CHEMISTRY

Data Booklet
revised 2008         

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Legend for Elements

Key
Atomic number

Electronegativity
Symbol
Name

26

*

Most stable
ion charges

3+, 2+

5

1.8

Fe
iron

10.81

2+, 3+

29

63.55
2+, 1+

2+

12.01

7

14.01

8

16.00

26.98
3+

31

14

28.09

3+

30.97

16

32.07

P

S

Cl

Ar

32

phosphorus

72.64
4+

33

74.92

sulfur

78.96

Br

Kr

2.2

1.9

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.1

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

80

81

78

silver

195.08
4+, 2+

79

cadmium

196.97
3+, 1+

indium

200.59

2+, 1+

tin

204.38
1+, 3+

82

207.2*

2+, 4+

selenium

121.76

3+, 5+

I

Xe

83

84

1.8

1.8

1.9

2.0

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

110

(271)

111

lead

(272)


Ds

thallium

bismuth

54

Te

1.9

mercury

2.6

2.4

gold

126.90

2.7

antimony
3+, 5+

53

iodine

(209)

2+, 4+
902
254

polonium

85

83.80

krypton

2.1

2.2

platinum

tellurium

208.98

bromine

127.60

36

52

palladium

3.0

51

4+, 2+

79.90

2.6

50

3+

35

39.95

argon

2.2

49

118.71

chlorine

34

germanium

2+

18

Si

Se

1+

arsenic

2+, 3+

35.45

3.2

As

114.82

17

2.6

Ge

112.41

neon

2.2

Ga

gallium

fluorine

1.9

silicon

69.72

15

Zn
48

20.18

Ne

Cu

107.87

10

F

oxygen

Ni

47

O

nitrogen

2.0

106.42

19.00

N

carbon

1.8

46

9

C

1.7

zinc

helium

B

1.9

copper

He

1.9

nickel

4.0

1.6

65.41

6

4.00

3.4

13

30

2

3.0

aluminium

58.69

Liquids

2.6

Al
28

Non-metallic solids

2.0

boron

* Based on 126 C
( ) Indicates mass of the
most stable isotope

Gases

Note: The legend denotes the physical state of the elements
at exactly 101.325 kPa and 298.15 K.

Atomic molar
mass (g/mol)

55.85

Metallic solids

131.29

xenon

(210)

86

(222)

2.2

At

Rn

astatine

radon

* The isotopic mix of naturally occurring lead is more variable than other
elements, preventing precision to greater than tenths of a gram per mole.


Rg

darmstadtium roentgenium

63

151.96
3+, 2+

64

157.25
3+

65

158.93

3+

66

162.50

3+

67

164.93
3+

68

167.26
3+

69

168.93

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

europium

95

(243)

3+, 4+

gadolinium

96

(247)
3+

terbium

97

(247)

3+, 4+

dysprosium

98

(251)
3+

holmium

99

erbium

(252)
3+

100

(257)
3+

101

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

curium

berkelium

californium

einsteinium

fermium

70

173.04
3+, 2+

ytterbium

(258)

2+, 3+

102

(259)

2+, 3+

No

71

174.97
2+

1.0

Yb

thulium

americium

3+

mendelevium nobelium

Lu

lutetium

103

(262)
3+

Lr

lawrencium

Chemistry Notation
Symbol

Term

Unit(s)

c

specific heat capacity

J/(g · ºC) or J/(g · K)

C

heat capacity

J/ºC or J/K

E

electrical potential

V or J/C

Ek

kinetic energy

kJ

Ep

potential energy

kJ

∆H

enthalpy (heat)

kJ

∆fHº

standard molar enthalpy of formation

kJ/mol

current

A or C/s

Kc

equilibrium constant

Ka

acid ionization (dissociation) constant

Kb

base ionization (dissociation) constant

M

molar mass

g/mol

m

mass

g

n

amount of substance

mol

P

pressure

kPa

Q

charge

C

T

temperature (absolute)

K

t

temperature (Celsius)

ºC

t

time

s

V

volume

L

c

amount concentration

mol/L

I

Symbol

Term

delta (change in)

º

standard

[]

amount concentration 

Miscellaneous
25.00 °C............................................

equivalent to 298.15 K

Specific heat capacity........................

cair

=

1.01 J/(g · °C)

(at 298.15 K and 100.000 kPa)

cpolystyrene foam cup

=

1.01 J/(g · °C)

ccopper

=

0.385 J/(g · °C)

caluminium

=

0.897 J/(g · °C)

ctin

=

0.227 J/(g · °C)

=

4.19 J/(g · °C)

cwater
–14

Water autoionization constant...........
(Dissociation constant)

Kw = 1.0 × 10
at 298.15 K
(for ion concentrations in mol/L)

Faraday constant...............................

F = 9.65 × 104 C/mol e–

Quadratic formula.............................

________


b ±
 ​
  
b 2 – 4ac  
​ 
x = ______________
​ 
 

2a

Selected SI Prefixes
Exponential
Symbol

Value

tera

T

1012

giga

G

109

mega

M

106

kilo

k

103

milli

m

10–3

micro

µ

10–6

nano

n

10–9

pico

p

10–12

Prefix 

Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation at 298.15 K
Name

Formula

aluminium oxide
ammonia
ammonium chloride
ammonium nitrate
barium carbonate
barium chloride
barium hydroxide
barium oxide
barium sulfate
benzene
butane
calcium carbonate
calcium chloride
calcium hydroxide
calcium oxide
calcium sulfate
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
chromium(III) oxide
copper(I) oxide
copper(II) oxide
copper(II) sulfate
copper(I) sulfide
copper(II) sulfide
dinitrogen tetroxide
ethane
ethanoic acid (acetic acid)
ethanol
ethene (ethylene)
ethyne (acetylene)
glucose
hydrogen bromide
hydrogen chloride
hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen iodide
hydrogen perchlorate
hydrogen peroxide
hydrogen sulfide
iron(II) oxide
iron(III) oxide
iron(II,III) oxide (magnetite)
lead(II) bromide
lead(II) chloride
lead(II) oxide (red)
lead(IV) oxide
magnesium carbonate
magnesium chloride

Al2O3(s)
NH3(g)
NH4Cl(s)
NH4NO3(s)
BaCO3(s)
BaCl2(s)
Ba(OH)2(s)
BaO(s)
BaSO4(s)
C6H6(l)
C4H10(g)
CaCO3(s)
CaCl2(s)
Ca(OH)2(s)
CaO(s)
CaSO4(s)
CO2(g)
CO(g)
Cr2O3(s)
Cu2O(s)
CuO(s)
CuSO4(s)
Cu2S(s)
CuS(s)
N2O4(g)
C2H6(g)
CH3COOH(l)
C2H5OH(l)
C2H4(g)
C2H2(g)
C6H12O6(s)
HBr(g)
HCl(g)
HF(g)
HI(g)
HClO4(l)
H2O2(l)
H2S(g)
FeO(s)
Fe2O3(s)
Fe3O4(s)
PbBr2(s)
PbCl2(s)
PbO(s)
PbO2(s)
MgCO3(s)
MgCl2(s) 

Δ f H° (kJ/mol)
– 1 675.7
– 45.9
– 314.4
– 365.6
– 1 213.0
– 855.0
– 944.7
– 548.0
– 1 473.2
+ 49.1
– 125.7
– 1 207.6
– 795.4
– 985.2
– 634.9
– 1 434.5
– 393.5
– 110.5
– 1 139.7
– 168.6
– 157.3
– 771.4
– 79.5
– 53.1
+ 11.1
– 84.0
– 484.3
– 277.6
+ 52.4
+ 227.4
– 1 273.3
– 36.3
– 92.3
– 273.3
+ 26.5
– 40.6
– 187.8
– 20.6
– 272.0
– 824.2
– 1 118.4
– 278.7
– 359.4
– 219.0
– 277.4
– 1 095.8
– 641.3

Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation at 298.15 K cont’d

Name

Formula

magnesium hydroxide
magnesium oxide
magnesium sulfate
manganese(II) oxide
manganese(IV) oxide
mercury(II) oxide (red)
mercury(II) sulfide (red)
methanal (formaldehyde)
methane
methanoic acid (formic acid)
methanol
nickel(II) oxide
nitric acid
nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen monoxide
octane
pentane
phosphorus pentachloride
phosphorus trichloride (liquid)
phosphorus trichloride (vapour)
potassium bromide
potassium chlorate
potassium chloride
potassium hydroxide
propane
silicon dioxide (α-quartz)
silver bromide
silver chloride
silver iodide
sodium bromide
sodium chloride
sodium hydroxide
sodium iodide
sucrose
sulfur dioxide
sulfuric acid
sulfur trioxide (liquid)
sulfur trioxide (vapour)
tin(II) chloride
tin(IV) chloride
tin(II) oxide
tin(IV) oxide
water (liquid)
water (vapour)
zinc oxide
zinc sulfide (sphalerite)

Mg(OH)2(s)
MgO(s)
MgSO4(s)
MnO(s)
MnO2(s)
HgO(s)
HgS(s)
CH2O(g)
CH4(g)
HCOOH(l)
CH3OH(l)
NiO(s)
HNO3(l)
NO2(g)
NO(g)
C8H18(l)
C5H12(l)
PCl5(s)
PCl3(l)
PCl3(g)
KBr(s)
KClO3(s)
KCl(s)
KOH(s)
C3H8(g)
SiO2(s)
AgBr(s)
AgCl(s)
AgI(s)
NaBr(s)
NaCl(s)
NaOH(s)
NaI(s)
C12H22O11(s)
SO2(g)
H2SO4(l)
SO3(l)
SO3(g)
SnCl2(s)
SnCl4(l)
SnO(s)
SnO2(s)
H2O(l)
H2O(g)
ZnO(s)
ZnS(s) 

Δ f H° (kJ/mol)
– 924.5
– 601.6
– 1 284.9
– 385.2
– 520.0
– 90.8
– 58.2
– 108.6
– 74.6
– 425.0
– 239.2
– 240.6
– 174.1
+ 33.2
+ 91.3
– 250.1
– 173.5
– 443.5
– 319.7
– 287.0
– 393.8
– 397.7
– 436.5
– 424.6
– 103.8
– 910.7
– 100.4
– 127.0
– 61.8
– 361.1
– 411.2
– 425.8
– 287.8
– 2 226.1
– 296.8
– 814.0
– 441.0
– 395.7
– 325.1
– 511.3
– 280.7
– 577.6
– 285.8
– 241.8
– 350.5
– 206.0

Solubility of Some Common Ionic Compounds in Water at 298.15 K

Ion

Solubility
greater than
or equal to
0.1 mol/L
(very
soluble)

Solubility
less than
0.1 mol/L
(slightly
soluble)

H+
Na+
NH4+, NO3–
ClO3–, ClO4–
CH3COO–

F–

Cl –
Br–
I–

CO32–
PO43–
SO32–

I O 3–
OOCCOO2–

H+
Na+
K+
NH4+

H+
Na+
K+
NH4+
Li+
Ni2+
Zn2+

most

most

Exception:
Li2CO3
is soluble

Exceptions:
Co(IO3)2
Fe2(C2O4)3
are soluble

SO42–

most

most

most

most

RbClO4
CsClO4
AgCH3COO
Hg2(CH3COO)2

Li+
Mg2+
Ca2+
Sr2+
Ba2+
Fe2+
Hg22+
Pb2+

Cu+
Ag+
Hg22+
Hg2+
Pb2+

Ca2+
Sr2+
Ba2+
Hg22+
Pb2+
Ag+

S2–

OH –

H
Na+
K+
NH4+
Li+
Mg2+
Ca2+

H+
Na+
K+
NH4+
Li+
Sr2+
Ca2+
Ba2+

most

most

+

Note: This solubility table is only a guideline that is established using the Ksp values. A concentration of
0.1 mol/L corresponds to approximately 10 g/L to 30 g/L depending on molar mass.

Flame Colour of Elements
Element

Symbol

Colour

lithium
sodium
potassium
rubidium
cesium
calcium
strontium
barium
copper
boron
lead

Li
Na

red
yellow

K
Rb
Cs
Ca
Sr
Ba
Cu
B
Pb

violet
violet
violet
yellowish red
scarlet red
yellowish green
blue to green
yellowish green
blue-white

Note: The flame test can be used to determine the identity of a metal or a metal ion. Blue to green indicates
a range of colours that might appear. 

Table of Selected Standard Electrode Potentials*

Reduction Half-Reaction
2 e–

F2(g) +
PbO2(s) + SO42–(aq) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 e
MnO4–(aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 5 e–
Au3+(aq) + 3 e–

ClO4 (aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 8 e–
Cl2(g) + 2 e–
2 HNO2(aq) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e–
Cr2O72–(aq) + 14 H+(aq) + 6 e–
O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e–
MnO2(s) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 e–
Br2(l) + 2 e–
Hg2+(aq) + 2 e–

OCl (aq) + H2O(l) + 2 e–
2 NO3–(aq) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 e–
Ag+(aq) + e–
Fe3+(aq) + e–
O2(g) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 e–
I2(s) + 2 e–
O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + 4 e–
Cu2+(aq) + 2 e–
2–
SO4 (aq) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 e–
Sn4+(aq) + 2 e–
S(s) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 e–
AgBr(s) + e–
2 H+(aq) + 2 e–
Pb2+(aq) + 2 e–
Sn2+(aq) + 2 e–
AgI(s) + e–
Ni2+(aq) + 2 e–
Co2+(aq) + 2 e–
PbSO4(s) + 2 e–
Se(s) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 e–
Cd2+(aq) + 2 e–
Cr3+(aq) + e–
Fe2+(aq) + 2 e–

NO2 (aq) + H2O(l) + e–
Ag2S(s) + 2 e–
Zn2+(aq) + 2 e–
2 H2O(l) + 2 e–
Cr2+(aq) + 2 e–
Se(s) + 2 e–
SO42–(aq) + H2O(l) + 2 e–
Al3+(aq) + 3 e–
Mg2+(aq) + 2 e–
Na+(aq) + e–
Ca2+(aq) + 2 e–
Ba2+(aq) + 2 e–
K+(aq) + e–
Li+(aq) + e–

Electrical Potential E° (V)

2 F (aq) ...................................................
PbSO4(s) + 2 H2O(l) .............................
Mn2+(aq) + 4 H2O(l) .............................
Au(s) .......................................................
Cl–(aq) + 4 H2O(l) . ...............................
2 Cl–(aq) ..................................................
N2O(g) + 3 H2O(l) ................................
2 Cr3+(aq) + 7 H2O(l) ............................
2 H2O(l) . .................................................
Mn2+(aq) + 2 H2O(l) .............................
2 Br–(aq) . ................................................
Hg(l) . ......................................................
Cl–(aq) + 2 OH–(aq) ..............................
N2O4(g) + 2 H2O(l) ...............................
Ag(s) .......................................................
Fe2+(aq) . .................................................
H2O2(l) ....................................................
2 I–(aq) ....................................................
4 OH–(aq) ................................................
Cu(s) .......................................................
H2SO3(aq) + H2O(l) . ............................
Sn2+(aq) . .................................................
H2S(aq) ...................................................
Ag(s) + Br–(aq) .....................................
H2(g) .......................................................
Pb(s) ........................................................
Sn(s) ........................................................
Ag(s) + I–(aq) . ......................................
Ni(s) ........................................................
Co(s) .......................................................
Pb(s) + SO42–(aq) . ................................
H2Se(aq) . ................................................
Cd(s) ......................................................
Cr2+(aq) . .................................................
Fe(s) ........................................................
NO(g) + 2 OH–(aq) ...............................
2 Ag(s) + S2–(aq) . .................................
Zn(s) . ......................................................
H2(g) + 2OH–(aq) .................................
Cr(s) ........................................................
Se2–(aq) ...................................................
SO32–(aq) + 2OH–(aq) . ........................
Al(s) ........................................................
Mg(s) . .....................................................
Na(s) .......................................................
Ca(s) . ......................................................
Ba(s) . ......................................................
K(s) .........................................................
Li(s)..........................................................

*For 1.0 mol/L solutions at 298.15 K (25.00 °C) and a pressure of 101.325 kPa 

+ 2.87
+ 1.69
+ 1.51
+ 1.50
+ 1.39
+ 1.36
+ 1.30
+ 1.23
+ 1.23
+ 1.22
+ 1.07
+ 0.85
+ 0.84
+ 0.80
+ 0.80
+ 0.77
+ 0.70
+ 0.54
+ 0.40
+ 0.34
+ 0.17
+ 0.15
+ 0.14
+ 0.07
0.00
– 0.13
– 0.14
– 0.15
– 0.26
– 0.28
– 0.36
– 0.40
– 0.40
– 0.41
– 0.45
– 0.46
– 0.69
– 0.76
– 0.83
– 0.91
– 0.92
– 0.93
– 1.66
– 2.37
– 2.71
– 2.87
– 2.91
– 2.93
– 3.04

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases at 298.15 K
Common Name
IUPAC / Systematic Name

Acid Formula

Conjugate Base
Formula

perchloric acid
aqueous hydrogen perchlorate

HClO4(aq)

ClO4–(aq)

very large

hydroiodic acid
aqueous hydrogen iodide

HI(aq)

I –(aq)

very large

hydrobromic acid
aqueous hydrogen bromide

HBr(aq)

Br–(aq)

very large

hydrochloric acid
aqueous hydrogen chloride

HCl(aq)

Cl–(aq)

very large

sulfuric acid
aqueous hydrogen sulfate

H2SO4(aq)

HSO4–(aq)

very large

nitric acid
aqueous hydrogen nitrate

HNO3(aq)

NO3–(aq)

very large

hydronium ion

H3O+(aq)

H2O(l)

oxalic acid

HOOCCOOH(aq)

HOOCCOO–(aq)

5.6 × 10 – 2

sulfurous acid
aqueous hydrogen sulfite

H2SO3(aq)

HSO3–(aq)

1.4 × 10 – 2

hydrogen sulfate ion

HSO4–(aq)

SO42–(aq)

1.0 × 10 – 2

phosphoric acid
aqueous hydrogen phosphate

H3PO4(aq)

H2PO4–(aq)

6.9 × 10 – 3

citric acid
2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid

C3H5O(COOH)3(aq)

C3H5O(COOH)2COO–(aq)

7.4 × 10 – 4

hydrofluoric acid
aqueous hydrogen fluoride

HF(aq)

F–(aq)

6.3 × 10 – 4

nitrous acid
aqueous hydrogen nitrite

HNO2(aq)

NO2–(aq)

5.6 × 10 – 4

formic acid
methanoic acid

HCOOH(aq)

HCOO–(aq)

1.8 × 10 – 4

hydrogen oxalate ion

HOOCCOO–(aq)

OOCCOO2–(aq)

1.5 × 10 – 4

lactic acid
2-hydroxypropanoic acid

C2H5OCOOH(aq)

C2H5OCOO–(aq)

1.4 × 10 – 4

ascorbic acid
2(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-4,5-dihydroxy
-furan-3-one

H2C6H6O6(aq)

HC6H6O6–(aq)

9.1 × 10 – 5

benzoic acid
benzenecarboxylic acid

C6H5COOH(aq)

C6H5COO–(aq)

6.3 × 10 – 5

acetic acid
ethanoic acid

CH3COOH(aq)

CH3COO–(aq)

1.8 × 10 – 5 

Ka

1

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases at 298.15 K
Common Name
IUPAC / Systematic Name

Acid Formula

Conjugate Base Formula

Ka

dihydrogen citrate ion

C3H5O(COOH)2COO–(aq)

C3H5OCOOH(COO)22–(aq)

1.7 × 10 – 5

butanoic acid

C3H7COOH(aq)

C3H7COO–(aq)

1.5 × 10 – 5

propanoic acid

C2H5COOH(aq)

C2H5COO–(aq)

1.3 × 10 – 5

carbonic acid (CO2 + H2O)
aqueous hydrogen carbonate

H2CO3(aq)

HCO3–(aq)

4.5 × 10 – 7

hydrogen citrate ion

C3H5OCOOH(COO)22–(aq) C3H5O(COO)33–(aq)

hydrosulfuric acid
aqueous hydrogen sulfide

H2S(aq)

HS–(aq)

8.9 × 10 – 8

hydrogen sulfite ion

HSO3–(aq)

SO32–(aq)

6.3 × 10 – 8

dihydrogen phosphate ion

H2PO4–(aq)

HPO42–(aq)

6.2 × 10 – 8

hypochlorous acid
aqueous hydrogen hypochlorite

HOCl(aq)

OCl–(aq)

4.0 × 10 – 8

hydrocyanic acid
aqueous hydrogen cyanide

HCN(aq)

CN–(aq)

6.2 × 10 – 10

ammonium ion

NH4+(aq)

NH3(aq)

5.6 × 10 – 10

hydrogen carbonate ion

HCO3–(aq)

CO32–(aq)

4.7 × 10 – 11

hydrogen ascorbate ion

HC6H6O6–(aq)

C6H6O62–(aq)

2.0 × 10 – 12

hydrogen phosphate ion

HPO42–(aq)

PO43–(aq)

4.8 × 10 – 13

water

H2O(l)

OH –(aq)

1.0 × 10 – 14

4.0 × 10 – 7

Note: An approximation may be used instead of the quadratic formula when the concentration of H3O+ produced is
less than 5% of the original acid concentration (or the concentration of the acid is 1 000 times greater than the
Ka). The same approximation can also be used for weak bases. The formula of the carboxylic acids have been
written so that the COOH group can be easily recognized. Either the common or IUPAC name is acceptable. 

Acid–Base Indicators at 298.15 K
Indicator

Suggested
Abbreviation(s)

pH Range

Colour Change
as pH Increases

methyl violet

HMv(aq) / Mv–(aq)

0.0 – 1.6

yellow to blue

~2 × 10 – 1

cresol red

H2Cr(aq) / HCr–(aq)
HCr–(aq) / Cr2–(aq)

0.0 – 1.0
7.0 – 8.8

red to yellow
yellow to red

~3 × 10 – 1
3.5 × 10 – 9

thymol blue

H2Tb(aq) / HTb–(aq)
HTb–(aq) / Tb2–(aq)

1.2 – 2.8
8.0 – 9.6

red to yellow
yellow to blue

2.2 × 10 – 2
6.3 × 10 – 10

orange IV

HOr(aq) / Or–(aq)

1.4 – 2.8

red to yellow

~1 × 10 – 2

methyl orange

HMo(aq) / Mo–(aq)

3.2 – 4.4

red to yellow

3.5 × 10 – 4

bromocresol green

HBg(aq) / Bg–(aq)

3.8 – 5.4

yellow to blue

1.3 × 10 – 5

methyl red

HMr(aq) / Mr–(aq)

4.8 – 6.0

red to yellow

1.0 × 10 – 5

chlorophenol red

HCh(aq) / Ch–(aq)

5.2 – 6.8

yellow to red

5.6 × 10 – 7

bromothymol blue

HBb(aq) / Bb–(aq)

6.0 – 7.6

yellow to blue

5.0 × 10 – 8

phenol red

HPr(aq) / Pr–(aq)

6.6 – 8.0

yellow to red

1.0 × 10 – 8

phenolphthalein

HPh(aq) / Ph–(aq)

8.2 – 10.0

colourless to pink

3.2 × 10 – 10

thymolphthalein

HTh(aq) / Th–(aq)

9.4 – 10.6

colourless to blue

1.0 × 10 – 10

alizarin yellow R

HAy(aq) / Ay–(aq)

10.1 – 12.0

yellow to red

6.9 × 10 – 12

indigo carmine

HIc(aq) / Ic–(aq)

11.4 – 13.0

blue to yellow

~6 × 10 – 12

1,3,5–trinitrobenzene

HNb(aq) / Nb–(aq)

12.0 – 14.0

colourless to orange

~1 × 10 – 13

10

Ka

Colours of Common Aqueous Ions
Solution Concentration
Ionic Species

1.0 mol/L

0.010 mol/L

chromate

yellow

pale yellow

chromium(III)

blue-green

green

chromium(II)

dark blue

pale blue

cobalt(II)

red

pink

copper(I)

blue-green

pale blue-green

copper(II)

blue

pale blue

dichromate

orange

pale orange

iron(II)

lime green

colourless

iron(III)

orange-yellow

pale yellow

manganese(II)

pale pink

colourless

nickel(II)

blue-green

pale blue-green

permanganate

deep purple

purple-pink

11

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