14.02%), Azadiracta indica (14.63%), Cocos nucifera
(12.38%), Mangifera indica (5.81%), Pongamia pinnata (3.62%), Diospyros
condoleano (3.44%), Terminalia indica (2.43%), Artocarpus species (1.80%) and
Eucalyptus species (3.07%).
Table No 3.33 indicates that about 58% of the trees are in diameter class 10 to 20
cm and only 3% of the tree are above 40 cm diameter.
35
3.3 WESTERN U.P.
3.31 Brief Background of the State
The total geographic area of the state is 29.4 m.ha. It is located between 23°5¶
and 31° 28¶ North latitudes and 77° 4¶ and 84°39¶ East longitudes. The state is bound
by Tibet (China) and Nepal in the North, Madhya Pradesh in the South, Bihar in the
East and Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh states and Delhi U.T. in the West.
The main physiographic characteristics of the state are high mountains, valleys, flat
and fertile plains and dissected plateaus. The state can be divided into following meso
and micro regions:
1. Uttar pradesh Himalaya
2. Upper Ganga Plain
3. Middle Ganga Plain
4. Uttar Pradesh Uplands
The present survey of non-forest area has been carried out in the Western
region having 19 districts viz. Agra, Aligarh, Bijnor, Badaun, Bareilly, Bulandshahar ,
Etah, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Mainpuri, Mathura, Meerut, Moradabad, Rampur, Pi1ibhit,
Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur, Shahjahanpur and Gaziabad. These 19 districts
wholly lies in Upper- Ganga plains has been divided into two following micro-regions.
North Upper Ganga Plains
It is a part of the great plains covering seven districts namely Saharanpur,
Muzafarnagar, Bijnor, Meerut, Gaziabad, Moradabad and Rampur. The vast area of
the region is a level alluvial plain with a slope from north to south or south east with
reference to the alignment of the major rivers and tributaries joining them. The whole
region is in fact, a tract of various classes of fertile soils while the northern part is
covered with forest. Situated immediately below the shiwalik is Bhabar tract interated
by numerous torrents that drain rain water into the Ganga and Jamuna rivers and their
several tributaries. The eastern Bhabar consists of a series of high broken spurs. Terai
area lies below the Bhabar in the north-eastern part of the region. The region is spread
over an area of 2.91 m.ha.
Southern Upper Ganga Plains
The Southern Upper Ganga Plain delineated as a micro region, covers almost
the central part of the state and takes into account 12 districts namely Bulandshahar,
Budaun, Bareilly, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Aligarh, Mathura, Agra, Etah, Mainpuri,
Farrukhabad and Etawah. The surface slope of the micro-region is generally uniform
and level with slight undulations and an inperceptible gradual slope from north-west to
36
south-east. The northern parts of the districts Bijnor, Rampur and Pilibhit is a
continuous belt of terai, having rich soil, high water level and unhealthy climate. This
micro region is spread approximately over an area of 6.0 millin ha.
The state has a sub tropical climate. There is marked variations in
temperature and rainfall in different part of the region. During summer season the high
temperature in the plains causes low pressure area and movement of monsoon. Nearly
90 percent rainfall in the area is caused by monsoon from Bay of Bengal during June
to September. The north and north eastern part of the region get more rainfall than the
south-western part. The rainfall in Terai region is as high as 1200 mm whereas the
rainfall in Agra, Mathura, Mainpuri, Etawah etc. is less than 800 mm. A marked
variation can be seen in the mean annual temperature as we move from hills towards
Agra in the south-west. The temperatures are generally from 200 to 250 C in the
region whereas they are between 150 to 200 C in the narrow Terai belt in the foot hills.
The economy of the Western U.P. is predominantly agricultural and has high
concentration of population in the State of U.P. Economically it is developed region of
the State. Means of irrigation, location of industries high yield of agricultural produce
have given impetus to the development of urban centres and the rural landscape of the
region. The rural population constitutes 76.55% of the total population of the region
i.e. Western U.P.
3.32 Forests Resources
The region had quite a dense forests till 18th century. With an intensifying
pressure on agriculture land growing demand for wood forests were denuded
recklessly. The forests are confined to the Terai districts of Saharanpur, Pilibhit,
Rampur, Bareilly etc. that too in the nothern parts of the district and only Shorea
robusta, Dalbergia sissoo are the predominant trees along with their associates. In non
forest areas of plains Mango, Jamun, Ficus, Neem, Eucalyptus, Babul (Acacia
nilotica) are the main trees planted along roads, rails and canals etc .
3.33 Agro-Ecological Regions of Western U.P.
Western U.P. has two agro-ecological regions, as per National Bureau of Soil
Survey and Land Use Planning, India.
Region I: Semiarid Eco System:
Northern plain and central highlands including Aravallis, hot semi-arid
ecoregion with alluvium derived soils and growt h period is 90-150 days.
37
Region II: Subhumid Eco System
Northern plains, hot sub humid (dry) ecoregion with alluvium-derived soils
and growth period is 150-180 days.
3.34 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory
In total 62 villages were selected for the survey in the State. After completing
the survey the data was processed for estimating number of trees and trees/ha.
3.35 Estimates of the Study
The study was conducted in 62 villages and enumerated number of trees were
found .31million and their distribution given below in Table 3.41 to 3.43. The
analysis of above Table No 3.41 indicates that the maximum number of trees occurs in
10-20 cm dia class followed by 20-30 cm dia class i.e. 69.4% and 19.52%
respectively. Mangifera indica has the largest representation of 26.12% followed by
22.05% of Eucalyptus species. Similarly it has been noticed that stem/ha is maximum
in diameter class 10-20 cm followed by 20-30 cm.
Table 3.42 shows the distribution of number of trees, species wise and
category wise (all dia class combined). The farm forestry has a highest percentage of
plantation followed by block plantation, roadside plantation i.e. 56.34%, 37.00% and
3.13%respectively. Major contribution of tree species are shown by Mangifera indica
(26.12 %) followed by Eucalyptus spp. (22.05 %) and Dalbergia sissoo (14.14 %).
The number of stem occuring in various agro ecological regions are shown in
table no 3.43. The important tree species in a region NPHC (decreasing order) are
Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus spp. and Azadirachta indica and in
region NPSH (D) in decreasing order Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica, & Dalbergia
sissoo.
The analysis of table 3.43 indicates that in NPHC region has 59.21% of total
trees with 11.66 stem/ha and the region NPSH (D) has 40.79% of total trees with 8.03
stems/ha.
38
Table no. 3.41
DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIESWISE AND DIA
CLASSWISE
(All categories combined ) Surveyed Area 15802 ha
SL. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age
NO. SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ of stems
1 Acacia catechu 198 52 1 0 251 0.08
2 Acacia nilotica 10227 3563 904 220 14914 4.79
3 Acacia spp. 31 33 4 1 69 0.02
4 Aailanthus excelsa 4 9 0 3 16 0.01
5 Albizia spp. 1576 574 226 115 2491 0.80
6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2082 843 354 211 3490 1.12
7 Azadirachta indica 12181 5358 2407 1748 21694 6.97
8 Borassus flabellifer 0 3 0 26 29 0.01
9 Bombax cieba 287 133 121 197 738 0.24
10 Butea monsperma 423 155 88 102 768 0.25
11 Casia fistula 39 14 10 2 65 0.02
12 Cassia simea 210 32 1 0 243 0.08
13 Casia spp. 30 16 0 0 46 0.01
14 Crateva unilocularis 0 1 0 0 1 0.00
15 Dalbergia sissoo 24146 12177 4974 2673 43970 14.14
16 Emblica officinalis 34 19 8 9 70 0.02
17 Eucalyptus spp. 56031 9919 2254 395 68599 22.05
18 Ficus spp. 1456 824 556 1276 4112 1.32
19 Gmelina arborea 1 1 4 0 6 0.00
20 Holoptelea integrifolia 779 219 66 47 1111 0.36
21 Lennea coromandelica 616 284 18 4 922 0.30
22 Litchi chinensis 20 2 0 0 22 0.01
23 Madhuca latifolia 28 25 15 5 73 0.02
24 Mallotus philippinensis 372 23 4 1 400 0.13
25 Mangifera indica 55094 15386 6219 4552 81251 26.12
26 Melia azedarach 3425 713 134 41 4313 1.39
27 Morus spp. 5283 1534 384 138 7339 2.36
28 Phoenix sylvestris 412 1502 1090 118 3122 1.00
29 Populus spp. 16287 2057 127 6 18477 5.94
30 Prosopis juliflora 3075 352 18 3 3448 1.11
31 Psidium guyava 4082 103 8 6 4199 1.35
32 Shorea robusta 3 2 3 15 23 0.01
33 Spondias pinnata 23 12 0 0 35 0.01
34 Syzygium cumini 6793 1956 790 478 10017 3.22
35 Tamarix aphylla 595 299 94 47 1035 0.33
36 Tectona grandis 147 37 4 1 189 0.06
37 Termilinia arjuna 3099 649 129 18 3895 1.25
38 Zizyphus mauratiana 1101 169 29 5 1304 0.42
39 Zizyphus spp. 1132 256 44 15 1447 0.47
40 Mis c. 4543 1405 537 358 6843 2.20
Total 215865 60711 21625 12836 311037 100.00
%age 69.40 19.52 6.95 4.13 100.00
Stem/ha 13.66 3.84 1.37 0.81 19.68
39
Chart 6
Chart 7
Percentage distribution of Stems by Dia classes in Western UP NFA
7% 4%
69%
20%
10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm
56.34
37.00
3.13 2.64
0.47 0.37
0.04
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
Percentage distribution of stems in West UP by category wise
Farm forestry Block plantation Road side plantation Village wood lot canal side plantation Railway lines Ponds
40
Table No 3.42
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIES AND
CATEGORYWISE
Surveyed Area 15802 ha
SL. SPECIES CATEGORIES TOTAL % age
NO I II III IV V VI VII
1 Acacia catechu 10 232 0 9 0 0 0 251 0.08
2 Acacia nilotica 12761 645 689 681 6 74 58 14914 4.79
3 Acacia spp. 18 44 2 0 0 2 3 69 0.02
4 Aailanthus excelsa 8 0 0 0 0 0 8 16 0.01
5 Albizia spp. 1495 228 220 428 0 6 114 2491 0.80
6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2344 21 0 1125 0 0 0 3490 1.12
7 Azadirachta indica 18790 300 429 2129 18 10 18 21694 6.97
8 Borassus flabellifer 2 0 27 0 0 0 0 29 0.01
9 Bombax cieba 373 50 143 86 0 13 73 738 0.24
10 Butea monsperma 2 0 720 46 0 0 0 768 0.25
11 Casia fistula 45 13 2 2 0 0 3 65 0.02
12 Cassia simea 12 130 0 98 0 0 3 243 0.08
13 Casia spp. 8 38 0 0 0 0 0 46 0.01
14 Crateva unilocularis 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0.00
15 Dalbergia sissoo 33337 1453 34 8328 27 158 633 43970 14.14
16 Emblica officinalis 42 0 0 28 0 0 0 70 0.02
17 Eucalyptus spp. 56039 2805 96 9497 46 9 107 68599 22.05
18 Ficus spp. 2687 101 959 289 7 9 60 4112 1.32
19 Gmelina arborea 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.00
20 Holoptelea integrifolia 717 235 13 116 0 9 21 1111 0.36
21 Lennea coromandelica 0 0 20 902 0 0 0 922 0.30
22 Litchi chinensis 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 22 0.01
23 Madhuca latifolia 52 0 0 21 0 0 0 73 0.02
24Mallotus philippinensis 0 12 22 366 0 0 0 400 0.13
25 Mangifera indica 17376 344 11 63487 0 2 31 81251 26.12
26 Melia azedarach 3919 228 5 155 0 2 4 4313 1.39
27 Morus spp. 6952 16 0 362 4 1 4 7339 2.36
28 Phoenix sylvestris 684 33 1506 767 6 88 38 3122 1.00
29 Populus spp. 3349 20 0 15108 0 0 0 18477 5.94
30 Prosopis juliflora 1681 178 411 1175 0 0 3 3448 1.11
31 Psidium guyava 1835 8 0 2353 0 0 3 4199 1.35
32 Shorea robusta 9 2 0 12 0 0 0 23 0.01
33 Spondias pinnata 0 0 35 0 0 0 0 35 0.01
34 Syzy gium cumini 5352 333 194 4119 2 10 7 10017 3.22
35 Tamarix aphylla 930 0 105 0 0 0 0 1035 0.33
36 Tectona grandis 158 0 0 31 0 0 0 189 0.06
37 Termilinia arjuna 94 1940 52 858 0 717 234 3895 1.25
38 Zizyphus mauratiana 829 3 0 471 0 1 0 1304 0.42
39 Zizyphus spp. 7 13 1270 147 7 0 3 1447 0.47
40 Misc. 3323 322 1256 1853 2 50 37 6843 2.20
Total 175246 9747 8222 115071 125 1161 1465 311037 100.00
%age 56.34 3.13 2.64 37.00 0.04 0.37 0.47 100.00
Stem/ha 11.09 0.62 0.52 7.28 0.01 0.07 0.09 19.68
41
Table No. 3.43
DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIESWISE AND DIA
CLASSWISE
Surveyed Area 15802 ha
SL. NAME OF Agro Ecological Zones STEM/HA
NO. SPECIES NPHC NPSH(D) TOTAL %AGE
1 Acacia catechu 10 241 251 0.08 0.016
2 Acacia nilotica 13768 1146 14914 4.79 0.944
3 Acacia spp. 60 9 69 0.02 0.004
4 Aailanthus excelsa 15 1 16 0.01 0.001
5 Albizia spp. 920 1571 2491 0.80 0.158
6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2473 1017 3490 1.12 0.221
7 Azadirachta indica 18463 3231 21694 6.97 1.373
8 Borassus flabellifer 29 0 29 0.01 0.002
9 Bombax cieba 285 453 738 0.24 0.047
10 Butea monsperma 20 748 768 0.25 0.049
11 Casia fistula 43 22 65 0.02 0.004
12 Cassia simea 242 1 243 0.08 0.015
13 Casia spp. 46 0 46 0.01 0.003
14 Crateva unilocularis 1 0 1 0.00 0.000
15 Dalbergia sissoo 30336 13634 43970 14.14 2.783
16 Emblica officinalis 40 30 70 0.02 0.004
17 Eucalyptus spp. 21110 47489 68599 22.05 4.341
18 Ficus spp. 2967 1145 4112 1.32 0.260
19 Gmelina arborea 4 2 6 0.00 0.000
20 Holoptelea integrifolia 1078 33 1111 0.36 0.070
21 Lennea coromandelica 3 919 922 0.30 0.058
22 Litchi chinensis 19 3 22 0.01 0.001
23 Madhuca latifolia 69 4 73 0.02 0.005
24 Mallotus philippinensis 9 391 400 0.13 0.025
25 Mangifera indica 57148 24103 81251 26.12 5.142
26 Melia azedarach 2195 2118 4313 1.39 0.273
27 Morus spp. 5265 2074 7339 2.36 0.464
28 Phoenix sylvestris 1545 1577 3122 1.00 0.198
29 Populus spp. 6248 12229 18477 5.94 1.169
30 Prosopis juliflora 2280 1168 3448 1.11 0.218
31 Psidium guyava 3080 1119 4199 1.35 0.266
32 Shorea robusta 1 22 23 0.01 0.001
33 Spondias pinnata 0 35 35 0.01 0.002
34 Syzygium cumini 4430 5587 10017 3.22 0.634
35 Tamarix aphylla 1029 6 1035 0.33 0.065
36 Tectona grandis 50 139 189 0.06 0.012
37 Termilinia arjuna 2121 1774 3895 1.25 0.246
38 Zizyphus mauratiana 1048 256 1304 0.42 0.083
39 Zizyphus spp. 1124 323 1447 0.47 0.092
40 Misc. 4604 2239 6843 2.20 0.433
Total 184178 126859 311037 100.00 19.683
%age 59.21 40.79 100.00
Stem/ha 16.249 28.399 19.68
Area of agro-eco zones 11335 4467 15802
No. of vill.in each zones 44 18 62
42
3.4 KERALA
3.41 Brief background of the State
Kerala State is situated on the South Western part of India. The geographical
area of the State is approximately 3.88 million ha, of which about 10 percent comes
under lowland region (coastal), 42 percent under midland region and remaining under
highland region (State Land Use Board, 1980)1. Bordering the Arabian sea, Kerala
lies between 80 and 12045' North latitudes and 7404' and 77050' East longitude. The
Western Ghats constitute the eastern boundary while the Arabian sea marks the
western boundary of the State. Kerala has an equable climate and the day temperature
varies from 20 to 350 C. The mean annual rainfall is about 3,000 mm and varies from
1016 mm to 7620 mm. Variation in temperature is between 23.9 0 C to 37.70 C in
plains and 10.0 0 C to 32.20 C in the hills. The soil is varied generally leached and
lateritic and particularly loamy in the hilly region and alluvial in the valleys and
plains.
Kerala is the most densely populated State in India. The population of the
State in 1991 was 29.09 million with population density 749 persons per km2
compared to 273 persons per km2 of the country. The contribution of forestry and
logging to the net State domestic product has declined from 0.5% in 1990 -91 to 0.4%
in 1997-98. Forest lands including degraded forests constitute 24.3% of the total
geographical area of the State (Kerala State Land Use Board, 1995). Of the total net
area cultivated, coconut accounted for 39%, rubber 20%, tea, coffee and cardamom
together 7% and rice 11%. Mixed cropping is the characteristics feature of land use in
the home-gardens of Kerala. It integrates agricultural crops with several tree cops
such as coconut, jack, mango, tamarind, cashew, etc., which provide timber, fuelwood,
fruits, green manure and fodder.
3.42 Forest Resources
Recorded forest area of the state is 1.12 m ha of which Reserved Forests
constitute 1.10 m ha while protected and other forests account for 0.02 m ha.
Vegetation in the State varies with climatic, altitudinal and other edaphic factors. The
hilly zone contains the maximum forests while the midland has only little and the
coastal plains has almost no vegetat ion except for few very small discontinuous
patches of mangrove vegetation. Major forest type and species are given below as per
Champion and Seth¶s classifications.
1 The lowland, midland and highland regions are the three broad natural regions based on altitude. The land
lying below 7.6 m elevation is lowland, between 7.6 to 76 m midland and above 76 m highland.
43
Forest types Important species
Tropical wet evergreen Artocarpus hirsuta, Calophyllum tomentosa,
and semi-evergreen forests Canarium strictum, Cinnamomum zelyancium,
Cullenia excelsa, Dipterocarpus spp., Dysoxylum
malabaricum, Michelia champaca, Mesua ferrea,
Terminalia paniculata etc.
Tropical moist Adina cordifolia, Bombax ceiba, Dalbergia latifolia,
deciduous forests Ficus glomerata, Kydia calicyna, Lagerstroemia
lanceolata, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tectona grandis
Terminalia spp. etc.
Tropical dry Acacia spp. Azadirachta indica, Butea frondosa,
deciduous forests Cassia fistula, Dalbergia paniculata, Sterculia urens
etc.
Montane sub- Bischofia javonica, Calophyllum tomentosa,
tropical and montane Cedrela toona, Eugenia spp., Ficus glomerata,
temperate forests Machilus macrantha, Mallotus spp., Rhododendron
spp., Lauraceous trees.
Actual forest cover of Kerala as assessed by the Forest Survey of India is 1.03
m ha which constitute 26.6% of the total geographical area of the State. Of the actual
forest cover, 0.8 m ha is under dense forests and 0.2 m ha is under open forests.
Forest plantations started in Nilambur in the year 1842 with teak. Since then,
teak plantations were established in many accessible forest areas. Since 1960, the area
under Eucalyptus plantations increased rapidly. The area under teak has also
increased. Further growth of forest plantations is likely to be marginal in future.
3.43 Social Forestry in Kerala
Several social forestry schemes have been launched in Kerala in order to
increase the supply of fuelwood and small timber, these are National Rural
Employment Programme, Rural Fuelwood Scheme, Rural Landless Employment
Guarantee Programme, Drought Relief Scheme and the World Bank Scheme. Under
these schemes, plantations have been raised through block, strip and avenue planting
in forest areas, waste lands, etc. A large number of seedlings have also been raised in
nurseries under these schemes and distributed to farmers and social organisations to
raise in homesteads and around public buildings respectively. The total area at the end
of 1987-88 was 27149 ha. The species planted and distributed area mainly Acacia
44
auriculiformis, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Casuarina equisetifolia . The plantations
have not yet been harvested.
3.44 Need for the Study
The pattern of wood consumption by various sectors and the contribution of
different sources of supply in Kerala was not studied until 1987-88. Supply of wood
from the forests of Kerala has declined during the 1980s. Homesteads appear to be an
important source of wood supply, but the available data on land use do not reveal the
composition of tree crops and the growing stock distribution in homesteads. In this
context, the present study on µDemand and supply of wood in Kerala and their furture
trends¶ was of great relevance in planning wood-resources development in the State.
3.45 Methodology adopted by KFRI
A survey was conducted during 1988-89 to estimate the volume of growing
stock of trees in homesteads, the crop-mix and the preference for particular species.
Homesteads include house compounds and farm lands. Dry land area under
agricultural use2 less area under estates is defined as the area under homesteads. A
survey on tree-felling in homesteads was also attempted to quantify the wood
production from homesteads. There waas a lack of information regarding the
restrictions imposed by the government on felling of certain trees in private lands.
The respondents were found to conceal actual tree-felling due to fear of bureaucratic
harassment later. Also the recall metho d adopted for the survey had several defects,
the most important being the non-availability of exact dimensions of the already felled
trees. Due to unreliability in the data, it was not used for further analysis. Wood
production from homesteads was therefore taken as the difference between the
demand for wood and the sum of wood production from forests and estates and
imports.
A stratified three-stage sampling procedure was adopted for the selection of
samples. For each revenue village in Kerala, the percentage of dryland (garden land)
area under agricultural use to the total area under agricultural and population density
were calculated from the data available with the State Land-use Board and in the 1981
census report respectively. By forming 5 class es for the percentage of dryland area
under agricultural use to total area under agricultural use and 3 classes for the
2 It is assumed that the population living within forests fully depend on fuelwood collected directly. Further,
the population in villages adjoining the forests area assumed to collect 5 to 20 percent of their requirement
from the forests. The population for 1987-88 is projected based on the 1981 census. The fuelwood
consumption is estimated on the basis of the projected population of both the groups and the per capita
fuelwood consumption in the rural areas of Kerala, including the fuelwood equivalent of fuel from
coconut/palmyra trees and crop-residues.
45
population density, 15 strata were formed and the villages were classified in different
strata accordingly. Revenue villages in each stratum were treated as first-stage units
of sampling. Out of the total number of villages in Kerala according to 1981 census,
2.5 per cent were distributed in different strata approximately in proportion to the
dryland area under agricultural use in each stratum ensuring that at least one village
was included from each stratum. The villages in each stratum were chosen at random
and in all 30 villages were selected. Census villages were taken as second stage units
of sampling since several form a revenue village. One was randomly selected from
the chosen revenue villages and all the households in the selected desom were visited
to collect information such as year of house construction, whether there was any
construction activity using timber in the year 1987-88, size of dryland holding etc.
3.46 Estimation of growing stock of trees in homesteads
The households in the selected were classified on the basis of size of dry land
holding. The households with dry land holding formed the third stage units of
sampling. 25 households were allocated proportional to the number of households in
each class and households in each class were randomly and independently selected.
All dry land belonging to the sample households in the desom were surveyed. In the
homesteads of the selected households all trees by species coming under different
diameter classes (dbh) and coconut palms were enumerated. Other palms and
plantations of rubber cardamom, coffee and tea were excluded from the definition of
trees.
Total production of wood including fuelwood obtained from pruned and fallen
materials and coconut wood from homesteads during 1987-88 was estimated to range
from10.899 to 12.246 million m3 of which 80 to 90 percent was fuel. Pruned and
fallen materials from trees in ho mesteads used as fuelwood is worked out to be 0.330
million m3. The number of coconut palms felled mainly for timber was worked out to
be 1.303 million which provided 0.693 million m3 of wood. The number of palms
felled and used as fuel was taken to be 3 .909 million which provided 1.884 million m3
of fuelwood. The total production of coconut wood was estimated as 2.577 million
m3. Non-wood fuel from coconut used in households is arrived at about 5.05 million
m3 fuelwood equivalent. Non-wood fuel materials from coconut is also used in the
tertiary sector which has not been estimated. Therefore, 5.05 million m3 can be taken
as minimum production of non-wood coconut fuel. However, the non-wood
component of fuel has not been included in the present analysis.
The upper limit of 12.246 million m3 of wood production represents 8.3 m3 per
ha of homestead lands used exclusively for agriculture or 7 m3 per ha of homestead
lands plus area under non-agricultural uses within homesteads. The definition of
wood us ed in this study is different from the conventional definition where, usually,
only wood above 60 cm girth is considered. Our definition of wood includes woody
46
materials up to 10 cm girth in the case of fuelwood. Therefore 7 m3 per ha cannot be
considered to be a very high figure. No attempt has been made to assess the
sustainability of wood production from considering the present level of production.
3.47 ESTIMATES OF THE INVENTORY
Total number of trees in homesteads excluding that in plantations and palms
other than coconut is estimated as 442 million in 1988 -89. Coconut palms constituted
21.5% of the total number. Trees in the lowest diameter class accounted for 55% of
the total number of trees. Multiple use trees such as coconut, jack, mango, cashew and
tamarind were the most preferred species for planting in homesteads. Anily, teak and
matty are the species preferred among trees grown exclusively for wood. However,
the crop-mix and preference for particular species vary with respect to different
regions.
Growing stock of trees in number and volume and the species preference In
homesteads of Kerala are analysed. Palms other than coconut are not included in the
growing stock of trees. Neither are trees in plantations of rubber, coffee, tea and
cardamom.
Tables 3.51 presents the number of trees in the growing stock in homesteads
during 1988-89. The estimated total number of trees is 442.2 million of which trees
below 10 cm dbh account for 42.91 per cent. When coconut palms are excluded trees
in the lowest class comes to 54.63 per cent of the total number. While trees above 30
cm dbh account for only 4.4 per cent of the total number, new plantings of trees (less
than 10 cm dbh) other than coconut palms account for 54.63 per cent The shows that
efforts are being made at the homestead level in planting of trees.
47
Table 3.51 Number of trees in the growing stock in homesteads of Kerala during
1988-89
(number in '000)
Diameter at breast beight (in cr.)
Trees <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total
CO3 - - 94920 - - - - - - 94920
(21.47)
M2 11550 8624 5837 3146 1699 938 195 67 50 32106
(7.26)
M3 19700 12856 5908 2497 1191 560 216 70 100 43098
(9.75)
M4 87456 42322 12126 2652 937 208 116 28 0 145845
(32.98)
T1 14069 5607 1709 376 148 15 0 0 5 2192
(4.96)
T2 9869 7901 3975 1347 588 423 114 7 12 23736
(5.37)
T3 9242 8007 1870 242 84 24 4 5 0 19478
(4.40)
T4 29970 17877 3790 919 226 160 50 8 13 53013
(11.99)
ACE 7860 150 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 8040
(1.82)
Total 189716
(42.91)*
103344
(23.37)
129665
(29.321)
11179
(2.53)
4873
(1.10)
2328
(0.53)
695
(0.16)
185
(0.04)
180
(0.04)
442165
(100.00)
CO stands for coconut palms, M2 for jack, M3 for mango, tamarind, gooseberry, etc., M4
for cashew, breadfruit, guava, etc., T1 for teak, rosewood and sandal, T2 for anjily,
chadachy, irul, etc., T3 for kanjiram, manjakadambu, thanni, etc., T4 for matty, mullilavu,
ezhilampala etc., ACE for Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina and Eucalyptus. For complete
list see Appendix-1. The figures in parentheses are percentages to total.
The volume of growing stock of trees in total volume is estimated as 104.248
million m3 overbark including volume of branch wood above 10 cm girth. The
commercial volume is estimated as 28.526 million m 3 underbark (see Tables 3.52 and
3.53). The commercial volume accounts for 27.4 per cent of the total volume. The
remaining 72.6 per cent is the growing stock of fuelwood. However, commercial
volume also includes volume of trees with only fuelwood value, when felled, such as
tamarind.
3 Include only those coconut palms above 5 years old which have stem wood. The average diameter of
coconut palms is assumed to be in 20-30 cm class.
48
3.48 Species preference
Trees with multiple uses account for 71 per cent of the total number of trees,
81 per cent of the total volume overbark of all trees and 83 per cent of the total
commercial volume. Also among trees above 60 cm dbh, trees providing multiple
benefits constitute 74 per cent of the total number, 83 per cent of the total volume
overbark of all trees and 85 per cent of total.
Table 3.52
Total volume of growing stock of trees in homesteads of Kerala
(volume in '000 m3 overbark including branch wood of 10 cm and above girth)
Diameter at breast height (in cm)
Trees <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total
CO - - 34171 - - - - - - 34171
(32.78)
M2 46 1509 2422 3072 3484 3126 968 447 489 15563
(14. 93)
M3 79 2250 2576 2469 2417 1834 1060 455 908 14048
(13.48)
M4 350 7406 6801 2845 1784 609 529 164 0 20488
(19.66)
T1 56 981 767 372 266 45 0 0 38 2525
(2.42)
T2 39 1383 1568 1290 986 1061 407 33 98 6865
(6.58)
T3 37 1401 951 248 164 73 17 27 0 2918
(2.80)
T4 120 3129 1974 1009 450 513 242 51 107 7595
(7.28)
ACE 31 26 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 75
(0.07)
Total 758
(0.73)*
18085
(17.34)
51248
(49.16)
11305
(10.84)
9551
(9.16)
7261
96.97)
3223
(3.09)
1177
(1.23)
1640
(1.57)
104248
(100.00)
* The figures in par entheses are percentages to total.
49
Table 3.53
Commercial volume of growing stock of trees in homesteads of Kerala
(volume in '000 m3 underbark)
Diameter at breast height (in cm.)
Trees 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total (%)
CO 6834 0 0 0 0 0 0 6834 23.96
M2 817 1605 1767 1586 477 222 236 6710 23.52
M3 844 1274 1220 921 512 219 440 5430 19 02
M4 1941 1352 863 284 216 67 0 4723 16.55
T1 406 144 112 18 0 0 20 700 2.45
T2 475 390 318 367 157 14 39 1760 6.17
T3 285 122 80 34 7 11 0 539 1.90
T4 616 519 232 280 114 25 40 1826 6.41
ACE 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.02
Total 12222 5406 4592 3490 1483 558 775 28526
(%) 42.85 18.95 16.10 12.23 5.20 1.95 2.72 100.00
Commercial volume: The commercial volume is estimated to be 28.526 million m3
constituting 27.4.% of the total volume. Coconut palms, jack, mango,
tamarind,cashew, breadfruit, guava constitute more than 80% of the total volume.
Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia and Eucalyptus account for only 0.02
per cent of the total comme rcial volume. Timber and multiple-use trees in the high
value classes contribute to the timber supply and those in the low value classes
contribute to both timber and fuelwood supply.
3.49 Pattern of Growing Stock Distribution
The pattern of growing stock distribution of trees in the homesteads of Kerala
gives a very interesting picture of the preference for different trees in homesteads (see
Table 3.54, 3.55, 3.56 and 3.57). Just 10 species account for 74 per cent of total
number equivalent to 85 per cent of total wood volume. Coconut provides about 28
per cent of total timber consumption and about 16 per cent of the total fuelwood
consumption. When non-wood fuel from coconut is also considered, the contribution
of coconut is 69.8% of the total consumption of fuelwood and charcoal from all other
trees and all sources put together. After a pre-bearing stage of about 6 years, there is
continuous production of nut and fuel in the form of leaf, sheath, husk, shell, etc: for
over 60 years. Coconut provides the benefits of an agricultural crop as well as a tree.
50
Table 3.54
Pattern of growing stock distribution of trees in homesteads of Kerala
Trees Percentage of growing stock to total growing stock in
Number Volume Commercial volume
Coconut (CO) 21.47 32.78 23.96
Jack (M2) 7.26 14.92 23.52
Mango (M3) 7.29 10.90 15.78
Cashew (M4) 9.30 11.65 12.54
Anjily (T2) 2.28 4.00 3.86
Tamarind (M3) 1.54 1.66 2.12
Teak (T1) 4.11 1.91 2.04
Murikku (M4) 10.38 3.90 1.99
Vatta (M4) 5.96 1.92 0.72
Matty (T4) 4.17 1.24 0.67
Other trees 26.24 15.12 12.80
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Erythrina stricta and Macaranga peltata are the other trees most integrated
with agriculture. They provide support for pepper vine, a high return crop, and
produce excellent lead manure. However, they do not contribute much to the total
commercial volume of wood. Jack and mango are planted for fruits and shade. The
leaf of jack is a very good fodder. Jack produces premium timber for construction and
furniture. The timber of mango, though not as valuable, is used as industrial wood and
for construction. Cashew has a very short pre-bearing stage and provides a high
annual return from nuts. Its wood is used as fuel and in packing case industry. Anjily,
which provides a long straight bole, is used for construction, boat building, etc.
Tamarind produces fruit which is a condiment in daily use. Tamarind wood is an
excellent fuel and the tree has the capability to establish and grow in dry areas and
adverse conditions. Teak is the traditional high quality, high value timber of Kerala
which can be used for any purpose. It has also high export demand. Matty, a fast
growing tree, has been popularized in the recent past due to demand from match
industry.
The data show that trees with multiple benefits are preferred to single-use
trees. Even among multiple-use trees, trees which provide for home consumption
have prefernce. The potential for recurring annual income generation is an important
consideration. Trees which are complementary to agricultural crops for providing
support or manure are also preferred. Coconut followed by jack, mango, cashew,
anjily, tamarind, teak, murikku, vatta and matty are the most preferred species for
planting and maintaining in homesteads. Howeve r, the crop-mix and preference for
particular species vary with respect to different regions in Kerala. Fuelwood and very
low value trees with single use have very low preference in homesteads. Even among
fuel producing trees, coconut is the most preferred tree.
51
Table 3.55
Number of Trees Growing in Homesteads in different diameter classes
(number in µ000)
Trees Diameter at breast height (in cm)
<10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80
Total
(%)
Coconut - - 94920 - - - - - - 94920
(21.47)
Murikku 30434 13034 2053 287 58 30 0 0 0 45896
(10.38)
Cashew 14700 15109 8207 1959 857 155 116 21 0 41124
(9.30)
Mango 13641 10168 4672 1983 961 445 190 56 98 32214
(7.29)
Jack 11549 8624 5837 3146 1699 939 195 67 50 32106
(7.29)
Vatta 17999 7362 899 89 12 5 0 0 0 26366
(5.96)
Tamarind 4040 1454 730 314 155 71 26 14 1 6805
(1.54)
Teak 11776 4638 1368 262 112 4 0 0 0 18160
(4.11)
Matty 13240 4658 356 114 25 17 11 0 0 18421
(4.17)
Anjily 4132 2415 1672 892 480 369 109 14 0 10083
(2.28)
Other trees 68205 35882 8951 2133 514 293 48 13 31 116070
(26.25)
Total
(%)
189716
(42.91)
103344
(23.37)
129665
(29.32)
11179
(2.53)
4873
(1.10)
2328
(0.53)
695
(0.16)
185
(0.04)
180
(0.04)
442165
(100.00)
52
Table No. 3.56
Total Volume of Important Trees In The Growing Stock In homesteads
(Volume in µ000 m3 overbark including branchwood of 10 cm and above girth)
Trees Diameter at breast height (in cm)
<10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80
Total
(%)
Coconut - - 34171 - - - - - - 34171
(32.78)
Jack 46 1509 2422 3071 3483 3126 968 446 489 15560
(14.92)
Cashew 59 2644 4604 2103 1630 455 529 122 0 12146
(11.65)
Mango 55 1779 1939 1935 1970 1483 943 372 893 11369
(10.901)
Murikku 122 2281 1152 308 110 88 0 0 0 4061
(3.90)
Vatta 72 1288 504 95 24 14 0 0 0 1997
(1.92)
Tamarind 16 254 410 337 294 209 118 82 15 1735
(1.66)
Anjily 16 423 776 816 772 900 391 33 48 4175
(4.00)
Teak 47 812 667 256 195 9 0 0 0 1986
(1.91)
Matty 53 815 148 111 52 56 55 0 0 1290
(1.24)
Other trees 272 6280 4455 2273 1021 921 219 122 195 15758
(15.12)
Total
(%)
758
(0.73)
18085
(17.34)
51248
(49.16)
11305
(10.84)
9551
(9.16)
7261
(6.97)
3223
(3.09)
1177
(1.23)
1640
(1.57)
104248
(100.00)
53
Table No. 3.57
Commercial Volume of Important Trees in the Growing Stock in Homesteads of
Kerala
(volume in µ000 m3 underbark)
Trees Diameter at brest height (in cm)
20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80
Total (%)
Coconut (CO) 6834 - - - - - - 6834 23.96
Jack (M2) 817 1605 1767 1586 477 222 236 6710 23.52
Mango (M3) 654 1011 1000 752 464 185 435 4501 15.78
Cashew (M4) 1313 999 788 212 216 50 0 3578 12.54
Tamarind (M3) 117 160 142 97 48 34 6 604 2.12
Murikku (M4) 329 146 53 41 0 0 0 569 1.99
Vatta (M4) 144 45 12 6 0 0 0 207 0.72
Anjily (T2) 200 187 221 306 150 14 22 1100 3.86
Teak (T1) 369 118 91 5 0 0 0 583 2.04
Matty (T4) 50 58 26 29 27 0 0 190 0.67
Other trees 1395 1077 492 456 101 53 76 3650 12.80
Total
(%)
12222
(42.85)
5406
(18.95)
4592
(16.10)
3490
(12.23)
1483
(5.20)
558
(1.95)
775
(2.72)
28526
100.00
54
4.CONCLUSIONS
With the increasing emphasis on the conservation of the natural forest and their
bio-diversity, the responsibility to supply wood and other forest products will shift on
trees outside forest. Concerned with the depletion of the forest resource the Supreme
Court of India has also issued directions and imposed restrictions on felling of trees
from natural forests without proper management/working plans.
In India, though forestry falls under the concurrent list of the Constitution, the
management and ownership of the forest rests with the States (Provinces). In the State
Forestry Action Programmes prepared by State Governments, the role of trees
growing outside forests has been greatly emphasized. The states have drawn their
plans of growing trees for production of wood and other products from outside forests.
In most of the states major portion of the area where trees are to be planted fall in the
farm lands. In Haryana State about 35% to 40% of the total projection of land where
trees are to be planted outside forests has to come from the farmlands. Other potential
areas which have been identified for growing trees, are vacant land in the institutions
(schools, colleges, offices, industrial complexes, religious places etc.) and parcels of
land along roads, canals, railway lines and water coarses. Plantations in homesteads
and farmhouses have been proposed mainly in Kerala and West Bengal.
National Forest Policy 1988 has emphasized that wood based industries have
to generate their own resource for meeting their raw material needs. This is to be
achieved by growing trees outside forests and a major portion of which has to come
from the agro forestry practices. The industries are also expected to raise captive
plantations and motivate farmers to plant tree species to meet their industrial needs.
Since trees growing outside forests will be the major source of wood and other
forest products in the near future, it is imperative that such resource is accurately
assessed periodically and methodo logy is developed to monitor them regularly. The
Forest Survey of India is the only organisation in India, which has undertaken the
responsibility of assessment of this resource with limited manpower and infrastructure.
The present methodology even after refinement is based on the ground inventory.
With the increasing resolution of the space satellite it may be possible to get proper
signature registered of the trees growing in sporadic form outside forests. The latest
satellite of SPACE IMAGING -IKONOS launched for commercial purposes by
U.S.A.has a resolution of one-meter. It is possible to discern most of the trees
growing in isolation and in scattered way. Appropriate methodology, therefore, can be
developed to make quick assessment of the trees growing outside forests by
combining space technology with ground inventory.
55
APPENDIX I
Names of Trees in Homesteads of Kerala
Local Name (Trade Name) Class Botanical Name*
Aatha M4 Annona reticulata Linn.
Akil T2 Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd.ex Hiern
Albizia T2 Albizia falcataria (Linn.) Fosberg.
Anbazham (Indian Hogplum) M4 Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.) Kurz
Anjily (Ayani) T2 Artocarpus hirsutus Lamk.
Annakara T4 Garuga pinnata Roxb.
Aranamaram M4 Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw
Aryaveppu (Neem) M3 Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
Athi T3 Ficus racemosa Linn.
Badam (Indian almound) M3 Terminalia catappa Linn.
Chadachi (Dhaman) T2 Grewia tiliifolia Vahl.
Chandanam (Sandal) T1 Santalum album Linn.
Chembakam (Chembak) M4 Michelia champaca Linn.
Cheru T3 Holigarna arnottiana Hk.f.
Choolamaram ACE Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G.Forst.
Edana T3 Cinnamomum sp.
Elanji (Bulletwood) T2 Mimusops elenji Linn.
Eucaly (Eucalypt) ACE Eucalyptus sp.
Ezhilampala (Shaitan wood) T4 Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br.
Irul T2 Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub.
Kadaplavu (Breadfruit) M4 Artocarpus cummunis J.R. & G. Forst.
Kalash T3 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.
Kambily T4 Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) Merr.
Kanakamaram M4 Cananga odoratta Hk.f. & Thoms.
Kanikonna (Indian laburnum) T2 Cassia fistula Linn.
Kanjiram T3 Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.
Kara T3 Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir.
Kasumavu (Cashew) M4 Anacardium occidentale Linn.
Koovalam M3 Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr.
Kudappuli M3 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn.) Robs.
Kumizhu (Gamari) T3 Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Kunnivaka T2 Albizia odoratissima (Linn.f.) Benth.
Mahagony T2 Sweitenia mahagony (Linn.) Jacq.
Manchady T3 Adenanthera pavonia Linn.
Manjakadambu (Haldu) T3 Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsd.
Manjapavatta T3 Morinda pubescens J.E. Sm.
Marotty M3 Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch-Ham.) Oken.
Matty T4 Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston
Mavu (Mango) M3 Mangifera indica Linn.
Mullankainy (Kasi) T2 Bridelia roxburghiana (Muell.-Arg) Gehm.
Mul leelam T3 Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.
Mullilavu (Semul) T4 Bombax ceiba Linn.
Nelly (Gooseberry) M3 Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Njaval T2 Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels.
Othalam T4 Cerbera odollam Gaertn.
Panjipoola (Kapok) T4 Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn.
56
Parakam T3 Ficus hispida Linn.f.
Pathiri (Padri) T3 Stereospermum colais (Buch-Ham.ex Dillw.)
Mabber.
Payyani T4 Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent.
Pera (Guava) M4 Psidium guajava Linn.
Peral (Banyan) T3 Ficus benghalensis Linn.
Pezhu (Kumbi) T4 Careya arborea Roxb.
Plavu (Jack) M2 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.
Poovam T2 Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken
Poovarasu T2 Thespesia populnea (Linn.) Soland.ex. Correa
Pottami T4 Trema orientalis (Linn.) Bl.
Pulimaram (Tamarind) M3 Tamarindus indica Linn.
Pulla Maruthu (Kindal) T2 Terminalia paniculata Roth.
Punna (Alexandrian laurel) T2 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.
Silver oak M4 Grevillea robusta A. Cunn.
Sinduram M3 Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell.-Arg
Thanni T3 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.
Thekku (Teak) T1 Tectona grandis Linn.f.
Thembavu T2 Terminalia crenulata Roth
Thengu (Coconut) CO Cocos nucifera Linn.
Therakam T3 Ficus exaperata Vahl.
Ungu (Indian beech) T4 Pongania pinnata (Linn.) Pierre.
Vaka T2 Albizia sp.
Varangu T4 Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.
Vatta M4 Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Muell-Arg.
Veeti (Rosewood) T1 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.
Vempu T3 Toona ciliata Roemer
Venga (Bijasal) T2 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.
Venthekku (Venteak) T2 Lagerstroemia microcarpa Wt.
Vetty T3 Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) Baill.
* Botanical names are taken from Sasidharan, 1987.
57
APPENDIX 2.1
Haryana
Sl.No NAME OF SPECIES USES
1 Acacia catechu Katha, industrial
2 Acacia nilotica Firewood, charcoal, poles, small timber, utensils/ furniture/
carying, fodder in the form of leaves and pods, Nitrogen
fixation, Soil conservation/improvement and windbreak
3 Acacia spp. Small timber and fuelwood
4 Acacia tortilis Firewood, charcoal, erosion control, fibre and nitrogen
fixation
5 Albizia spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood, charcoal, timber, furniture, poles, medicine
(leaves, bark, roots) fodder (foilage, oil seed cake), bee
forage, shade, fertilizer, erosion control, soil conservation,
windbreaks, ornamental, oil, insecticides (azadirachtin), soap
manufacturing, leaves used to deworm livestock
7 Dalbergia sissoo Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
8 Eucalyptus spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
9 Ficus spp. Nitrogen fixation, soil conservation
10 Mangifera indica Fuelwood, food (fruit, juice), fodder (leaves), bee-forage,
windbreaks, mulch, green leaf manure, ornamental, shade,
soil conservation, gum, dug-out canoes (coast) and timber
11 Melia azedarach Windbreak, poles, firewood, and shade
12 Morus spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade and wood for
manufacturing hockey sticks and ot her sports goods
13 Populus spp. Matchwood
14 Prosopis cineraria Charcoal, fodder (leaf/flower), fodder for bees
58
15 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal, timber, poles, posts, carvings, fruit,
vegetable, fodder (leaves and pods), bee-forage, medicine,
nitrogen fixation, shade, soil conservation, dune fixation,
windbreak and live fence
16 Psidium guyava Fuelwood, tool handles, granary construction, staking
material, fruit (jam, jelly, juice), medicine, erosion control
and live fence
17 Salvadora spp. Soil conservation
18 Syzygium cumini Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
19 Tamarix aphylla Erosion control, mulch, soil improvement, windbreak, river
bank/ sand stabilisation, small timber and fuelwood
20 Zizyphus spp. Fruits, firewood, fodder and shade
59
APPENDIX 2.2
West Bengal
Sl. No Name of Species Uses
1 Acacia arabica Windbreak, firewood and shade
2 Acacia auriculliformis Fuelwood
3 Albizzia species Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
4 Alnus nepalensis Firewood, timber an d erosion control
5 Artocarpus species Timber
6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood, charcoal, timber, furniture, poles, medicine
(leaves, bark, roots) fodder (foilage, oil seed cake), bee
forage, shade, fertilizer, erosion control, soil
conservation, windbreaks, ornamental, oil, insecticides
(azadirachtin), soap manufacturing, leaves used to
deworm livestock
7 Bombax ceiba Timber, veneer, matchwood
8 Cassia species Mulch, soil conservation, windbreak, firewood and shade
9 Casurina equisetifolia Soil reclamation (degraded sites), windbreaks, sand
(dune) stabilizer, erosion control, fuelwood, charcoal,
poles, timber, handles, masts for shows, construction
wood, pulp, fodder, mulch, green manure, nitrogen
fixation, ornamental, dye, tannin and soil improvement
10 Cocos nucifera Firewood, pole, furniture
11 Dalbargia sissoo Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
12 Enterolonbium saman Soil conservation and shade
13 Eucalyptus hybrid Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
14 Eucalyptus species Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
60
15 Ficus species Mulch, soil conservation and improvement
16 Gmelina arborea Firewood, timber, fodder, poles and windbreak
17 Leucacna leucocephala Firewood, poles, browse, mulch, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation/ improvement
18 Mangifera indica Fuelwood, food (fruit, juice), fodder (leaves), bee-forage,
windbreaks, mulch, green leaf manure, ornamental,
shade, soil conservation, gum, dug-out canoes (coast) and
timber
19 Melia azadirachta Windbreak, poles, firewood, and shade
20 Michelia champaca Fuel wood and timber
21 Phoenix sylvestris Soil conservation and windbreak
22 Pridian guava Firewood
23 Shorea robusta Timber
24 Syzygium cumini Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
25 Tectona grandis Timber
26 Terminalia arjuna Timber, fuelwood
27 Zizyphus species Fruits
61
APPENDIX 2.3
Karnataka
Sl.No Species Uses
1 Acacia spp. Small timber and fuelwood
2 Albizzia spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
3 Anacardium occidentale Fuelwood, charcoal, posts, nuts, fruits (juice, liquor wine,
jam), medicine, ornamental, shade, soil conservation,
dune fixation, windbreaks, nutshell oil (varnish, inks,
tiles, brake lining), gum (book binding)
4 Areca catechu Katha, industrial purpose
5 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood, charcoal, timber, furniture, po les, medicine
(leaves, bark, roots) fodder (foilage, oil seed cake), bee
forage, shade, fertilizer, erosion control, soil
conservation, windbreaks, ornamental, oil, insecticides
(azadirachtin), soap manufacturing, leaves used to
deworm livestock
6 Casuarina equisetifolia Soil eclamation (degraded sites), windbreaks, sand (dune)
stabilizer, erosion control, fuelwood, charcoal, poles,
timber, handles, masts for shows, construction wood,
pulp, fodder, mulch, green manure, nitrogen fixation,
ornamental, dye, tannin and soil improvement
7 Citrus spp. Fruits, firewood
8 Cocus nucifera Firewood, pole and furniture
9 Eucalyptus spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
10 Ficus spp. Mulc h, soil conservation and improvement
11 Mangifera indica Fuelwood, food (fruit, juice), fodder (leaves), bee-forage,
windbreaks, mulch, green leaf manure, ornamental,
shade, soil conservation, gum, dug-out canoes (coast) and
timber
12 Pongamia pinnata Soil conservation and small wood
62
13 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal, timber, poles, posts, carvings, fruit,
vegetable, fodder (leaves and pods), bee-forage,
medicine, nitrogen fixation, shade, soil conservation,
dune fixation, windbreak and live fence
14 Santalum album Ornamental sandal wood and oil
15 Syzigium spp. Timber, fuelwood, fodder and shade
16 Tamarindus indica Fuelwood, charcoal, timber, utensils/ furniture/ carrying,
boat -building, pestles, mortars, poles, carts, posts, food
(fruit, pulp, seasoning/drink), flavouring, medicine
(twigs, bark, roots), ornamental, shade, mulch, nitrogen
fixing, fodder (leaf/ flower, fodder for bees), shade,
mulch, nitrogen fixation, windbreak, soil conservation/
improvement, river bank/ sand stabilisation and thatch/
roofing
17 Tectona grandis Timber
18 Terminalia arjuna Timber and fuelwood
19 Zizyphus maurastiana Soil conservation, firewood, charcoal, poles, timber, food
(fruit), medicine, fodder (fruit/pod, fodder for bees) and
shade
63
APPENDIX 2.4
Western U.P.
Sl.No NAME OF SPECIES USES
1 Acacia catechu Katha, industrial
2 Acacia nilotica Firewood, charcoal, poles, small timber, utensils/
furniture/ carying, fodder in the form of leaves and pods,
Nitrogen fixation, Soil conservation/improve ment and
windbreak
3 Acacia spp. Small timber and fuelwood
4 Albizia spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
5 Artocarpus integeriflius Timber
6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood, charcoal, timber, furniture, poles, medicine
(leaves, bark, roots) fodder (foilage, oil seed cake), bee
forage, shade, fertilizer, erosion control, soil
conservation, windbreaks, ornamental, oil, insecticides
(azadirachtin), soap manufacturing, leaves used to
deworm livestock
7 Bombax cieba Timber, veneer and matchwood
8 Casia fistula Mulch, Soil conservation, windbreak, firewood and shade
9 Cassia simea Mulch, Soil conservation, windbreak, firewood and shade
10 Cassia spp. Mulch, Soil conservation, windbreak, firewood and shade
11 Dalbergia sissoo Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade, nitrogen fixation, soil
conservation, soil improvement and windbreak
12 Emblica officinalis Fruit fuelwood and fodder
13 Eucalyptus spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade and paper pulpwood
14 Ficus spp. Mulch, soil conserva tion and improvement
15 Gmelina arborea Firewood, timber, fodder for bees, poles and windbreak
16 Mangifera indica Fuelwood, food (fruit, juice), fodder (leaves), bee-forage,
windbreaks, mulch, green leaf manure, ornamental,
64
windbreaks, mulch, green leaf manure, ornamental,
shade, soil conservation, gum, dug-out canoes (coast) and
timber
17 Melia azedarach Windbreak, poles, firewood, and shade
18 Morus spp. Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits, shade and wood for
manufacturing hockey sticks and other sports goods
19 Populus spp. Matchwood, paper pulp, poles and timber
20 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal, timber, poles, posts, carvings, fruit,
vegetable, fodder (leaves and pods), bee-forage,
medicine, nitrogen fixation, shade, soil conservation,
dune fixation, windbreak and live fence
21 Psidium guyava Fuelwood, tool handles, granary construction, staking
material, fruit (jam, jelly, juice), medicine, erosion
control and live fence
22 Shorea robusta Timber
23 Syzygium cumini Timber, fuel, fodder, fruits and shade
24 Tamarix aphylla Erosion control, mulch, soil improvement, windbreak,
river bank/ sand stabilisation, small timber and fuelwood
25 Tectona grandis Timber
26 Termilinia arjuna Timber, fuelwood
27 Zizyphus mauratiana Soil conservation, firewood, charcoal, poles, timber, food
(fruit), medicine, fodder (fruit/pod, fodder for bees) and
shade
28 Zizyphus spp. Soil conservation, firewood, charcoal, poles, timber, food
(fruit), medicine, fodder (fruit/pod, fodder for bees) and
shade
65
APPENDIX 3.0
DEFINITIONS
Block plantation - Compact tree plantations covering an area of more than 0.1 ha on
private /Govt. land except village community land.
Canopy -The cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of trees in a wood.
Dense forest - All lands with a forest cover of trees with canopy density of 40 per cent
and above.
Farm Forestry- Trees growing naturally or planted along farm bunds or in small
patches upto 0.1 ha on private lands.
Forest Cover- All lands with a tree canopy density of more than 10 per cent though
they may not be statutorily notified as forest.
Forest inventory - The measuring and describing the quantity and quality of forest
crop and many of the characteristics of the land area upon which forest crop is
growing.
Growing Stock - The sum of all the trees (by number or volume) growing in the
Forest or a specified part of it.
Homesteads - Includes house compounds and farmlads.
Mangrove - Mangroves are salt tolerant forest ecosystem found mainly in tropical and
sub-tropical inter-tidal regions.
Open forest - All lands with a forest cover of trees with canopy density between 10 to
40 per cent.
Recorded forest area - All lands statutorily notified as forest though they may not
necessarily bear tree cover.
Regeneration - The renewal of a forest crop by natural or artificial means, also
the new crop so obtained.
Scrub- All lands with poor tree growth chiefly of small or stunted trees with canopy
density less than 10 per cent.
66
Shifting Cultivation - A method of cyclical cultivation in vogue where cultivators
cut the tree crop burn it and raise agricultural crop for one or more years before
moving on to another site and repeating the process.
Unclassed Forest - Forest land owned by government but not constituted into a
reserve or protected forest.
Village woodlot- Naturally growing/planted trees on village community land.
Working Plan - A written scheme of management aiming at continuity of policy and
action and controlling the treatment of a forest.
67
REFERENCES
Anon. 1997 Monthly Abstract of Statistics and Statistical Abstract India 1997 (Vol. I
& II), Central Statistical Organisation, Department of Statistics and
Programme Implementation, Ministry of Planning and Programme
Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi.
Anon. Indian Live Stock Census (Vol I) 1992 Directorate of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Agriculture and Co -operation Ministry of Agriculture,
Government of India.
Anon. 1992 Agro-ecological Regions of India, Technical bulettine by National
Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning ICAR, Nagpur
Anon. 1999 India 1999 a reference annual. Ministry of Information and Broad
Casting, Government of India.
FSI. 1995. Extent, Composition, density, growing and annual increment of India,s
forests, Forest Survey of India, Dehradun.
FSI 1999. Trees outsides forest resource of Haryan, Forest Survey of India, Northern
Zone, Shimla.
FSI. 1997. A report on Inventory of Trees in Non Forest Area of Wester UP (Pilot
study), Forest Survey of India, Northern Zone, Shimla.
FSI. 1997. A Report on Inventory of Trees in Non-Forest Areas of West Bengal
(Pilot study) Forest Survey of India, Eastern Zone, Calcutta.
MoEF 1997 State of Forest Report 1997, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of
Environment and Forest, Dehradun.
Dr. Krishnakutty C.N. ³A study on Demand and Supply of Wood in Kerala and their
Future Trend´ Kerala Forest Research Institute, Kerala
Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. 1968. Forest types in India.
Anon. 1999. Census of India 1991 Final Population Totals: Paper I & II Registrar
General & Census Commissioner, India.
Anon. 1999. National Forestry Action Programme-India Ministry of Environment &
Forests, Government of India
Anon. 1999 India 1999 a reference annual. Ministry of Information and Broad
Casting, Government of India.

tree. The estimated number of trees per ha. was about 13. In West Bengal, only 25 villages were selected. The number of trees based on pilot survey gave 25.4 trees per ha. This number is almost twice the number found in Haryana State. In Karnataka, only 10 villages were selected representing all agroecological regions and covering 8512 ha area. The number of trees obtained per ha was around 16. In the Western UP, 62 villages were selected covering a total area of 15802 ha. The number of trees obtained per ha was about 19.7.
ii

Farm forestry has highest contribution in Haryana, Western UP and Karnataka States. In West Bengal, maximum contribution comes from other category. In Kerala, the study was done by KFRI where 30 villages against a total of 1505 villages were selected . The study has revealed that homesteads contribute the maximum in production of wood. The total number of trees in home steads were estimate as 442 million excluding the area of plantations and palms. It is noted that the distribution and living style in Kerala is different as compared to other states. A small group of households called ³desom´ has a large area around for cultivation and growing trees. In Kerala and West Bengal the trees have been measured upto 5-cm diameter which may be one reason of more number of trees per unit area. Further, growing of trees in homesteads is more prevalent in these two states perhaps due to favourable climatic (moist/humid) conditions as obtained in these states. It has been found that their exist a positive co-relation between village area and number of trees and also between population of a village and number of trees. Since trees outside forest have become a major source of wood, it is imperative that such resources are accurately assessed on a periodic interval. With the advancement in the space technology and increasing resolution of stellites, it is contemplated to apply remote-sensing technology combining ground inventory to assess the trees growing outside, quickly.
iii

CONTENTS
Page

1. India¶s Profile
1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Flora and Fauna 2 1.3 Recorded Forest Areas 3 1.4 Forest Cover Estimates 3 1.5 Trees Outside Forests 5 1.6 Assessment of Trees Outside Forests 6

2. Design and Methodology of the Field Inventory in Non Forest Areas (Rural)
2.1 Definition 7 2.2 Category of Plantations 7 2.3 Sampling Design 8

2.4 Method of Selection of Sample Villages 8 2.5 Estimation Procedure 9 2.6 Field Procedure 11

3. Inventory Reports
3.0 Haryana 3.01 Brief Background of the State 13 3.02 Forest Resources 14 3.03 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 14 3.04 Estimate of the Study 15-20 3.1 West Bengal 3.11 Brief Background of the State 21 3.12 Forest Resources 22 3.13 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 22 3.14 Estimate of the Study 22-28 3.2 Karnataka 3.21 Brief Background of the State 29 3.22 Forest Resources 29 3.23 Agro Ecological Regions 30 3.24 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 30 3.25 Estimate of the Study 31-34 3.3 Western U.P. 3.31 Brief Background of the State 35 3.32 Forest Resources 36 3.33 Agro Ecological Regions 36 3.34 Selection of Sample Village for Field Inventory 37 3.35 Estimate of the Study 37-41 3.4 Kerala 3.41 Brief Background of the State 42 3.42 Forest Resources 42 3.43 Social Forestry in Kerala 43
iv

3.44 Need for the Study 44 3.45 Methodology adopted by KFRI 44 3.46 Estimation of Growing Stock of Trees in Homesteads 45 3.47 Estimate of the Inventory 46-47 3.48 Species Preference 48 3.49 Pattern of Growing Stock Distribution 49 4. Conclusions 54

5. Appendix I
(Names of trees in Homesteads of Kerala) 55-56

6. Appendix 2.1
(Haryana: Name of species and uses) 57-58

Appendix 2.2
(West Bengal: Name of species and uses) 59-60

Appendix 2.3

(Karnataka: Name of species and uses) 61-62

Appendix 2.4
(Western U.P.: Name of species and uses) 63-64

7. Appendix 3.0
(Definitions) 65-66 8. References 67
v

LIST OF TABLES
Page 1.1 Land use in India 1 1.2 Extent of Dense Forest, Open Forest and Mangrove 4 in 1997 Assessment Haryana 3.11 Distribution of trees by Species and Diameter 15 3.12 Distribution of Trees by Category and Diamter 17 3.13 Distribution of Trees by Species and Category 18 3.14 Distribution of Volume by Species and Diamter 19 3.15 Distribution of Volume by Category and Diameter 20 3.16 Distribution of Volume by Species and Category 20 West Bengal 3.21 Distribution of Trees by Species and Diameter 23 3.22 Distribution of Trees by Species and Category 26 3.23 Distribution of Trees Specie by Agro Ecological Zones 27 Karnataka 3.31 Distribution of Trees by Categories 31 3.32 Distribution of Tree Species by Agro Ecological Zones 32 3.33 Distribution of Trees Species by Diameter 33 Western U.P. 3.41 Distribution of Trees Species by Diamter 38 3.42 Distribution of Trees Species by Category 40 3.43 Distribution of Trees Species by Diameter 41 Kerala 3.51 Number of Trees in the Growing Stock in Homestead 47 3.52 Volume of Growing Stock of Trees in Homestead 48 3.53 Commercial Volume of Growing Stock of Trees in Homesteads49 3.54 Pattern of Growing Stock of Trees in Homestead 50 3.55 Number of Trees Growing in Homesteads by Diameter 51 3.56 Volume of Important Trees in Growing Stock in Homesteads 52 3.57 Commercial Volume of Important in the Growing Stock 53

in Homesteads
1

1. INDIA¶S PROFILE
1.1 INTRODUCTION India is the seventh largest country in the world having an area of 328.72 m ha. It is bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north and crossed over by the Tropic of Cancer in the south and tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the West. The mainland extends betwe en latitudes 804dand 3706d north, longitudes 6807dand 97025deast with land frontier of about 15,200 km. Countries having borders with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to north, Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east . Neighbouring country Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern Peninsula. The plains of the Ganga and the Indus are one of the world¶s greatest stretches of flat alluvium and densely populated areas. The Minstry of Agriculture, Government of India is responsible for the maitenace of land use statistics o f the country. The land use pattern in 1992-93 was as per Table 1.1 Table 1.1: Land use in India as on 1992-93 (in million ha) Forests 67.0 Area under non-agricultural uses 21.8 Permanent pastures & other grazing lands 12.0 Land under Misc. tree crops & groves 3.0 Culturable waste land 16.0 Fallow lands 24.0 Barren and unculturable land 19.4 Cropped area 142.5 Use not reported 23.0 Total land area 328.7 India is one of the most densely populated country having 267 persons per sq.km. The population as per 1991 census stood at 846.30 million out of which 628.69 million people reside in rural India. The estimated population on 1 April 1998 was 955 million. The cattle population in the country in 1992 was 445 million. The climate of India is broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There are four seasons: winter (January-February), (ii) hot weather summer (March-May); (iii) rainy south-western monsoon (June -September) and (iv) post-monsoon, also known as north-east monsoon in the southern peninsula (October -December). India¶s climate is affected by two seasonal winds ± the northeast monsoon and the southwest monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea
2

whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon, blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The southwest monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to make forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained manpower. 1.2 FLORA AND FAUNA

Per capita forest is 0. swamp deer.With a wide range of climatic conditions India has rich and varied vegetation. pepper and coffee. junipers and dwarf willows also occur here. Of these. betelnut. Many conifers. 29. The Andaman region abounds in tropical evergreen and mangrove forests. Out of this 53.000. Assam. reptiles 446. The alpine zone extends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4. and fishes 2. such as coconut. birds 1.02 million ha in 1950-51 with the addition of ex-princely and ex-proprietary forests. nilgai.750 metres to higher.78 million ha. This region produces important commercial crops.3 RECORDED FOREST AREAS At the time of independence. The salt water crocodile is found along the eastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. the western Himalayas. The Malabar region covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the West Coast and support rich forest vegetation. spruce and silver fir occur. the great Indian rhinoceros. the recorded forest area of the country was 39.000.82 million ha was government forest and 14. The Characteristic trees of this zone are high-level silver fir. tiger. 3 1. sugarcane and rice and only small areas support forest.65 and 8. Protected and unclassed forests which constitute 54. Higher up. The Ganga plain region covers the area. the Deacon. It is to be noted here that the recorded forest area has been rising inspite of the fact that large forest areas were diverted for various development purposes. The Assam region comprises of evergreen forests. The Western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon is temperate zone and rich in forests of chir.52 million ha.08 ha (as per 1991 Census) against the world average per capita forest 0. amphibians 204. molluscs a little over 5. the gigantic wild sheep of the Himalayas. maples. lion and clouded leopard. other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. which is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat. About 49.94 million ha. gaur. The temperate zone has forests of oaks. the Indus Plain.64 ha (MoEF 1997). the e astern Himalayas.000. councils) and privately owned forest was 13.20 million ha community and private forests. the Ganga plain. the recorded forest area is 76. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjiling. laurels.228. India has a great variety of fauna numbering more than 81. Indian bison. The Indus plain region is dry and hot and supports tropical dry vegetation. occasional thick clumps of bamboo¶s and tall grasses. Rivers and lakes harbour crocodiles and gharials.4% respectively.546. mammals 372. Of this government and community owned forests were 66.16 million ha and community (ownership resting with clans. Kurseong and the adjacent tract.18 million ha due to consolidation by the early eighties. the four-horned antelope. blue pine.4%. The area further increased to 75. silver birch and junipers. The government owned forest was 26.2% and 16. Presently.53 million ha. In terms of legal status the forest area has been classified into Reserve. rhododendrons. The area increased to 68. forests of deodar. The total forest area diverted for non-forestry purposes . alder and birch. spotted deer. The decan region comprises the tableland and supports tropical vegetation from scrub jungles to mixed deciduous forests. Malabar and the Andamans.000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India. pine. insects constitute about 60. respectively. Main mammals include the majestic elephant. namely. the Indian antelope or black-buck. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions.

26 Nil Goa 995 252 5 1.481 .337 5. 1991 and 1993 used Landsat-TM satellite data having better resolution and on 1:250. the forest area has establised.824 0.195 0. Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 which has resulted in the reduction of diversion of forest land to about 16. constituting 19.e.17. To regulate unabated diversion of forest land for non forestry purposes.745 48.524 0. 447 wildlife sanctuaries and 8 Biosphere reserves.454 1.560 2.131.397 124 46.12.93 Assam 15.2.613 .657 0.04 Madhya Pradesh 82.km.420 .68.) State/UT Dense forest Open forest Mangrove Total forest Per capita (ha) Andhra Pradesh 23. As per the last assessment.06 Manipur 4.290 0.334 0.300 13. open and mangrove forests of all the 25 states and 7 union territories is presented in following table no.8 million ha representing about 4. A large forest area in the country has been brought Protected Area (PA) network by declaring them as national parks. The status of actual forest cover in terms of dense.250 991 12. Due to compensatory afforestation against the diversion. The seventh assessment is using IRS-1C/1D data.276 . The three assessments.000 ha annually at present.15.88 .5% of geographical area of the country and consists of 84 national parks.03 Delhi 16 10 .07 Kerala 8.397 sq.07 Arunachal Pradesh 54.5 million ha i.604 Nil Himachal Pradesh 9.95 Meghalaya 4.859 383 43.937 12.548 8.880 .622 22.11 Bihar 13.546 3 32. 4 Table 1.20 Maharashtra 23.27% of country¶s geographic area.418 0.between 1950 and 1980 was 4.155 14.403 0.20.961 . Open Forest and Mangrove in 1997 Assessment (area in sq.252 0.11 Gujarat 6.4 FOREST COVER ESTIMATES The first assessment of the forest cover of the country was done in 1987 by the Forest Survey of India using Landsat-MSS satellite data on 1:1 million scale.854 7. Thereafter. Since then assessments are done on a two year cycle.143 0.26 Karnataka 24. At present Pas in India cover about 14.602 7.224 . at an annual rate of 150.447 .048 19.578 0.03 Haryana 370 234 .000 scale. done in 1989.26.000 ha.23.450 . sanctuaries and other µreserves¶.440 0. 1.24 Jammu & Kashmir 11.020 9.521 0.2: Extent of Dense Forest. the total forest cover of the country is estimated as 633. with the availability of data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1B) the fifth and sixth assessments were done in 1995 and 1997.044 11.10.km. 1.

private as well as public for meeting the domestic needs of the local people.13.676 8. Though most of the States in India have some pockets deficient in forest resource.941 0. There are several tree species identified whose leaves and fruits are utilized for worshipping God and Goddesses.77 Tamil Nadu 8. Trees also provide protection to bunds of the sacred ponds. Gujarat.Nil Pondicherry* .14.129 0. timber and income during scarcity.1.02 West Bengal 3.18 Orissa 26. Haryana. The pace of tree planting outside forest area gained momentum after launching of tree planting programmes specially under externally aided social forestry project in late 1970s.. Tamil Nadu.546 0. Such distributed .994 0.07 * No discernible forest cover..01 Rajasthan 3.260 261. People also planted trees to develop sacred groves around the places of worship.204 0.3.18.064 0.5.15 Punjab 511 876 . Rajasthan. 5 1.427 . They have been grown in home gardens.613 2.5 TREES OUTSIDE FORESTS Trees outside forests have been providing timber.71 Chandigarh 6 1 . About 35% to 40% of the total plantation targets have been achieved by distribution of seedlings after 1985.03 Sikkim 2.520 127 966 7.349 0.036 .3 .827 633.669 2. farm boundaries.3 Nil Lakshdweep* . Plant a tree for every child every year became a popular slogan in the country. fuel wood.727 .629 211 46.72 Nagaland 3.348 14.557 2.734 .15 Daman & Diu . which have been deficient in natural forest resources. Almost all states in India except a few which have extensive forest resource implemented the social forestry programmes through the involvement of the people. there are more than 60% States in India where tree outside forests have been contributing in a big way in meeting the domestic timber and fuel wood needs of the people.367 21 17. road and canal side in the country for providing fruits. Karnataka. A lot of trees have been planted in India outside forests particularly after the implementation of the social forestry projects.775 2.387 0.423 706 .Nil Total 367.310 4. fodder and other useful products to the rural population in India particularly in States and localities.690 9. Punjab.20 Uttar Pradesh 22.819 3.101 20. shade for keeping the cattle. Bihar.221 1. as a source of fuel wood.353 0..663 .01 A&N Islands 6.958 11.Mizoram 4. The basic theme of most of these projects was to plant trees in vacant lands. Some of the states to be mentioned here are Andhra Pradesh.397 0.487 10. fruite.123 8. Growing trees and bamboos have been a common practice of the rural people since time immemorial.. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.7 Nil Dadra & Nagar Haveli 159 45 ..33.03 Tripura 1..

fuel wood and other needs of the rural population in the country. This has resulted in the decline of the total wood production from the natural forests. and Gujarat) are nearing completion. Initially pilot surveys were conducted in five states to asess the size of he sample. Orissa etc. The uncertainty. It is expected that with further refinement in the methodolgy the resources would be assesed in the next 4-5 years. prevails about the extent of trees growing outside forests at the state as well as national level as there has been no mehanism of monitoring these plantations on regular basis.6 ASSESSMET OF TREES OUTSIDE FORESTS No seriuos effort has been made at the national level to conduct and assess the extent of tree outside forests resource and their actual contribution in meeting the timber. In some states wood balance studies were undertaken as an important component of the externally aided social forestry projects in 1980s. therefore. In addition. specially the species of short rotation (8 to 10 years). land available along the road side. The field works of four states (West Bengal. canal side. to The distributed seedlings are meant exclusively for planting outside forests by private and other agencies. The Forest Survey of India (FSI) in its biennial assessment of forest cover through remote sensing satellite data misses most of the trees planted outside because of their scattered nature and small patchiness.P. The State Governments like Himachal Pr adesh. Haryana in 1997. The percentage of total tree plantations outside forests is expected to be quite high (say 60% to 70%). The forest cover of the country has reached to a critical mass and a sizeable area of the forest has been brought under protected area net work. Since the data on trees growing outside forests were not available the production of wood from such source was either guesstimated or ignored if their contribution was not considered so significant. rail side. made wood balance studies to estimate the total consumption and production of wood.e. Gujarat. The field inventory went with a slow pace and it took about 5 years to complete inventory of only one state i. Haryana. 7 . 6 1. decided to undertake field inventory/survey of trees in non-forest area during 1991. Andhra Pradesh.seedlings are converted into notional area by a standard number 2000 seedlings = 1 ha. The detailed inventory started subsequently. The emphasis on the conservation of forest for ecological restoration has also increased after the promulgation of National Forest Policy 1988. West Bengal. It is possible that all such plantations might not have survived and many of them must have been harvested after attaining maturity. The requirement of wood is being met mainly from the trees growing out side forests and partly by importing it. a lot of trees have been planted in the common lands. The resolution of satellite censors has not been adequate to receive the signatures of such trees growing in isolation. Now the pace of the inventorization has been accelarated and the design / methodology of the inventory has been modified to cover the entire country in a shorter period. the FSI charged with the responsibility of the assessment of forest resources of the country. Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) estimated the tree outside forest resource in Kerala State during 1987-88 on sound statistcal basis. ponds and village Panchayat lands by the Government and other agencies. Considering the increasing role of trees growing outside forests in meeting the timber and fuel wood needs o f the country. West U. The time available to generate primary data on trees outside forests was inadequate and the methodology was also not clear.

available in the non-forest area are generated. The precision level fixed is usually 10% at 95% probability level. List of villages in each district were available from the latest District Census Book (1991). 2.2 Category of Plantations Trees available in the non-forest area were classified into 8 categories for the purpose of data processing and analysis. growing outside the conventional forest areas in the country. in 1992. Each of these selected villages. Estimates of number of trees and their growing stock by species. These categories are: (i) Farm forestry: Trees along the farm bunds and in small patches up to 0.3 Sampling Design The sampling technique followed in the field inventory is stratified random sampling.v. And above at breast height over bark (DBOH) are enumerated. inventory has been confined to rural nonforest areas only. 2. District or group of districts in a state are treated as strata and villages as sampling units. Pilot surveys are carried out before the commencement of the main surveys. 2.1 ha. which has population more than 5000 and more than 75% male working population are engaged in non-agricultural persuit.4 Method of Selection of Sample Villages Firstely pilot study is undertaken in randomly 20-25 villages. On the basis of pilot survey variability of the growing stock /no. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF THE FIELD INVENTORY IN NON-FOREST AREAS (RURAL) Forest Survey of India started inventory of trees.1 ha. is coefficient of variation . of trees are calculated and the number of sample villages required for the detailed field inventory by using the following formula are estimated. Where. and not falling in any of the above (v) Pond side plantation: Trees planted in and around water po nds (vi) Railway side plantation: Trees planted along the railway lines (vii) Canal side plantation: Trees planted along the canals (viii) Others: Trees not falling in any of the above categories.2. c. Since these trees have been providing great support to rural economy. 8 2. Cantonment Board or a notified area Committee etc. was treated as a sampling unit. in area (ii) Roadside plantation: Trees planted along the road side (iii) Village woodlot: Naturally growing or planted trees on community /private land (iv) Block plantation: Compact plantations covering an area of more than 0. Corporation. All the trees of diameter 10 cms. The number of sample vi llages to be surveyed in the States was decided by undertaking a pilot study.1 Definition Non-Forest Area (rural): The Non forest area includes all areas outside the traditional /notified Reserved and Protected Forests but excludes areas of Municipality. with its area and boundaries as per the revenue records. Each village randomly selected.

k 1 r t c. it will be equal to After getting the number of sample villages by using the above formula. The sample villages in each district are selected by using random number table. For large N. Complete enumeration of all the trees of 10 cm and above diameter in the randomly selected villages in each district in carried out.5.s is standard deviation Dx is sample mean r is permissible error to be fixed by investigator tE. N 1 1 r t c.v. of villages in the State/group of districts. n ¹¹º ¸ ©©ª ¨v  ¹¹º ¸ ©©ª ¨v ! E E 100 x s c.k 1 2 . Let n = number of sample villages in the district/state N = total number of villages in the district/state . 2 .k-1 is the value of t distribution at Elevel of probability and (k-1) degrees of freedom. K is the number of villages considered for pilot study.5 Estimation Procedure To estimate the total number of trees and their growing stock.v. 2. !v 9 And N = total no.v. the following ratio estimate procedure is applied. In case the fraction comes to 0. they are distributed among different districts proportionate to the rural geographical area of the districts. it should be rounded off to the nearest integer.

xI = Area of ith village yI = volume/no. of trees per unit area for the population (District/State) is Average area per village in the sample n x x n i1 i !!§ ! ! § N i1 i !! Average area per village in the population ( stratum / state ) N x X § ! n i1 i ! ! Average volume / no. of trees in the sample n y y Average volume / no. of trees for the ith village Then the mean volume/no.v n ¹¹ º ¸ ©©ª ¨v !E A x Total area of all villages in the population (District / State ) N i1 i !!§ ! 10 given by .k 1 r t c. of trees in the population (District / State ) N y Y N i1 i !!§ ! 2 .

/no. then › Estimated variance of T is given by X Y RÖ ! X Y X Y RÖ n i1 i n i1 i !! § § ! ! RÖ A x Axy TÖ !!v . of trees in the population is given by › Estimated variance of R is given by When N is large. The estimate of total vol.The estimate of R is the sample ratio.

 ¼ ½ » ¬­ «   v   !§§§ !!! n i1 n i1 2 iii n .

i1 2 x RÖ x y RÖ y 2 n1 1 N 1 nx Nn ) RÖ ( VÖ 2i .

The crew leader finds the convenient route to make the field party reach the village with minimum traverse by jeep or on foot. The details of location of reference point are recorded in the ³Village Description Form´.of ! 11 2. the entire village is divided into suitable angular quadrants with the help of compass in such a way that enumeration within each angular quadrant could be completed in one working day. The enumeration of trees commence from the line making due north from the reference . ¼ ½ » ¬­ «   !§§§ !!! n i1 n i1 n i1 2 i 2 ii 2 x RÖ x y RÖ 2 y nn1x 1 ) RÖ ( VÖ ) RÖ ( VÖ A ) TÖ ( VÖ !2 v 2i ) RÖ ( VÖ RÖ S. the centre of the village is selected as a starting/reference point which may not necessarily be the actual centre of the village but a prominent permanent feature.6 Field Procedure The crew leader is provided with the list of sample villages to be inventoried along with map of 1:50.E.000 scale with the location of villages duly marked on the maps. The boundary of the village is obtained from the maps of revenue department in support of village level authorities. For data collection. Once the fixing of the reference point is over.

The allocation of sample villages in a zone is done proportionate to the geographical area of the stratum. 2.«« is measured and recorded. Preliminary estimate about number of trees in a village are made with the help of Land record/ village officials/ knowledgeable persons of the village and (a) if the total number of trees is below 2000. (c) Reduction in the number of trees enumerated Previously. when the total population of trees is known.5. West U. 1.Climatic Zones and each zone treated as a strata.8) between village area and number of trees and also between population of a village and number of trees. their diameter and species. all tree are measured and recorded (b) if the total number of trees is in the range of 2000 to 5000. size of each angular quadrant and number of trees enumerated in each quadrant.P. A tree diameter class distribution in a village can be built up with the ratio estimate technique. The enumerated trees are suitably marked with chalk along the boundary of the quadrants completed to avoid double counting/omission of tree. and of NE and SE boundary are treated as µout trees¶.3. only alternate tree i. all the trees in the selected village were enumerated which consumed a lot of time. and West Bengal that there exist positive correlation (0.000 every fourth . District Tree Form (DTF) It provides detailed information of the sampled villages selected in the district mentioning the geographical area and number of trees falling in different category of plantations.7 Data collection forms Village Description Form (VDF) It provides information of the reference point of the village. north to east).6-0. A permissible error of 15% at 95% confidence level has been given instead of 10% error for deciding the sample size.point and proceed in clockwise direction (i. (a) It was found from the inventory of non-forest area of Haryana. so as to complete the task in a reduced time frame. This relationship has been utilised to fix the sample size of other states and dispense with the additional job of pilot study.8 New Methodology/Design To hasten the process of field inventory of the non forest area the design has benn modified since mid 1999. The following three modifications have been implemented. 12 2. (c) if the total number of trees is more than 5000 but less than 10. All living trees of diameter 10 cm and above are enumerated and dead trees.e. number of angular quadrants. The new design improves the efficiency of estimate with the help of previous study and reduce the work load.e. If the number of trees in a village is more than 2000. a sampling technique should be applied to reduce the number. (b) The state is divided into Ag ro. The time spent in pilot survey of each state is being saved. Village Tree Enumeration Form (VTEF) It provides information of all trees enumerated. Borderline trees of NW and SW boundary of the village are enumerated. The new scheme is based on the presumption that the diameter distribution can be prepared with the help of only 2000 trees.

tree i.47 millions. The number of villages selected were only a few. Karnataka and West UP are based on pilot study of FSI conducted during 1993-94. Punjab in the west. and others (wood.9. Rest .5. 35. The climate of Haryana is a semi-arid in the south-west and of the Gangetic type in the rest of the state due to its continental location on the outer margins of the Monsoon region between the Thar Desert and the Himalayas in the north-west of the Indian sub-continent. In case of West Bengal and Karnataka only total number of trees were estimated alongwith species and not their volumes. Since all cattle owners do not have sufficient land for growing fodder or for grazing. Summer temperature goes upto 480 C and winter temperature falls below 50 C in the western paerts of the Haryana. charcoal. Monsoon brings rains from July to September. The report of Haryana is basd on detailed inventory where about 3.e. Crop residue includes cotton sticks and Sesbania grandiflora. Dung cakes. 13 3. The annual rainfall varies from 1400 mm (Ambala) to 213 mm (Sirsa). Kerosene. It is located between North latitudes 27 0 39dand 300 55d5tand 740 27d8tand 770 36d5tEast longitudes and Except for some hills of the Shiwalik system in the north and of Aravalli in the south. L. The four distinct zones are recognised in the state are: (a) Shiwalik hill and foot hills (b) The Plains (c) Aravalli hills (d) Semi arid Sandy Plains of South and South West Haryana. The state is situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains and bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east.42 million ha.e. Reports of West Bengal.30. electricity.).G. 75. 3. The economy of the state is predominantly agricultural.6% villages distributed over the state were completely enumerated.40««««is measured and recorded. Average density of the population was 372 with literacy rate 55. The population of the state as per 1991 census was 16.9%. The study of Kerala state was undertaken by KFRI during 1988-89. it has mostly plain area. coal etc. Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south.0 HARYANA 3. The livestock population of the state has risen to alarming proportion from 79184 to 99469 in 1992 as per Live stock Census 1992. INVENTORY REPORTS In following pages reports of the systematic inventory conducted by FSI and KFRI of a few states have been presented. the cattle population has put unbearable pressure on the forests and the plantations all over the state.13. From October to June the weather remains generally dry.20. There are wide variations in day-night temperature especially in the western part of Haryana.4% of the population was rural and rest urban. 10. 1. 14 Sources of energy in the state are fuelwood.P. Crop residues.000 every tenth tree i.8% of the energy requirement of the rural population comes from dung cakes and 30% from fuel wood for cooking. 01 Brief background of the state Haryan is comparatively a small state of Indian Union having a total geographic area of 4.«« is measured and recorded and (d) if the total number of trees is more than 10.

) is under forests.17 m ha. for the entire state of Haryana. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age NO. Large scale plantations have been raised on panchyat lands./ha. Ficus spp. 82. Other 28. Unclassed forests 8.11 to 3.18 m ha.P. in the sand dunes. 3.51 m ha) is under cultivation and 3.14 million trees.of the energy requirement s come from Kerosene. The survey started in 1992 and completed in 1996 including pilot study in 31 villages. Protected forests 108.8% (3. Wood charcoal.141 million trees and volume 10. Haryana State has a total of 6988 villages having an area of 4.G.700 ha.300 ha. canals. The plantation activities in this state has been taken up extensively since early eighties. Table No.. Dalbergia sissoo.100 ha. Shorea robusta and Bombax ceiba etc.34 million cubic meters and the distribution thereof is given in above mentioned tables and charts. Were randomly selected and surveyed.08% to 3.) SL. on the available institutional and above all on the farm lands. Since the creation of the State in 1966.3 millin ha. 219 villages (decided on the basis of pilot study) having an area of 0. the entire rural area of Haryana State has a total volume of 10.94 and the corresponding volume was 2. Haryana has been able to increase the forest area from 3. As per the estimate. As a result of the implementation of the social forestry programmes. The distribution of estimated total number of stems and stems/ha and corresponding estimated volume and volume/ha.42 m ha. Electricity etc. 15 3. The category-wise breakup of the forest area is as under: Reserved forests 24.17 m ha). SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ . along the roads. Out of the total area of 4.600 ha.34 million cubic metres corresponding to the total number of 55. L. The tree cover in the state has increased to 8% of the geographical area as per the estimatee of the Haryana Forest Department. Out of these. The estimated number of trees/ ha was 12.85% (0.16. Species occupying major area of the fores ts are Acacia spp. 3. Total 170. Anogeissus spp.03Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory As per 1991 Census. Coal.426 cum.900 ha.11 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF TREES BY SPECIES AND BY DIAMETER CLASS (000 no.85% (0. In the entire rural area of Haryana state having estimated 55.02 Forest Resources Haryana is deficient in natural forest resource. railway lines and water courses. are on the basis of survey for the entire state have been shown in Table 3. Social forestry has played a pivotol role in increasing the tree cover in the state. the forest department has been able to bring substanial nonforest areas under the tree cover in the state. Prosopis spp. Azadirachta indica. 3.04 Estimates of the Study The data collected from 219 villages were processed for estimating ³number of trees/ha´ and ³volume/ha ³.

7%) in 20-30 cm diameter class.7%) followed by 13.6 Total 34591 13606 4875 2069 55141 100 %age 62.11 and Chart 1.05 TOTAL STEMS 34591 13606 4875 2069 55141 100 % age 62.87 million trees ( 8.73 24. 8010 2216 420 72 10718 19. 908 316 129 83 1436 2.6 million trees (24.77 11 Melia azedarach 589 153 28 7 777 1.49 21 Misc.73 24.2 20 Zizyphus spp.6 million trees (62.44 9 Ficus spp.26 19 Tamarix aphylla 62 28 12 10 111 0.57 13 Populus spp.88 2 Road side 2894 1749 683 215 5541 10. 3. 815 382 193 200 1590 2.88 18 Syzygium cumini 469 141 54 29 692 1. 1700 439 19 2 2161 3.8%) in 40 cm and above diameter class. is shown in Table 3.49 4 Block Plantation 8771 1186 181 64 10203 18. specieswise and dia-classwise (all categories combined). 34. 118 53 24 15 210 0.47 4 Acacia tortilis 1720 525 135 24 2404 4.07 million trees (3. Distribution of stems(ooo) in Haryana NFA by Dia.94 10 Mangifera indica 580 223 90 80 973 1.12 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF TREES CATEGORY-WISE AND DIAMETER CLASSWISE (000 no.1 Acacia catechu 562 5 0 0 567 1.45 16 Psidium guyava 313 11 1 0 325 0. 214 30 9 3 257 0.67 8. 941 285 98 47 1370 2.12 3 Acacia spp.67 8.75 100 16 Chart 1 The distribution of the total number of trees.59 17 Salvadora spp.36 5 Albizia spp.) SL.The maximum number of trees occur in 10-20 cm diameter class i.8%) in 30-40 cm diameter class and 2.Classes 62% 25% 9% 4% 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm 17 Table No.84 3.92 14 Prosopis cineraria 2476 2841 1265 331 6912 12. CATEGORY DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL NO.53 15 Prosopis juliflora 1588 267 39 7 1901 3.45 6 Railway Line 413 190 33 14 650 1.18 7 Canalside 2041 1316 510 213 4079 7.4 8 Others 14 10 3 1 28 0.6 7 Dalbergia sissoo 2852 1465 771 425 5514 10 8 Eucalyptus spp.41 12 Morus spp.e.05 3 Village Woodlot 4792 3672 1634 650 10748 19. 935 326 112 46 1419 2. 199 111 65 146 520 0. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ %age 1 Farm Forestry 15524 5432 1807 881 23644 42.84 3. 4.38 6 Azadirachta indica 801 344 166 122 1432 2.5 5 Ponds 142 52 25 31 249 0.75 100 .03 2 Acacia nilotica 8741 3445 1246 419 13851 25.

16 indicates that maximum volume is contributed by Eucalyptus spp. 3. It also reveals that the total volume per hectare contributed by trees of all species of all dia-classes combined is 2.49 21 Misc.26 19 Tamarix aphylla 88 1 19 1 0 0 0 0 111 0. 0 11 1464 86 20 7 2 0 1590 2.77 11 Melia azedarach 707 25 29 12 1 1 2 0 777 1.2% followed by Village woodlot.9%) followed by category III.13 shows that Acacia nilotica has the largest representation i. 13.57 13 Populus spp. Dalbergia sissoo 5.85 million trees (25.91 million trees (12. Maximum volume is under Farm forestry 41.6% followed by Acacia nilotica 21.44%) Prosopis cineraria 6. 10.) SPECIESWISE AND DIA . 134 24 20 22 1 1 6 1 210 0.14 and Chart 2. roadside plantation 12.88 10.14 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL VOLUME (cu.44 9 Ficus spp.38 6 Azadirachta indica 1285 36 28 42 13 5 23 1 1432 2.12 3. 339 11 107 13 18 1 32 0 520 0.Stem/ha 8.36 5 Albizia spp.05 19.43 cu.20 million trees (18. NAME OF Category TOTAL % age NO.9%. category wise and dia-classwise is given in Table no.e.5%).92 14 Prosopis cineraria 4 215 6482 104 10 25 73 0 6912 12.0%). 185 33 867 253 2 1 29 0 1370 2.2% & Prospis cineraria 15.47 4 Acacia tortilis 259 353 1 1351 0 115 325 0 2404 4.41 12 Morus spp. 19 Table No.45 1. Table 3.6 7 Dalbergia sissoo 4273 210 267 439 6 5 313 0 5514 10 8 Eucalyptus spp.53 15 Prosopis juliflora 1367 120 113 197 9 5 86 4 1901 3.14 0.) SL.14 that the bulk of the volmue contributed by Eucalyptus spp.Table no. 23. 23. The distribution of total volume. followed by Eucalyptus spp. 506 44 680 157 29 2 17 0 1436 2.94 The Table 3.9% and block plantation 10. 5093 1960 7 2394 11 244 1001 8 10718 19.05 100 It may be seen from the above table 3.75 million trees (19.15.12%).2 20 Zizyphus spp. 1054 7 0 1096 0 0 5 0 2161 3.3. An assessment of dia-classwise and specieswise distribution of volume (all categories combined) has been presented in Table 3.5 0. SPECIES I II III IV V VI VII VIII 1 Acacia catechu 10 0 0 556 0 0 1 0 567 1. 21. the representation of trees in category I ±Farm Forestry is the highest i.m.6%.72 million trees (19.e.13 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TREES BY SPECIES AND BY CATEGORY (000 no.12 3 Acacia spp.49 18. 18 Table No. 1303 15 64 19 2 1 14 0 1419 2.94 10 Mangifera indica 715 2 8 246 0 0 2 0 973 1.18 7.village wood lot having 10.4 0.88 18 Syzygium cumini 477 6 152 47 8 0 2 0 692 1. 3.6 Total 23644 5541 10748 10203 249 650 4079 28 55141 100 %age 42.49 12.5%) and category IV ± Block Plantation 10.m.3.51 million trees (10. 57 8 154 29 0 3 6 0 257 0.64 million trees (42.19 1.45 16 Psidium guyava 174 0 3 147 0 0 1 0 325 0.03 2 Acacia nilotica 5613 2459 283 2994 118 233 2139 12 13851 25.59 17 Salvadora spp.85%.12 shows that when all species and all diameter classes are combined.5%).

14 41.75 14.47 0.99 2380.08 121.48 1.23 0.21 18 Syzygium cumini 28.05 28.28 280.26 51.95 45.63 65.86 27.19 3 Acacia spp.22 226.74 1.42 13.79 31.24 207.53 10.67 5.49 2.57 76.87 15 Prosopis juliflora 95.14 0.26 5.22 10 Mangifera indica 34.31 55.37 4259.05 28.37 2931.01 11 Melia azedarach 35.18 7 Canalside 145.72 3.m.) BY CATEGORY AND DIAMETER (in 000 cum) SL.37 16.54 397.34 2589.50 43.58 4.16 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTALVOLUME (cu.30 33.426 Chart 2 Distribution of Volume in (000)cum.97 21 Misc.98 2190.33 709.44 482.03 217.05 328.74 32.59 5 Ponds 8.63 94.26 10336.59 52.87 53.67 514.33 123.25 4 Acacia tortilis 103.36 399.31 0.18 73.56 25.01 21.72 5 Albizia spp. 119.03 0.15 57.45 39.05 19 Tamarix aphylla 3.54 8 Eucalyptus spp.63 6 Railway Line 30.11 2.47 36.88 6.27 1296.72 2.24 7. Classes(in cms) 62% 25% 9% 4% 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm 20 Table No.98 1095.in Haryana NFA by Dia.82 4.56 2 Acacia nilotica 524.69 373.55 155.60 720. 7.).688 0.83 164.15 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL VOLUME (cu.55 108.84 0.95 229.10 0.97 9.35 2232.80 14.2 2 Road side 221. 3.10 0.10 1.72 393.64 63.11 74.59 9 Ficus spp.64 19.07 107.77 15.1 13 Populus spp.13 266.30 3.79 1. 3.01 0.36 23.61 264.34 2589.15 277.83 21.51 454.82 2.06 7.71 3.96 15.97 908.58 8 Others 1.BY SPECIES AND CATEGORY (in 000 cum) .03 153.91 3 Village Woodlot 287.57 0.56 25.85 4 Block Plantation 644.03 100 Vol/ha 0.85 109.10 439.80 16.46 2465.25 12.96 100 % age 23. 800. 11.89 2.21 2. CATEGORY DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL NO.42 435.00 263.18 7 Dalbergia sissoo 171.04 48.36 23.14 19. 56.70 52.53 138.26 10336.43 320.55 Total 2435.13 205. 56.73 12. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ %age 1 Farm Forestry 1096.30 21.43 734.m.11 45.78 12 Morus spp.33 21.51 16 Psidium guyava 18. 54.44 6 Azadirachta indica 48.70 2.94 473.53 1005.50 0.05 28.85 7.572 0.94 1640.38 51.53 90. 12.24 20 Zizyphus spp.21 247. SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ 1 Acacia catechu 56.58 71.18 989.06 10.8 14 Prosopis cineraria 148.20 1.03 929.CLASSWISE (in 000 cum) SL.91 25.96 100 %age 23.03 1.49 18.72 26.2 17 Salvadora spp.09 34.51 0.81 289.75 204. 48.36 1075.77 1.75 480.99 2380. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age NO.37 2931.11 94.05 TOTAL 2435.06 8.08 80.68 21.608 0.559 2.59 23.03 100 Table No.09 2.89 1081.89 1334.36 0.

06 1564.75 0.00 229.85 10.26 2.2 17 Salvadora spp.05 19 Tamarix aphylla 19.75 83.96 6.05 100 21 3.50 42. SPECIES I II III IV V VI VII VIII 1 Acacia catechu 1.18 37. on the West by Bihar and Orissa.11 45.15 0. 80.25 12.21 59.97 5.81 0.03 148.01 0.21 2. 151.8 14 Prosopis cineraria 1.00 108.06 0.96 100 %age 41.24 571.35 0.76 21.58 0.56 0.70 2.23 0. West Bengal has five agro-ecological regions.56 7. 136.18 0.01 11 Melia azedarach 72. 22.B.73 2465.82 2.37 0.38 0.50 0.01 280.64 6. from September to February.13 263.21 59.62 4. the climate over the entire State is exceedingly pleasant.19 12.00 25.11 3.18 9.51 16 Psidium guyava 11.13 50.53 12.75 5.72 2. watered by the swift-flowing rivers like Teesta.35 0.2 12.10 0.19 3 Acacia spp.62 0.01 21.66 11. but in cold weather.06 0.66 0.67 3.76 11.46 16.14 1.67 6.04 0.03 1296.00 57.11 2.59 1095.28 9. 0.44 6 Azadirachta indica 294.11 0.95 0.00 435.25 3.58 0.89 4.22 0.97 21 Misc. specially in the rainy season.21 0.56 155.68 21.59 9 Ficus spp.80 0.66 4.88 8.00 26.85 2.11 0.84 0.30 0. 977.1 13 Populus spp.21 229.38 5.67 1.15 0.91 23.15 328.11 Brief background of the state The geographical area of the State is 8. Annual rainfall varies from 1019 mm (Gangetic W.79 0.30 0.34 40.SL.08 1.B.03 0.36 321.76 2.32 0.14 4.66 2190.05 2.00 289.81 17.25 4.00 1.35 0.39 0.77 15.00 0.92 1.18 7 Dalbergia sissoo 1002.27 514.79 5. It is located between 210 30dN and 27 012dN latitudes at the head of the Bay of Bengal and between 850 50dE and 890 52dE longitudes.72 0.31 3.48 1.02 147.72 3.77 14.81 15.80 2.49 2. (a) Sub-humid ecosystem with red and lateritic soils and growth period of 150180 days (b) Sub-humid ecosystem with alluvium derived soils and growth period between 180 and 210 days (c) Humid perhumid eco System with alluvium derived soils and growth period more than 210 days (d) Humid perhumid ecosystem with brown and red hill soils and growth period more than 210 days and (e) Coastal ecosystem with coastal alluvium derived soils.69 489.51 401. Moist wind from the Bay of Bengal makes the climate of the State highly humid.75 0.10 1.72 5 Albizia spp.63 1.10 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.79 989.55 Total 4259.02 290.59 0.10 6.22 10 Mangifera indica 165.89 19.00 0.21 18 Syzygium cumini 84.31 10336.79 48.28 13.06 65.23 0.01 1.97 61.).1 WEST BENGAL 3.89 2.27 95.14 1334.00 217.24 20 Zizyphus spp.93 0.97 0.20 7. 200. Torsa and Jaldhaka.99 0.74 1.07 0.59 0.56 2 Acacia nilotica 865.00 204.83 65. 28. These agro-ecological regions are.04 1.36 121.24 0.83 30.26 5.00 0.87 million ha and is bounded on the East by Bangladesh and Assam.20 0.00 1640.00 10.76 141.81 0.00 207.36 2.39 0.61 2. About 45 per .11 0.78 12 Morus spp.50 0.36 0.38 0.12 0.59 9.18 9.56 2.86 0.28 2.58 4.11 1.00 0. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the state¶s economy and nearly three out of four persons in the State are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture.78 2.36 5.21 0.27 2.06 121. on the North by Nepal and Bhutan and on the South by the Bay of Bengal.44 0.87 15 Prosopis juliflora 107.07 0.94 8.) to 3903 mm (Sub-Himalayan W.14 14. NAME OF Category TOTAL % age NO.65 2232.00 0.00 80.00 0.00 21. The topography of the northern territory varies from a maximum elevation of 3600 metres in Darjeeling district to an elevation of 89 metres in the low-lying areas in Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts.11 0.87 0.54 8 Eucalyptus spp. West Bengal¶s physiography has two natural divisions: the Himalayan North and the fertile alluvial Gangetic plain.41 0.12 7. 8.75 2.25 4 Acacia tortilis 27.04 56.

Eucalyptus hybrid. and mangroves. Acacia auriculiformis. 25 villages were randomly selected for the pilot survey.25.8% of tea production in 1991 (calendar year).23 7 Azadirachta indica 44 2247 540 109 54 2994 2. However. oilseeds.21 to 3.4 trees/ha. including mesta. 3. Lagerstroemia spp. barley and maiza. The total number of trees in the State of West Bengal comes to approximately 196 million or 25.2 per cent of the total production of rice. 3. Bankura. 24 Parganas (South). betel -vine. Malda and West Dinajpur districts. Alnus nepalensis. Mangifera indica.21 Distribution of trees by diameter class & Species Sl. Machilus. tobacco. The total foodgrain production has attained an all time record production of 12.03 2.61 . Anogeissus spp.8 million tonnes in 199192. Other important crops. 22 3. All the trees of 10 cm. The principal tree species are Shora robusta.71 2 Acacia auriculliformis 9393 3073 123 11 0 12600 10. Ailanthus altissima.8 5 Alnus nepalensis 0 317 4 0 0 321 0. Shorea robusta.12 Forest Resources The forests cover about 13. Terminalia arjuna. Jalpaiguri.13 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory In West Bengal.71 1. wheat. Acacia arabica.38 0.92 0. The distribution of trees are shown in table no. It is noticed that the main species were Azadirachta indica. Terminalia spp. Nadia.02 4 Albizzia species 209 2110 938 462 218 3937 3. 23 Table No.06 6 Artocarpus species 0 546 303 146 165 1160 0. Madhuca latifolia. The State accounted for 63.55 3 Ailanthus altissima 0 43 46 11 8 108 0.14 Estimates of the Study In the pilot survey only total number of trees were estimated and not their volume.. Artocarpus. Each of these selected villages with its area and boundaries as per the revenue records was treated as a sampling unit. Stray and scattered forests are present in Murshidabad. Purulia district and in some parts of Burdwan and Birbhum districts against 18 total districts of the state.4% of the total geographic area and lie chiefly in the districts of Darjeeling. while SundarbansTiger Reserve and National Park with mangroves as a principal spp is famous for the Royal Bengal Tiger. The State occupies a leading position among the principal rice growing states of India by contributing 16. 3.13 0.3. Diameter Class (in cm) Total % No Name of Species 05-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ Est. Jaldapara Sanctuary in the State is famous for the one horned Rhinoceros inhabitating the area. Dalbergioa sissoo and Cocos nucifera. Albizzia species. include potatoes.cent of the gross cropped area of the state has been brought under irrigation. trees down to 5 cm dia were recorded. trees/ha 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Acacia arabica 1381 5650 1168 204 30 8433 6.26 0. in South Bengal. in 1991-92 and 21. Midnapore.4% of the country¶s jute. And above diameter at DBH (OB) were enumerated in the selected villages.09 0.

31 43 93 19.01 10 Borassus flabellifer 0 135 1456 3392 1363 6346 5.02 0.01 28 Machilus species 0 11 1 0 0 12 0.01 0 29 Madhuca latifolia 0 16 1 1 54 72 0.41 Percentage 21.22 26 Leucacna leucocephala 643 267 35 3 0 948 0.59 20 Eucalyptus species 10573 2893 217 9 2 13494 10.01 40 Syzygium cumini 0 97 50 16 10 173 0.18 17 Dalbargia sissoo 801 1462 291 60 32 2646 2.08 0.03 0.01 24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 185 47 4 1 237 0.01 9 Bombax ceiba 0 25 19 12 13 69 0.84 6.61 0.08 31 Melia azadirachta 0 75 16 4 0 95 0.01 30 Mangifera indica 13 5442 3544 1804 4446 15249 12.61 25.16 43 Zizyphus species 1 401 74 15 2 493 0 39 01 44 Misc.37 100 Estimated trees/ha 5.09 0.8 Betula alnoides 0 32 24 1 1 58 0.06 0.41 11.74 2.03 37 Schima wallichii 0 235 127 52 46 460 0.54 8.09 14 Cocos nucifera 0 152 4732 1572 23 6479 5.95 Grand Total 26776 55196 24552 11111 7999 125634 100 25.02 32 Michelia champaca 0 69 14 1 0 84 0.07 0.02 33 Ostodes panicuiata 0 28 2 0 0 30 0.01 34 Phoenix sylvestris 0 365 1885 305 1 2556 2.11 0.12 0.88 12 Cassia species 119 686 36 1 0 842 0.31 15 Cratseva unilojcularis 0 4 1 0 0 5 0 0 16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 192 454 223 0 869 0.69 0.16 4.73 21 Ficus species 3 9 9 8 21 50 0.05 1.88 0.18 0.05 25 Lannea coromondalica 0 950 119 30 7 1106 0.02 36 Pridian guava 0 139 16 0 0 155 0.16 1.02 23 Holoptalea integrifolia 0 24 5 1 0 39 0.14 0.02 0.33 0.05 0.37 009 38 Shorea robusta 0 114 18 6 6 144 0.34 0.41 24 Chart 3 Chart 4 Percetage distribution of Stems in West Bengal NFA by Dia classes 9% 6% 21% 44% 20% 05-10 cm 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm Percetage Distribution of Stems in NFA of West Bengal by Category wise 16% 17% 13% 8% 4% 0% 6% 36% Farm Forestry Road side Village Woodlot Block Plantation Ponds Railway Line Canalside Others 25 .14 3.17 13 Casurina equisetifolia 266 150 7 1 0 424 0.19 0.03 41 Tectona grandis 2 2 1 0 0 5 0 0 42 Terminalia arjun a 43 381 168 105 71 768 0.03 0.37 6.46 0.05 0.52 35 Pongomea pinnata 0 65 10 8 4 87 0.67 0.05 19 Eucalyptus hybrid 1531 1247 139 6 1 2924 2.75 0.25 1.11 0.96 2.28 11 Butea monosperma 0 3599 569 157 26 4351 3.01 22 Gmelina arborea 16 44 44 3 0 107 0.05 0. 1738 21765 7208 2319 1359 34389 27.54 18 Enterolonbium saman 0 95 56 41 32 224 0.04 0.19 27 Lichi chinensis 0 24 17 1 1 43 0.07 0.03 39 Spondios pinnata 0 30 18 7 2 57 0.

92 7 Azadirachta indica 209 13 1265 93 710 0 3 701 2994 2.01 29 Madhuca latifolia 1 0 11 2 1 0 0 57 72 0.08 32 Michelia champaca 0 49 31 0 0 0 0 4 84 0.34 14 Cocos nucifera 137 1 2023 0 3383 0 7 928 6479 5.88 26 Leucaena leucocephala 0 0 0 32 31 0 715 107 948 0.09 4 Albizzia species 139 107 375 1611 652 20 145 666 3937 3. 27% followed by Mangifera indica 12%.02 34 Phoenix sylvestris 0 10 0 0 1106 0 142 1299 2556 2.18 19 Eucalyptus hybrid 252 273 154 1348 .05 10 Borassus flabellifer 328 5 932 27 2216 0 38 2600 6346 5. 22 Distribution of tree specis by category of plantations Sl.26 6 Artocarpus species 11 1 232 1 62 0 0 653 1160 0. 3. ³Ponds´ (16%).38 8 Betula alnoides 0 30 28 0 0 0 0 0 58 0. Eucalyptus species 10%.03 3 Ailanthus altissima 0 0 101 .03 .75 27 Lichi chinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43 43 0.07 33 Ostodes paniculata 0 0 26 0 0 0 0 4 30 0.02 24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 237 237 0.06 30 Mangifera indica 88 36 1130 10 1875 0 8 12102 15249 12. Table 3.19 25 Lannea coromondalica 74 0 252 0 49 0 0 731 1106 0. It also reveals that in West Bengal.03 23 Holoptalea integrifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 30 0.26 0 474 397 2324 2.71 2 Acaciaauriculliformis 436 4277 379 6016 193 0 1194 115 12600 10. Farm forestry has only 4% contribution.16 15 Crataeva unilojcularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 S 0 16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 694 163 0 0 0 0 12 869 0. Category of trees Total % No Name of Species I II III IV V VI VII VIII 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Acacia arabica 596 698 546 197 146B 0 2639 2039 8433 6. 26 Table No.69 17 Dalbargia sissoo 294 524 13 21 225 0 1052 517 2646 2.03 28 Machilus species 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 2 12 0. about 43% of trees occur in 10-20 cm diameter class followed by about 21% trees in 05-10 cm diameter class.13 5 Alnus nepalensis 0 14 307 0 0 0 0 0 321 0.05 11 Butea monosperma 5 0 45 2 159 0 0 4140 4351 3.14 31 Melia azadirachta 3 4 0 29 0 0 0 59 95 0.e.e.21 and chart 4 that the maximum number i.33 20 Eucalyptus species 751 1536 262 10766 118 0 0 21 13494 10. The representation of trees in the category ³Other´ is the highest i.11 18 Enterolonbium saman 3 0 129 0 74 0 0 18 224 0.74 21 Ficus species 5 0 1 0 7 0 0 37 50 0. 36% followed by the category ³Block Plantation´ (17%). Acacia auriculiformis 10%.22 and chart 5 shows total number of trees specieswise and categorywise. Acacia arabica 7% etc.0 0 0 0 7 108 0.46 12 Cassia species 0 114 0 712 1 0 1 14 642 0. ³Village woodlot´ (13%) etc.05 9 Bombax ceiba 1 3 13 1 2 0 0 49 69 0.67 13 Casurina equisetifolia 0 12 0 168 5 0 217 2 424 0. then 20% in 20-30 cm. And above diameter class.04 22 Gmelina arborea 10 0 1 1 6 0 10 79 107 0. Miscellaneous species has the largest representat ion i.e. It may also be seen that only 6% of trees occurred in 40 cm. Diameter class.It can be seen from Table 3.

67 13 Casurina equisetifolia 0 424 0 0 424 0.03 1.01 29 Madhuca latifolia 72 0 0 0 72 0.12 37 Schima wallichii 0 0 451 0 0 0 0 9 460 0.41 27 Table No.59 9.26 35.23 Distribution of tree species in various Agro Ecological Zones.02 6.94 326 437 4.75 27 Lichi chinensis 0 43 0 0 43 0.9 17.26 6 Artocarpus species 5 753 157 245 1160 0.06 7.07 33 Ostodes paniculata 0 0 30 0 30 0.61 43 Zizyphus s pecies 0 0 213 0 11 0 0 269 493 0.18 19 Eucalyptus hybrid 492 2432 0 0 2924 2.07 36 Pridian guava 20 124 11 0 155 0.03 3 Ailanthus albssima 0 0 108 0 108 0.69 17 Dalbargia sissoo 1084 1561 1 0 2646 2.11 .03 35 Pongomea pinnata 87 0 0 0 87 0.19 25 Lannea coromondalica 0 1045 61 0 1106 0.34 14 Cocos nucifera 0 1743 0 4736 6479 5.05 9 Bombax ceiba 20 49 0 0 69 0.74 21 Ficus species 18 32 0 0 50 0.05 11 Butea monospemma 4059 292 0 0 4351 3. Agro Ecological Zones No Name of Species SHCN HAPB HEH ECP Total % age 12456789 1 Acacia arabica 861 6053 0 1519 8433 6.39 44 Misc.37 38 Shorea robusta 113 31 0 0 144 0.19 16.11 39 Spondios pinnata 5 0 8 0 9 0 0 35 57 0.16 15 Crataeva unilojoularis 0 5 0 0 5 0 16 Cryptomeria japanica 0 0 869 0 869 0.57 100 Estimatedtrees/ha 1.92 7 Azadirachta indica 617 851 0 1526 2994 2.05 10 Borassus flabellifer 544 5482 0 320 6346 5.12 37 Schima wallichii 0 0 460 0 460 0.02 34 Phoenix sylvestns 0 2556 0 0 2556 2.07 36 Pridian guava 0 1 0 0 12 0 0 142 155 0.09 23 Holoptalea integrifolia 30 0 0 0 30 0.64 12.09 4 Albizzia species 118 1622 1630 567 3937 3.16 001 1.46 12 Cassia species 0 159 683 0 842 0.08 32 Michelia champaca 0 0 84 0 84 0.05 40 Syzygium cumini 0 0 0 0 71 0 6 96 173 0.04 22 Gmelina arborea 0 25 82 0 107 0.14 41 Tectona grandis 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 42 Terminalia arjuna 301 1 100 3 95 0 51 217 768 0.88 26 Leucasna leucocephala 0 948 0 0 948 0.06 30 Mangifera indica 108 13101 26 2014 15249 12.03 28 Machilus species 0 0 12 0 12 0.13 5 Alnus nepalensis 0 0 321 0 321 0. 1443 928 6955 522 7768 10 1168 15595 34389 27.04 25.33 20 Eucalyptus species 883 11739 0 872 13494 10. Sl.71 2 Acacia auricullifommis 3872 8379 3 346 12600 10.38 8 Betula alnoides 0 0 58 0 58 0.35 Pongomea pinnata 4 0 25 0 5 0 0 53 67 0.37 38 Shorea robusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 144 144 0.02 24 Lagerstoemea spaciosa 0 237 0 0 237 0.37 Grand Total 5096 9594 16205 21602 20550 30 7870 44686 125634 100 Percentage 4.11 18 Enterolonbium saman 0 224 0 0 224 0. 3.36 0.14 31 Melia azadirachta 0 31 64 0 95 0.

Azartichtata indica.39 44 Misc. In Eastern Himalayas warm per humid eco-region.2 KARNATAKA 3. Gmelina arborea. Coconut. Borassus flabellifer and Zizyphus mauritania. It is situated on the Western edge of the Deccan Plateau and lies between 11030dand 18025dNorth latitude and 74010dand 87035dEast longitude. 29 3. appears to be equally popular in the village areas.41 * No.21 Brief background of the state The geographic area of the State is 19.23 5.70 18. The predominant ones being Barassus flabellifer.Humid Eastern Himalaya zonel Total area of the ECP .89 67. Cassia siamea. considering the limited sample size in each agro-ecological region. 28 The number of stems per hectare varies considerably from one agro-ecological region to another.Humid Alluvial Plain Bengal trees in the respective HEH. Acacia auriculiformis. The principal species in the lateritic South Western districts.42 26.. a large number of spp. Alnus nepalensis.35 333. only the inhabited portions of such villages were taken up for enumeration. in Note: Agroecological zone = * 18849 78930 7162 22693 SHCN . of enumerated 923. in order of occurrence are Butea monosperma followed by Acacia arabica. The predominant species of the various agro-ecological regions can thus be identified with a fair amount of accuracy from the tabulated data.02 HAPB.22 2877. The conclusions sought to be drawn may be taken as more indicative than conclusive in nature.06 100 Estimated trees/ha 20.62 805. Such village s have very few trees in the habitable portion while the surrounding portion have dense forests within the recorded village area. of trees per ha. Michelia champaca and Betula ainoides.Eastern Coastal Plain same zone. It may be indicated in this connection that in the hills.13 25. Cryptomeria japonica.05 40 Syzygium cumini 0 173 0 0 173 0.38 Grand Total 18849 76930 7162 22693 125634 100 Percentage 15. Acacia arabica. Ailanthus spp.Semi Humid Chhota Nagpur Total no.61 43 Zizyphus species 469 24 0 0 493 0.74 8. most of the samples of villages fell in µforest¶ or µkhasmahal¶ villages. (at least 33) have been found. Dalbergia sissoo..0 61. Terminalia arjuna. in the Western lateritic sub-humid eco-region 20 to 21 trees/ha and in the Eastern Himalayan humid perhumid ecoregion in the region it is about 8 trees/ha.39 Spondios pinnata 35 22 0 0 57 0. and the µMaidan¶ or the plain region forming an inland plateau of varying height. Mangifera indica. Schima wallichii. 4711 16631 2502 10545 34389 27. Jeol and Eucalyptus in order of occurrence. The .18 m ha. the exotic that has almost naturalised (although without natural regeneration) in the forests of higher elevations in Darjeeling district. Siris. In the Bengal Assam Alluvial region.14 41 Tectona grandis 0 2 0 3 5 0 42 Terminalia arjuna 631 137 0 0 768 0. Physiographically the State can be divided into two distinct regions the µMaland¶ or the hilly region comprising mainly the Western Ghats. As it was impossible to enumerate all tree in the surrounding areas. Eucalyptus hybrid. The other prevalent species are Albizzia spp. In the Bengal Assam Alluvial humid perhumid ecoregion it is about 26 trees/ ha. Sissoo. Phoenix sylveetrie.

ha. red loamy.56 millions. The . Average summer temperature varies from 260 C to 350 C and average winter temperature varies from 140 C to 250 C. chebula etc. Region III : It is the part of Deccan plateau in Northern Karnataka having hot and semi-arid climate and black soils. Disoxylum Malabaricum etc. paniculata.48 m.23 Agro Ecological Regions Karnataka has four agro-ecological regions as per National Bureau of Soil Survey and Landuse Planning. the Tungbhadra and the Krishna flow from west to east. and the Sharavati and the Kalindi from east to west. The growth period is 90 to 150 days. The main rivers. However. was under dense and 0.07 million. red sandy in central and southern parts.24 m. This region is characterised by hot humid to pre-humid climate with red lateritic alluvial soil. Of the actual forest cover. 3.ha. Lagerstroemia spp. T. The growth period is more than 210 days. Soil varies from clayey black in northern part. laterite and mountain soil in the Western Ghats to mixed red and black soil in the central parts of the State. The annual rainfall in the state varies from 2000-3200 mm in the Western Ghat to 400-500 mm in the northern and north-eastern part of the state. These regions can be described as under. Mesua ferrea. Geologically. Dakshin Kannada and Kodagu districts. T. 30 Tropical moistdeciduous Terminalia tomentosa. Lagerstroemia lanceolata. Dendrocalamus strictus etc.87 m. Chitradurga and Shimoga. Bambusa arundinacia.Western Ghats run from north to south with an altitude rising upto 1800 m.. Tropical thorn forests Acacia catechu. under open category. Santalum album etc. constituting 20. the Cauvery.19% of the total geographical area. 3. three fourth of the state is occupied by Arachean rocks and remaining by younger rocks. Tropical Semi-Evergreen Terminalia paniculata. Adina Cordifolia. Region II : It is the part of the Deccan plateau in Southern Karnataka having hot and semi arid climate and red loamy soil. Forests Hopea wightiana. Acacia species. leucophloea. The population of the State in 1991 was 44. the actual forest cover of the State as assessed by the Forest Survey of India was only 3. Forests Hopea parviflora. The northern margins of the state are covered by a series of sedimentary rocks of post ± Dharwar age. Region I: Western Ghats and coastal plains of Karnataka comprising mainly of Uttar Kannada. Terminalia tomentosa. Calophyllum elatum. Livestock population as per 1992 census was 29. Tropical dry deciduous Tectona grandis.ha. The growth period is between 90 to 150 days. Tectona Forests grandis. 2. Important forest types with major species found in Karnataka are as follows ³as per Champion and Seth¶s classification´ Forest types Important species Tropical West Evergreen Dipterocarpus indicus.22 Forest Resources Recorded forests of the State are 3.ha. Chloroxylon Swietenia spp.98 million and rural population is 31.75 m. Machilus spp. Anogeissus Forests latifolia. A.

Species Agro-Ecological Regions No. 3.12 74977 37025 10610 2257 9388 134257 15. The dead trees having utility less than 70% were excluded from the enumeration.7 23051 25747 825 55 5171 54849 9623 9 1. Belgaum.43 4973 2762 2597 0 748 11080 2501 3 1. The trees were enumerated separately for different categories of 31 plantation such as Farm forestry.32 5813 703 1526 0 264 8306 1135 6 17.84 193 3046 0 0 141 3380 1837 8 5.31: Distribution of trees by different categories Sl. The survey was completed during 1993-94 3.6%) village woodlot (7. The growth period is less than 90 days.32 Karnataka Percentage of tree species distributed in different agro-ecological regions Sl. Area Farm Block Village Roadside Others Total No. 3.77 Percentage 55. The estimated total number of trees in rural areas of the state were found to be 296 million. Surveyed Forestry Plantation Woodlot plantation trees (sq. The main districts in this region are Bellary and Raichur.83 10626 1540 761 2098 1607 16632 762 5 7. Bidar and Gulbarga.7 5294 616 1097 104 859 7970 450 7 1.48 4423 330 41 0 228 5022 3313 4 21. .) per ha 1 20.99 100.68 6. Table No.00 Chart 5 Percentage Distribution of stems in kanataka NFA by Category wise 2% 7% 55% 28% 8% Farm Forestry Block Plantation Village Woodlot Roadside Plantation Others 32 Table no.31& Chart 6 indicates that out of the total number of trees farm forestry have the maximum number (55.7 0 0 0 .24 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory In Karnataka. Road side plantation. Block plantation.25 Estimates of the Study In the pilot survey only total number of trees were estimated and not their volume. 7% of the tree comes in other categories.85 27. Table no.3.41 14790 720 3763 0 200 19473 954 2 4.44 394 232 0 0 0 626 435 10 2. And above diameter at DBH (OB) were enumerated in the selected villages.90 1. 10 villages were randomly selected for the pilot survey one in each in a district in such a manner that major regions of the State was covered.58 7.78%).97 5420 1329 0 0 170 6919 2330 85. Region IV: It is also a part of Deccan Plateau having hot and arid climate with mixed red and black soils.80%) followed by block plantation (27. Bijapur. Village woodlot etc.km. 3.main districts in the region are Dharwad. I II III IV 1 Anacardium occidentale 35. All the trees of 10 cm. of No.9%) and roadside plantation (1.

Table no.6 Total 64.8% respectively.1 2.6 22 Tectona grandis 0. 0.3 0 0.6% of the total trees.9 2.2 0.3 100 100 100 Distribution of species found in non-forest area with reference to agro-ecological regions of Karnataka is presented in Table No. 0 0 0 15. In semi-arid Southern Karnataka the major species occurring in rural areas are Cocos nucifera (18. These are Anacardium occidentale (35.6 8.5 8.5 0.3 0 0 0 8 Tamarindus indica 0. Species DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL %age No. In non-forest areas of Western Ghat and Coastal areas (Region I).3 16 Syzigium spp.5 0.1 7 Diospyros candolleano 8.1 0.8%. and 29.3%.2 Azadirachta indica 0 8.5 0 0 10 Prosopis juliflora 0 2.8 5 Mangifera indica 11.2 0 26 Terminalia spp.2 0. three spe cies constitute 66. The percentage of these species in these 33 two zones are 35.1 6. 765 426 747 479 2417 1.6 14 Casuarina equisetifolia 1.6 2. 0 9. 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ 1 Acacia spp.2 8. 37.7%).3. Sl.4 0 0 12 Eucalyptus spp. 0.3 1.3 35.85 3 Anacardium occidentale 13417 4049 1292 56 18814 14. Azadiracta indica (Neem) and Acacia species (Babul) are the prominent species found in semi -arid northern Karnataka and arid zone of the Karnataka. 6. found in rural areas.5 1.6 25 Butea monosperma 0 0.23 2 Albizzia spp.1 0. 0 9.1 0.5 6.6 0.02 4 Artocarpus spp. 12546 3789 1215 207 17757 13.3 13 Ficus spp.2%).6%).1 8.7 28 Rest of spp.63 6 Butea monosperma 542 71 109 0 722 0. 0 0 0.1%).8 4 Acacia spp.4 1.54 7 Casuarina equisetifolia 954 484 0 55 1493 1.4 0 18 Terminalia arjuna 0 0 0.4 0 2. 685 282 149 25 1141 0.5 0.32.8 29.3 37.1 0 0.11 8 Diospyros candolleano 3245 1101 275 0 4621 3.6 1.3%). 1. Eucalyptus species (9.6 0 19 Santalum album 0 0 1.7 2 1. 8.2 0.8 0.3 22.33 Percentage of tree species distributed in different diameter classes Surveyed area 8512 ha.6 7.7%).4 2.5 1 1.2%) and Tamarindus indica (7. 0.9%).9 3 Cocus nucifera 19.0 18.44 . Cocos nucifera (19%) and Mangifera indica (11.2 20 Madhuca latifolia 0 0 1 0 21 Zizyphus maurastiana 0.9% & 22. Acacia species (9.6 0 23 Vateria indica 0.3 0 0 15 Albizzia spp.2 0 17 Terminalia belerica 0.4 0 0 0 24 Citrus spp.80 5 Azadirachta indica 12977 5319 1127 221 19644 14.6 9 Artocarpus spp. 3.2 2.5 3.8 6 Pongamia pinnata 0 18. Pongamia pinnata (18.1 0.4 0.1 11 Areca catechu 4.3 0 27 Euphoribia spp. Ficus species (8.

43%).99 26 Citrus spp. 168 0 0 0 168 0.11 11 Ficus spp.65 1.4 m.80 25 Areca catechu 2666 0 0 0 2666 1.62%). Pongamia pinnata (3. Moradabad. Upper Ganga Plain 3. Shahjahanpur and Gaziabad. Bihar in the East and Rajasthan.62 15 Prosopis juliflora 2591 127 24 0 2742 2. Badaun. Uttar pradesh Himalaya 2. Aligarh. Mainpuri.12 4. valleys. flat and fertile plains and dissected plateaus. Etah. 1001 119 11 18 1149 0.04 16 Santalum album 380 8 0 0 388 0. 3.38 28 Rest of spp. 560 857 590 731 2738 2. Himachal Pradesh states and Delhi U.20 Total 77639 39565 12652 4383 134239 100.47 9. Bareilly. Terminalia indica (2.9 Eucalyptus spp.42 3.43 19 Tectona grandis 132 306 0 0 438 0.84 29.49 0. 4171 0 0 0 4171 3.33 indicates that about 58% of the trees are in diameter class 10 to 20 cm and only 3% of the tree are above 40 cm diameter. Bulandshahar .66 22 Terminalia spp.00 Stem/ha 9.04 12 Madhuca latifolia 67 140 61 40 308 0. .11 23 Vateria indica 110 110 0 0 220 0. 153 0 0 0 153 0.02%). Azadiracta indica (14. Meerut.51 15.27 100. Middle Ganga Plain 4.T. Agra. Pi1ibhit. Artocarpus species (1. Saharanpur.07%).86 18 Tamarindus indica 901 994 707 666 3268 2.29 17 Syzigium spp.00 % age 57.44%).38%). in the West. 2949 837 296 40 4122 3.3 WESTERN U. The state is bound by Tibet (China) and Nepal in the North. Rampur. Madhya Pradesh in the South.Ganga plains has been divided into two following micro-regions.13 27 Cocus nucifera 808 13409 2403 3 16623 12. Table No 3.31 Brief Background of the State The total geographic area of the state is 29. Uttar Pradesh Uplands The present survey of non-forest area has been carried out in the Western region having 19 districts viz. Etawah. Mangifera indica (5. Bijnor.16 24 Zizyphus maurastiana 896 158 20 0 1074 0.07 10 Euphoribia spp. It is located between 23°5¶ and 31° 28¶ North latitudes and 77° 4¶ and 84°39¶ East longitudes. Farrukhabad.81%). 35 3. These 19 districts wholly lies in Upper. Cocos nucifera (12. The state can be divided into following meso and micro regions: 1. North Upper Ganga Plains It is a part of the great plains covering seven districts namely Saharanpur.ha.P. The main physiographic characteristics of the state are high mountains. Haryana.12 21 Terminalia belerica 485 302 40 60 887 0.80%) and Eucalyptus species (3. Mathura.77 34 Anacardium occidentale (14. Diospyros condoleano (3. 7327 3839 1623 899 13688 10.81 14 Pongamia pinnata 3877 695 264 28 4864 3.23 13 Mangifera indica 3106 2143 1699 855 7803 5.33 20 Terminalia arjuna 160 0 0 0 160 0. Muzaffarnagar.63%).

P. 3. The state has a sub tropical climate. 3.32 Forests Resources The region had quite a dense forests till 18th century. Bijnor. The forests are confined to the Terai districts of Saharanpur. The region is spread over an area of 2. Etawah etc. is predominantly agricultural and has high concentration of population in the State of U. In non forest areas of plains Mango. has two agro-ecological regions. Farrukhabad and Etawah. Southern Upper Ganga Plains The Southern Upper Ganga Plain delineated as a micro region. The rural population constitutes 76. Mainpuri. Mathura. Region I: Semiarid Eco System: . Dalbergia sissoo are the predominant trees along with their associates. Means of irrigation.P.Muzafarnagar. Rampur. India.ha. The whole region is in fact.P. Mathura. The temperatures are generally from 200 to 250 C in the region whereas they are between 150 to 200 C in the narrow Terai belt in the foot hills. Situated immediately below the shiwalik is Bhabar tract interated by numerous torrents that drain rain water into the Ganga and Jamuna rivers and their several tributaries. Terai area lies below the Bhabar in the north-eastern part of the region. The rainfall in Terai region is as high as 1200 mm whereas the rainfall in Agra. The north and north eastern part of the region get more rainfall than the south-western part. With an intensifying pressure on agriculture land growing demand for wood forests were denuded recklessly. Bareilly. There is marked variations in temperature and rainfall in different part of the region.P. Rampur and Pilibhit is a continuous belt of terai. The economy of the Western U. Bareilly etc. Pilibhit. Western U.0 millin ha. Meerut. Economically it is developed region of the State. Eucalyptus. Gaziabad. This micro region is spread approximately over an area of 6. The eastern Bhabar consists of a series of high broken spurs. covers almost the central part of the state and takes into account 12 districts namely Bulandshahar. is less than 800 mm. Ficus.91 m.P.e. Aligarh. During summer season the high temperature in the plains causes low pressure area and movement of monsoon. Babul (Acacia nilotica) are the main trees planted along roads. as per National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning. Etah. Mainpuri. location of industries high yield of agricultural produce have given impetus to the development of urban centres and the rural landscape of the region. Jamun. Budaun. Moradabad and Rampur. that too in the nothern parts of the district and only Shorea robusta.55% of the total population of the region i. Agra. Pilibhit. The vast area of the region is a level alluvial plain with a slope from north to south or south east with reference to the alignment of the major rivers and tributaries joining them. Nearly 90 percent rainfall in the area is caused by monsoon from Bay of Bengal during June to September. having rich soil. Neem.33 Agro-Ecological Regions of Western U. rails and canals etc . Shahjahanpur. The northern parts of the districts Bijnor. Western U. The surface slope of the micro-region is generally uniform and level with slight undulations and an inperceptible gradual slope from north-west to 36 south-east. A marked variation can be seen in the mean annual temperature as we move from hills towards Agra in the south-west. a tract of various classes of fertile soils while the northern part is covered with forest. high water level and unhealthy climate.

35 Estimates of the Study The study was conducted in 62 villages and enumerated number of trees were found . 37 Region II: Subhumid Eco System Northern plains. 38 Table no.80 6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2082 843 354 211 3490 1. The analysis of table 3. NAME OF DIAMETER CLASS TOTAL % age NO. 1576 574 226 115 2491 0. The farm forestry has a highest percentage of plantation followed by block plantation.05 %) and Dalbergia sissoo (14. hot sub humid (dry) ecoregion with alluvium-derived soils and growth period is 150-180 days. Mangifera indica has the largest representation of 26.34%.01 5 Albizia spp. 56.66 stem/ha and the region NPSH (D) has 40.01 9 Bombax cieba 287 133 121 197 738 0. Mangifera indica. The number of stem occuring in various agro ecological regions are shown in table no 3.41 to 3.12 7 Azadirachta indica 12181 5358 2407 1748 21694 6.02 12 Cassia simea 210 32 1 0 243 0. Similarly it has been noticed that stem/ha is maximum in diameter class 10-20 cm followed by 20-30 cm. and Azadirachta indica and in region NPSH (D) in decreasing order Eucalyptus spp.Northern plain and central highlands including Aravallis.43.e. SPECIES 10-20 20-30 30-40 40+ of stems 1 Acacia catechu 198 52 1 0 251 0.52% respectively. 37. (22.12% followed by 22.79 3 Acacia spp.31million and their distribution given below in Table 3.13%respectively. After completing the survey the data was processed for estimating number of trees and trees/ha. species wise and category wise (all dia class combined).41 indicates that the maximum number of trees occurs in 10-20 cm dia class followed by 20-30 cm dia class i.08 .79% of total trees with 8.08 2 Acacia nilotica 10227 3563 904 220 14914 4.43. Major contribution of tree species are shown by Mangifera indica (26.00% and 3.05% of Eucalyptus species.. 3.02 4 Aailanthus excelsa 4 9 0 3 16 0.e.12 %) followed by Eucalyptus spp.25 11 Casia fistula 39 14 10 2 65 0. 69. roadside plantation i.34 Selection of Sample Villages for field inventory In total 62 villages were selected for the survey in the State.21% of total trees with 11.03 stems/ha. hot semi-arid ecoregion with alluvium derived soils and growt h period is 90-150 days.4% and 19. 3. 31 33 4 1 69 0.24 10 Butea monsperma 423 155 88 102 768 0. Dalbergia sissoo.43 indicates that in NPHC region has 59.14 %).42 shows the distribution of number of trees. & Dalbergia sissoo. Eucalyptus spp.97 8 Borassus flabellifer 0 3 0 26 29 0. The important tree species in a region NPHC (decreasing order) are Mangifera indica.41 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIESWISE AND DIA CLASSWISE (All categories combined ) Surveyed Area 15802 ha SL. The analysis of above Table No 3. 3. Table 3.

42 39 Zizyphus spp.00 50.00 Stem/ha 13.05 18 Ficus spp.04 0.11 31 Psidium guyava 4082 103 8 6 4199 1.01 34 Syzygium cumini 6793 1956 790 478 10017 3.00 10. 30 16 0 0 46 0. 1495 228 220 428 0 6 114 2491 0.01 14 Crateva unilocularis 0 1 0 0 1 0.95 4.14 16 Emblica officinalis 34 19 8 9 70 0.01 33 Spondias pinnata 23 12 0 0 35 0.33 36 Tectona grandis 147 37 4 1 189 0.37 0.00 15 Dalbergia sissoo 24146 12177 4974 2673 43970 14.79 3 Acacia spp.02 24 Mallotus philippinensis 372 23 4 1 400 0.00 30.47 40 Mis c.20 Total 215865 60711 21625 12836 311037 100.81 19.00 40.22 35 Tamarix aphylla 595 299 94 47 1035 0.52 6.34 37.13 100.32 19 Gmelina arborea 1 1 4 0 6 0.13 Casia spp.00 29 Populus spp.36 28 Phoenix sylvestris 412 1502 1090 118 3122 1. 18 44 2 0 0 2 3 69 0.01 23 Madhuca latifolia 28 25 15 5 73 0.00 %age 69.25 38 Zizyphus mauratiana 1101 169 29 5 1304 0. 1456 824 556 1276 4112 1.02 4 Aailanthus excelsa 8 0 0 0 0 0 8 16 0.00 3.40 19.64 0. 4543 1405 537 358 6843 2.94 30 Prosopis juliflora 3075 352 18 3 3448 1.66 3.00 60.08 2 Acacia nilotica 12761 645 689 681 6 74 58 14914 4.36 21 Lennea coromandelica 616 284 18 4 922 0.47 0.37 0.30 22 Litchi chinensis 20 2 0 0 22 0.02 17 Eucalyptus spp.39 27 Morus spp. 5283 1534 384 138 7339 2. 16287 2057 127 6 18477 5.42 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIES AND CATEGORYWISE Surveyed Area 15802 ha SL.80 .06 37 Termilinia arjuna 3099 649 129 18 3895 1. 56031 9919 2254 395 68599 22.84 1.35 32 Shorea robusta 3 2 3 15 23 0.13 25 Mangifera indica 55094 15386 6219 4552 81251 26.01 5 Albizia spp.00 20 Holoptelea integrifolia 779 219 66 47 1111 0.13 2.00 Percentage distribution of stems in West UP by category wise Farm forestry Block plantation Road side plantation Village wood lot canal side plantation Railway lines Ponds 40 Table No 3.68 39 Chart 6 Chart 7 Percentage distribution of Stems by Dia classes in Western UP NFA 7% 4% 69% 20% 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40+ cm 56. SPECIES CATEGORIES TOTAL % age NO I II III IV V VI VII 1 Acacia catechu 10 232 0 9 0 0 0 251 0.12 26 Melia azedarach 3425 713 134 41 4313 1. 1132 256 44 15 1447 0.00 20.

944 3 Acacia spp.22 35 Tamarix aphylla 930 0 105 0 0 0 0 1035 0.00 15 Dalbergia sissoo 33337 1453 34 8328 27 158 633 43970 14. 3.02 0.004 4 Aailanthus excelsa 15 1 16 0.08 13 Casia spp.24 0.94 30 Prosopis juliflora 1681 178 411 1175 0 0 3 3448 1.68 41 Table No. 3323 322 1256 1853 2 50 37 6843 2.13 2.016 2 Acacia nilotica 13768 1146 14914 4.24 10 Butea monsperma 2 0 720 46 0 0 0 768 0.42 39 Zizyphus spp.47 40 Misc.30 22 Litchi chinensis 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 22 0.52 7.01 23 Madhuca latifolia 52 0 0 21 0 0 0 73 0.12 26 Melia azedarach 3919 228 5 155 0 2 4 4313 1.02 12 Cassia simea 12 130 0 98 0 0 3 243 0. 6952 16 0 362 4 1 4 7339 2.01 33 Spondias pinnata 0 0 35 0 0 0 0 35 0.01 34 Syzy gium cumini 5352 333 194 4119 2 10 7 10017 3.20 Total 175246 9747 8222 115071 125 1161 1465 311037 100.34 3.43 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF STEMS-SPECIESWISE AND DIA CLASSWISE Surveyed Area 15802 ha SL.6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2344 21 0 1125 0 0 0 3490 1.36 28 Phoenix sylvestris 684 33 1506 767 6 88 38 3122 1.01 0.11 31 Psidium guyava 1835 8 0 2353 0 0 3 4199 1.01 0.33 36 Tectona grandis 158 0 0 31 0 0 0 189 0.373 8 Borassus flabellifer 29 0 29 0.002 9 Bombax cieba 285 453 738 0.28 0.00 %age 56.221 7 Azadirachta indica 18463 3231 21694 6.25 0.62 0. 60 9 69 0.001 5 Albizia spp.00 29 Populus spp.37 0.01 9 Bombax cieba 373 50 143 86 0 13 73 738 0.64 37.08 0. 920 1571 2491 0.36 21 Lennea coromandelica 0 0 20 902 0 0 0 922 0.09 0.047 10 Butea monsperma 20 748 768 0. 8 38 0 0 0 0 0 46 0.12 7 Azadirachta indica 18790 300 429 2129 18 10 18 21694 6.01 14 Crateva unilocularis 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 19.00 20 Holoptelea integrifolia 717 235 13 116 0 9 21 1111 0.13 25 Mangifera indica 17376 344 11 63487 0 2 31 81251 26.25 11 Casia fistula 45 13 2 2 0 0 3 65 0.05 18 Ficus spp.02 24Mallotus philippinensis 0 12 22 366 0 0 0 400 0.00 0.39 27 Morus spp.04 0. 2687 101 959 289 7 9 60 4112 1.97 1.97 8 Borassus flabellifer 2 0 27 0 0 0 0 29 0.07 0. 56039 2805 96 9497 46 9 107 68599 22.01 0.35 32 Shorea robusta 9 2 0 12 0 0 0 23 0.80 0.47 100.12 0. 7 13 1270 147 7 0 3 1447 0. NAME OF Agro Ecological Zones STEM/HA NO. 3349 20 0 15108 0 0 0 18477 5.14 16 Emblica officinalis 42 0 0 28 0 0 0 70 0.158 6 Artocarpus integeriflius 2473 1017 3490 1.049 .32 19 Gmelina arborea 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.00 Stem/ha 11.79 0.06 37 Termilinia arjuna 94 1940 52 858 0 717 234 3895 1.25 38 Zizyphus mauratiana 829 3 0 471 0 1 0 1304 0.02 17 Eucalyptus spp. SPECIES NPHC NPSH(D) TOTAL %AGE 1 Acacia catechu 10 241 251 0.

13 0.002 34 Syzygium cumini 4430 5587 10017 3.42 0. Bordering the Arabian sea.39 0.433 Total 184178 126859 311037 100.68 Area of agro-eco zones 11335 4467 15802 No.025 25 Mangifera indica 57148 24103 81251 26.00 0.083 39 Zizyphus spp. The soil is varied generally leached and lateritic and particularly loamy in the hilly region and alluvial in the valleys and plains.02 0.01 0. 2967 1145 4112 1.33 0.08 0.005 24 Mallotus philippinensis 9 391 400 0.02 0.32 0. Variation in temperature is between 23.36 0.003 14 Crateva unilocularis 1 0 1 0.06 0.47 0.00 Stem/ha 16.00 0.012 37 Termilinia arjuna 2121 1774 3895 1.35 0. 4604 2239 6843 2.25 0.015 13 Casia spp. 5265 2074 7339 2. The population of the State in 1991 was 29.683 %age 59.0 0 C to 32. The mean annual rainfall is about 3. Kerala is the most densely populated State in India.22 0. Kerala has an equable climate and the day temperature varies from 20 to 350 C.11 Casia fistula 43 22 65 0.00 0.21 40. The Western Ghats constitute the eastern boundary while the Arabian sea marks the western boundary of the State.05 4.01 0.70 C in plains and 10.20 C in the hills.341 18 Ficus spp.142 26 Melia azedarach 2195 2118 4313 1.273 27 Morus spp.058 22 Litchi chinensis 19 3 22 0.001 23 Madhuca latifolia 69 4 73 0.169 30 Prosopis juliflora 2280 1168 3448 1.36 0.00 19.198 29 Populus spp.266 32 Shorea robusta 1 22 23 0.94 1.09 million with population density 749 persons per km2 .01 0.41 Brief background of the State Kerala State is situated on the South Western part of India.249 28.20 0.01 0.4 KERALA 3.9 0 C to 37. Kerala lies between 80 and 12045dNorth latitudes and 7404dand 77050dEast longitude.79 100. 21110 47489 68599 22.001 33 Spondias pinnata 0 35 35 0.02 0. 6248 12229 18477 5. 42 percent under midland region and remaining under highland region (State Land Use Board.783 16 Emblica officinalis 40 30 70 0.399 19.218 31 Psidium guyava 3080 1119 4199 1. of vill.000 20 Holoptelea integrifolia 1078 33 1111 0.065 36 Tectona grandis 50 139 189 0.260 19 Gmelina arborea 4 2 6 0.004 12 Cassia simea 242 1 243 0.000 mm and varies from 1016 mm to 7620 mm.12 5. 1124 323 1447 0. 46 0 46 0.in each zones 44 18 62 42 3. of which about 10 percent comes under lowland region (coastal).004 17 Eucalyptus spp.464 28 Phoenix sylvestris 1545 1577 3122 1.14 2.092 40 Misc.246 38 Zizyphus mauratiana 1048 256 1304 0. The geographical area of the State is approximately 3.30 0.88 million ha.070 21 Lennea coromandelica 3 919 922 0.634 35 Tamarix aphylla 1029 6 1035 0. 1980)1.000 15 Dalbergia sissoo 30336 13634 43970 14.11 0.

Mallotus spp.43 Social Forestry in Kerala Several social forestry schemes have been launched in Kerala in order to increase the supply of fuelwood and small timber. jack. Butea frondosa. fruits.compared to 273 persons per km2 of the country. 3. Azadirachta indica. Tropical dry Acacia spp. 0. Pterocarpus marsupium.8 m ha is under dense forests and 0.. Vegetation in the State varies with climatic. tamarind. coconut accounted for 39%. 43 Forest types Important species Tropical wet evergreen Artocarpus hirsuta. Montane sub. Calophyllum tomentosa. Of the actual forest cover. Mesua ferrea. Tectona grandis Terminalia spp. etc.6 m elevation is lowland. Forest lands including degraded forests constitute 24. cashew. It integrates agricultural crops with several tree cops such as coconut. Cinnamomum zelyancium. Michelia champaca. Lagerstroemia lanceolata.. The land lying below 7. altitudinal and other edaphic factors.Bischofia javonica. green manure and fodder. Sterculia urens etc. 1995). Since then. Terminalia paniculata etc. Major forest type and species are given below as per Champion and Seth¶s classifications.6 to 76 m midland and above 76 m highland.10 m ha while protected and other forests account for 0. Tropical moist Adina cordifolia. these are National Rural . Since 1960. Forest plantations started in Nilambur in the year 1842 with teak. etc. coffee and cardamom together 7% and rice 11%. Kydia calicyna. Dalbergia paniculata. Of the total net area cultivated. The area under teak has also increased. Further growth of forest plantations is likely to be marginal in future. teak plantations were established in many accessible forest areas. rubber 20%. Ficus glomerata.03 m ha which constitute 26.42 Forest Resources Recorded forest area of the state is 1. deciduous forests Cassia fistula. and semi-evergreen forests Canarium strictum. Eugenia spp. Lauraceous trees. temperate forests Machilus macrantha. Cullenia excelsa.02 m ha.. The hilly zone contains the maximum forests while the midland has only little and the coastal plains has almost no vegetat ion except for few very small discontinuous patches of mangrove vegetation. deciduous forests Ficus glomerata.4% in 1997-98..3% of the total geographical area of the State (Kerala State Land Use Board. midland and highland regions are the three broad natural regions based on altitude. Calophyllum tomentosa.6% of the total geographical area of the State. Rhododendron spp. Actual forest cover of Kerala as assessed by the Forest Survey of India is 1. the area under Eucalyptus plantations increased rapidly.. Dalbergia latifolia. Mixed cropping is the characteristics feature of land use in the home-gardens of Kerala.5% in 1990 -91 to 0. tropical and montane Cedrela toona. fuelwood. tea. between 7. which provide timber. 3. Dipterocarpus spp. Dysoxylum malabaricum. mango.12 m ha of which Reserved Forests constitute 1. The contribution of forestry and logging to the net State domestic product has declined from 0. 1 The lowland.2 m ha is under open forests. Bombax ceiba.

Also the recall metho d adopted for the survey had several defects. The species planted and distributed area mainly Acacia 44 auriculiformis. etc. waste lands. 45 population density. the population in villages adjoining the forests area assumed to collect 5 to 20 percent of their requirement from the forests. A survey on tree-felling in homesteads was also attempted to quantify the wood production from homesteads. Further. 3. The respondents were found to conceal actual tree-felling due to fear of bureaucratic harassment later. A stratified three-stage sampling procedure was adopted for the selection of samples. Dry land area under agricultural use2 less area under estates is defined as the area under homesteads. The total area at the end of 1987-88 was 27149 ha. For each revenue village in Kerala. strip and avenue planting in forest areas. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme. but the available data on land use do not reveal the composition of tree crops and the growing stock distribution in homesteads. In this context. the present study on µDemand and supply of wood in Kerala and their furture trends¶ was of great relevance in planning wood-resources development in the State. it was not used for further analysis. Under these schemes. Drought Relief Scheme and the World Bank Scheme. A large number of seedlings have also been raised in nurseries under these schemes and distributed to farmers and social organisations to raise in homesteads and around public buildings respectively. Supply of wood from the forests of Kerala has declined during the 1980s. the most important being the non-availability of exact dimensions of the already felled trees. 15 strata were formed and the villages were classified in different strata accordingly. Due to unreliability in the data.Employment Programme. The fuelwood consumption is estimated on the basis of the projected population of both the groups and the per capita fuelwood consumption in the rural areas of Kerala. The plantations have not yet been harvested. By forming 5 class es for the percentage of dryland area under agricultural use to total area under agricultural use and 3 classes for the 2 It is assumed that the population living within forests fully depend on fuelwood collected directly. Rural Fuelwood Scheme. the crop-mix and the preference for particular species. There waas a lack of information regarding the restrictions imposed by the government on felling of certain trees in private lands. plantations have been raised through block. The population for 1987-88 is projected based on the 1981 census. Eucalyptus tereticornis and Casuarina equisetifolia . 3. Wood production from homesteads was therefore taken as the difference between the demand for wood and the sum of wood production from forests and estates and imports.44 Need for the Study The pattern of wood consumption by various sectors and the contribution of different sources of supply in Kerala was not studied until 1987-88. Homesteads appear to be an important source of wood supply. including the fuelwood equivalent of fuel from coconut/palmyra trees and crop-residues.45 Methodology adopted by KFRI A survey was conducted during 1988-89 to estimate the volume of growing stock of trees in homesteads. Homesteads include house compounds and farm lands. the percentage of dryland (garden land) area under agricultural use to the total area under agricultural and population density were calculated from the data available with the State Land-use Board and in the 1981 census report respectively. Revenue villages in each stratum were treated as first-stage units .

The households with dry land holding formed the third stage units of sampling. Pruned and fallen materials from trees in ho mesteads used as fuelwood is worked out to be 0.577 million m3.246 million m3 of which 80 to 90 percent was fuel. Total production of wood including fuelwood obtained from pruned and fallen materials and coconut wood from homesteads during 1987-88 was estimated to range from10. Multiple use trees such as coconut.884 million m3 of fuelwood.5% of the total number. Non-wood fuel from coconut used in households is arrived at about 5. 2. Coconut palms constituted 21. jack. Census villages were taken as second stage units of sampling since several form a revenue village.of sampling.47 ESTIMATES OF THE INVENTORY Total number of trees in homesteads excluding that in plantations and palms other than coconut is estimated as 442 million in 1988 -89.909 million which provided 1. 5. Therefore.303 million which provided 0. 3. Out of the total number of villages in Kerala according to 1981 census. The number of coconut palms felled mainly for timber was worked out to be 1. The villages in each stratum were chosen at random and in all 30 villages were selected.05 million m3 can be taken as minimum production of non-wood coconut fuel.3 m3 per ha of homestead lands used exclusively for agriculture or 7 m3 per ha of homestead lands plus area under non-agricultural uses within homesteads. only wood above 60 cm girth is considered.693 million m3 of wood.899 to 12.246 million m3 of wood production represents 8. coffee and tea were excluded from the definition of trees. mango. Trees in the lowest diameter class accounted for 55% of the total number of trees.5 per cent were distributed in different strata approximately in proportion to the dryland area under agricultural use in each stratum ensuring that at least one village was included from each stratum. The upper limit of 12.46 Estimation of growing stock of trees in homesteads The households in the selected were classified on the basis of size of dry land holding. No attempt has been made to assess the sustainability of wood production from considering the present level of production. The definition of wood us ed in this study is different from the conventional definition where. teak and . whether there was any construction activity using timber in the year 1987-88. 25 households were allocated proportional to the number of households in each class and households in each class were randomly and independently selected. Anily. However.330 million m3. One was randomly selected from the chosen revenue villages and all the households in the selected desom were visited to collect information such as year of house construction. the non-wood component of fuel has not been included in the present analysis. The total production of coconut wood was estimated as 2. Our definition of wood includes woody 46 materials up to 10 cm girth in the case of fuelwood. 3. Other palms and plantations of rubber cardamom. Non-wood fuel materials from coconut is also used in the tertiary sector which has not been estimated. In the homesteads of the selected households all trees by species coming under different diameter classes (dbh) and coconut palms were enumerated. The number of palms felled and used as fuel was taken to be 3 .05 million m3 fuelwood equivalent. usually. Therefore 7 m3 per ha cannot be considered to be a very high figure. size of dryland holding etc. cashew and tamarind were the most preferred species for planting in homesteads. All dry land belonging to the sample households in the desom were surveyed.

321) 11179 (2.4 per cent of the total number.. tea and cardamom.16) 185 . Growing stock of trees in number and volume and the species preference In homesteads of Kerala are analysed.53) 4873 (1.37) T3 9242 8007 1870 242 84 24 4 5 0 19478 (4.63 per cent of the total number.94920 (21. 47 Table 3. The estimated total number of trees is 442. When coconut palms are excluded trees in the lowest class comes to 54. Neither are trees in plantations of rubber..matty are the species preferred among trees grown exclusively for wood.63 per cent The shows that efforts are being made at the homestead level in planting of trees.40) T4 29970 17877 3790 919 226 160 50 8 13 53013 (11.2 million of which trees below 10 cm dbh account for 42.99) ACE 7860 150 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 8040 (1. coffee.75) M4 87456 42322 12126 2652 937 208 116 28 0 145845 (32. Palms other than coconut are not included in the growing stock of trees.) Trees <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total CO3 .51 Number of trees in the growing stock in homesteads of Kerala during 1988-89 (number in '000) Diameter at breast beight (in cr.91 per cent...26) M3 19700 12856 5908 2497 1191 560 216 70 100 43098 (9. the crop-mix and preference for particular species vary with respect to different regions.82) Total 189716 (42.10) 2328 (0. new plantings of trees (less than 10 cm dbh) other than coconut palms account for 54.94920 .91)* 103344 (23. Tables 3. However.47) M2 11550 8624 5837 3146 1699 938 195 67 50 32106 (7.98) T1 14069 5607 1709 376 148 15 0 0 5 2192 (4.. While trees above 30 cm dbh account for only 4.53) 695 (0.37) 129665 (29.51 presents the number of trees in the growing stock in homesteads during 1988-89.96) T2 9869 7901 3975 1347 588 423 114 7 12 23736 (5..

73)* 18085 .80) T4 120 3129 1974 1009 450 513 242 51 107 7595 (7.48) M4 350 7406 6801 2845 1784 609 529 164 0 20488 (19. mullilavu. tamarind. etc.. T1 for teak. M2 for jack.53).52 and 3.00) CO stands for coconut palms.04) 180 (0.34171 (32. The volume of growing stock of trees in total volume is estimated as 104..28) ACE 31 26 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 (0.. when felled. 48 3. M4 for cashew.526 million m 3 underbark (see Tables 3.. rosewood and sandal. Table 3. gooseberry. The average diameter of coconut palms is assumed to be in 20-30 cm class. breadfruit. etc. such as tamarind.52 Total volume of growing stock of trees in homesteads of Kerala (volume in '000 m3 overbark including branch wood of 10 cm and above girth) Diameter at breast height (in cm) Trees <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total CO ..(0. manjakadambu.. The commercial volume accounts for 27.. commercial volume also includes volume of trees with only fuelwood value. guava. chadachy..4 per cent of the total volume. For complete list see Appendix-1. ezhilampala etc. 93) M3 79 2250 2576 2469 2417 1834 1060 455 908 14048 (13. Casuarina and Eucalyptus..58) T3 37 1401 951 248 164 73 17 27 0 2918 (2. T3 for kanjiram.66) T1 56 981 767 372 266 45 0 0 38 2525 (2. etc. etc.42) T2 39 1383 1568 1290 986 1061 407 33 98 6865 (6.04) 442165 (100.07) Total 758 (0. 3 Include only those coconut palms above 5 years old which have stem wood.6 per cent is the growing stock of fuelwood. Also among trees above 60 cm dbh. 83 per cent of the total volume overbark of all trees and 85 per cent of total. T2 for anjily. ACE for Acacia auriculiformis. The figures in parentheses are percentages to total. thanni. The remaining 72. 81 per cent of the total volume overbark of all trees and 83 per cent of the total commercial volume. T4 for matty. M3 for mango. However.248 million m3 overbark including volume of branch wood above 10 cm girth..48 Species preference Trees with multiple uses account for 71 per cent of the total number of trees. The commercial volume is estimated as 28. trees providing multiple benefits constitute 74 per cent of the total number.. irul.34171 .78) M2 46 1509 2422 3072 3484 3126 968 447 489 15563 (14.

09) 1177 (1.02 per cent of the total comme rcial volume.) Trees 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total (%) CO 6834 0 0 0 0 0 0 6834 23.23) 1640 (1.72 100.34) 51248 (49.% of the total volume.16) 7261 96.56 and 3. the contribution of coconut is 69.55 T1 406 144 112 18 0 0 20 700 2. Coconut palms.57).95 2. Just 10 species account for 74 per cent of total number equivalent to 85 per cent of total wood volume.53 Commercial volume of growing stock of trees in homesteads of Kerala (volume in '000 m3 underbark) Diameter at breast height (in cm.526 million m3 constituting 27.55. tamarind. husk. 3.(17. sheath.52 M3 844 1274 1220 921 512 219 440 5430 19 02 M4 1941 1352 863 284 216 67 0 4723 16.00) * The figures in par entheses are percentages to total.54.17 T3 285 122 80 34 7 11 0 539 1. guava constitute more than 80% of the total volume.02 Total 12222 5406 4592 3490 1483 558 775 28526 (%) 42. mango.84) 9551 (9. When non-wood fuel from coconut is also considered.97) 3223 (3. breadfruit. 3. there is continuous production of nut and fuel in the form of leaf.8% of the total consumption of fuelwood and charcoal from all other trees and all sources put together. Timber and multiple-use trees in the high value classes contribute to the timber supply and those in the low value classes contribute to both timber and fuelwood supply.90 T4 616 519 232 280 114 25 40 1826 6.10 12.57) 104248 (100. After a pre-bearing stage of about 6 years.16) 11305 (10.41 ACE 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.cashew.49 Pattern of Growing Stock Distribution The pattern of growing stock distribution of trees in the homesteads of Kerala gives a very interesting picture of the preference for different trees in homesteads (see Table 3. Casuarina equisetifolia and Eucalyptus account for only 0. 49 Table 3. Coconut provides about 28 per cent of total timber consumption and about 16 per cent of the total fuelwood consumption.96 M2 817 1605 1767 1586 477 222 236 6710 23.00 Commercial volume: The commercial volume is estimated to be 28.4.23 5.95 16.20 1. shell. etc: for . 3.85 18.45 T2 475 390 318 367 157 14 39 1760 6. jack. Acacia auriculiformis.

vatta and matty are the most preferred species for planting and maintaining in homesteads.11 1.54 1. Matty. anjily.28 4. teak.00 100.54 Anjily (T2) 2. Anjily. cashew.92 0.99 Vatta (M4) 5. Tamarind produces fruit which is a condiment in daily use. Fuelwood and very low value trees with single use have very low preference in homesteads. coconut is the most preferred tree.80 Total 100. a fast growing tree. high value timber of Kerala which can be used for any purpose. murikku.29 10.26 14. a high return crop. trees which provide for home consumption have prefernce. tamarind. Coconut followed by jack.52 Mango (M3) 7. 51 Table 3.30 11.72 Matty (T4) 4. They provide support for pepper vine.38 3. Coconut provides the benefits of an agricultural crop as well as a tree. is used for construction.66 2. It has also high export demand.86 Tamarind (M3) 1.47 32.17 1.over 60 years. Trees which are complementary to agricultural crops for providing support or manure are also preferred.55 Number of Trees Growing in Homesteads in different diameter classes (number in µ000) Trees Diameter at breast height (in cm) <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total . is used as industrial wood and for construction. which provides a long straight bole.90 15. Cashew has a very short pre-bearing stage and provides a high annual return from nuts.91 2. mango.78 23.12 Teak (T1) 4. The timber of mango. However. Even among fuel producing trees. boat building. Its wood is used as fuel and in packing case industry.92 23. Jack produces premium timber for construction and furniture.00 100.24 0. and produce excellent lead manure.00 3. though not as valuable. Howeve r.24 15.96 Jack (M2) 7.04 Murikku (M4) 10. Even among multiple-use trees.90 1. Teak is the traditional high quality.54 Pattern of growing stock distribution of trees in homesteads of Kerala Trees Percentage of growing stock to total growing stock in Number Volume Commercial volume Coconut (CO) 21. The data show that trees with multiple benefits are preferred to single-use trees. The leaf of jack is a very good fodder.96 1. Jack and mango are planted for fruits and shade. they do not contribute much to the total commercial volume of wood. etc. 50 Table 3.65 12. The potential for recurring annual income generation is an important consideration.00 Erythrina stricta and Macaranga peltata are the other trees most integrated with agriculture. has been popularized in the recent past due to demand from match industry. the crop-mix and preference for particular species vary with respect to different regions in Kerala.67 Other trees 26.78 Cashew (M4) 9. Tamarind wood is an excellent fuel and the tree has the capability to establish and grow in dry areas and adverse conditions.12 12.

00) 52 Table No..53) 4873 (1..04) 442165 (100...37) 129665 (29.17) Anjily 4132 2415 1672 892 480 369 109 14 0 10083 (2.78) .11) Matty 13240 4658 356 114 25 17 11 0 0 18421 (4...94920 (21.29) Vatta 17999 7362 899 89 12 5 0 0 0 26366 (5. 3.56 Total Volume of Important Trees In The Growing Stock In homesteads (Volume in µ000 m3 overbark including branchwood of 10 cm and above girth) Trees Diameter at breast height (in cm) <10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total (%) Coconut ...32) 11179 (2.38) Cashew 14700 15109 8207 1959 857 155 116 21 0 41124 (9.29) Jack 11549 8624 5837 3146 1699 939 195 67 50 32106 (7.91) 103344 (23.10) 2328 (0.34171 (32.96) Tamarind 4040 1454 730 314 155 71 26 14 1 6805 (1.34171 .30) Mango 13641 10168 4672 1983 961 445 190 56 98 32214 (7.(%) Coconut ..16) 185 (0.47) Murikku 30434 13034 2053 287 58 30 0 0 0 45896 (10..25) Total (%) 189716 (42..53) 695 (0.94920 .04) 180 (0..28) Other trees 68205 35882 8951 2133 514 293 48 13 31 116070 (26.54) Teak 11776 4638 1368 262 112 4 0 0 0 18160 (4.

Jack 46 1509 2422 3071 3483 3126 968 446 489 15560 (14.84) 9551 (9.23) 1640 (1..00) Teak 47 812 667 256 195 9 0 0 0 1986 (1.78 Cashew (M4) 1313 999 788 212 216 50 0 3578 12.09) 1177 (1.92) Tamarind 16 254 410 337 294 209 118 82 15 1735 (1.16) 11305 (10.54 Tamarind (M3) 117 160 142 97 48 34 6 604 2.65) Mango 55 1779 1939 1935 1970 1483 943 372 893 11369 (10.12) Total (%) 758 (0.73) 18085 (17.16) 7261 (6.57) 104248 (100.66) Anjily 16 423 776 816 772 900 391 33 48 4175 (4.92) Cashew 59 2644 4604 2103 1630 455 529 122 0 12146 (11.96 Jack (M2) 817 1605 1767 1586 477 222 236 6710 23..12 .901) Murikku 122 2281 1152 308 110 88 0 0 0 4061 (3.91) Matty 53 815 148 111 52 56 55 0 0 1290 (1.6834 23.52 Mango (M3) 654 1011 1000 752 464 185 435 4501 15..90) Vatta 72 1288 504 95 24 14 0 0 0 1997 (1.00) 53 Table No..97) 3223 (3.57 Commercial Volume of Important Trees in the Growing Stock in Homesteads of Kerala (volume in µ000 m3 underbark) Trees Diameter at brest height (in cm) 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 >80 Total (%) Coconut (CO) 6834 ..34) 51248 (49. 3.24) Other trees 272 6280 4455 2273 1021 921 219 122 195 15758 (15.

the management and ownership of the forest rests with the States (Provinces).85) 5406 (18. though forestry falls under the concurrent list of the Constitution. The states have drawn their plans of growing trees for production of wood and other products from outside forests.72 Anjily (T2) 200 187 221 306 150 14 22 1100 3.) and parcels of land along roads. In Haryana State about 35% to 40% of the total projection of land where trees are to be planted outside forests has to come from the farmlands. In the State Forestry Action Programmes prepared by State Governments. the role of trees growing outside forests has been greatly emphasized. industrial complexes. it is imperative that such resource is accurately .86 Teak (T1) 369 118 91 5 0 0 0 583 2. Since trees growing outside forests will be the major source of wood and other forest products in the near future. are vacant land in the institutions (schools. offices. canals. railway lines and water coarses.67 Other trees 1395 1077 492 456 101 53 76 3650 12.23) 1483 (5. Plantations in homesteads and farmhouses have been proposed mainly in Kerala and West Bengal.72) 28526 100. National Forest Policy 1988 has emphasized that wood based industries have to generate their own resource for meeting their raw material needs. In India. colleges.95) 775 (2.95) 4592 (16.Murikku (M4) 329 146 53 41 0 0 0 569 1. religious places etc.00 54 4. This is to be achieved by growing trees outside forests and a major portion of which has to come from the agro forestry practices. the responsibility to supply wood and other forest products will shift on trees outside forest. In most of the states major portion of the area where trees are to be planted fall in the farm lands.80 Total (%) 12222 (42.04 Matty (T4) 50 58 26 29 27 0 0 190 0. Concerned with the depletion of the forest resource the Supreme Court of India has also issued directions and imposed restrictions on felling of trees from natural forests without proper management/working plans.10) 3490 (12. The industries are also expected to raise captive plantations and motivate farmers to plant tree species to meet their industrial needs. Other potential areas which have been identified for growing trees.99 Vatta (M4) 144 45 12 6 0 0 0 207 0.20) 558 (1.CONCLUSIONS With the increasing emphasis on the conservation of the natural forest and their bio-diversity.

Appropriate methodology. Br.f. Eucaly (Eucalypt) ACE Eucalyptus sp. & G. Choolamaram ACE Casuarina equisetifolia J. Chembakam (Chembak) M4 Michelia champaca Linn.) Alston .) Taub. The latest satellite of SPACE IMAGING -IKONOS launched for commercial purposes by U. Kalash T3 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt. Kudappuli M3 Garcinia gummi-gutta (Linn. Kambily T4 Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.assessed periodically and methodo logy is developed to monitor them regularly.) Jacq. can be developed to make quick assessment of the trees growing outside forests by combining space technology with ground inventory.) Kurz Anjily (Ayani) T2 Artocarpus hirsutus Lamk.) Corr.) Thw Aryaveppu (Neem) M3 Azadirachta indica A. Manjakadambu (Haldu) T3 Haldina cordifolia (Roxb. therefore. Aranamaram M4 Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Merr.has a resolution of one-meter. Edana T3 Cinnamomum sp. Koovalam M3 Aegle marmelos (Linn. Forst.) Merr.Forst. Kumizhu (Gamari) T3 Gmelina arborea Roxb. Mahagony T2 Sweitenia mahagony (Linn.) Fosberg. & Thoms.A. Kanakamaram M4 Cananga odoratta Hk. Juss. Irul T2 Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb. Athi T3 Ficus racemosa Linn.) R. With the increasing resolution of the space satellite it may be possible to get proper signature registered of the trees growing in sporadic form outside forests.) Benth.R.) Ridsd. It is possible to discern most of the trees growing in isolation and in scattered way. Kadaplavu (Breadfruit) M4 Artocarpus cummunis J.) Oken. The present methodology even after refinement is based on the ground inventory. Chadachi (Dhaman) T2 Grewia tiliifolia Vahl.) Robs. Kanjiram T3 Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Annakara T4 Garuga pinnata Roxb. Anbazham (Indian Hogplum) M4 Spondias pinnata (Linn. which has undertaken the responsibility of assessment of this resource with limited manpower and infrastructure. Kunnivaka T2 Albizia odoratissima (Linn.S.) Poir. Kasumavu (Cashew) M4 Anacardium occidentale Linn. Akil T2 Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. Manchady T3 Adenanthera pavonia Linn. & G. Kara T3 Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour. Badam (Indian almound) M3 Terminalia catappa Linn. Chandanam (Sandal) T1 Santalum album Linn. 55 APPENDIX I Names of Trees in Homesteads of Kerala Local Name (Trade Name) Class Botanical Name* Aatha M4 Annona reticulata Linn.E. Ezhilampala (Shaitan wood) T4 Alstonia scholaris (Linn. The Forest Survey of India is the only organisation in India. Marotty M3 Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch-Ham.f. Sm.f. Matty T4 Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst. Cheru T3 Holigarna arnottiana Hk.R. Manjapavatta T3 Morinda pubescens J. Elanji (Bulletwood) T2 Mimusops elenji Linn. Kanikonna (Indian laburnum) T2 Cassia fistula Linn.ex Hiern Albizia T2 Albizia falcataria (Linn.f.

Sinduram M3 Mallotus philippensis (Lamk. Payyani T4 Oroxylum indicum (Linn. 1987. Plavu (Jack) M2 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Soil conservation/improvement and windbreak 3 Acacia spp. fibre and nitrogen fixation 5 Albizia spp. poles. fodder. fruits and shade 6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood. * Botanical names are taken from Sasidharan.) Baill. Pera (Guava) M4 Psidium guajava Linn.) Bl.ex Dillw. Thembavu T2 Terminalia crenulata Roth Thengu (Coconut) CO Cocos nucifera Linn.Mavu (Mango) M3 Mangifera indica Linn.) Gaertn. Pulla Maruthu (Kindal) T2 Terminalia paniculata Roth. Correa Pottami T4 Trema orientalis (Linn. charcoal.ex. Pulimaram (Tamarind) M3 Tamarindus indica Linn.) Roxb. Nelly (Gooseberry) M3 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. roots) fodder (foilage. bark. Thekku (Teak) T1 Tectona grandis Linn. erosion control. Othalam T4 Cerbera odollam Gaertn.) Pierre. medicine (leaves.) Vent.No NAME OF SPECIES USES 1 Acacia catechu Katha. 56 Parakam T3 Ficus hispida Linn. Cunn. Vempu T3 Toona ciliata Roemer Venga (Bijasal) T2 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Nitrogen fixation.-Arg) Gehm. oil seed cake). timber. utensils/ furniture/ carying. Punna (Alexandrian laurel) T2 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. furniture.) Muell.f. Mul leelam T3 Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb. Therakam T3 Ficus exaperata Vahl. poles. Timber. charcoal. Poovam T2 Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken Poovarasu T2 Thespesia populnea (Linn. Veeti (Rosewood) T1 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.1 Haryana Sl.) Muell-Arg. Njaval T2 Syzygium cumini (Linn. Small timber and fuelwood 4 Acacia tortilis Firewood. Vetty T3 Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) DC. Mullankainy (Kasi) T2 Bridelia roxburghiana (Muell. bee . fuel. Vatta M4 Macaranga peltata (Roxb. charcoal. Panjipoola (Kapok) T4 Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Soland. industrial 2 Acacia nilotica Firewood. Vaka T2 Albizia sp.) Mabber. Pathiri (Padri) T3 Stereospermum colais (Buch-Ham. Venthekku (Venteak) T2 Lagerstroemia microcarpa Wt. Varangu T4 Carallia brachiata (Lour. fodder in the form of leaves and pods. Ungu (Indian beech) T4 Pongania pinnata (Linn. 57 APPENDIX 2. small timber.) Merr. Silver oak M4 Grevillea robusta A.-Arg Thanni T3 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Skeels. Mullilavu (Semul) T4 Bombax ceiba Linn. Pezhu (Kumbi) T4 Careya arborea Roxb.f. Peral (Banyan) T3 Ficus benghalensis Linn.

soil improvement. oil. shade. river bank/ sand stabilisation. medicine (leaves. bee forage. erosion control. windbreak. shade. fruits. oil. firewood. fertilizer. soil conservation. leaves used to deworm livestock 7 Dalbergia sissoo Timber. soil conservation. Soil conservation 18 Syzygium cumini Timber. fruits. roots) fodder (foilage. windbreaks. timber. gum. bee-forage. windbreaks. fuel. juice). erosion control. juice). soil improvement and windbreak 8 Eucalyptus spp. fodder for bees 58 15 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal. soil conservation. fertilizer. timber. shade. food (fruit. fruit. furniture. bee-forage. charcoal. mulch. fodder. timber. soil conservation. Matchwood 14 Prosopis cineraria Charcoal. leaves used to deworm livestock 7 Bombax ceiba Timber.forage. shade. charcoal. handles. nitrogen fixation. firewood. soil conservation. erosion control. ornamental. fruits. mulch. windbreak. poles. carvings. shade. tool handles. soil conservation. fodder. fuel. veneer. poles. oil seed cake). Timber. windbreaks. medicine. masts for shows. fodder (leaves). shade and wood for manufacturing hockey sticks and ot her sports goods 13 Populus spp. soap manufacturing. windbreak and live fence 16 Psidium guyava Fuelwood. soil conservation. soil conservation 10 Mangifera indica Fuelwood.2 West Bengal Sl. posts. jelly. vegetable. fodder (leaf/flower). fruits and shade 19 Tamarix aphylla Erosion control. fodder. shade. erosion control and live fence 17 Salvadora spp. fodder and shade 59 APPENDIX 2. small timber and fuelwood 20 Zizyphus spp. nitrogen fixation. firewood and shade 9 Casurina equisetifolia Soil reclamation (degraded sites). nitrogen fixation. bark. ornamental. fruit (jam. fodder. matchwood 8 Cassia species Mulch. Nitrogen fixation. firewood and shade 2 Acacia auriculliformis Fuelwood 3 Albizzia species Timber. staking material. soap manufacturing. windbreaks. fuel. Timber. fuel. dune fixation. timber an d erosion control 5 Artocarpus species Timber 6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood. medicine. and shade 12 Morus spp. soil improvement and windbreak 9 Ficus spp. insecticides (azadirachtin). green leaf manure. Fruits. fuel. poles. fuelwood. dug-out canoes (coast) and timber 11 Melia azedarach Windbreak. fodder. ornamental. insecticides (azadirachtin). construction . No Name of Species Uses 1 Acacia arabica Windbreak. sand (dune) stabilizer. granary construction. fruits and shade 4 Alnus nepalensis Firewood. poles. fodder (leaves and pods).

inks. charcoal. handles. dune fixation. nuts. bee-forage. green manure. shade. nutshell oil (varnish. fodder. mulch. liquor wine. soil conservation and improvement 16 Gmelina arborea Firewood. poles. soil improvement and windbreak 12 Enterolonbium saman Soil conservation and shade 13 Eucalyptus hybrid Timber. masts for shows. ornamental. dye. fodder. soil conservation. poles and windbreak 17 Leucacna leucocephala Firewood. fruits. nitrogen fixation. sand (dune) stabilizer. windbreaks. dug-out canoes (coast) and timber 19 Melia azadirachta Windbreak. mulch. fodder.No Species Uses 1 Acacia spp. nitrogen fixation. nitrogen fixation. fuel. fuel. pulp. windbreaks. windbreaks. fodder. soil conservation. brake lining). soil conservation. jam). soil improvement and windbreak 60 15 Ficus species Mulch. industrial purpose 5 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood. food (fruit. fodder. shade. timber. fruits. ornamental. bark. soap manufacturing. fodder. fuel.3 Karnataka Sl. soil conservation/ improvement 18 Mangifera indica Fuelwood. shade. mulch. browse. posts. green manure. and shade 20 Michelia champaca Fuel wood and timber 21 Phoenix sylvestris Soil conservation and windbreak 22 Pridian guava Firewood 23 Shorea robusta Timber 24 Syzygium cumini Timber. poles. . fodder (leaves). nitrogen fixation. shade. fodder. roots) fodder (foilage. bee forage. furniture. soil conservation. windbreaks. pole. fertilizer. juice). green leaf manure. ornamental. fuelwood. fuel. ornamental. firewood. poles.wood. medicine. Small timber and fuelwood 2 Albizzia spp. medicine (leaves. oil. construction wood. erosion control. soil conservation. fuel. leaves used to deworm livestock 6 Casuarina equisetifolia Soil eclamation (degraded sites). charcoal. nitrogen fixation. timber. soil improvement and windbreak 14 Eucalyptus species Timber. fuelwood 27 Zizyphus species Fruits 61 APPENDIX 2. erosion control. soil conservation. oil seed cake). po les. charcoal. Timber. fruits and shade 3 Anacardium occidentale Fuelwood. shade. fruits. gum. fodder. fruits and shade 25 Tectona grandis Timber 26 Terminalia arjuna Timber. tannin and soil improvement 10 Cocos nucifera Firewood. nitrogen fixation. gum (book binding) 4 Areca catechu Katha. furniture 11 Dalbargia sissoo Timber. shade. mulch. timber. tiles. insecticides (azadirachtin). pulp. fruits (juice.

4 Western U. medicine (twigs. soap manufacturing. timber. mulch. mulch. bee-forage. carvings. nitrogen fixing. river bank/ sand stabilisation and thatch/ roofing 17 Tectona grandis Timber 18 Terminalia arjuna Timber and fuelwood 19 Zizyphus maurastiana Soil conservation. posts.P. pestles. seasoning/drink). Fruits. food (fruit. fruits and shade 5 Artocarpus integeriflius Timber 6 Azadirachta indica Fuelwood. charcoal. fodder and shade 16 Tamarindus indica Fuelwood. dune fixation. fodder (leaf/ flower. windbreak. vegetable. fruits. Small timber and fuelwood 4 Albizia spp. furniture. charcoal. medicine. soil conservation and improvement 11 Mangifera indica Fuelwood. soil conservation. bark. mortars. soil conservation. fuel. erosion control. soil improvement and windbreak 10 Ficus spp. shade. tannin and soil improvement 7 Citrus spp. ornamental.No NAME OF SPECIES USES 1 Acacia catechu Katha. poles. Timber. poles. bee forage. utensils/ furniture/ carying. dug-out canoes (coast) and timber 12 Pongamia pinnata Soil conservation and small wood 62 13 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal. firewood. fodder for bees) and shade 63 APPENDIX 2. fuel. oil. timber. insecticides (azadirachtin). nitrogen fixation. shade. roots). flavouring. bark. ornamental. roots) fodder (foilage. nitrogen fixation. Sl. poles. timber. charcoal. charcoal. Timber. Timber. industrial 2 Acacia nilotica Firewood. soil conservation. poles. fodder (leaves). fodder in the form of leaves and pods. Soil conservation/improve ment and windbreak 3 Acacia spp. firewood 8 Cocus nucifera Firewood. utensils/ furniture/ carrying. food (fruit. pole and furniture 9 Eucalyptus spp. small timber. nitrogen fixation. fodder. ornamental. fodder (fruit/pod. oil seed cake). shade. fodder for bees). pulp. fruit. mulch. gum. dye. shade. fuelwood. poles. Nitrogen fixation. shade. soil conservation/ improvement. leaves used to deworm livestock . juice). bee-forage. medicine. fertilizer. fodder (leaves and pods). windbreaks.ornamental. posts. timber. fodder. medicine (leaves. shade. windbreaks. boat -building. carts. Mulc h. food (fruit). green leaf manure. windbreak and live fence 14 Santalum album Ornamental sandal wood and oil 15 Syzigium spp. soil conservation.

carvings. mulch. shade. poles and timber 20 Prosopis juliflora Fuelwood charcoal. Mulch. fuel. poles. green leaf manure. firewood. fuel. windbreak. soil conservation. fuel. paper pulp. fruit (jam. and shade 18 Morus spp. dug-out canoes (coast) and timber 17 Melia azedarach Windbreak. river bank/ sand stabilisation. fruits. Soil conservation. firewood and shade 9 Cassia simea Mulch. erosion control and live fence 22 Shorea robusta Timber 23 Syzygium cumini Timber. fodder for bees) and shade 65 APPENDIX 3.1 ha on private /Govt. timber. shade. fodder. fruit. tool handles. windbreaks. small timber and fuelwood 25 Tectona grandis Timber 26 Termilinia arjuna Timber. soil improvement and windbreak 12 Emblica officinalis Fruit fuelwood and fodder 13 Eucalyptus spp. firewood and shade 11 Dalbergia sissoo Timber. Canopy -The cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of trees in a wood. staking material. charcoal. windbreak and live fence 21 Psidium guyava Fuelwood. fodder (fruit/pod. windbreak. poles. medicine. Farm Forestry. charcoal. dune fixation.0 DEFINITIONS Block plantation . firewood.All lands with a forest cover of trees with canopy density of 40 per cent and above. medicine. Soil conservation. food (fruit. 64 windbreaks. fodder. windbreak. land except village community land. mulch. vegetable. food (fruit). bee-forage. fodder. fodder (leaves). fruits. Mulch. timber. Soil conservation. juice). Matchwood. soil conservation. windbreak. shade and wood for manufacturing hockey sticks and other sports goods 19 Populus spp. fodder (fruit/pod. Timber. timber. food (fruit).7 Bombax cieba Timber. soil conserva tion and improvement 15 Gmelina arborea Firewood. medicine. nitrogen fixation. juice). granary construction. posts. shade. ornamental. poles. jelly. poles. medicine. ornamental. Dense forest . fruits. fodder (leaves and pods).Compact tree plantations covering an area of more than 0. Timber. Soil conservation. soil improvement. soil conservation. shade and paper pulpwood 14 Ficus spp. fodder for bees) and shade 28 Zizyphus spp. poles and windbreak 16 Mangifera indica Fuelwood.Trees growing naturally or planted along farm bunds or in small . nitrogen fixation. fodder for bees. fodder. green leaf manure. firewood and shade 10 Cassia spp. timber. fruits and shade 24 Tamarix aphylla Erosion control. gum. fuel. bee-forage. veneer and matchwood 8 Casia fistula Mulch. mulch. firewood. fuelwood 27 Zizyphus mauratiana Soil conservation.

I & II). . 1999 India 1999 a reference annual. also the new crop so obtained. New Delhi. Ministry of Information and Broad Casting. Recorded forest area . Growing Stock . Forest Cover.All lands with a forest cover of trees with canopy density between 10 to 40 per cent.The renewal of a forest crop by natural or artificial means. A report on Inventory of Trees in Non Forest Area of Wester UP (Pilot study).A written scheme of management aiming at continuity of policy and action and controlling the treatment of a forest. Forest Survey of India. Regeneration . Forest Survey of India. Forest inventory . 1995. 66 Shifting Cultivation .The sum of all the trees (by number or volume) growing in the Forest or a specified part of it. growing and annual increment of India.1 ha on private lands. Forest Survey of India.Forest land owned by government but not constituted into a reserve or protected forest.Mangroves are salt tolerant forest ecosystem found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical inter-tidal regions. Dehradun. Anon. 1997.patches upto 0. Indian Live Stock Census (Vol I) 1992 Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Unclassed Forest . Technical bulettine by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning ICAR. Government of India. Government of India. FSI. Mangrove . Extent. Nagpur Anon.All lands with a tree canopy density of more than 10 per cent though they may not be statutorily notified as forest. Scrub.All lands with poor tree growth chiefly of small or stunted trees with canopy density less than 10 per cent. 1997 Monthly Abstract of Statistics and Statistical Abstract India 1997 (Vol.Includes house compounds and farmlads. FSI 1999. Village woodlot.The measuring and describing the quantity and quality of forest crop and many of the characteristics of the land area upon which forest crop is growing. Homesteads . 1992 Agro-ecological Regions of India.Naturally growing/planted trees on village community land. FSI. Central Statistical Organisation. Department of Agriculture and Co -operation Ministry of Agriculture.All lands statutorily notified as forest though they may not necessarily bear tree cover. Shimla. Shimla. Northern Zone. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation.s forests. Anon. Northern Zone. Trees outsides forest resource of Haryan.A method of cyclical cultivation in vogue where cultivators cut the tree crop burn it and raise agricultural crop for one or more years before moving on to another site and repeating the process. Composition. Government of India. Ministry of Planning and Programme Implementation. 67 REFERENCES Anon. Open forest . Working Plan . density.

H. Kerala Champion. Ministry of Information and Broad Casting. Eastern Zone. Forest Survey of India. Forest types in India. Government of India Anon. Dehradun. National Forestry Action Programme-India Ministry of Environment & Forests. 1999. Krishnakutty C. 1999. Calcutta. A Report on Inventory of Trees in Non-Forest Areas of West Bengal (Pilot study) Forest Survey of India. Census of India 1991 Final Population Totals: Paper I & II Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Anon. 1997.FSI. S. MoEF 1997 State of Forest Report 1997. 1999 India 1999 a reference annual. ³A study on Demand and Supply of Wood in Kerala and their Future Trend´ Kerala Forest Research Institute.N. Ministry of Environment and Forest. Anon. and Seth. Dr. . Government of India. India. 1968.G.K.

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