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required. The output must be calibrated to provide the desired percentage of span as the input span.The output of this convertor will do NOTHING until it is connected to another device. The other device can be an actuator, positioner or oth device requiring a er pneumatic control signal. If an actuator is used, the actuator can be connected to avalve stem, a damper or a lever. The actuator can then be used to set the position of the connected device by movinga shaft up and dow corresponding to the pressure n applied by the output of the I/P convertor. An E/P can be construed to mean a device that converts a voltage or electronic input signal to a pneumatic output signal. A P/I convertor does the reverse and converts a pneumatic input signal to an electrical or electronic output signal. An EPP as it really should be designated, is an electro-pneumatic positioner (which can also be a smart positioner) that can provide a position feedback to itself through the use of a lever connected between the positioner and the controlled device that will move proportionately up or down with the shaft movement of the control valve, lever or damper to which it is connected. When the position feedbacksignal has reached the corresponding percentage of span of travel, the output signal will be adjusted accordingly and stabilized to maintain and hold the desired s position of the device.
A positioner is a device put into a valve to ensure that it is at a correct position of opening as per the control signal. An I/P converter only sends the opening/closing request to valve but cannot confirm its position. Positioner senses the valve opening through a position feedback link connected to valve stem which is its input signal. I/P converter output is its set-point input. The difference between these two is the error signal based on which the positioner positions the valve to correct position to reduce error to zero. Hence positioner is nothing but a pneumatic feedback controller. Controlled external supply air to positioner provides power to positioner to position a valve. Also positioner is used in a valve when valve operating signal range is different from I/P converter output range. In recent days software configurable digital positioner are being used in valves which do not require I/P converter and has many features like advanced valve diagnostics, partial stroke testing, remote communication etc. I would like to explain few things about the working of a positioner. The positioner is a device mounted on a control valve that receives control signal from a DCS or any host system. The signal can be a 4-20mA/HART/Fieldbus, etc. The positioner receives the signal and understands the desired (target) position of the valve. E.g.,A positioner working on a 4-20mA signal range receives a 12mA means the valve has to be positioned at 50% open. Without a positioner, the valve might not be positioned at 50% due to several factors such as fluid forces, friction, etc. The positioner sends pressure to the actuator in order to position the valve at 50%. The positioner is also physically connected with the valve stem, so it receives feedback about the current position of the valve. Based on the feedback, the positioner adjusts the output to the actuator if required. In short, the ultimate function of the positioner is to ensure that the desired opening of the valve is achieved in response to the control signal received from the host system. Advanced positioners which are often referred to as SMART positioners have several other useful features that improve the performance. They have the ability to transmit diagnostic data about the valve back to the host system. Positioners also have tuning features that allow users to set gain values based on the required performance criteria like stroking time, over-shoot, etc.
During the pneumatic age. please contact me. Emergency shut-down valves. 4-20mA signalling is an amazing technology in that it conveys both the signal (set-point) as well as electrical power to the device. etc. With the advent of electronic signalling (4-20 mA). Simply said. SMART positioners (electro-pneumatic type) which evolved later had an integral I/P converter to receive 4-20mA directly from the DCS and send a pressure output as required by the actuator to take the valve to the desired position.Positioners used in special applications like Compressor anti-surge control . the DCS would be sending a 12mA (mid-range of 4 and 20mA) signal to the positioner. you don't need a I/P converter as long as you're using a electro-pneumatic type positioner.. the pneumatic positioners were fitted with I/P converters to convert 4-20mA to 3-15psi or 630psi. However. field devices can be loop-powered.g. Pneumatic positioners usually operated with a 3-15psi or 6-30psi pressure range (input signal). have added features which are essential to meet the performance specifications in those applications. The set-point (target position) for the control valve is conveyed by the 4-20mA signal. E. and then send pressure output to the actuator accordingly. if a particular valve has to be 50% open. This is how a positioner would normally work. I hope this helps. If you would have any specific questions regarding a control valve Positioner. If the valve fails to go to the desired position (50%) due to reasons like friction. The positioner would then interpret this as a 50% target position (provided the positioner calibration is done properly). . The only thing that needs to be ensured that there is sufficient voltage in order to meet the power requirements of each device. all (or I should say most) valves had only pneumatic positioners. the positioner will adjust the pressure output to the actuator & ensure that the desired position is reached. In other words.