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(An Autonomous Institute) Department of Electronics Engineering M.Tech. Part II Dissertation Phase I SYNOPSIS

1. Name of Student 2. Name of Course 3. Date of Registration 4. Name of Guide 5. Proposed Title of Dissertation : : : : : Mr. Mane Nikhil Niwas M.Tech. in Electronics Engineering August, 2009. Mr. B. G. Patil Iris feature extraction and classification using FPGA.

6.

A) Problem Definition and Relevance Iris image processing having main four steps are image acquisition, image preprocessing, feature extraction and matching. Output of feature extraction block is nxm size image. To increase speed of matching stage need to reduce dimension of template image without losing information. Singular value decomposition algorithm extract nxm size image to 1xm size array hence matching can be perform n times faster. Beauty of SVD algorithm is, it extracts maximum information at first element and minimum information at last element in array hence we can ignore last elements for more optimization. Template can be matched with stored templates in read only memory in FPGA and classify using calculating hamming distance. This work deals with FPGA implementation of iris feature extraction using singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm and iris pattern matching (i.e. classification) using hamming distance. Image data can be sent through serial or parallel port of personal computer. Images will be taken from standard database.

Iris feature extraction and classification using FPGA. B) Present Theories Iris biometric processing require large computation time than other biometric processing, so using single chip solutions for iris recognition system having constraint on speed and throughput. Now a days single chip solutions are provided by some manufacturer e.g. Texas instrument (TI) TMS320DM54xx, TMS320DM64x, OMAP series processors but not specific for iris image processing. Iris Recognition: Intelligent personal identification based on biometrics measurement such as facial feature, thermal emission, retina, iris, gait, voiceprint, gesture, palmprints, fingerprints, handwritten signature, hand geometry etc. Iris is the only internal human organ that is visible from outside thus well protected from external modifiers. Fingerprint may suffer from harm and aging, voice patterns may be altered due to vocal diseases. The main steps in Iris recognition system consists of: Image Acquisition: The first step of Iris Recognition is image acquisition. Normally, black and white camera should use for acquisition and must have enough resolution to capture the details of the iris patterns. The illumination angle will determine the dark and light parts of the image. It is very important that one system implements consistent illumination, on the contrary the same iris may generate two different classes under two different illumination angles. Also, the pupil is an open door to the retina, one of the most sensitive organs of our body, and extra care must be taken when shedding direct light over it. y Image Segmentation: The segmentation is process to remove non useful information, namely the pupil segment and the part outside the iris (sclera, eyelids, skin). Following are steps involve in segmentation. Detecting the Pupil Boundary Iris Edge Detection y Feature Extraction: Image is a huge redundant data. Single image contains lot of low frequency components within region of interest (ROI) hence feature extraction process extract valuable information from ROI into a small vector that represents univocally the user. Feature extraction algorithm chosen is based on two requirements, performance of the whole system and complexity of the hardware required to achieve it. y

Iris feature extraction and classification using FPGA. Iris Pattern Matching: After the feature extraction the Iris templates are then matched with unknown templates using matching algorithms. Performance of this block should be the most robust part of the system. Hamming distance is simpler way to find out depth of matching. Matching and non-matching is based on hamming distance. If distance is minimum (i.e. below threshold value) pattern is match, otherwise corresponding Iris pattern is not in the database. y

7. Introduction: This work will do with combination of hardware and software. Using FPGA speed, area, power and throughput can be optimize, also re-configurability obtained easily. Hardware system will be FPGA starter kit. The image data can be get via communication port of personal computer. Note that interfacing parallel port to FPGA kits needs extra hardware such as line buffers. Block diagram of system:-

Figure 1: block diagram of system Personal computer: Acquisition of image is either from camera or standard image database. Todays cameras are able to provide compressed image (using JPEG standards) camera itself. Image segmentation can be done using Hough transform. These two steps can be performing with the help of MTLAB software. Segmented images are stored into personal computer due to limited memory in FPGA integrated circuit.

Serial / parallel communication: The segmented image data can be sent through communication port, to reduce data transmission time can use parallel interface, since transmission can be n times faster than serial interface. Where n is number of parallel bits (max 8). FPGA starter kit: Calculations of Singular Value Decomposition and hamming distance can implements in FPGA kit using VHDL programming, size of S vector (template) is depends on architecture of FPGA kit.

Single value decomposition algorithm: If X is a matrix with row and column dimensions n and m respectively, then n by n orthogonal matrix U and m by m orthogonal matrix V can be found such that,

Where is a p by p diagonal matrix (p is the minimum of n and m). The diagonal elements of are the singular values of X and they are stored from largest to smallest. The above equation assumes that n >= m. Since U and V are orthogonal (and so their inverses are equal to their transpose), the above equation can also be written as:

For large matrices, it can be impractical to compute U (which is n by n). However, U can be partitioned into U = (U1, U2) Where U1 is n by p. Then X = U1SV This factorization of X called singular value decomposition. The singular values in S are square roots of Eigen values from U or V. The singular values are always real numbers. If the matrix A is a real matrix, then U and V are also real.

Start Set communication parameters. Convert serial data to parallel vector. Combining parallel vectors becomes n x m size image A (n x m). Obtain transpose in matrix A as A (m x n). Obtain W1 (n x n) = A*A and W2 (m x m) = A*A. Obtain eigenvector of W1 is U (n x n) and W2 is V (m x m). Obtain square root of eigenvalue of U or V is diagonal elements of S (p x p) matrix, arranged in descending form.

Finish

8. The Proposed Work: 1. Study of SVD algorithm and matching algorithm. 2. Study of FPGA implementation techniques for optimizing speed, power and performance. 3. Study of Xilinx ISE design suite Software. 4. VHDL codes and FPGA implementation using Xilinx software suite. 5. Study the performance of system on the basis of area, power, throughput, etc. 10. Facilities Available : Xilinx ISE Tool, FPGA starter kit, Library, Computer Lab, Internet etc

: 15,000/-(Approx.)

References:

SOLUTION FOR PROCESSING IRIS BIOMETRICS" security Technology, 2005. CCST '05. 39th Annual 2005. 2) Christel-loc TISSE, Lionel MARTIN, Lionel TORRES and Michel ROBERT

"Person identification technique using human iris recognition" France, July 2000. 3) Li Ma, Yunhong Wang and Tieniu Tan "Iris Recognition Using Circular

Symmetric Filters Pattern Recognition, 2002. 4) Ignacio Bravo, Pedro Jimenez, Manuel Mazo, Jose Luis Lzaro and Alfredo

Gardel IMPLEMENTATION IN FPGAS OF JACOBI METHOD TO SOLVE THE EIGENVALUE AND EIGENVECTOR PROBLEM, 2006. 5) Li Ma, Tieniu Tan, Fellow, IEEE, Yunhong Wang, Member, IEEE, and Dexin

Zhang "Efficient Iris Recognition by Characterizing Key Local Variations"IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 6, JUNE 2004. 6) Li Ma, Tieniu Tan, Senior Member, IEEE, Yunhong Wang, Member, IEEE, and

Dexin Zhang "Personal Identification Based on Iris Texture Analysis", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2003. 7) Fernando E. Ortiz, John R. Humphrey, James P. Durbano and Dennis W. Prather

A Study on the Design of Floating-Point Functions in FPGAs 2003. 8) Javier Hormigo, Manuel Sanchez, Mario A. Gonzalez, Gerardo Bandera, Julio

Villalba, Optimized FPGA Implementation of Trigonometric Functions with Large Input Argument Proc. Of XIX Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems, 2004

Books: 1. Rafael Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education, India (2002). 2. Xilinx vertex series user guide. 3. Xilinx Spartan series user guide.

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