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The first plant of what is today known as BHEL was established nearly 40 years ago at BHOPAL and was genius of heavy electrical equipment industry in India. BHEL is today the largest engineering enterprise of its kind in India with well recognized track records of performance making profits continuously since 1971-72 it achieved a sales turnover of 1023 crore in 1977-78. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian economy in power, industry, transportation,defense etc. The wide network of BHEL¶s 14 manufacturing divisions, 9 service centers & 4 power global players. Power sector comprises thermal, nuclear, gas & hydro power plant business today, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 56, 318 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 86, 636 MW in as against nit till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projectors from concept to commissioning. It possess the technology and capability to produce thermal power plant equipments up to 1000 MW rating and gas turbine generator sets up to a unit rating of 240 MW. Cogeneration and combines cycle plants has been introduced to acheve higher plant efficencies. To make efficient use of the higher ash content coil manufacturers 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator head discharge combinations are also engineered and
manufactured is also competitive.
Location of BHEL Units & Offices 1 BHEL Offices in Delhi & NCR 2 BHEL Unit at Haridwar 3 BHEL Unit at Jhansi 4 BHEL Unit at Bhopal 5 BHEL Unit at Rudrapur 6 BHEL office at Lucknow and Unit at Jagdishpur 7 BHEL Unit at Varanasi 8 BHEL Unit at Goindwal 9 BHEL offices at Chennai 10 BHEL Unit at Ranipet 11 BHEL Units at Hyderabad 12 BHEL Units at Bangalore 13 BHEL Offices at Chennai 14 BHEL Unit at Tiruchirapalli 15 BHEL Unit at Ranipet 16 BHEL Office at Mumbai 17 BHEL Offices at Kolkata 18 BHEL Offices at Nagpur
BHEL also supplies a wide range of transmission products and system up to 400
KV class. These include high voltage power and distribution transformer, instrument transformers, instrument, transformers, dry type transformers. SF6 switch gear, capacitor and insulator etc series and shunt compensation system have been also developed and introduced to minimize transmission losses.
A high percentage of trains operated by Indian Railway are equipped with
BHEL¶s traction and traction control equipments including the metro at Calcutta and delhi. The company supplies broad gauge. Electrical locomotive to Indian railway and diesel shunting locomotives to various industries 5000/6000 hp ac/dc locomotive developed and manufactured by BHEL have been leased to Indian railway, battery powered road.
BHEL¶s product series and projects have been exported to over so countries
ranging from UNITED STATES in the west to NEW ZEALAND in for east INDIA is over 3000 MW. A few motable ones are 150 MW gas turbine to GERMANY, utility boiler and open cycle gas turbine plant to MALAYSIA, Tripoli west, power station in Libya and Turkey. In Cyprus, hydro generator to New Zealand and hydro power plant to Thailand , Saudi Arabia, Oman , Greece and Egypt.
CHAPTER-2 BHEL-AN OVERVIEW
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related sector. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India, a dream which has been more than released with a well-recognized track record of performance. BHEL caters to core sectors of the India economy viz. Power Generation and Transmission, Renewable Energy, Defence etc. The wide network of BHEL¶s 14 manufacturing divisions, 4 power sector regional centers, 8 service centers, 15 regional offices and a large number of Projects sites spread all over India and abroad enables the company to promptly serve its customer and provide them with suaitable products, systems and services- efficiently and at competitive prices. BHEL has attained ISO 9001 certification for quality management and all the manufacturing units/divisions of BHEL have been upgraded to the latest ISO 9001:2000 version. All the major units/divisions of BHEL have been awarded ISO 14001 certification for Environmental Management System and OHSAS-18001 certification for Occupational Health and Safety management System. BHEL become the first Public Sector Company in the country to win the coveted ³PRIZE´ for its Haridwar unit under the CII Exim Award for business excellence as per the globally recognized model of European Foundation for Quality Management. BHEL is the only PSU among the 12 Indian Companies to figure in ³Forbes Asia Fabulous 50´ list. It has also won the ³Business Standard Star Public Sector Company Award 2006´. The company received MoU Excellence Award for 2004-2005 and Merit Certificate for MoU Excellence for 2005-2006.
3. are: Steam Turbines. Respect for dignity and potential of individuals. Significantly these sets contribute 73% of the total power generated in the country. 2. Hydrogen. 25. which are manufactured in HEEP. AC/DC motors of various rating with associated control equipment and started production in January 1967.781 MW or nearly 65% of the total install capacity of 1. 5 .2 Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant: BHEL's Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) was set up in technical collaboration with USSR. hydro turbines. Loyalty and pride in the company.414 MW in the country. Foster learning creativity and speed of response. As of 31. 2. More than 40 percent of the country's electrical energy is generated from the power equipment supplied by BHEL. In 1976.3 Vision: World-class . BHEL entered into a collaboration agreement with M/s Kraftwerk Union.1 Power Generation: Power generation Sector comprises Thermal Gas. 2. for the manufacturing of power plant equipment. Haridwar.4 Mission: The leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and services in the fields of energy.Team playing. AG of Germany for design. competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total global business solutions. Zeal to excel. Gas turbines. innovative. 2. Turbo Generators. transportation. erection and commissioning of large size steam turbines. manufacturing. The products. infrastructure and other potential areas. Nuclear power plant business.2007. etc.5 Values: Meeting commitments made to external and internal customers.2. BHEL supplied sets accounts for 80.
6 .1 Main Gate BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise on India in the energy related sector.3.CHAPTER-3 ABOUT BHEL HARIDWAR Figure No. around the Ranipur plant BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED(BHEL) part of Nehruvian dream of "temples of modern India".The town was built in the early 40s.
BHEL Haridwar plant itself consists of two plants namely HEEP (Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant) & CFFP (Central Foundry & Forge Plant).1 Products of BHEL: Heaps product & capacity ratings PRODUCT CAPACITY RATING 1. condenser 6. Thermal/nuclear set 2.It wasdeveloped with Russian and Czech technological collaboration. AC/DC electrical machine 210 MW ± 1000 MW 115 MW Acc. In1964 Heavy Electrical Equipment Plants is stables. At the foothills of the majestic Himalayas on the bank of the holy ganges in Ranipur near ³HARIDWAR´ is located Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) of BHEL. To Requirement 60 MW ± 200 MW Up to 800 MW 5 KW ± 2000 KW (a) AC (250 KW ± 1600 KW) (b) DC (7KW ± 1000 KW) 7 . Gas turbine 5. Generator 4. at peak of Indo-Soviet partnership. CFFP has one of the heaviest forge machines in India. 3. Heat exchangers. Hydro set 3. At present 70% of the country electrical equipment is generated BHEL HARIDWAR.
Figure No.2 Products of BHEL 8 . 3.
HARIDWAR: BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD.3. (HARIDWAR) HEEP (HEAVYEL ECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLANT) CFFP (CENTRAL FOUNDARY FORGED PLANT) BLOCK-1: ELECTRICAL MACHINE SHOP BLOCK-2: HEAVY FABRICATION SHOP BLOCK-3: TURBINE MANUFACTURING BLOCK BLOCK-4: CIM (COILS & INSULATION MANU- BLOCK-5: CONDENCER FABRICATION & FORGR BLOCK BLOCK-6: FABRICATION SHOP.2 CHART SHOWING THE DIFFERENT BLOCKS OF BHEL. DIE SHOP. BLOCK-7: CARPANTARY SHOP BLOCK-8: HEAT EXCHANGER SHOP 9 .
BLOCK-2: This is a Heavy Fabrication Shop in which fabrication of all type of parts of turbines as well as generators are done. Bay-4 is called HMS (Heavy Machine Shop) in which all types of components of turbine. Also insulation of all DC & AC motors and Generators are done. This Block also divided into 4 Bays. cutting. hydro generators & AC and DC motors. In Bay ±2 & Bay-3 assembly work is done. BLOCK-6: 10 . pressing etc. Bay-3.3. This block contributes maximum in terms of turnover.In Bay-1 Preparatory work is been done i. grinding. BLOCK-3: This block is called Turbine Manufacturing Block. The main products of this block ±1 are turbo generators. BLOCK-4: Block-4 is called as CIM (COILS & INSULATION) BLOCK. Gas & Hydro all three types of turbines are manufactured.e. and Bay-4. BLOCK-5: Block-5 is called as CONDENSER FABRICATION & FORGE BLOCK. In this block work is divided into four steps namely Bay-1. Bay-2. All type of condenser used for refrigeration purpose in turbines are fabricated here.3 DESCRIPTION OF 8 BLOCKS OF HEEP: BLOCK-1: This is the main block of HEEP named as Electrical Machine Shop. In this block coils of Generators & motors are made & assembled. generators and motors are manufactured. shaping. Here steam. And these bays are further divided into several sections and shops.
In this Block all carpentry work is done such as making of wood pattern for casting purpose. BLOCK-8: This is the last block of Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) named as HEAT EXCHANGER SHOP.3 ³ Grahak Safal ±Hum Safal´ 11 . BLOCK-7: This Bock is called as CARPENTRY SHOP. Figure No. Die shop. In this Block all type of Heat Exchanger of Steam turbines are manufactured. Generators. motors etc. Stamping shop. 3. large wood container used for packing of several jobs like different components of Turbines. making of fixtures.Block ±6 is divided into 3 parts Fabrication shop.
1 Introduction: As the complete one peace coil is not practicable so the coils are manufactured in two parts. Out of the various BLOCKS as mentioned before the coil and insulation manufacturing block is BLOCK-4.1 Main Gate of Block-4 12 . 4. Figure No. upper and lower bars. This block is known as the COIL AND INSULATION MANUFACTURING (CIM) block.CHAPTER-4 COIL & INSULATION MANUFACTURING SHOP (BLOCK-IV) 4.
Process flow chart of 500MW TG stator bar: 1. 210/250MW. 11. 210/235MW. One part its bottom part of coil called bottom or lower bar and other part of coil is called top bar or upper bar. 2. I. 10. 12 . inter strand test). BAY-II: Manufacturing of heavy duty generator stator bars. Pickling of bar ends (2). That is why we make coil in two parts.BAY-I: Bar winding shop: manufacturing of stator winding bars of generator. 150MW. Brazing of contact sleeve & bottom part of water box. Cross over insulation.wedges etc. 3.S Test (i. Forming of bar (to shape overhang portion). 7. Mounting of contact sleeve & bottom part of water box. handle and wind in the stator slot of generator of higher generation capacity because of its bigger size and heavy weight. insulation box. 4. 4. Insulation check. Consolidation if slot portion of bar. Why do we call it bar? It is quite difficult (rather impossible) to manufacture. Pickling of bar ends (1). 9. The plant has capacity and technology to manufacture 800MW and 1000MW generators. Conductor cutting and end cleaning. 5. washer. 13 . 8. Transposition of conductor. 6. Assembly of all conductors to be used in stator bars. BAY-III: Insulation detail shop: Manufacturing of hard insulation & maching of hares insulation part (Glass Textolite) such as packing.e. 500MW.2 MFG. Bar Shop: This shop is meant for manufacturing of stator winding coils of turbogenerator and hydro generator. 130MW. The manufacturing of bars of standard capacity such as 100MW.
Re-Pickling.13. OCP on stator bar. 15. Insulation of bar on CNC machine. 23. 14 . Water flow and Nitrogen test. 24. 14. Thermal Shock Application. 19. 17. 21. Helium leak test. Mounting of water box leak test.e. 20. Surface finishing of stator bar. If O. 22. 18. Dispatch to Block-1 for lying in the generator. Preparation of bar for HV and Tan test. 16. Reforming of bar (i. overhang portion).K. Impregnation & curing of bar insulation.
20 Solid .CHAPTER-5 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF BARS 5.5mm(Hollow) 8*2. Conductor cutting: This process is done by automatic CNC machine. Lower Bar: Conductor Size 8*4. Some points of manufacturing process is in brief as below ± 2.6*1. solid copper conductor & hollow copper conductors which are used in water cooled stator layer glass insulation. BAY-1 Insulation Check: For the manufacturing of stator bars insulated copper conductors are brought from Bangalore. it¶s of two type¶s i.40 15 .e.5mm(Hollow) 8*1.3mm(Solid) Length 10500 mm 10500 mm Number of conductors Hollow .20 Upper Bar: Conductor Size 8*4.6*1.8mm(Solid) Length 10200 mm 10200 mm Number of conductors Hollow .20 Solid .1 1. In this process the pre-insulated copper conductor is cut into number of pieces of required length (length given in drawing as per design) insulation is removed from both ends of the copper conductor out.
1 Conductors After Cutting 3.Figure No. After cutting the required number of conductors. 5. the conductors are arranged on the 12 comb in staggered manner and then bends are given to the conductors with the help of bending die at required distance. Then the conductors are taken out from the comb and die and placed with their ends in a line and transposition is carried out. Transposition: Transposition means changing/shifting of position of each conductor in active core(slot) part. 16 .
water. 3.Figure No. 1. 17 . To minimize skin effect of ac current. 5. The two halves of the bar are overlapped over each other and a spacer is placed between the two halves. To reduce eddy current losses. Equalize the voltage generator. 2.M.2 Transposition of Bar This process is repeated for making another half of the bar which would be mirror image of the first half. small cross section of conductor is used an also hollow conductors are used to effect cooling by D.
3 Drawing of Transposition Stator Bar 18 . 5.Figure No.
19 .4 Cross Over Insulation The pre insulation of the copper conductor may get damaged due to mechanical bending in die during transposition. 5. Crossover insulation: Figure No. To eliminate inter turn short at bends during edge wise bending and leveling of bars in slots portion for proper stack pressing.4. A filler material (insulating putty of molding micanite) is provided along the height of the bar to maintain the rectangular shape and to cover the difference of level of conductors. hence the insulating spacers are provided at the crossover portion of the conductors.
5. 20 . Then the ends of both the bars are cleaned with rectified spirit and sand paper for the inter strand test. then the temperature is allowed to raise to the maximum of 160°C. In this process the bar is pressed both vertically and horizontally in the Pressing Machine. 5. Figure No. Stack Pressing: This process is basically done to consolidate the solid as well as the hollow conductors into a single bar. the bars are then cooled placing them on cooling plates through which water is allowed to follow below 50°C. The pressing machines are also provided with the heaters Each bar is loaded on each tier of heating plate and it is then provided with an initial pressure of 35 5 kg per cm2 and an initial temperature of 100-110° C.5 Stack Pressing After pressing the bar at specified pressure and maximum temperature for one hour. this temperature is kept for at least one hour with a final pressure of 80 10 kg per cm2 vertically and 70 10 kg per cm2 horizontally.
After passing both the half bars from I. Similarly all the conductors are checked for any short circuit. A sheet of mica glass insulation is provided between the two halves as the insulation also has some gluing property to consolidate the two halves into a single bar. these conductors are then replaced and bar is followed through all the previous processes. This process is done manually.e. if found then it has to be rectified. Forming: This process of forming is very important as in this process the bars are bending from both the ends of the bar i. 21 .S. This is done to ensure that no local current is flowing due to short circuit between conductors. Inter Strand Short test: The consolidation bar stack is tested for the short between any two conductors in the bar.6. (300V A/C supply). at exciter side and turbine side at specific angles and shape as per design.T. Each bar of a variant is bent or formed at same angle. Hence if the lamp lights up it shows short circuit between the two conductors due to improper insulation between them. the bars are combined together and pressed into a single bar. 7. It shows insulation failure between the conductors. All the steps of pressing are again followed for the complete bar and then it is allowed to cool. Then a live wire is connected to a conductor and received from it consecutive conductor to light a lamp. For this test all the bare conductors at both the ends are separated from each other so that they do not short circuit. First the former is set according to the design making different angles at different positions.
End Conductor Cutting: Both the solid and hollow conductors are cut and from both the sides of the bar. Also this process of cutting of the hollow conductors helps in opening of vents of hollow conductors from both the ends of the bar. in order to remove these unwanted particles. These particles may cause hindrances at the time of brazing and may create some air gaps. 5. The basic solution used for this process is called pickling solution. The constituents of the pickling solution are: 22 . So.6 Forming Operation 8. there accumulate very minute particles of dust on the ends of the bar. Pickling Process: After the forming and cutting process of the bar and due to the transportation of the bar. 9. basically the oil particles pickling process is performed.Figure No.
It is then followed with dipping in water. so the bar is then dipped in Ammonia (10%). (D) This is then followed with dipping in water. further it may lead to poor brazing. Finally it is wrapped with cotton cloth to avoid any manual touch. so accordingly to neutralize the acidic effect of the acid it has to be treated with some base. it may let the tiny chemical particles on the bar to react with it and leave spots on the bar. (B) The end is then dried with the help of N2 gas. (C) Then the bar end is dipped in pickling solution for 5 to 10 minutes. these are: Ammonia Thinner Water Rectified spirit Nitrogen In this process the following steps are involved: (A) The end of the bar is dipped in thinner to remove the dust or oil particles. As water takes a lot of time to evaporate.Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)-10% Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-5% Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-5% Water (H2O) There are many other solutions used in this process. As there is acid in the pickling solution. this may weaken the insulation at those particular points and thus damage it. 23 . The bar is then dried with N2 gas. So in order to avoid such a damage the bar is dipped in rectified spirit to make the water contents evaporate as soon as possible.
10. it is a rectangular sleeve which is used to make contact between upper and lower bars when laid out in the generator to form a complete coil. contact sleeve and water box bottom parts are mounted on both the ends of the bar.7 Mounting of Contact Sleeve 24 . Figure No. All the solid conductors are cut from the ends of the bar after the contact sleeve except the outer solid conductors. first the water box bottom part is mounted after the contact sleeve keeping some distance between them. None of the conductor is cut before the contact sleeve so that to make proper contact between the upper and the lower bars. Contact Sleeve Mounting: After the pickling process is complete. 5. The water box is mounted in two halves. as clear from the name itself. Both the ends of the bar are then again pickled along with contact sleeve and water box bottom part following the same procedure of pickling. Contact sleeve.
Induction heating is hence faster and even more efficient than thermal heating. After the brazing of water box bottom part the bar is then allowed to cool at room temperature. Contact Sleeve gets super heated. The types of brazing materials used are: LAG 15P ( Alloy Silver 15 Phosphorous) LAG 40Cd ( Alloy Silver 40 Cadmium) Same process of brazing is then repeated for the water box bottom part. Brazing of coil lugs: For water cooled generator bars. 25 . Carbon has very high resistance and when the current is allowed to pass through it due to induction the material to be brazed i. which are used to make contact between the upper bar and the lower bar to form a complete coil and the water box bottom part. the brazing material is then pushed to fill the air gaps and to consolidate the contact sleeve on the bar. It is then allowed to cool. When the contact sleeve becomes red hot at 750ºC.e. Consolidation is properly done so that no air gap is left which would adversely affect the conducting properties of the contact sleeve and the bar. Brazing is basically the process of fixation of both the contact sleeve and water box bottom part or we can say both are properly consolidated using brazing material at high temperatures. the electrical connection contact and water box for inlet and outlet of water are brazed. so the brazing of these two parts at the end of a bar is called Coil Lug Brazing. The two types of brazing processes are: Thermal brazing (using LPG) Induction brazing As induction brazing is more beneficial than thermal brazing as it does not requires any inflammable gas for heating. For brazing as we use very high temperature so that is possible due to carbon strips fixed on the brazer.11. The contact sleeves. So now a day¶s Induction brazing process is used. both together are called Coil Lug.
End Conductor Cutting: As is clear from the name itself this is the process of cutting of extra conductors i. the hollow conductors left after the water box bottom part are cut from both the ends of the bar.e.Figure No. 26 . 5. These conductors are required to be cut so that water box top part with a nozzle is to be mounted on the water box bottom part.8 Brazing of Stator Bar 12. The vents of the hollow conductors are visible from the ends of the water box bottom part. The openings of the vents of the hollow conductors are then checked to be uniform.
Flow should be uniform i.After cutting of extra conductors from both the ends of the bar. After pickling the bar ends are then wrapped in cotton cloth until the water test is performed.9 Water Test Water test is performed so that there not any blockage in the vents and also to check the flow of water. pickling process is done. Same pickling process as mentioned before is then done at both the ends of the bar for removing the dust particles.e. oil particles and other unwanted impurities which we assume to be there after the brazing process of the contact sleeve and water box bottom part. all the vents should have same water 27 . 5. Water Test: Figure No. 13.
15. Checking Of Threads and Pickling Process: As mentioned earlier that water box top part has got nozzle for flow of water. Then both the parts are heated with induction brazer as done earlier. Brazing Of Water Box Top Part: Brazing of water box top part is done with water box bottom part in brazing section of Block-4. These threads are checked for its uniformity by fixing water pipe to the nozzle.e. Also the pickling process is again done for the removal 28 . After the brazing of water box top part the bar is then allowed to cool at room temperature. it also has got threads which is provided for the proper fixation of water supply through water pipe to the bar. It is heated until they become red hot then the brazing material melts due to its low melting temperature then the melting temperature of the water box top and bottom part. flow of water will be not uniform and the bar is assumed to be chocked. The difference in previous brazing and this brazing is that.For this it should be kept in mind that water box bottom part should have same material as that of water box top part. now flux is also introduced with brazing material and also flux is mixed with copper chips. Copper chips are added to make the electrical contact between the top and bottom part without the copper chips this will be not possible. In this test water is supplied from one side of the bar and is collected from the other side of the bar in a tank and is supplied back to the first end. 14. If threads are not found satisfactory than the nozzle is replaced with new one and again its threads are checked. Brazing material is formed in square shape for top and bottom part and in ring shape for the brazing of nozzle for water flow. If there is any kind of blockage inside the hollow conductors of the bar then it is indicated by flow of water i. Then cocked conductors are changed or repaired and the bar is reformed and water test is again performed to check the flow of water. In this brazing material is formed in the shape as that of water box side where it has to be brazed. Brazing material is also introduced at the boundaries until it is completely consolidated that is the entire air gap is completely filled. Flow of the water is checked by measuring the distance of the flow of water.flow.
16. to check the brazing.e. So if bubbles appear then brazing is done again and same test is performed for the proper brazing of water box top and bottom part. to avoid any manual touch which may deposit any dust particle on it until it is ready for brazing. the detail of this process is same as mentioned earlier in pickling process. removal of any dust particles lubricants etc is done only on outer surface of the bar (ends). But from inside it is assumed that there must be some impurities.e. the air bubbles gives us the exact position of the puncture. Similarly on the same steps this test is performed. Nitrogen leak test: As the name suggests Nitrogen gas is the main constituent of the test. For this purpose inside pickling is done. Then the pickling solution is passed for 5 to 10 minutes. Basically this test is performed to check any leakage in bar i. As mentioned earlier same process is repeated but from inside of the hollow conductors this time. Then both the ends of the bar wrapped in cotton cloth so that it is not disturbed i. In this process the following steps are involved: The thinner is passed through the bar to remove the dust or oil particles. In this test nitrogen at a pressure of 10Kg/Cm2 is forced from one end of the bar and other end of the bar is blocked then the pressure of 10Kg/Cm2 is maintained and both the ends of the bar are dipped in water. Then water is flowed in the bar. The dried with the help of N2 gas. 29 .of any dust particles and lubricants etc.e. foreign material must be present. This test is similar to puncture test that is inflated tube is dipped in water for any leakage. Internal Pickling: After various test performed on the bar the pickling process i. 17. The bubbles if there any tells us that brazing is weak or not done properly.
As water takes a lot of time to evaporate. The bar is then dried with N2 gas. so the bar is filled with Ammonia (10%). Thermal shock test consist of series of hot water & cold water cycles alternatively.e. it may let the tiny chemical particles in the bar to react with it and leave spots in the bar. So firstly hot water at temperature of about 90ºC is passed through the bar and then cold water at about room temperature 27ºC approx. this may weaken the insulation at those particular points and thus damage it. It is then followed flowing of water again. is flowed inside the bar alternatively. This is achieved by thermal shock test.This process is repeated for about 26 times i. Finally it is wrapped with cotton cloth to avoid any manual touch which may deposit any dust particle on it until it is ready for brazing.e. Thermal Shock Test: Thermal shock test is performed to check whether the bar can withstand extreme conditions i. So this test tells us the strength of the bar so that it can withstand the working conditions of the generator. so accordingly to neutralize the acidic effect of the acid it has to be treated with some base. 18. 30 . So in order to avoid such a damage the rectified spirit is flowed in the bar to make the water contents evaporate as soon as possible. further it may lead to poor brazing. it has 26 cycles of hot and cold water.As there is acid in the pickling solution. when the generator is working or running at about 3000 Rpm.
Figure No. before performing this test customer is by called and they see themselves the test being performed and if They find the test all right then only the bar is send to next process. Helium Leakage Test: Helium test is the most important test of all. whole of the bar is wrapped in the polythene excluding the end points. The gauge will show 31 . The helium gas at pressure of 11Kg/Cm2 is passed through the bar and a probe connected to the gauge is inserted inside the polythene at different places.10 Layout of Thermal Shock Test 19. In helium test. 5. Any minute leakage which couldn¶t be checked by water test can easily be observed by helium test because helium is one of the lightest gases. because helium test is performed to check any minute leakage within the bar and at the brazed portion. So this is also the customers check point.
32 . 12 layers are provided by using a machine called CNC TAPPING MACHINE. So to keep the shape of the bar as per design. Insulation: The bar is insulated with the given number of layers to build the wall thickness of insulation subjected to the generating voltage of the machine. Gauge will show reading even if 1 helium atom in 100000 atoms is present. High quality mica. 21. Out of these fourteen layers. the bar is checked if it is found distorted then it is reformed in the previous former machine by placing the bar on the former and malleting.deflection if there is any helium atom present. The rest of the two layers are provided manually. selected epoxy resins and a matching vacuum impregnation process are the characteristic features of the micalastic insulation for large turbo generators. Insulation is basically done to prevent any kind of short circuit between the bar and the stator core when the bar is assembled in the stator of the machine. The stator bars are insulated with Micalastic insulation. 20. This test checks the strength of brazing and insulation. Reforming: After all the previous processes which had undergone on the bar it is assumed that the shape of the bar is deformed from its original shape due to handling of the bar from one place to another for different processes. The bar is provided with 14 layers of insulation.
with nitrogen being used as pressurizing medium. The bars are then dried under vacuum and impregnated with synthetic resin. Then extra resin is drained out and bars are heated and baked under pressed condition in closed box fixture For insulation with micalastic. Baking : Figure No. The impregnated bars with direct conductor cooling are then brought to the required dimensions in moulds and cured in an oven at a high temperature. After impregnation under vacuum.22. which by reason of its low viscosity penetrates the insulation thoroughly and eliminates all voids. Micalastic Insulation. the bars are subjected to pressure. Impregnation. 33 . 5. This assembly is then baked with epoxy resin to give it mechanical strength required for further processing.11 Impregnation Tank Micalastic System : In case of poor resin system the insulated bars are heated under vacuum and the impregnated (dipped) in heated resin so that all the air gaps are filled. layer by layer. with resin. the conductor strands are arranged together to form a compact assembly and set to the required shape.
These processes are discussed briefly below: (a). The impregnation of the stator winding is to be monitored continuously. (b)Drying: The stator windings are to be dried under vacuum 0. (c). 10 minutes after closing of vacuum valve is less than 0. to (60 3) °C or in case of higher initial viscosity. pressure is increased by application of nitrogen. The impregnation tank during shut down is to be closed and kept either filled with nitrogen (1. Subsequently the stator windings are to be dipped continuously in resin hardener mix such that the highest locations of the windings are at least 100 mm below the resin level. After 10 minutes of resin stabilization. minimum. however the total period of nitrogen pressure cycle shall in any case not exceed 4 hours. the impregnating resin mixture is to be degassed with 1-5 m bar vacuum.Pressing: The bars are pressed to bring them back to the original dimensions. The drying temperature is to be increased to (65 2) °C if the initial viscosity of the impregnating resin mixture is high. At a temperature of 50ºC. Further it is to be decided whether to increase the pressure or to stop the impregnation process.Impregnation: The impregnation resin mixture is to be heated in the working tank.This complete process involves pressing of the bars. Pressure is to be gradually increased in uniform stages within 80 minutes to 4 bars and to be maintained for 120 minutes in the impregnation tank.1 m bar at (60 5) °C for 15 hours. impregnation in resin and finally curing. The temperature distribution should be as uniform as possible.06 m bar. 34 . drying by heating.1bar) or low vacuum. The drying under vacuum can be stopped if the pressure rises.
for the dimension. 35 .Figure No.12 Stator Bar in Impregnation Tank (d)Curing: To prevent heating in the overhang portion. 5. The curing period is extended for such a long time till the measurement positions in the core indicate (140 5) ºC for minimum 8 hours. if required. the curing of the impregnated stator winding is to be done with a maximum 160°C hot air. 23.off to smoothen the edges and the surface is calibrated. Finishing: The baked and dimensionally correct bars are sanded .
5. Conducting varnish coating: (a) OCP (Outer Corona Protection) Coating: . 36 .The black semi-conducting varnish coating is applied on the bar surface on the core length.Figure No.13 Finishing of Stator Bar 24. (b) ECP (End Corona Protection) Coating: The grey semi-conducting varnish is applied at the bend outside core end of bars in gradient to prevent from discharge and minimize the end corona.
rain etc are send to Block-I (Electric Machines Production Block ± I. oil.5 KV & for 210 MW the working voltage of the bar is 63 KV. After these tests the coating of red gel is applied at both the ends of the bar. For good efficiency. (a)Tan Test : Test is performed to find the capacitance of the bar because bar will act as capacitor when it is laid in the stator of the generator. bar is punctured at any point then the bar is sent back for re-insulation and all the processes are repeated again.Testing: When the bar is dried it is wrapped with aluminum sheet to make outer surface of the bar conducting so that tan and H. For 500 MW the working voltage of the bar is 64. capacitance of the bar should be high but we never approach pure capacitance.e. In this test the bar which is already wrapped with aluminum is used. The capacitance of the bar is found and of angle of deviation due to impurity in the insulation is obtained from the formula: C4 * R4 * 10-4 = tan acceptable value of tan considerations. (High voltage test) can be performed. Turbo Generators and Hydro Generators) for winding.V. (b)H. The two conducting material i. Dispatched for Winding : The bars preserved with polythene sleeves to protect from dust. dirt. the aluminum sheet and the conductors of the bar act as two plates of the capacitor and the insulation on the bar act as dielectric medium for the capacitor. In this test also same bar which is wrapped with aluminum is used to make the bar conductive throughout the outer surface of the bar. If the insulation is weak the bar will puncture at the place of weaker insulation.V. In this test Schearing Bridge which works on the principle of wheat-stone bridge is used to find the unknown capacitance of the bar.25. (High Voltage) Testing : This test is also known as insulation test because this test is performed to check the insulation of the bar. High voltage is applied to the bar using auto-transformer and it is increased in steps according to the working voltage of the generator.e. If any of the bar fails this test i. For different ratings of the bar the is fixed according to their insulation requirement as per design 26. 37 .
5.14 Ready to Dispatch 38 .Figure No.
The insulation on the copper is checked. The 39 .3 Conductor Tapping: The copper conductor is first provided with two layers of insulation. The stator coils of AC motors of up to 11 KV. 6. The number of conductors per turn and the total number of turns in a coil are all set according to the design.1 Introduction: Bay 2 is the manufacturer of stator bars of hydro generators. stator bars of Hydro generators of 200 MW and DC Exciters of all the 500 MW THRI generators are manufactured in this bay. If required the insulation is checked by the respective agencies. In this process the former of the boat shape coil. the insulation of the conductor is checked. this is also known as double layer tapping. The insulation tape used in this is Micafabriglass Tape. The processes involved in the manufacturing of AC motors are as follows: 6.2 Insulation Check: For the manufacturing of stator coils of AC motors. Before performing any process on that conductor. 6.CHAPTER-6 BAY-2 6. is first set as per length of the coil required according to the design. which is provided by the automatically moving tapping rolls with some tension. insulated copper conductors of specific dimensions rolled on the drums are brought from Bangalore.4 Winding Boat Coil : The next process is forming a boat shape coil with the insulated copper conductor. In this process the copper drums are loaded on the stand and tapping rolls on taping heads of the Tapping machine. The copper conductor is insulated with two layer of tape in butt as per design and hence the insulated copper conductor is again rolled on the drum from other side of the machine. which is adjustable in length. stator coils of AC motors and stator coils of DC Exciter. Insulating materials and the conductors are ensured to be certified.
1 mm filler gauge should not go inside the box.e. and then the forming plates are mounted for overhang on the machine. The required variant of boat coil is pulled into the diamond shape. 6. 6. 6.6 Stack Pressing : In this process the press plank is first cleaned then the boat coil is loaded in the 5 °C under high pressure (to ensure press. The machine is first set. The terminals of the coil are set according to the design and also the first bends and the overhang portions are marked. The forming plates mounted are according to the overhang design of the coil. the former is then rotated and hence a boat shaped coil of specified length and specific number of turns is formed.insulated copper conductor drums are loaded on stand on one side of the former. 40 . Schumann Pulling Machine. Here the complete boat coil is insulated with single layer of polythene and then the stack consolidation length of the coil is marked and the coil is send for the next process. The stack length and width of the boat coil is checked at slot portions. The length of heating plates should be approximately equal to the stack consolidation length of coil. The boat coil is then checked for its length and number of turns. The boat coil is cured for 35 minutes at 155 closing of box) after attaining the temperature. 0. The loading of boat coil should be as per the variant of boat coil given in the design.5 Boat Insulation: The boat coil is then sending to the insulation block for its insulation. The coil dimensions and geometry of the coil is then checked on the Universal Model. The pressing of the boat coil is done for the consolidation of the coil.7 Forming: The forming of the boat coil is done in an automatic machine i.
On slot portion two layers of release film is provided. pressure is increased by application of nitrogen. The coils are then impregnated in micalastic resin as per design. The impregnation of the stator winding is to be monitored continuously. The impregnation resin mixture is to be heated in the working tank.9 Impregnation: For impregnation pressing strips are mounted on the coil. Further it is to be decided whether to increase the pressure or to stop the impregnation process. Pressure is to be gradually increased in uniform stages within 80 minutes to 4 bars and to be maintained for 120 minutes in the impregnation tank. to (60 3) °C or in case of higher initial viscosity. Then the perimeters and width of the insulated coil is checked at the slot portion of the coil. however the total period of nitrogen pressure cycle shall in any case not exceed 4 hours. The insulation tape used is Epoxy Mica Paper tape. After 10 minutes of resin stabilization. total 8 layers of insulation tapping are provided i. Generally for the stator coils of low rating motors total five layers of insulation tapping is provided. The pressing strips are checked to be closed properly. 6. the impregnating resin mixture is to be degassed with 1-5 m bar vacuum.1bar) or low vacuum. Red tape is the finishing tape provided at the overhang portions of the coil.8 Insulation: In this process the slot portion and the first bends of the coil are insulated with accelerator treated Mica Tape as per design. At a temperature of 50ºC. The insulation tape at the bend portions of the coil is grey in color and is semi conducting in nature.e. The black colored insulation tape in conducting in nature and it is provided at the slot portion of the coil. three layers at the slot portion and the rest five layers all over the coil. The coil is now sending for the next process. 41 . For the stator coil of 11 KV AC motor. Subsequently the stator windings are to be dipped continuously in resin hardener mix such that the highest locations of the windings are at least 100 mm below the resin level.6. The impregnation tank during shut down is to be closed and kept either filled with nitrogen (1. A release film is to be provided on the entire coil including coil terminals.
(High Voltage) Test.11 Finishing: In this process the release film is removed and the coil is finished with sand paper. The pressing strips are disassembled after the curing of the coil.6. The coil is then coated with corona protection varnish as per design and then the coil is allowed to dry properly for 6 hours. The dimensions of the coil are then checked. The straight length of the coil is marked. The regime is then required to be checked. 6. The coil is checked for its insulation using tan and H.V.10 Curing: After the impregnation of the coil. The slot portion dimensions and the quality coating varnish are then checked. 42 . Curing of the coil is done for the proper consolidation of the coil. it is then cured at 140 10 ºC for 18 hours after attaining the required temperature.
Section (Insulation Design Section). This bay is also called as I.1 Introduction: Bay 3 is the manufacturer of insulating material of different shapes and sizes as required according to the design. For the manufacturing of insulations. The raw materials used in this bay are: Glass based Textolite Sheet Cotton based Textolite Sheet Paper based Textolite Sheet Mica Glass sheet Teflon Sheet Mica Sheet Nylon Sheet Perpex Glass Sheet Nomex Paper Figure No.D. different raw materials having insulating properties are brought by this section.CHAPTER-7 BAY -3 7. The raw materials having different insulating properties are then processed in this section and molded to different shapes as per design.1 Epoxy Glass Insulation1 43 .7.
Figure No.2 Insulation Classification:Thermal classification of insulation depends upon the temperature Withstand capability of the insulation.2 Epoxy Insulation2 44 .7. 7. Class ± Y Class ± A Class ± E Class ± B Class ± F Class ± H Class ± C up to 90 up to 105 C up to 120 C up to 130 C up to 150 C up to 180 C 180 C up to 220 C.
This training helped me in gaining in depth knowledge of the working of a telephone exchange. Used at proper place and time can save a lot of labor.H. However. At last I would only say that this training was helpful for my future prospects. The training has proved to be quite faithful. It has allowed us an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation of theoretical fundamentals. 45 . It proved an opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like turbo-generator hydro generator etc. It provides an opportunity to learn tech. The lack of exposure to real life. laboratories and workshops based training & teaching in classroom has its own limitations. In the open economy era of fast modernization and tough competition.CHAPTER-8 CONCLUSION Engineering students will have to serve in the public and private sector industries.E. The architecture of B.. materials processes and functioning of industrial organization is the measure hindrances in the student employment. the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the students realize that Engineering is not just structural description but greater part is planning and management. technical institutes should procedure pass outs as near to job function as possible. training has proved to be satisfactory.L. Practical training is one major step in this direction.
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