You are on page 1of 168

ource of Morality

Morality is a system of principles or rules of conduct to which humans conform. Presently our wider culture exemplifies the debasement of rules of conduct with little common agreement as to what rules or principles we should be following.

Memory Blockers: Lest We Remember


Debates are co

alues
Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. Dictionary.com defines values as: n : beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something); "he has very conservatives values"

Morals
Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values. We thus judge others more strongly on morals than values. A person can be described as immoral, yet there is no word for them not following values. Dictionary.com defines morals as: n : motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

Ethics
You can have professional ethics, but you seldom hear about professional morals. Ethics tend to be codified into a formal system or set of rules which are explicitly adopted by a group of people. Thus you have medical ethics. Ethics are thus internally defined and adopted, whilst morals tend to be externally imposed on other people. If you accuse someone of being unethical, it is equivalent of calling them unprofessional and may well be taken as a significant insult and perceived more personally than if you called them immoral (which of course they may also not like). Dictionary.com defines ethics as: A theory or a system of moral values: An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain" The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession. Ethics of principled conviction asserts that intent is the mos

To consider that the act is a human act, it should be a voluntary act committed by an individual. The act must also be done with the individuals knowledge and consent. The act

committed should be considered as an act that is proper to man as man ( in consideration that of all the animals, man alone has the intellect and the freedom of will to do the act ). The act should also be committed in a conscious state and under the control of the individual in which he/she is responsible. The act should also be of those events or time that the individual is considered to be as the master, possessing the power to do the act or not as he/she intends to do. It was being signified that only the human act is considered as the one who has moral significance. There are acts that affects the human life but these things does not fall under the study of the science of Ethics. These acts are the movements of other things such as bomb explosion, volcanic eruption, sinking of the ships, earthquakes and the like. There are some other acts that also belong to this category; such as the biological or the physiological functions and processes of the human body. These things are like the circulation of the blood in the body, the opening as well as the closing of valves in the heart, the breathing processes, the growth of the hair as well the growth of the nails and some other things. All of these movements or actions was considered to have no moral bearings and no moral significance as well as the Ethics is concern. Still there are acts that are considered to be as morally indifferent acts. Examples of these are walking, sitting, talking and more. These acts could be either good or bad considering that they can only be wrong when they are declared forbidden by certain circumstances. Related: Get CoachedEthics is somehow related to Law because it deals with the right and the wrong or the good and the bad in human actions. The Law on the other hand is concerned about how the rule or rules are being followed or violated, hence Ethics acts to influence mans mental judgment to follow certain law. Ethics tells about what is moral while law tells about what is legal. Moral and legal are related but however there are striking differences on these.

What is legal only covers the external acts of man while what is moral covers even the internal acts of man. What is moral affects the intentional activities of the will and mind. A certain act could be morally wrong but not legally or criminally guilty. Meanwhile, even though it is illegal as far as the law is concern, from the moral viewpoint, it still morally wrong and is subject for moral guilt. An example is thinking or planning to do a crime or a sin in the mind. The sin or crime here happens only in the mind, but even though the sin or crime here committed only in the act of thinking and planning, still an individual is morally liable and subject for moral guilt. Ethics is somehow related to the field of Education. Education intends to developed man in his moral, intellectual and physical aspects. Education is not only concerned about mans development in knowledge acquisition or in the aspect of physical development but rather,it is also concerned on teaching humans with ethics and morality. Ethics is somehow related to Politics. We all know that the government is established to provide good governance for the temporal welfare of the citizens. The citizens or the humans does not only need material things but spiritual things as well as we believe these two are present in mans state of existence. Politics can only be considered as dirty when it is divorced or separated from ethics. Ethics is somehow related to the Arts. As Ethics stands for the moral goodness and Art stands for beauty these two are united. Moral goodness and beauty is one in purpose, it shows what is good. It is only conflicting when a piece of an Art is found to be offensive with the moral standards. In here, it must be considered that both Ethics and art have the same in purpose that is; to arouse and inspire the noble of man. A work of Art should not be offensive to ethics. If a piece of an Art arouses the baser impulses of man, the purpose of the Art is not properly delivered. Ethics is somehow related to Religion. It was being considered that among the several social aspects of human humans, Ethics and Religion have the closest relation. Ethics and Religion

have both based on the same postulates. Ethics and religion both have the same purpose or ends as well as both prescribes almost the same means for attaining their goal. Ethics concerns about the right act of man and Religion teaches its a followers to the right and what is good accordingly. Related: Get Coached

N OR

MS OF

M OR

AL IT

INT RO

DU CTI

ON

sinc

ec hild

hoo d,

we lear

n earl

y the

diff ere

nce bet

wee n

goo d

and bad

-It coul

d the

n be said

that ever

ybo dy

has an

atu ral

incl inat

ion

tow ards

mor ality

= Eve

n in pri

miti ve

soci ety,

mo rali

ty p lays

an

ess enti

alr ole

in the

for m

of thin

gsal low

ed and

pr ohi

bit ed

Mor

ality the

n is au

niv ers

al p hen

om eno

n; man

ifest ed

in ever

pers on

in ever

y soci

ety

NO RM

-in gen

eral ,

they are

con side

red as s

tan dar

d of me

asu rem

ent

-it is

an inst

rum ent

thro ugh

whi ch

the qual

ity or

qua ntit

y of a

thin g is

dete rmi

ned

NO RM

S OF

MO RAL

ITY

are

the stan

dar ds

that indi

cate the

righ tful

nes s or

wro ngf

ulne ss,

goo dne

ss or

evil nes

s, valu

e or disv

alue of a

thin g

- th ese

are qual

ities that

can not

be mea

sure d by

any mec

hani cal

devi ce

bec aus

e they

ares pir

it ual

qual ities

that app

eal only

to reas

on

nor

ms of

mor ality

cri teri

a of jud

gm ent

abo ut

the sor

ts of

per son

we oug

ht to

be and

the sor

ts of

acti on

we oug

ht to

per for

m.

Crit eria

-a set

of prin

cipl es

fro m

whi ch

we may

ded uce

con clu

sio n.

Mor

alit y th

eref ore,

con sist

s in the

rela tion

of a thin

g or acti

on with

the nor

m (con

for