REPORT BE96-3843/2001:18-4

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
Variations with the temperature and during the hydration phase

Paolo Morabito 1

1

ENEL.HYDRO – Hydraulic and Structural Research Center
Published by Department of Civil & Mining Engineering Division of Structural Engineering

ISBN 91 - 89580 – 18 – 4

2001:18-4

SE

CS PA I
Improved Production of Advanced Concrete Structures

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Variations with the temperature and during the hydration phase

Report No: 2001:18-4

Author Address

Paolo Morabito

morabito.paolo@enel.it

ENEL.HYDRO B.U. PIS Via Pozzobonelli 6, 20162 Milan, Italy

Task/Subtask no:

T2/T2.3 Brite EuRam Contract No. BRPR-CT97-0437

Project no: Project title:

Brite EuRam Proposal No. BE96-3843 IPACS - IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF ADVANCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Project coordinator: Partners:

Betongindustri AB, Dr Mats Emborg

Betongindustri AB Cementa AB Selmer ASA Technical University of Delft ENEL Technical University of Luleå NCC AB Skanska Teknik AB Technical University of Braunschweig Ismes Norwegian Public Roads Directorate Elkem AS Norcem AS Technical University of Trondheim 31 May 2001 31 May 2001
Project funded by the European Community under the Industrial & Materials Technologies Programme (Brite-EuRam III)

Date of issue of this report: Revised date:

2

Sweden 3 . • Reduced costs because of the present tendency to specify costly but unnecessarily rigorous crack criteria will be avoided. These efforts include the development. Editorial/production supervision: Cover design: Prepress material: Printed and published by Prof. It is thus of utmost importance. especially regarding new high performance concrete. • Reduced maintenance costs and increase of service lifetime. or arising out of.IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF ADVANCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES . It contains modules of varying simplicity. as inadequate curing leads to malfunction and cracking.Computer modelling of structural behaviour.To check and improve the models of the previous tasks in full-scale tests. which can be used in all the phases of a construction project from pre-design to maintenance Project Partners: See earlier page Project Co-ordinator: Dr Mats Emborg – Betongindustri AB (Heidelberger Zement North Europe) (SE) Dr Hans-Erik Gram/Mr Mats Öberg – Cementa AB (Heidelberger Zement North Europe) (SE) Disclaimer The author/authors and producer of this report have used their best effort in preparing this report. • Expert System. Department of Civil and Mining Engineering. The author/authors and producer make no warranty of any kind. that the proper execution conditions are maintained throughout the construction period by avoiding the premature cracking. A major source of deleterious cracking already in the construction stage is the occurrence of stresses in the hardening concrete due to restrained volume change related to hydration temperatures and shrinkage phenomena. Objective of project Main goal of IPACS is to evaluate. • Field tests . The author/authors and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential damage in connection with. expressed or implied. Lennart Elfgren Hans Hedlund By report authors Luleå University of Technology. or use of these programs. Division of Structural Engineering SE-971 87 Luleå. integrate and extend the existing knowledge about early age concrete crack prediction in engineering practice yielding the following benefits: • Contractors and designers will have new and more reliable engineering instruments enabling them to predict and to optimise the technical effect and cost of alternative designs and execution procedures all in the process of fulfilling the quality requirements set up by the owners or the community (codes).IPACS Background Research and practical experience show that the quality and lifetime of concrete structures largely depend on the curing conditions in the concrete's early life. performance. Main tasks and investigations in IPACS and output from the project: The Expert System synthesises the results from the project into a robust engineering tool for planning and control of the production of concrete structures. • Owners will have access to improved means of specifying and controlling desired quality requirements regarding serviceability and service life of their structures.Testing and modelling of mechanical properties. • Behaviour of structures . with regard to these programs or documentation contained in this report. • Mechanical properties . research and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. • Hydration and volume changes – To acquire data for the modelling of properties of a number of currently used concrete types. the furnishing.

............................................. 13 Influence of temperature on thermal diffusivity.............................3 5.............................................................3 6 Test results during the hydration stage ... 23 4 ................................ 13 Influence of temperature on specific heat.................4.................................................2 5...........................................2............. 15 Specific heat .....................................................................4...........2.........................................4..............3 7 8 Remarks ....... ....................................... 15 Thermal conductivity .....................................................................................2. 20 6..................................................................................................................................................2 5......................................................... 17 6.... 21 References ................................................. 7 Composition of the tested concretes................................................................. 10 Testing programme.................................................................... 18 Thermal conductivity ....................Table of Content 1 2 3 4 Introduction .................................2 6.................. ...... 17 Experimental tests in concrete samples ..1 4........................................................................................1 5............................................................ 12 5................................ 19 Thermal diffusivity.......... 20 Specific heat .. 12 Test results against the temperature variation ......................... 12 4.................2 Experimental tests on a pure cement paste sample ........................................ 14 Modelling of the thermal properties against the temperature variation ............................... 7 The two-linear-parallel-probe method....................1 6...........................................................................2 5 Tests performed during the hardening stage...... 16 Thermal diffusivity.................................4 Influence of temperature on thermal conductivity.........................1 6.................................1 5....... ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 16 5....................................................... 12 Tests performed in hardened concrete samples under temperature variation..........

The experimental testing method is described as well: based upon the linear heat source theory. it requires the use of two special probes to be inserted into the sample. The experimental programme was forwarded to test concrete mixtures with different kinds of cement and aggregate. 5 . This was studied as well by performing experimental measurements on the same samples of concrete under different levels of temperature. It takes into account the results of measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and the results of specific heat calculated from the knowledge of the above measured parameters.Abstract An experimental study on the thermal properties of hardening concrete is presented in this report. The whole results have been modelled by empirical relationships. The measurements were carried out from the pouring time of cylindrical samples and were ended up when hardened conditions were achieved. They describe both the variation of the thermal properties against the maturity age and the variation of the thermal properties against the temperature in a range going from about 0°C up to 100°C. The unavoidable temperature variations during the hydration have required the knowledge of the influence of the temperature on the thermal properties.

kJ/(kg·°C) Temperature. W/(m·°C) Thermal diffusivity at the reference temperature of 20°C. °C Time. cm2/s Specific heat. °C-1 Temperature change. W/(m·°C) Thermal diffusivity. °C Maturity age or equivalent age of concrete. °C-1 Denotes the relative variation of specific heat against the temperature variation.Notation and symbols λ D C λ20 D20 c20 T t r Thermal conductivity. cm2/s Specific heat at the reference temperature of 20°C. °C-1 Denotes the relative variation of thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation. h Two Linear and Parallel Probe method Guarded Hot Plate method ρ βλ βD βc ∆T te TLPP GHP 6 . kJ/(kg·°C) Thermal conductivity at the reference temperature of 20°C. cm Bulk density. s Radial length. kg/m3 Denotes the relative variation of thermal conductivity against the temperature variation.

[kg/m3]. [kJ/(kg·°C)]. [W/(m·°C)]. the so-called Two Linear and Parallel Probe method (TLPP) allows to measure simultaneously the coefficients of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. an experimental research program was carried out with the aim to determine the variations of the thermal properties of concrete with the temperature and during the hydration phase. (1) 2 The two-linear-parallel-probe method The testing method used to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity is the TwoLinear-Parallel-Probe method. λ = thermal conductivity. are presented. The experimental research program has mainly taken into account limestone concretes mixed with two different cement types. A complete set of tests took about up to 200 hours. D = thermal diffusivity. the rate of the temperature rise at any point of an infinite homogeneous medium heated by an infinite linear heat source is given from the following relationship: 7 . The effects of the temperature variations are analysed by performing TLPP tests in hardened samples placed inside a controlled climatic chamber by which a temperature variation from about 0°C up to 100°C is applied to the specimen. The tests were performed by an innovative transient measuring technique based upon the linear heat source theory. ρ = bulk density.1 Introduction Within the task # 2 of the IPACS project. [cm2/s]. The method is based upon the transient theory of the linear heat source developed by Carslaw and Jaeger (1959). and were stopped when no significant change in the thermal properties was detected. The method. According to that theory. used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy. 16 cm in diameter and 32 cm in height. The measurements performed during the hydration started right after the pouring of cylindrical samples. The specific heat is determined according to the following relationship: c= λ ρ⋅ D being: c = specific heat. but additional measurements carried out during the hydration of a pure cement paste sample and in a hardened sample of gravel concrete.

(2) increases until a peak value M is reached and then decreases going to zero at infinite time. Two thermal probes. are inserted in a parallel way into cylindrical samples having a diameter of 160 mm and a height of 320 mm. the other probe is the temperature probe. 8 . the graph shows that eq. It is possible to demonstrate that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity are in relationship with the peak value M and with the corresponding time tM according to the following equations: λ= Q 4⋅π⋅exp(1)⋅ M ⋅t M 2 D= r 4⋅t M (3) The experimental set-up adopted to perform the test is given in Figure 2.r ) Q = exp − r  dt 4⋅π⋅λ⋅t  4⋅D⋅t  (2) where: Q = the heating power per unit length of the source. t = the time elapsed from the start of heating [s].2   dT (t . r = the radial distance of the point from the heat source [cm]. One probe is used as heating probe and is equipped with an electrical heating wire over the entire length. it is usually spaced 20÷25 mm from the heating probe and is equipped with a thermistor to measure the temperature. Rate of temperature rise r Time Figure 1 – Rate of temperature rise against the time according to the transient linear heat source theory. [W/cm]. 4 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height. The rate of the temperature rise is plotted in Figure 1 against the time.

9 . − very short duration of the test.001 0 0 200 400 600 800 Time [ s ] Figure 3 – Example of a TLPP test carried out on a concrete sample. like concrete.003 Experimental data Best fit curve dT/dt [ °C/s ] 0. The rate of the temperature rise. 2. measured by the temperature probe.5 °C/cm). The TLPP test method is particularly suitable to be applied in damp and porous solids. A typical example of test carried out in a concrete sample is given Figure 3 0.002 0. is computed from the start of supply the heating probe and is fitted by eq.Temperature probe Heating probe Thermistor Sample r Figure 2 – Experimental set-up to measure thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The main features of the method are: − little thermal gradients applied to the sample (less than 0. the coefficients M and tM are thus determined by a last mean square procedure.

type 32.5 IIA-L. [W/(m·°C)] Figure 4 – Comparison between the standard guarded hot plate (GHP) method and the TLPP method.5 1 1. 10 . The two types of cement used for each mixing are a blustfurnace cement.5 1 0.5 2 1.5 2 2. 3 Composition of the tested concretes Two concretes having the same composition and mixed with different cement types have been tested. Their chemical analyses are given in Table II.5 IIIA. − suitability to test incoherent solids. The basic concrete composition is given in Table I.5 3 0 Thermal conductivity measured by the GHP method. The reliability of the method has been verified through comparative measurements carried out by means of the standard guarded hot plate (GHP) method (ASTM C177-63) in samples of reference materials and in fully dried concrete samples. [W/(m·°C)] 2.5 Pyrex sample PTFE sample Dry concrete 1 sample Dry concrete 2 sample 0 0.− capability to perform tests during the hardening phase of concrete. and a Portland cement 42. The results of the comparative tests are given in Figure 4 3 Thermal conductivity measured by the TLPP method. − use on site.

Table I .69 0.38 42.91 1.27 15.26 29.46 1.96 3. Cement type Ca0 SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 K2O Na2O MgO SO3 Cl PbO ZnO TiO2 [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] [%] 32.87 2.52 1.22 0.072 - Glow loss [%] no solving rest [%] CO2 Mn3O4 S [%] [%] [%] 11 .22 0.094 0.87 1. Material Recipe [kg/m ] Cement content (C) Crushed limestone 0-1 mm Crushed limestone 1-3 mm Crushed limestone 2-6 mm Crushed limestone 5-8 mm Crushed limestone 6-10 mm Crushed limestone 8-15 mm Total aggregate Water (W) W/C Total for 1 m3 of concrete 175 0.140 0.48 8.49 0.5 II A-L 65.10 4.95 6.50 0.50 0.17 0.41 0.47 0.58 2451 300 494 198 296 198 296 494 1976 175 3 Density [kg/m3] 300 Table II – Chemical analyses of the cements.32 2.5 III A 49.Mix composition of the concrete.

the thermal properties of concrete will depend on the temperature of the sample under test.5 hours from the beginning of the mixing procedure. which in turn causes variation of the thermal properties due to the variation of moisture content. The set of measurements in each sample started after about 0.5 Super plasticizer Sikament (1% of cement content) Water Content [kg/m3] 380 580 440 600 320 3.2 Tests performed in hardened concrete samples under temperature variation.4 Testing programme 4. such relationships were used to reduce to the reference temperature of 20°C the thermal conductivity and diffusivity measurements performed under variable temperature. To avoid loss of free water during the tests. empirical relationships between thermal properties and temperature were determined on the same samples after that their have reached complete hydration. For each of the two concretes a cylindrical sample. 2000). The temperature was varied from about 0°C up to 100°C at steps of 10 °C. 4.2 190 12 . The samples were placed inside a climatic cell that allows controlling the temperature and the humidity. So. Table III – Mixing composition of the concrete used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy. was prepared. The concrete mixing is given in Table III. Due to the development of heat of hydration.5 mm Gravel 8 ÷ 25 mm Pozzolanic cement type CEM IV-A 32. having a diameter of 160 mm and a height of 320 mm. the samples were properly sealed. Right after the mixing procedure the fresh concrete was cast in the moulds. it is almost impossible to keep constant the samples temperature. 5 Test results against the temperature variation The influence of the temperature level was also investigated in completely hardened samples of a concrete used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy (Morabito. In correspondence of each step the samples were allowed to reach the temperature of the cell – and this was checked by the temperature probe inserted into the specimen – and then the TLPP test was performed. having a natural quartzy gravel as aggregate. compacted and then subjected to a set of thermal conductivity and diffusivity measurements by the TLPP method.1 Tests performed during the hardening stage. Material Sand 0 ÷ 4 mm Sand 0 ÷ 8 mm Gravel 4 ÷ 12. Additionally.

32.5 Temperature [°C] Figure 5 – Thermal conductivity against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.6 Limestone concrete .5 IIIA Limestone concrete . They put in evidence that: − the thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of the concrete temperature.Cem.12%·°C ).42. 3 Thermal conductivity [W/(moC)] 2.15%·°C against 0.1 Influence of temperature on thermal conductivity. − the decrease in thermal diffusivity is more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in -1 -1 natural gravel (0. − the decrease in thermal conductivity is more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in -1 -1 natural gravel (0.2 Influence of temperature on thermal diffusivity. 5.06%·°C ).4 0 20 40 60 80 100 2. − the relationship does not depend on the cement type. The results of the thermal conductivity measurements against the temperature are plotted in Figure 5.With such an additional test it is possible to take into account both the effects of different cement types as well different types of aggregate. − the relationship does not seem to depend on the cement type.9 2.27%·°C against 0.Cem.8 2. It is also to point out that the variations in thermal diffusivity are more pronounced than those in conductivity. 13 .7 2.5 IIA-L Gravel concrete 2. The thermal diffusivity measurements are plotted in Figure 6 and lead to the same comments made for conductivity: − the thermal diffusivity decreases with the increase of the concrete temperature. 5.

32.Cem. 1.5 IIA-L Gravel concrete 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.9 Temperature [°C] Figure 6 . 1 from the experimental data of thermal conductivity and diffusivity.90 0.75 0 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature [°C] Figure 7 – Specific heat against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.5 IIA-L Gravel concrete Specific heat [kJ/(kg·°C)] 1. 14 .2 1.5 IIIA Limestone concrete .42.Cem.3 Influence of temperature on specific heat.Thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.10 1.80 0.1.5 IIIA Limestone concrete .Cem. 5. − the variations of specific heat are only a bit more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in natural gravel.32. The specific heat was calculated according to eq. − the relationship seems to be independent on the cement type.4 2 1. The results are plotted in Figure 7. [cm /s] in 10 -2 1.85 0.1 1 Limestone concrete .00 0.05 Limestone concrete .3 1.Cem.5 Thermal diffusivity.42. They put in evidence that: − the specific heat increases with the increase of the concrete temperature.95 0.

15 .5 IIA-L Gravel concrete -20 0 20 40 60 80 -0.Cem. The variation of thermal conductivity with the temperature is thus described by the βλ coefficient whereas the variation of the specific heat is described by the βc coefficient.05 0 -0.1 Thermal conductivity In Figure 8 the experimental results of thermal conductivity are plotted according to the eq.32. β the slope of the relationship to be determined from the experimental data.5.4 Modelling of the thermal properties against the temperature variation The experimental results seem to put in evidence that thermal conductivity and specific heat could be conveniently described by a linear relationship with the temperature. To a reference temperature and Xo the thermal property at the reference temperature.2 Temperature.5 IIIA Limestone concrete . 1 from the knowledge of βλ and βc.42.05 -0. As the measurements of thermal diffusivity exhibit a slight non-linear trend.1 Relative variation of thermal conductivity 0. its variations are calculated by eq. (T-20) [°C] Figure 8 – Relative variation of thermal conductivity against the temperature variation. 5. 4 represents the relative variation of the thermal property against the unit variation of temperature from the reference temperature of 20°C. The reference temperature has been assumed to be equal to 20°C so the β coefficient in eq.1 -0.15 Limestone concrete . For both of these parameters the following relationship has been adopted: XT −Xo = β ⋅ (T − To ) Xo (4) being XT the thermal conductivity or the specific heat at the generic temperature T. 4 0.Cem.4.

32.0015 [°C ] for limestone aggregate. (T-20) [°C] Figure 9 – Relative variation of specific heat against the temperature variation. 1: D T − D 20 (β λ − β c )⋅(T − 20) = D 20 1+ β c ⋅(T − 20 ) (5) A comparison between the measured and predicted results is given in Figure 10. βλ = − 0. βc = 0.0006 [°C ] for gravel aggregate.15 -1 -1 Relative variation of specific heat 0.5 IIIA Limestone concrete .Cem.05 Limestone concrete .1 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature. derived from eq.3 Thermal diffusivity The relative variation of thermal diffusivity can be predicted from the following relationship.4.42.05 0 -0. 0.2 Specific heat -1 -1 In Figure 9 the variations of specific heat are plotted according to eq.Cem.0016 [°C ] for limestone aggregate.5 IIA-L Gravel concrete -0. 16 .The βλ coefficient depends on the aggregate type and from a best fit on the experimental data the following values can be assumed: βλ = − 0.0007 [°C ] for gravel aggregate. 4.1 0.4. 5. The corresponding βc coefficients are: βc = 0. 5.

32. The total temperature variation of the sample during the run time of the tests was of only about 3. (T-20) [°C] Figure 10 – Relative variation of thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation.15 -0. Preliminary tests were performed on a pure cement paste sample of Portland cement with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 IIA-L Gravel concrete Temperature. 6 Test results during the hydration stage 6. 17 .2 -0.42.1 Experimental tests on a pure cement paste sample The gradual transition of the cement paste from plastic to hardened material gives rise to a variation of the thermal properties in young concrete.05 -0.1 Relative variation of thermal diffusivity 0.0.1 Predicted -0.25 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Limestone concrete . 27 26 Temperature [°C] 25 24 23 22 21 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time [h] Figure 11 – Temperature variation of a Portland cement paste sample during hydration.Cem.5 °C (see Figure 11) so no temperature correction was carried out on the measured results of conductivity and thermal diffusivity.4.Cem.05 0 -0.5 IIIA Limestone concrete .

1 X(t) / XH 1. diffusivity and specific heat measurements were corrected for the temperature changes according to the corresponding relationships described in chapter 5. from one hand. calculated according to eq. are subjected to unavoidable temperature variations.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 Age [h] Figure 12 – Change in thermal properties during the hardening phase of a pure Portland cement paste sample. diffusivity and specific heat are plotted in Figure 12 as ratio between the actual measurement X(t) and the corresponding one in the hardened condition XH. being performed during the hydration of the cement. Such variations were measured as well and the thermal conductivity. 6. a greater specific heat than solid minerals. − thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity reach a plateau value after an increase of about 9% and 13%.9 λ H = 1. such an assumption is likely to be realistic. 4. As a result. They put in evidence that: − the thermal properties seem to reach a plateau level after about 20 hours.The measurements result of thermal conductivity. respectively. the variations of thermal properties in a hydrating cement paste are caused by the gradual transformation of the free water in bound water and by the consequent increase of the solid/fluid ratio. such tests were carried out in limestone concretes mixed with two different cement types. determined in hardened concretes.0 0. − both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity increase during the hydration phase of cement whereas the specific heat exhibits a slight decrease.013 [W/(m·°C)] D H = 0. It is assumed that the correlations between thermal properties and temperature. The tests. 18 . from the other hand.6 [kJ/(kg·°C)] Thermal conductivity Thermal diffusivity Specific heat 0. Water exhibit. a lower thermal conductivity and diffusivity than the main solid minerals and. As the aggregate is by far the main constituents of a concrete mixing and the experimental results have demonstrated that the variation of the thermal properties with the temperature depends on the nature of aggregate.00340 [cm2/s] c H = 1. 1.8 0. can be applied at any age of concrete. decreases of only about 3%. the specific heat.2 Experimental tests in concrete samples As previously mentioned. − as a consequence of that.

IA 5 I L 0.5 IIA-L (6) (7) C em entt ype 32. 9 0. 8 Cem ent t ype 32. II 5 IA Cem ent t ype 42.2. 1. 1 λ(te) / λ20 1. II 5 IA C em entt ype 42. 19 . given by: EA = 45.43 · (20 – T) 35 for cement type 32. 0 0.The experimental results during the hydration stage are thus reduced to the reference temperature of 20°C and are plotted against the equivalent age.1 Thermal conductivity The ratio λ/λ20 between thermal conductivity at early age and the conductivity of the hardened concrete at the reference temperature of 20°C is plotted in Figure 14 against the equivalent age for the two tested concretes. IA5 I L Temperature [ °C ] 30 25 20 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 Age [h] Figure 13 – Temperature variation during the hydration stage of the tested concretes.5 IIIA for cement type 42. The latter has been calculated taking account of the temperature variations during the hydration stage and of the experimental relationships of energy activation (Morabito. 6.99 · (20 – T) EA = 58.14 + 0. 2000) for the two tested cements. 7 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 Equivalent age [h] Figure 14 – Variation of thermal conductivity against the equivalent age of hardening concretes.80 + 1.

The rise of thermal diffusivity at early age can be described by the following equation: D(t e ) = 0. IA 5 I L 0. 80 Cem ent t ype 32. the conductivity variation can be described by the following relationship: λ(t e ) = 0. 90 0.08 ⋅ e t e λ 20 −8. 20 .2. 1 and is plotted in Figure 16.From a best fit on the experimental data. the ratio D/D20 between the thermal diffusivity at early age and the diffusivity of the hardened concrete at 20°C is plotted in Figure 15 against the equivalent age. 00 0. 6.2 (8) being λ20 equal to 2. 70 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 Equivalent age [h] Figure 15 .75 W/(m·°C) for both types of concrete.0129 cm /s for the other tested concrete.92 + 0.93 + 0.Thermal diffusivity against the equivalent age of hardening concretes.2. 6. 2 1.3 Specific heat The specific heat has been calculated according to eq. II 5 IA Cem ent t ype 42. 10 D ( e) /D 20 t 1.07 ⋅ e t e D 20 2 − 6 .6 (9) with D20 equal to 0.2 Thermal diffusivity In a similar way as for conductivity.5 IIIA and 0.0126 cm /s for the concrete with cement type 32.

21 kcal/(kg·°C) for the two tested concretes. and the variations of the thermal properties with the temperature. The tests have been performed by the Two-Linear-Parallel-Probe method.9 0. namely thermal conductivity. The tests have taken into account the variations of the thermal properties at early ages. caused from the gradual transition from a plastic to a lytic material during the cement hydration. have put in evidence that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity decrease as far as the temperature increases whereas the specific heat increases with the temperature rise. for all the practical purpose.5 IIIA Cement type 42.7 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 Equivalent age [h] Figure 16 . 1. can be assumed. They have been obtained from best-fit analyses on experimental measurements carried out in concrete samples.1 c(te) / c20 1. The variations.The results put in evidence only a very slight decrease of this parameter during the hydration stage so. can be conveniently described by the following general relationship: X T − X 20 = β ⋅ (T − 20 ) X 20 21 . which are more pronounced in the limestone concrete. a transient method particularly suitable to measure thermal conductivity and diffusivity in concrete samples. equal to 0.0 0.5 IIA-L 0. thermal diffusivity and specific heat. a constant value. 7 Remarks Some relationships dealing with the variations of thermal properties of concrete.8 Cement type 32. The temperature effects. examined in a limestone concrete and in a gravel concrete.Specific heat against the equivalent age of hardening concretes. are proposed in this paper.

The experimental results have put in evidence a decrease in the pure cement paste of the order of only 3% but negligible variations are observed in the concrete samples. Table IV – Temperature coefficients determined in the two tested concretes.0016 -0. in Table IV the values of this coefficient for two tested concretes are summarised. the increases in conductivity and diffusivity in hardening pure cement paste samples have been of about 9% and 13%. To have an idea of the order of magnitude and the range of variation of β. Limestone concrete Gravel concrete Temperature coefficient [°C-1] Thermal conductivity. respectively. At last. it has been assumed that the thermal diffusivity changes linearly with the temperature and a βD coefficient equal to βλ− βc has been adopted.00142 2 2 cm /s against 0. 22 . Water conductivity and diffusivity are lower than conductivity and diffusivity of a lytic material – typically 0. the specific heat of water is greater than the specific heat of a lytic material – 4. The corresponding increases in concrete samples during the hydration are of the order of 7÷8%. On the other hand.0006 0. At last. Additionally.so a decrease in specific heat would be expected during the hardening stage. βc Thermal diffusivity. The gradual transformation of the free water in bound water gives rise to a lytic material. its content in the concrete mixes is of the order of 80% against 12% of cement content. the temperature coefficients do not seem to be affected from the cement type and this is in agreement with the main role played from the aggregate. βD=βλ− βc -0.186 kJ/kg/°C against 0.0007 -0. The test results carried out during the hydration stage put in evidence a gradual increase of thermal conductivity and diffusivity up to a plateau value corresponding to that one measured in the hardened samples whilst the specific heat can be assumed to be constant during the hydration process.6 W/m/°C against 2. Such a different behaviour is to be ascribed to the role of the aggregate which.where β is a temperature coefficient that depends on the aggregate type and must be experimentally determined. respectively – and this explains the increase of conductivity and diffusivity in hardening concretes.0015 0. from one hand. from the other hand. The effects of the aggregate are still evident but to a lower extent than in the specific heat.0013 In Table IV. 5 where the second term of the denominator can be neglected in respect to 1 for low temperature variations. βλ Specific heat.75 kJ/kg/°C .9 W/m/°C for thermal conductivity and 0.0031 -0. a better process of heat conduction is to be ascribed to a solid than to a fluid and composite material because in the latter the unavoidable thermal contact resistances between the different components can obstruct the process of heat conduction. This rises from eq. it is not affected from physical/chemical changes during the hydration stage and.015 cm /s for thermal diffusivity.

”Determination of the apparent activation energy by adiabatic tests on concrete samples”. A. 391-400. A. “ Conduction of Heat in Solids”. 23 . 2000. pp. Pion Limited.8 References Carslaw. P.S. 3rd edition. Lanciani. Pion Limited. “Measurements of the thermal properties of different concretes”. 11th ECTP. Sub-task # 2. H. Morabito.1. London 1989. ”Field test in Italy: sluice gate on the Brembo river”. 21. Morabito. 2000. C. Oxford 1959. P. S.2. vol. IPACS Report. “Thermal conductivity of materials by means of a guarded hot plate”. IPACS Report. High Temperature-High Pressure. ASTM Specification C177-63. et al. P. Task # 2. Clarendon Press. London 1993. Morabito. J. “The two-linear-parallel-probe method: a review”.M. 1989. Lanciani. Task # 5. 1963.T. Sub-task # 5. et al. “Measurements of the thermophysical properties of structural materials in laboratory and in situ: methods and instrumentation”. A. and Jaeger. 12th ECTP.