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Cover photos: Courtesy of DaimlerChrysler AG and MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG
European Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Projects
Directorate-General for Research Sustainable Energy Systems
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codes and standards Developing a European Strategy The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) Future perspectives Research on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Seventh Framework Programme Projects funded under the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006) References 27 28 186 26 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 3 .TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword List of acronyms Research objectives in FP6 (2002-2006) FP6 Project portfolio analysis • Hydrogen production and distribution • Hydrogen storage • Fuel Cells basic research • Stationary and portable applications • Transport applications (including hybrid vehicles) • Pathways and socio-economic analysis • Technology validation and demonstration • Safety. regulations.
Energy is currently uppermost in everyone’s minds. These projects and the strategy being developed by the Technology Platform give inputs to the research and demonstration actions that will be financed in the Seventh Framework Programme for Research (FP7). This research must cover conventional and innovative energy production and conversion technologies. new and emerging science and technology.FOREWORD training actions. This industry-led body. due to start in 2007. The most recent policy initiative – the Green Paper setting out “A European Strategy for Sustainable. surface transport and aeronautics. economic and environmental impact of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies. as well as activities undertaken inside the Commission by DG Joint Research Centre I commend these to you and encourage researchers from all over Europe and beyond to use these examples as inspiration for future actions under FP7. This booklet is a useful guide to the objectives. They are a testament to our balanced approach to fundamental and applied research and demonstration. They address strategic planning and assessment of the energy. SMEs. coupled with fluctuating oil prices. Recent price hikes for domestic gas and electricity. technical content and project partners involved in this field. The European Commission believes that sustainable energy systems are fundamental to our objective for sustainable development. demonstration projects and actions funded by the European Commission under several parts of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6 – 2002-2006). concerns about where our future energy will come from and the impact of energy use on climate change have all brought energy policy to the top of the political agenda. The projects tackle hydrogen production. This booklet contains summaries of research. materials. Competitive and Secure Energy” is proof of the European Commission’s continuing commitment to forward-looking energy technologies. Such projects also contribute to better coordination among national and regional research programmes. distribution and storage and the development of fuel cell components and systems for portable. EU support for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells has successively doubled over the last four multiannual Framework Programmes for Research. with its proposal for a strategic plan for the development and promotion of such technologies. bringing together all those with a stake in the development of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells technologies. well-targeted research and technology development. We are also considering the creation of a European private-public partnership – led by industry and bringing together all possible sources of expertise and financing for the development of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies. Through FP6 the European Commission also supported the creation of the “European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform”. and international co-operation. Janez Potočnik Commissioner for Science and Research 5 . The actions in this booklet amount to some 300 M€. covering fields such as energy systems. Sustainable energy systems require the right balance of appropriate policies with appropriate. has developed a Strategic Research Agenda and a Deployment Strategy and is currently working on an Implementation Plan. including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. stationary and transport applications. development.
knowledge-based multifunctional Materials. new Production processes and devices – Thematic Priority Area PEFC PEM PSA R&D RCS RTD&D SOFC SME Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane Pressure Swing Adsorption Research and Development Regulations. Technological Development and Demonstration Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Small and Medium Enterprise 6 .LIST OF ACRONYMS APU CHP EC ERA ERA-NET FC FP HFP HLG ICE IGCC INCO IPHE JRC JTI MCFC MEA NEST NMP Auxiliary Power Unit Combined Heat and Power European Commission European Research Area Support for the Co-ordination of Activities Programme Fuel Cell European Framework Programme for RTD The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform High Level Group on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Internal Combustion Engine Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Specific Measures for International Cooperation Programme International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Joint Research Centre Joint Technology Initiative Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly New and Emerging Science and Technologies Programme Nanotechnologies and nanosciences. Codes and Standards Research.
while for medium-to-short research actions EC funds up to 35% of the total costs. which is mostly implemented through calls for proposals. to enable them to compete with conventional combustion technologies. Based on the Treaty establishing the European Union. For hydrogen. social and environmental shortcomings.RESEARCH OBJECTIVES IN FP6 (2002-2006) Europe’s energy supply is characterised today by structural weaknesses and geopolitical. EU-funded research in the area of fuel cell systems is aimed at reducing the cost and improving the performance. Whilst energy remains a major component of economic growth. The aim is to assemble a critical mass of resources. etc. safety (pre-normative RTD required for the preparation of regulations and safety standards at EU and global level). The main instruments (actions) to implement FP6 are Integrated Projects (IPs). for medium-to-long term research actions. The long term goal is to achieve commercial viability by 2020 for many applications. competitiveness and innovation through the promotion of better co-operation and co-ordination between relevant actors at all levels. such as Specific Targeted Research Projects (STREPs). several strategic topics for research have been pursued in FP6: clean production (development and techno-socioeconomic assessment of cost-effective pathways for hydrogen production from existing and novel processes). testing and characterisation protocols. optimisation and simplification of fuel cell components and sub-systems as well as modelling. which are driven by the concept of the ERA and are characterized by the structuring and integrating effect that they can have on European Research. special projects for SMEs. novel materials for hydrogen storage and hydrogen separation and purification). more strategic projects. ERA is a vision for the future of research in Europe. including hybrid storage systems. the Framework Programme has to serve two main strategic objectives: strengthening the scientific and technological bases of industry and encouraging its international competitiveness while promoting research activities in support of other EU policies The current Sixth Research Framework Programme (FP6) runs from 2002 to 2006. There are also other instruments for multipartner collaborative research activities. storage (exploration of innovative methods. 7 . durability and safety of fuel cell systems for stationary and transport applications. as well as providing first-hand training to stakeholders and end users. to integrate research and related efforts by pulling them together in larger. technological development and demonstration (RTD&D) is the Framework Programme (FP). particularly as regards security of supply and climate change. Usually. stability and the well being of Europe’s citizens. and preparing the transition to a hydrogen energy economy (support the consolidation of current EU efforts on hydrogen pathway analysis and road mapping). Network of Excellence. individual and host-driven mobility schemes for researchers. The main objective of FP6 is to contribute to the creation of a true European Research Area (ERA). a high-level EU objective. an internal market for science and technology. and to make this research more coherent at a European scale. which could lead to breakthrough solutions). These three elements provide the main drivers for energy research. within the context of sustainable development. The EU Research Framework Programme The main EU funding mechanism for research. EU-funded research in Hydrogen and Fuel Cells also includes validation and demonstration activities to gain experience that is fed back into technology development and deployment. This will include materials and process development. such deficiencies can have a direct impact on EU growth. It fosters scientific excellence. basic materials (functional materials for electrolysers and fuel processors. EC funds up to 50% of the total costs.
prenormative research. including Aeronautics 14% Energy Short-Medium Term 18% Energy Medium-Long Term 57% Figure 1 – EC funding distribution by programme area (%) 8 . new production processes and devices (NMP) Hydrogen and Fuel Cell projects are also funded under the FP6 programmes: • Horizontal research activities involving SMEs • New and emerging science and technologies (NEST) • Support for the co-ordination of activities (ERA-NET) • Training and Mobility of Researchers (Marie Curie actions) • Specific Measures for International Cooperation (INCO) NEST activities 1% ERA-NET support activities 1% Training and mobility (Marie Curie) 1% International Cooperation (INCO) 1% SMEs research activities 1% Materials research (NMP) 5% Transport. development and demonstration. hydrogen production and storage – through system integration for stationary. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells research cuts across a number of the Thematic Priority Areas.FP6 PROJECT PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS The strategic approach in FP6 has been to support a number of key fuel cell and hydrogen technologies across the spectrum of research. however. Around 75% of the Hydrogen and Fuel cell research projects are funded under the Thematic Priority 6. components for fuel cells.2 Sustainable Surface Transport • Priority 4 Aeronautics and Space and • Priority 3 Nanotechnologies and nanosciences. The FP6 projects range from basic research on materials. pathways and roadmaps and coordination of EU activities with national and regional programmes). fuel processors. knowledge-based multifunctional materials.1 Sustainable energy systems (both medium-to long term research and short-to-medium term). portable and transport applications – to demonstration projects aiming at verifying technology under actual operational conditions. such as: • Priority 6. The Commission also funds projects on cross cutting issues (including socioeconomic research.
The FP6 projects under Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are classified in the following main research areas: • Hydrogen production and distribution • Hydrogen storage • Fuel Cell basic research (low & high temperature technology) • Stationary and portable applications • Transport applications (including hybrid vehicles) • Safety. Codes & Standards 4. and CA (Coordination Actions).3% H2 storage 8. codes and standards • Pathways and socio-economic analysis • Technology validation and demonstration Figure 2 shows the increasing trend in EU funding to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell research over successive FPs.5% 9 . SSA (Specific Support Actions).8% H2 production & distribution 19. summing up to the grand total of 300 M€) between the various research areas.1% Stationary and Portable Applications 8.8% FC basic research – Low Temp 8. Integrated Projects (IPs) and Networks of Excellence (NoE). has been awarded to research and demonstration projects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in FP6 (Note: Additional funds for JRC direct actions on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are not included). Regulations.0% Safety.1% Figure 3 – EC budget share per research area FC basic research – High Temp 6. The pie chart in Figure 3 illustrates the budget share (in terms of EC contribution. 350 300 250 200 300 M€ 150 100 50 0 FP2 (1986-1990) FP3 (1990-1994) FP4 (1994-1998) 145 58 8 32 FP5 (1998-2002) FP6 (2002-2006) Figure 2 – EC funds to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell research in the various FPs Validation and Demonstration 16. Whilst the EC contribution to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell research within the previous FP5(1999-2002). classified according to research area. similar to those used in FP5. around 300 M€ of EU funding.9% Transport applications (Including FC hybrid vehicles) 19. matched by an equivalent amount of participating stakeholder investment. The portfolio of projects includes the new instruments of FP6. such as STREPs (Specific Targeted Research Projects). as well as actions based on the more traditional type of instrument. Fellowships. regulations. The following sections give an overview of the EU project portfolio. was of the order of 145 M€.3% Pathways and socioeconomic analysis 8.
The purification of hydrogen rich gases is an important step in improving the quality of hydrogen produced. The latter involves an energy-intensive liquefaction step. the lack of readily available non-fossil sources means that the bulk of hydrogen produced will come from fossil fuels. The distribution of hydrogen from the point of central production and storage to the point of use is another major issue which is addressed. Approximately 600 billion Nm3 of hydrogen is produced every year through well established commercial processes for the hydro-cracking of oil. The long term goal is to produce hydrogen from indigenous carbon-free and carbon-lean energy sources. Electrolysis is used when a small amount of pure hydrogen is required at a specific site. depending on the primary source of energy. The production of hydrogen today is mainly performed by steam reforming. firstly without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). including investigating mixing hydrogen with natural gas and using existing local natural gas pipeline networks. the production of ammonia and hydrogenation of edible fats. There is a plethora of technical issues to be addressed to develop and optimise the hydrogen production and distribution processes. 95% of which is captive (consumed on-site). In the short. advanced electrolysers (based on PEM or SOFC technology) with expected higher efficiency than the conventional alkaline electrolysis • Bio-photolysis and photo-fermentation processes that use sun light and biological processes to produce hydrogen (upstream research) • Dark fermentation biological processes that produce hydrogen in the absence of light • Hydrogen from biomass by thermo-chemical routes via syngas generation. depending on eventual use. the scale of each application and the planned use. which is a combination of photovoltaic cells and in situ electrolysis • New. Certain fuel types require very high purity hydrogen. though the energy required just to compress gaseous hydrogen is itself significant. and then with CCS in the medium term. Significant progress is needed for hydrogen to become a widely available “consumer fuel” which meets the previously mentioned energetic. nuclear and fossil sources.A 10 . as well as being economically competitive. partial oxidation of gaseous or liquid fuels or the gasification of coal. environmental and production cost constraints. Distribution of hydrogen is done through pipelines. The way that hydrogen will be produced and distributed should contribute to the security of energy supply and the protection of the environment.to-medium term. Some of the long-term pathways for the production of hydrogen that are being currently investigated in the FP6 portfolio of projects on Hydrogen production are: • Thermochemical processes that use high temperature heat from nuclear or concentrated solar technologies to split water into hydrogen and oxygen • Photo-electrolysis or photo-catalytic water splitting.HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION The deployment of processes and facilities that will be able to supply the required quantities of hydrogen is a key issue in the successful transition to a more hydrogen based energy economy. A key attraction of hydrogen as an energy vector is that it can be produced from a variety of sources including renewables. or using trucks carrying hydrogen in high pressure gas cylinders or cryogenic tanks. The FP6 programme has been supporting the development and testing of such processes at laboratory scale but also in real-life demonstrations.
Investigating the possibility of using the existing natural gas network to distribute and use hydrogen added to natural gas. NL Ecole Polytechnique. FR 7. EL 1.5 11 2 11 . Developing a innovative 400 kWth solar reformer for reforming fuels like natural gas into hydrogen. Link molecular genetics and bio-mimetic chemistry to allow for hydrogen production.1 1.56 CACHET NATURALHY BIOMODULARH2 BP. clean and sustainable hydrogen production.18 GENHYPEM HI2H2 CHRISGAS HYVOLUTION SOLAR-H HY2SEPS Université Paris Sud. FR EC Budget (M€) 2. Retrofitting a biomass IGCC plant to produce hydrogen-rich gases through steam/oxygen-blown gasification of biomass. from the present levels down to €20-30 per tonne.9 NEMESIS BIO-HYDROGEN SOLREF SOLHYCARB HYTHEC Investigating the development of a small-scale reformer to produce hydrogen from a variety of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. standardised molecular building blocks that will produce a photosynthetic bacterium containing engineered chemical pathways for competitive. Investigating the development of a cost effective small scale biogas reformer. Designing re-usable. HYDROSOL-II CERTH/CPERI.1 9. SE A&F. Investigating the co-production of hydrogen and carbon black through the cracking of natural gas using concentrated solar energy. Large-scale production of hydrogen through the thermal decomposition of water using high-temperature heat from nuclear and/or concentrated solar energy.5 9. FR CEA. NL Uppsala University.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country DLR. improving the performance of an existing industrial model. Developing an innovative 100kW solar thermal reactor aiming to produce hydrogen through a two-step thermochemical water-splitting process. Development of an advanced. FR Växjo University. FI FORTH/ICE-HT.8 1. EL 2.1 2 1. DE PROFACTOR. Developing a hybrid membrane/pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system for the separation of H2 and CO2 investigating various materials.85 2. FR EDF. Development of a blueprint for decentralised hydrogen production processusing dark fermentation processes of local biomass. AT DLR.2 0. UK Gasunie. exploiting solar energy through artificial photosynthesis. concentrating on catalyst development and numerical modelling. components and processes.5 1. DE CNRS. Investigating a way to increase the efficiency of the electrolysis process up to potentially 90% through using Solid Oxide electrolysers. Reduction of the cost of capturing CO2 from natural gas based hydrogen production routes. PEM – based electrolyser.
current technology is around five times less energydense than gasoline or diesel fuels – that is to say. carbon structures). supported by computational tools. kinetics.. there is a need for ever increasing pressures. However. So. Liquid storage. has high energy penalties associated with liquefying and storing hydrogen in liquid form (boil-off). High-strength fibres need to be developed and liners made impermeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen can also be stored through solid storage. and the current aim is for 700 bars in fibre-reinforced composite tanks. etc.HYDROGEN STORAGE Effective hydrogen storage is a key for the transition to a more hydrogen-based energy economy.g. with an emphasis on recyclable materials. time-intensive laminating processes – so there is a need for cheaper methods. The FP6 project portfolio covers different R&D actions on the three storage routes above exposed (liquid. while tanks should incorporate safe methods for handling boil-off. with much still to be learned about the basic science of the materials involved. storing hydrogen uses five times the space per unit energy. absorption. with complex. where the hydrogen is chemically absorbed into in metal hydrides or chemical hydrides or physisorbed in porous materials (e. fuel station flow meters. a number of issues related to governing bond strength. stationary and potentially transports applications. New lightweight and low volume tanks need to be developed with novel insulating material. Current solid storage systems are based on AB2 or AB5 metal hydrides and lowtemperature chemical hydrides (such as sodium alanate) but are limited to system energy densities (weight of hydrogen relative to that of the tank) ranging from 0. Lastly. This technique is suitable for portable. 12 . gaseous.6% to 1. design of novel materials. research in the field of novel and cost effective materials for hydrogen storage will still be needed. In the future. identifying degradation of materials. which would give acceptable road vehicle autonomy.5% (which compares with the road vehicle target of 6-9wt% To increase the energy density. it is important to standardise peripheral equipment such as safety sensors. even if currently providing the highest energy density. and on optimising filling procedures. For the case of gaseous storage. such technology is very much in the laboratory stage. Safety and certification issues are paramount. degradation and heat management need to be addressed. The efficiency of hydrogen liquefaction can be improved through magnetic refrigeration or other processes and at the same time needs to be scaled-down for localised application. desorption. New materials with low heat of formation must be identified and new theoretical and experimental techniques must be developed. which can generate a build-up of heat in the tank. will support the research efforts. and 700 bar dispensers and nozzles for rapid refueling. the cyclability (>1500 cycles) and the operating temperature range. The challenge is especially demanding for on-board storage for road vehicles. The parallel development and benchmarking of computational methods for modelling adsorption and desorption. A number of novel storage techniques are being investigated to complement the currently available methods where hydrogen is stored in gaseous (up to a pressure of 350 bars) or liquid form (cryogenic temperatures). and solid). Emphasis must be placed on safety and certification issues. Composite structures made in this way are not cheap.
Development of new carbon cone (CC) materials.5 STORHY NESSHY Research on hydrogen storage technologies (gaseous. AT NSRC Demokritos. UK 2. improved knowledge of the physical mechanisms involved. new analytical and characterisation tools and measurement techniques. including harmonisation of testing methods. HYSIC NSRC Demokritos. supporting innovative R&D actions. Hydrogen storage for vehicles application with a view to supporting the development of standards. modelling. development of new modelling and classification to elucidate the relations between CCs and H2 and support standardisation of measurement systems.53 SYSAF EC. liquid. Network to carry out research in the areas of photo-electrochemical hydrogen production. JRC-IE Direct action 13 . and storage in alanates.55 HYTRAIN Salford University. EL EC Budget (M€) 10.% H2 at temperatures applicable for mobile applications. capable of storing above 6 wt. NL 3. standardisation and testing protocols.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country MAGNA STEYR.3 HYCONES NSRC Demokritos. Advancing the current state of hydrogen solid storage regarding new materials. which complement research performed in NESSHY.7 7. EL 0. EL 1. Training of researchers in the area of hydrogen solid storage and creation of a platform for European research activities to strengthen the European role in the international hydrogen storage research. solid) focusing on automotive applications.6 HYDROGEN University of Leiden. and a new class of materials storing hydrogen safely in the form of ammonia. Assisting and increasing international cooperation on hydrogen solid storage by the Project NESSHY. borohydrides. benchmarking and identification of best practices.
through to full size power stations and quad. If cost reduction is one main driver in bringing fuel cells to the market. quality assurance methodologies. PEFC) types where Europe has significant strength but there is need for such basic research. morphological changes. Electrochemical energy conversion involves complex developments of materials: due to the close link between electricity flow and corrosion processes. The projects supported by the FP6 address long-term issues within the whole range of fuel cells types. Manufacturing technologies and industrialisation issues becomes also increasingly important. the topics of low-cost materials and processing have to be additionally tackled in order to achieve acceptable market costs. 14 . Fuel cells can in principle be built in a wide range of power ratings. Issues of long-term reliability. online detection of faulty components. with a focus on the high temperature technologies (mainly Solid Oxide. low degradation and ruggedness also apply to the small portable types and to the Molten Carbonate (MCFC) -based devices as well as to any other fuel cell type. At the same time. whilst causing very low levels of pollutant emission. In portable applications this means a lifetime of a few thousand hours. in mobile applications of around 5 000 hours and in stationary installations around 40 000 hours and more. This implies allowable degradation rates from steady-state operation of some percent per 1000 hours of operation down to 0.FUEL CELLS BASIC RESEARCH Fuel cells offer a significant advantage over traditional combustion-based thermal energy conversion. While some types of fuel cell are approaching the levels of durability required for widespread uptake. building of resistive layers and exhaustion of catalytically active components. the issue of ageing and ruggedness in everyday operation is of major concern. material development for enhanced lifetimes becomes the major challenge in fuel cell basic research and development. long lifetime and robust and reliable operation are the issues to be addressed to ensure quality and suitability as consumer product. and instantaneous refuelling. and can be used in a wide variety of applications. and qualification of components remain as areas of interest and of innovation. Advanced analysis also includes modelling and simulation tools that serve to predict materials durability and degradation processes. They offer advantages of weight compared with batteries. No matter what fuel cell type is considered. similar to combustion engines. from miniaturised portable power (effectively substituting the battery in portable electronic devices) through transport (as a zero-emission propuslsion system) to power generation in a variety of sizes (from domestic combined heat and power systems. from a few mW to several MW. The reconciliation of high-performance materials with low degradation and low-cost targets is an extremely challenging issue.generation). most require further improvement. robust units that can cope with mechanical as well as electrochemical ‘stress’ and be operated at will with as little restrictions as possible whilst offering value for money and being a desirable product for the general customer.25% and less for power generation. SOFC) and low temperature technologies (mainly Polymer Electrolyte. in that they provide efficiencies of electrical power supply in the range of 35 to 55%. The topics of analysis tools. Fuel cells today have to further evolve from laboratory prototypes into rugged.
Taking up the materials development in the low temperature range by replacing the platinum-based catalysts by nano-particulate catalysts. NL Technical University of Denmark. Understand the strategic links between the solidification processing of intermetallic compounds. SE 1 GENFC Large SOFC FZJ. DE VTT.56 PEMTOOL KTH. high performance materials to well known thermal spray techniques or SOFC applications. IPHE-GENIE FCANODE ECN.8 6.3 REAL-SOFC SOFC600 SOFCSPRAY MATSILC FURIM AUTOBRANE Material development research for SOFC. the structure of the material at the microand nanoscale.8 15 . Develop concepts for components and sub-systems and verify their suitability for use in both pressurized and atmospheric SOFC units for large-scale power plants. and the final mechanical. NL Technical University of Denmark. Providing innovative solutions in efficient and low-cost high temperature PEM electrode assemblies. ES TU Clausthal. both at cell and stack level.5 0. manufacturing issues. DE EC Budget (M€) 9 6.7 1. national and regional basic and applied research and development efforts on high temperature PEFC Membrane Electrolyte Assemblies in order to substantially increase their impact.7 5. adaptation of materials. Using mathematical analysis and rapid numerical software in tandem with experimental validation to develop efficient and verified software tools for PEFC development. Integration of European. EL European Space Agency (ESA) CNRS.6 1. Looking into low cost silicate based electrolytes. FR 0. Adapting low-cost. Research to lower the operating temperature of planar SOFC to 600°C.5 APOLLON-B IMPRESS 1. DA FORTH-ICE/HT. DA DaimlerChrysler AG. Research to raise the temperature of operation of the transport-application PEFC and to extend the range of humidity levels at which the MEA can operate. and electrodes. chemical and physical properties.5 CARISMA 0.85 4 8. Generic modelling tool to fuel cell and fuel cell systems developers making fuel cell modelling expert knowledge available for all of them. including understand of ageing.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country FZJ. for the medium to long term. FI 1. DE ECN NTDA. Developing advanced materials for a high temperature PEFC stack operating at nominally 170°C and integration into a fuel cell system. Investigate and produce components and sub-systems for high temperature fuel cell systems. which are completely non-noble. Integration of IPHE partner countries outside Europe (in this case China and Russia) into the AUTOBRANE project.
high-volume manufacture and (in the case of PEFC) minimising the use of precious metals in the stack. The aim of research. Water management techniques to address humidification requirements and to maintain the water balance are required. quietness or extended operating range of the fuel cell. for domestic or commercial power demands. usually using natural gas as a fuel. which requires advances in heat exchange systems. Durability requirements of fuel cell stacks must include tolerance to impurities such as sulphur and ammonia. is to deliver high efficiency. quiet portable power in place of engine-powered generator sets. in addition to mechanical durability. These are described below: Cost – Cost reduction is required to ensure fuel cell technology becomes competitive with conventional technologies via new materials development. micro-compressors. Such uses can range from domestic heating boilers which generate “free” electricity. Stationary fuel cell applications. which is required to be > 40 000 hours for stationary applications and “maintenance free for life” for smaller portable units. Air and Water Management – Thermal management process includes heating. fuel storage and distribution. This will include miniaturisation of small scale fuel processing. The FP6 project portfolio on stationary and portable applications covers the main technological challenges which need to be overcome to ensure widespread use of portable and stationary fuel cell applications. into stationary and portable fuel cell applications. Component miniaturisation for portable applications will be required. especially in miniature portable applications where externalised humidity is unacceptable. Durability and Reliability – Increased durability is required to ensure full life operation for the demanding requirements of both portable and stationary applications. taking advantage of their high cooling need. Stationary fuel cells are often used in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) configuration. The cost of fuel processors is currently high due to its operating temperature requiring high temperature precious metal materials. and to provide clean. have the potential to offer increased efficiency compared to conventional technology. such as fuel from biomass. 16 .STATIONARY AND PORTABLE APPLICATIONS This category of research covers a very wide range of fuel cell sizes. cooling and steam generation. low cost and high durability materials for the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant components. Thermal. to larger industrial plant. as well as being compatible with renewable fuels. At the smallest end of the market. because some of these applications will command a price premium for the cleanliness. from laptops to small electric wheelchairs. fuel cells have the potential to replace battery power for portable equipment. This includes both the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant components. Packaging – Packaging and weight are critical especially for portable applications for ease of use. low-cost. Portable fuel cell applications are expected to be the first to market.
including new polymer electrolyte materials for portable applications and leading to a methanol crossover rate significantly lower than current materials.5 GREEN FUEL CELL FLAMESOFC CCIRAD. The integration of portable and stationary fuel cell technology with existing components such as batteries and supercapacitors.2 MOREPOWER Development of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC). FEMAG DEMAG BIOCELLUS AGT srl.5 NEXTGENCELL Vaillant GmbH. The development of an innovative SOFC-based micro-CHP system capable to operate with different fuels and fulfil all technological and market requirements at a European level. IT TU Munich.65 2. DE EC Budget (M€) 2. Investigation of mechanisms to minimise the impact of poisoning and feedstock cleaning to ensure optimum operation of the fuel cell.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country GKSS. IT Labor srl. DE 2. DE 0. The integration of portable and stationary fuel cell technology with existing components such as batteries and supercapacitors. The investigation of the pollutants impact on the fuel cell and the development and demonstration of an integrated fuel cell system which meets the special requirements of biofuels. DE 3 7. FR VDI/VDE.65 0. Developing materials leading to high temperature PEM MEA technology to reduce cost and improve the reliability of existing PEM in the context of small domestic CHP systems.5 17 .
Hydrogen is a favoured transport energy vector for the future. however. from advanced conventional technologies such as clean and efficient internal combustion (piston and turbine engines) and hybrid road vehicles. road applications are of great long-term policy relevance for the EU and receive the highest level of investment by the respective industries. as it can be produced by multiple means. training and education. in terms of both purchase and operation. Transport applications will have to meet criteria on performance. research for aircraft and shipping applications is also emerging. System integration activities and clearly defined industrial targets (system performance targets) are of prime importance to make sure every application fulfils its own needs. 18 . Transport propulsion research is addressing this need at every level. in subsequent demonstration projects.TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS (INCLUDING HYBRID VEHICLES) Energy efficient. whose market requirements are the most technically and economically challenging. to long. including hydrogen supply infrastructures. critical components. cost targets. very low polluting and greenhouse-gas-neutral transport are key objectives of European transport and energy policies. and satisfying authorities and users that the technology is safe. durability. But there are other challenges. with the aim to validate performance under real world conditions. Technical developments on critical components will often target road applications. However.term solutions compatible with a transition away from fossil fuel dependence. The accompanying (hydrogen) supply and refuelling infrastructure will have to be in place. Both the fuel cell and hydrogen storage could be more than ten times more expensive than their conventional counterparts if introduced today. Many of these technologies are subsequently seen in demonstration projects. cost reduction will remain a prime target in any future work. peripheral systems. anticipating mass-market rollout in 2020. It is expected that lead applications will spin-off benefits to other (transport) applications without any important additional component developments. safety and durability. A large part of the portfolio dedicated to transport applications focuses on the development of hydrogen-fuelled surface transport. Transportation projects focussing on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells within the 6th Framework Programme cover a variety of these topics. The objective is that Hydrogen and Fuel Cell road vehicles will meet challenging performance. including key prime mover technologies. training of maintenance technicians. Cost is a key challenge in the transport sector. The aim of the current program is to develop and validate the technology for market conditions expected for 2020. safety and cost targets by 2015. including robustness of the product in the hands of the public. and used in efficient fuel cells as well as in combustion engines.
2 2. The development and design of multi-MW power plants based on molten-carbonate fuel cells technology and fuelled by marine Diesel oil. including safety and certification requirements. batteries and supercapacitors.3 19 . IT 9. hybrids and H2-vehicles. Power electronics for HEV and high temperature power electronics. To develop high power. both for fuel cells in propulsion and FC-APUs.9 NEW H SHIP Icelandic New Energy. IT HIL Tech Developments Limited. safe. DE Siemens. to be integrated on board large ships. FR MC-WAP CET. System and component issues.IES EC Budget (M€) 8 FELICITAS To investigate high-power Polymer Electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for different mobile applications with stack sizes above 200kWe. Development of test programmes and test procedures for the assessment of efficiency and overall environmental performance of electrical. Dealing with different system components like DCDC converters. HYTRAN HYICE HYSYS HOPE HYHEELS ILHYPOS INTELLICON POMEROL VELA H2 8.65 0. Aim of the development is an improved cost efficient energy supply concept for Hybrid vehicles.5 2. The investigation of fuel cell behaviour under the specific in-flight operation condition (low temperature. JRC.4 2. UK SAFT. Adaptation of fuel injectors and the optimization of the combustion process as well as cost targets for market readiness. FR EC. DE Siemens. operational and societal obstacles related to the shipboard system requirements and infrastructure for maritime fuels.5 Direct action 4. DE DaimlerChrysler. vibrations). IS 0. Developing green. DE BMW. pressure.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country Fraunhofer Gesellschaft. DE ENEA.8 5 11.7 1. DE BMW. and high specific energy and power Hybrid SuperCapacitors (SC) for PEM powered electric vehicles. Identification of technical.5 CELINA Airbus. low-cost and intrinsically safe lithium-ion batteries by a breakthrough in materials. allowing for downscaling of stacks or for providing boost-power when required. Hybridization with batteries or supercapacitors.
The creation of demonstration projects and. together with technology breakthroughs. it will follow market mechanisms that are aiming at profit maximization on the short and medium term.PATHWAYS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS There are many socio-economic issues to be addressed to develop and create a hydrogen market. and use them as dynamic benchmarks for setting future research targets. which is costly and complicated. A transition towards a sustainable energy system is a process that will not occur by itself under today’s market conditions. on a larger scale. information and experience from socioeconomic studies. in collaboration with the Member States and other nations. meaning that roadmaps and strategies for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells need to be regularly readjusted. A significant investment in this area in FP6 has created a wealth of useful information in these fields. A close coordination and co-operation of the most relevant national programmes on hydrogen is of high importance in order to keep an overview. coordination actions and other instruments build on past accomplishments. The deployment of processes and facilities that will be able to supply the required quantities of affordable hydrogen is a key issue in the successful transition to the hydrogen economy. has been supporting the socio economic analysis of hydrogen deployment. networking co-operations and demonstration projects need continual capture and dissemination. If the energy system is left to change on its own. is seen as a promising mechanism to encourage these transition issues to be resolved. using the most profitable (for industry) or cost-effective (for the customer) technology available at the moment. It is therefore vital that the future generation of research projects. and to combine efforts. 20 . in order to share wisdom and minimise duplicated effort or inconsistencies. The development of roadmaps is similarly vital for transition management. It is particularly important to monitor the progress of competing technologies. Coordination and communication between projects in this research area remains important. Accumulated knowledge. This is also true outside the arena of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: future directions will be made consistent with the visions of other Technology Platforms in related transport and energy fields. It is also important to update the outputs of this type of work as circumstances change. Incentives and technological improvements are needed to overcome socio-economic hurdles in the first phase of transition where there will otherwise be short-term losses when engaging in new technologies. The European Commission. Among the factors that determine the long-term profits of the transition towards a future hydrogen based society are cost reductions and efficiency improvements. can profoundly impact the conclusions of this type of work. “hydrogen communities” of early adopters. Shifts in energy and raw material prices and global politics.
Coordinator organisation Country Ricardo, UK
EC Budget (M€) 4,5
Supporting the Commission in the monitoring and coordination of ongoing activities of the HFP, and provide input to the HFP for the planning and preparation of future research and demonstration activities within an integrated EU strategy, focusing on identifying opportunities for research activities relative to Hydrogen Communities. Creation of a network and integrate national and regional R&D activities by establishing a durable European Research Area (ERA-Net) for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Supporting European SMEs to cope with new emerging H2 related upcoming technologies. Intends to maximize the participation of research centres and researchers from three new member states (Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) and two accession countries (Bulgaria and Romania). To improve the research capacity of the Turkish Centre on hydrogen technologies. It also has the aim to network with other research centres and Excellency Centres in other EU Member States. Promoting sustainable energy systems in particular through technological development (such as hydrogen technology). Preparing the EU for a large scale fossil fuel power generation with hydrogen production and direct geological storage of CO2. Developing a validated and well accepted road map for the introduction of hydrogen in the EU energy system. To compare roadmapping and system analysis activities in Europe and the United States. Coordinate efforts on the knowledge of hydrogen production and propose a roadmap for short-, medium- and long-term research programmes. Development and implementation of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Secretariat. The future world energy system up to 2050 within a framework of minimal climate change policies (and studying the conditions for a development of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Enhancing research capacities on nanotechnology, multi-functional materials and advanced applications. Investigate the cost-effectiveness of measures to support the introduction of alternative motor fuels (hydrogen as a long-term option) in the EU market.
Camera di commercio di Torino, IT Labor srl, IT
Tubitak Marmara, TR
CASCADE MINTS DYNAMIS HYWAYS HYWAYS-IPHE INNOHYP-CA HYCELL-TPS WETO-H2
ICCS/NTUA, EL SINTEF-ER, NO L-B System Technik, DE L-B System Technik, DE CEA, FR Kellen Europe NV, BE Enerdata, FR
0,95 4 4 0,3 0.6 2.38 0,39
KTH, SE Vito, BE
TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION AND DEMONSTRATION
The assessment of the real-world performance of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technology is critical to test and validate current technology capability, and to direct future research and development efforts to achieve the improvements needed to help bring these technologies to commercialisation. Validation and demonstration projects are also primary opportunities for gaining experience and providing training to stakeholders and end-users for real-life situations. Finally, they are extremely useful in raising public awareness of the new technology, as well as in providing input for the development of appropriate and coherent standards for the various technologies. As explained in the previous sections the technology pathways for hydrogen production, distribution and use are numerous and varied. Achieving a diversified hydrogen supply and indeed energy economy requires full investigation of the various options. Different pathways and technologies currently face different challenges and exhibit different levels of development and progress towards commercialisation – both a short- and longterm focus are therefore necessary for the global picture. In the short term, efforts are directed towards bridging the gap between pre-commercial prototype applications to operation under fully commercial conditions. In the longer term, the focus is to advance technological development (optimisation of application design and functionality), and pathway logistics to achieve long-term cost reductions. In both the long- and short- term a central goal must be to foster learning and best practices throughout the European Union. In FP6 both technology validation and large scale demonstration projects are being supported in the area of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. A number of process development, integration and logistics issues are currently being demonstrated and tested under pre-commercial and close-to-commercial conditions to gain experience that will feed back into the technology development and deployment process, but also provide firsthand training to stakeholders and end-users of these technologies. The European Union has now embarked on a series of further demonstration projects grouped under the initiative Hydrogen for Transport. Around 200 hydrogen-powered vehicles will be demonstrated over the next three years. The aim is: to improve vehicle efficiency and infrastructure reliability; to facilitate the understanding of our citizens and our decision makers regarding hydrogen; and to prepare even larger demonstration projects necessary to bridge the gap between the future state of technology and the market. Following the recommendations of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform the Hydrogen for Transport initiative through project HyLIGHTS networks and co-ordinates activities in 3 demonstration projects HyFLEET:CUTE, HyCHAIN and ZERO REGIO in different European regions in order to demonstrate and comprehensively benchmark “real world behaviour” of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In addition it helps to enhance cooperation with other long-term research projects, e.g. related to safety, storage systems, etc., keeping pace with developments in basic and applied R&D and continue to provide the opportunity for bringing upcoming technologies and processes out of the laboratory and into real-world applications.
Coordinator organisation Country Air Liquide
EC Budget (M€) 17
HYCHAINMINITRAINS ZERO REGIO HYFLEET:CUTE
Addresses the early market of urban vehicles, including small utility vehicles, minibuses, scooters and cargo-bikes, all powered by hydrogen fuel cells. Demonstration of hydrogen-powered cars and hydrogen infrastructure in 2 European regions. Designing, constructing and testing the application of hydrogen-powered ICE buses, and designing, constructing and testing prototypes of the next generation of hydrogen fuel cell bus. Developing, testing and optimising new and existing infrastructure. Supports the Commission in the monitoring and coordination of ongoing activities of the HFP, and provide input to the HFP for the planning and preparation of future research and demonstration activities within an integrated EU strategy, focusing on transport applications.
Infraserv GmbH DaimlerChrysler
L-B System Technik
and ensure safe storage and utilization of hydrogen. Industry and user education is required relating to regulations. tested and produced to the required standards. and perceived as such by the public. stationary systems). stationary or transport applications. will see the introduction of new technologies for hydrogen storage and energy conversion. This includes inter alia. codes and standards (RCS). must be safe and convenient to use. as all must adhere to the same requirements. Therefore. or a standard for a refuelling nozzle design. the need for RCS becomes more pressing. The FP6 programme has been supporting different R&D actions aimed at filling knowledge gaps to help the development of appropriate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell RCS. In other cases. As the numbers of systems in use increase. codes and standards will ensure fair competition between different technologies. harmonised procedures and protocols for fuel cell testing. This can lead to the confusion of multiple non-aligned standards. with hydrogen as a significant energy vector. New technologies. This requires a concerted effort relating to European and worldwide regulations. CODES AND STANDARDS The move towards a sustainable energy economy.g. especially in the field of safety. local authorities may have to develop their own standards independently. These projects have generally a strong international partnership given the need to join forces internationally on such pre-competitive issues. there is a requirement to develop a harmonised European and Worldwide set of regulations. In many cases there are no existing codes or standards. whether they are for portable. 24 . Introduction of new hydrogen based technologies may also be encouraged by further environmental legislation (greenhouse gases. whether relating to (for example) a safety testing procedure. REGULATIONS. Harmonized regulations. even if it is actually safe. hydrogen refuelling stations. effort on hydrogen safety and related applications (e.SAFETY. to the new technology being prohibited. codes and standards to ensure products are developed. or worse still. air quality).
7 0.5 HYSAFE HySAFEST HyCourse HARMONHY HYAPPROVAL HYFIRE FCTESQA The development of a reliable framework at European level for the assessment of the safety of hydrogen technologies. operational characteristics.95 2. efficiency. validate and benchmark test procedures for FC stacks and FC systems. Developing a handbook facilitating the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations in Europe. Validate test procedures for evaluation of performance. Further disseminate the results of FCTESQA to international organisations and to perform a gap analysis for regulations. Development of a EU-wide Installation Permitting Guidance for approval of hydrogen-based stationary systems. safety and environmental compliance for fuel cell systems.62 0. European Summer School on Hydrogen Safety. Development of a pool of trained researchers specialising in hydrogen fire and explosion safety. UK AVERE L-B System Technik Kingston University ENEA EC Budget (M€) 7 0.complements the FCTESQA/FCTEDI projects. UK University of Ulster.55 FCTEST JRC-IE Direct action HYPER University of Manchester 1. Assessing the activities on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell regulations and standards on a worldwide level.Acronym Topic addressed Coordinator organisation Country Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe University of Ulster. FCTEDI ENEA 0. Early Stage Training activity on fundamentals of hydrogen safety.9 0. codes and standards for fuel cells that will be used in stationary applications.44 25 . supporting the ongoing European and worldwide Regulation Codes and Standards (RCS) definition process.5 1. Harmonise.
in association with President Romano Prodi.DEVELOPING A EUROPEAN STRATEGY The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) Building on the recommendations set out in the Vision Report of the High Level Group on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (HLG) set up in October 2002. are widely disseminated and communicated to the appropriate policy-making bodies. development and deployment programmes and initiatives. users. The role of the HFP is to realise the effective mobilisation of all relevant stakeholders towards a common goal and to assist in the stimulation and effective coordination of European. regional and local research. The main objective for the HFP is now to prepare the implementation of the strategy. including research and demonstration projects carried out under the auspices of the Platform. combined public/private partnerships – of the type the Platform is designed to encourage – which will be crucial in facilitating moving from the present research/prototype demonstration stage to the mass-market introduction of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies. the Platform Advisory Council adopted two documents that together provided a vision for the sector in the medium to long term. The second document is the Deployment Strategy which describes the first steps and key milestones for the market penetration of portable. The results of activities. and civil society). the European Technology Platform on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (HFP) was launched in 2004 by the then Vice-President Loyola de Palacio and Commissioner Philippe Busquin. The first. development and technology validation programme designed to lead to world-class technology and global leadership. The platform aims to accelerate the development and deployment in Europe of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. The draft implementation plan proposes RTD and D and other supporting actions and measures that would be needed over the 2006-2013 timeframe (corresponding to FP7) in order to realise Snapshot 2020. clusters and networks in the European Commission’s Framework Programme and in Member States. the Interim Implementation Plan has been published for consultation with all stakeholders in Europe. More than 100 experts have been involved in its development – starting from the review and confirmation of the targets set out in the Deployment Strategy “Snapshot 2020”. proposes a ten-year research. The platform also has a key role in promoting awareness and understanding of fuel cells and hydrogen market opportunities and foster deeper co-operation.e. These bodies will play a crucial role in creating an appropriate technical and political environment within which these technologies can achieve market penetration. The document also outlines the necessity for substantial. stationary and transport applications by 2020. The aim is to finalize the Implementation Plan (Status 2006) by the end of 2006. and to ensure the balanced and active participation of the major stakeholders (i. Figure 4: Structure of European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform EC European Commission RCS Regulations Codes and Standards AC Advisory Council FBD Financing and Business Development EG Executive Group ET Education and Training MG Mirror Group PA Public Awareness 26 . The HFP builds on ongoing and new projects. industry. scientific community. public authorities. and includes a number of specific steering panels and initiative groups to optimise its functioning and achieve the Platform’s overall goals. the Strategic Research Agenda. In 2005. both within the EU and at a global level. national. In early July.
agriculture and biotechnology. The Joint Technology Initiative would be a new way of realising public-private research partnerships at European level. for stationary. Under this topic it is proposed an “integrated action” to provide a strong technological foundation for competitive EU fuel cell and hydrogen industries. Environment (including climate change). if pursued. FP7 will be organised in four specific programmes: “Cooperation”. It will run for seven years (2007-2013) and the total budget proposed is € 53. shared-cost research. Energy. joint calls. Security and Space. materials and new production technologies. which will comprise: fundamental and applied research and technological development.92 billion. to support the downstream.75 billion are for activities under the Euratom Programme. Food. Information and communication technologies. of which € 2. Accounting for € 32.hfpeurope. with the exception of the fundamental research activities. under the responsibility of the Commission. The JTI would be expected to leverage funding from a variety of sources. According to the Commission proposal. The extensive consultations carried out by the various bodies. Transport (including aeronautics). FP7 – European Commission’s proposal for a JTI In addition to the use of the traditional instrument of collaborative research. “Ideas”. nanotechnologies. including European. and “Capacities”. portable and transport applications. the “Energy” sub-programme will be structured around several specific topics. the “Cooperation” Programme aims to gain or consolidate leadership in key scientific and technology areas. through. by progressing the the European Research Area (ERA) and taking it further towards the development of the knowledge economy and knowledge-based society in Europe. It will support all types of research activities carried out by different research bodies in trans-national cooperation. It is foreseen that. one of which will be “Hydrogen and Fuel Cells”. “People”. will be complemented and closely co-ordinated with more upstream collaborative research effort aimed at achieving breakthrough on critical materials. International cooperation with non-EU countries will also be included. In order to meet this ambitious objective.FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Research on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Seventh Framework Programme The Commission’s amended proposal (COM (2006) 364 final) for the Seventh European Research Framework Programme (FP7) is designed to respond to the EU’s priorities linked to the Lisbon agenda for European growth and competitiveness. Eligible actions will range from collaborative research projects and the creation of networks to the establishment of Joint Technology Initiatives (see section below) and the coordination of national research programmes. would involve the setting up of a publicprivate Joint Undertaking in accordance with the Article 171 of the EC Treaty. Bringing public and private interests together into a new.27 billion. processes and emerging technologies. Europe-wide deployment of these technologies. It will be sub-divided into nine distinct themes which will be operationally autonomous while at the same time ensuring coherence within the Programme and allowing for joint activities cutting across different themes. Nanosciences. The new partnership would be tasked with defining and executing a target-oriented European programme of industrial research. the Commission proposes to set up Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs) for a limited number of research areas for which the scope of the RTD objective and the scale of the resources involved could justify setting up long term public private partnerships. much of this activity will be implemented through a European “Joint Technology Initiative” (JTI). panels and groups of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells European Technology Platform (HFP) will provide the basis for this integrated programme. which. industry-led implementation structure would ensure that the jointly defined research programme will better match industry’s needs and expectations. The nine themes proposed are the following: Health. if implemented. technological development and demonstration on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in a coherently planned manner. Socioeconomic sciences and the humanities. and cross-cutting and socio-economic research activities to underpin sound transition strategies and provide a rational basis for policy decisions and market framework development.org 27 . national and regional programmes. The JTI activity. Further information about the proposed Joint Technology Initiative can be found on the technology platform web-site: www. for example. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells have been identified as a potential candidate for a JTI. The ‘Cooperation’ programme will be the main instrument for collaborative. large-scale demonstration (“lighthouse”) projects to validate research results and provide feedback for further research. The upstream research would continue to be managed under normal Framework Programme rules and procedures. FP7 will build on the achievements of FP6.
High temperature. Durable. Hydrogen production by Water Electrolysis Hi2H2 • Hydrogen Thermochemical Cycles HYTHEC • Non-thermal Production of pure Hydrogen from Biomass HYVOLUTION • Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by using the existing Natural Gas system as a catalyst NATURALHY • New Method for Superior Integrated Hydrogen generation System NEMESIS • Linking molecular genetics and bio-mimetic chemistry – a multidisciplinary approach to achieve renewable hydrogen production SOLAR-H • Hydrogen from solar thermal energy: high temperature solar chemical reactor for co-production of hydrogen and carbon black from natural gas cracking SOLHYCARB • SOLar steam REForming of methane rich gas for synthesis gas production SOLREF • Engineered modular bacterial Hydrogen Photoproduction of Hydrogen BIOMODULARH2 • Carbon dioxide capture and hydrogen production from gaseous fuels CACHET • Hybrid hydrogen – carbon dioxide SEParation Systems HY2SEPS • Solar Hydrogen via Water Splitting in Advanced Monolithic Reactors for Future Solar Power Plants HYDROSOL-II 30 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 53 54 55 Hydrogen storage • • • • • • • Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Cones HYCONES Hydrogen Storage Research Training Network HyTRAIN Novel Efficient Solid Storage for Hydrogen NESSHY Enhancing International Cooperation in running FP6 Hydrogen Solid Storage activities HySIC Hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications StorHy Systems for Alternative Fuels SYSAF Marie Curie Research Training Networks on Production and Storage of Hydrogen HYDROGEN 56 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 Fuel Cell basic research • Basic materials and industrial process research on functional materials for fuel cells APOLLON-B • Automotive high temperature fuel cell membranes AUTOBRANE • International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy for GENeration of New Ionomer membranes IPHE-GENIE • Coordination Action for Research on Intermediate and high temperature Specialised Membrane electrode Assemblies CARISMA • Non-noble Catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes FCANODE • Further Improvement and system integration of High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells FURIM • Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment GenFC • Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification IMPRESS • Novel Materials for Silicate-Based Fuel Cells MatSILC • Development of novel. efficient and validated software-based tools for PEM fuel cell component and stack-designers PEMTOOL • Realising Reliable. and Electrically Integrated SOFC-System FlameSOFC SOFC Fuel Cell Fuelled by Biomass Gasification Gas GREEN-FUEL-CELL Compact Direct (M)Ethanol Fuel Cell for Portable Application MOREPOWER The Next Generation of Stationary microCHP Fuel Cells NextGenCell 96 96 98 100 102 104 106 28 .PROJECTS Funded under the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006) Hydrogen production and distribution • Development of a Biogas Reformer for Production of Hydrogen for PEM Fuel Cells BIO-HYDROGEN • Clean Hydrogen-rich Synthesis Gas CHRISGAS • Proton-Exchange Membrane based Electrochemical Hydrogen Generator GENHYPEM • Highly efficient. Energy Efficient and Cost Effective SOFC Systems Real-SOFC • Demonstration of SOFC stack technology for operation at 600°C SOFC600 • Development of Low Temperature Cost Effective Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFCSPRAY 70 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 Stationary and portable applications • • • • • • Biomass Fuel Cell Utility System BIOCELLUS Flexible Ecological Multipurpose Advanced Generator FEMAG Fuel Flexible. Air-regulated. Modular.
Marmara Research Center.and ICE-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains HOPE Optimisation of hydrogen powered internal combustion engines HYICE Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle System Component Development HYSYS Power Oriented low cost and safe MatERials fOr Li-ion batteries POMEROL Alternative fuels and vehicle power train VELA-H2 108 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 127 128 129 130 Pathways and socio-economic analysis • Case study comparisons and development of energy models for integrated technology systems CASCADE MINTS • Towards Hydrogen and Electricity Production with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage DYNAMIS • Enlarging fuel cells and hydrogen research co-operation ENFUGEN • Development and implementation of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Secretariat HyCellTPS • Co-ordination action to establish a Hydrogen and Fuel Cell ERA-Net.Transport applications (including hybrid vehicles) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fuel Cell System Application in a New Configured Aircraft CELINA Domestic Emergency Advanced Generator DEMAG Fuel cell power-trains and clustering in heavy-duty transport FELICITAS Hybrid high energy electrical storage HyHEELS Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies for Road Transport HyTRAN Ionic Liquid-based Hybrid Power Supercapacitors ILHYPOS Intelligent DC/DC converter for fuel cell road vehicle INTELLICON Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cells for Waterborne Application MC-WAP Assimilation of Fuel Cells in maritime applications New-H-Ship High Density Power Electronics for FC. Assessment. Safety and Quality Assurance FCTESQA Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization FCTEST Harmonization of Standards and Regulations for a sustainable Hydrogen and Fuel Cell HarmonHy • Handbook for Approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations HyApproval • Safety of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier HySAFE • Early Stage Training in Fundamentals of Hydrogen Safety HySAFEST • European Summer School on Hydrogen Safety HyCourse • Installation Permitting Guidance For Hydrogen And Fuel Cells Stationary Applications HYPER • Hydrogen Combustion in the Context of Fire and Explosion Safety HYFIRE 168 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 181 182 184 29 . Deployment and Support to HyCOM Roads2HyCom • World Energy Technology Outlook 2050 WETO-H2 • R&D. hydrogen co-ordination HY-CO • Improvement of the S&T Research Capacity of TUBITAK. regulations. Energy Institute in the field of Hydrogen Technologies HY-PROSTORE • Hydrogen Technologies Transfer Project HYTETRA • European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap HYWAYS • Benchmarking of the European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap with International Partners HyWays HyWays-IPHE • Innovative High Temperature Routes For Hydrogen Production Coordinated Action INNOHYP CA • Enhancement of Research Capabilities on Multi-functional Nanocomposites for Advanced Fuel Cell Technology through EU-Turkish-China Cooperation NANOCOFC • Research co-Ordination. Demonstration and Incentive Programmes Effectiveness to Facilitate and Secure Market Introduction of Alternative Motor Fuels PREMIA 132 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 Technology validation and demonstration • Deployment of innovative low power fuel cell vehicle fleets to initiate an early market for hydrogen as an alternative fuel in Europe HYCHAIN-MINITRANS • Hydrogen for Clean Urban Transport in Europe HyFLEET:CUTE • Lombardia and Rhein-Main towards Zero Emission: Development and Demonstration of Infrastructure Systems for Hydrogen as an Alternative Motor Fuel ZERO REGIO • A Coordination Action to Prepare European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport HyLights 160 160 162 164 166 Safety. codes and standards • • • • Fuel Cell Testing and Dissemination FCTEDI Fuel Cell Testing.
This comprises the quality of the reformatted gas. the cost targets and the interfaces of the prototype for implementation at the test location. The first main objective is the development of reformer system which exhibits a better compatibility with biogas and hence shows an improved efficiency. performance and durability when used for biogas reforming. The second objective is the implementation of a cost effective cleaning unit for biogas. municipal waste-water treatment plants and landfills. For the development of both prototypes the RTD partners carry out laboratory experiments by simulating the conditions at the performance with biogas. Biofilters have been investigated for various applications but up to now their usage for siloxane removal has not been realised.Development of a Biogas Reformer for Production of Hydrogen for PEM Fuel Cells BIO-HYDROGEN Problems addressed BIO-HYDROGEN aims at the development of a cost effective biogas reforming system (6 kW hydrogen) for decentralised application with biogas from agricultural biogas plants. This system will be integrated to the already developed biotrickling filter for H2S cleaning. Biofiltration is believed to give good results in terms of cost-efficiency. A screening of the catalysts currently used for the reforming reaction will be performed in order to evaluate and compare their stability. In case of the reformer a screening of the relevant catalysts and a selection of the 30 . The improvement of the heat and steam management for CO2 containing gas will be targeted with the aid of simulation and modelling. Objectives • Development and construction of a stable and cost effective biogas reforming unit • Development of advanced and durable catalysts for biogas reforming • Development and manufacturing of a biogas upgrading unit for siloxane removal • Construction of a biogas reformer prototype system with 6 kW hydrogen capacity • Installation and endurance test of the prototype at end user in Spain • Elaboration of an exploitation strategy for optimal use of the project results Technical approach First of all the requirements for a successful implementation of such a system have to be set up. Laboratory prototype will constitute the basis for the development of a biotrickling filter system capable to treat 1-2 m3/h biogas.
The experiments showed the principally suitability of these catalysts for the application with purified biogas. All relevant partners will assess the test results and draw conclusions on the performance and for the further applicability and exploitation.profactor. a shift reactor and a heat integration system and which was equipped with the selected catalysts. the most promising catalysts were selected for the use in the state of the art natural gas steam reformer.37 million EC funding € 0. The proof of quantitative biodegradation is done and leads to useful up-scaling to a system with 1. In case of the siloxane cleaning a laboratory filter will deliver the relevant up-scaling factors. operated with methane and different clean model biogases containing only methane and carbon dioxide in varying concentrations. A simulation completes the optimisation of the systems. The siloxane laboratory filter was designed and tested at 3 different conditions during 4 months.at Progress to date During the first 10 months commercially available pre reformer. was 31 .5 m3/h biogas flow rate. For the construction and the testing of the prototypes the support of the SME partners gives the necessary reliability. It was demonstrated in the laboratory that the used state of the art natural gas steam reformer is also suitable for the reforming of clean model biogases.INFORMATION Contract number 017819 Programme Cooperative Research Starting date 1st July 2005 most appropriate will be done. The relevant bacteria were successfully identified and the degradation rate of the different types of siloxanes was calculated based on a plenty of analyses. The reformer. Based on the experimental data. a reformer. reformer and shift catalysts have been tested in small scale for the use with sulphur free and sulphur containing biogas as feed for the steam reforming process. In order to evaluate the test operation of the reformer with biogas. Duration 24 months Total cost € 1. which consists of a pre reformer. a simulation tool for the reformer was built up and the experimental and the calculated results were compared.85 million Coordinator Johann Bergmair Profactor Produktionsforschungs GmbH Innovative Energy Systems Im Stadtgut A2 AT-4407 Steyr-Gleink Austria Partners Besel SA – ES Bitter GmbH – AT Fronius International GmbH – AT Matadero Frigorifico del Nalón – ES Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH – DE Schmack Biogas AG – DE Slovenská Pol’nohospodárska Univerzita v Nitre – SK UDOMI Competence in Fuel Cells – DE Universität Duisburg-Essen – DE Expected impact Biogas reformer: • Reformer suitable for decentralised hydrogen production from biogas • Improved efficiency • Lowering of investment and running costs • Sustainable hydrogen production • Dissemination of renewable energy conversion Biogas upgrading system: • Biotechnological H2S-cleaning for high-tech applications • Biotechnological Siloxane-cleaning for high-tech applications Project web-page www.
The Centre can then be used as a platform for advanced research./t year. high temperature filtration/cleaning. It is hence being designed to include possibilities for gas cleaning and upgrading as well as conversion of gases to gaseous and/or liquid energy carriers at semi-industrial level. biomass drying integration. Parallel R&D activities cover the whole value chain from biomass to syngas and include: feedstock biomass logistics. In addition a thorough status Review of the existing pilot plant at Värnamo has been conducted. Cost effective means high-energy efficiency for process competitiveness. BTL).) has been performed. as well as an initial risk assessment. The project also concentrates on research related networking activities. pressurised fuel feeding. feed system. gasification research and demonstration activities can be conducted at a much lower cost than if a new R&D facility was to be built. PFD. A basic engineering study of the planned rebuild using an external engineering consultant has been separately funded and also been completed. PID. development and demonstration and testing of biomass gasification. An innovative piston feeding system for biomass to the gasifier is being developed within the project to tackle this. Italy and Greece. tar and other hydrocarbons in the presence of certain sulphur compounds. The CHRISGAS Project responds directly to this challenge with its aim of arriving at a cost effective and attractively viable solution to produce a high quality syngas from the thermo-chemical process of the gasification of biomass. This will all lead onto the next phase: conversion of gas into motor fuels (Biomass to Liquids. In the status review the gasifier. The required databases are ready to be used in the whole EU. and steam reforming of tar and light hydrocarbons to further enhance the hydrogen yield. The methodological approach to estimate potential biomass resources has been developed and data concerning agricultural and forest residues have been collected for Spain.d t/year and the forest residues potential 36 million o. followed by hot gas cleaning to remove particulates. The studies within the work area “Fuel Supply and Management” are well in progress. definitions of all streams. hot synthesis gas characterisation. an energy-efficient and cost effective method to produce hydrogen-rich gases from biomass. The process is planned for demonstration at Värnamo. catalytic steam reforming and shift gas catalyst characterisation. The major forthcoming challenge in the project is rebuilding and putting back into operation the large complex pilot unit. training activities and dissemination activities as well as socioeconomic research on the non-technical obstacles for penetration into the markets of the technologies concerned. etc. Another significant technical challenge is to find a solution to reduce the inert gas consumption and its presence in the syngas. Progress to date As mentioned the key work areas of the project are related to the activities around the Värnamo pilot plant.Clean Hydrogen-rich Synthesis Gas CHRISGAS Problems addressed The Kyoto Protocol addresses the need to reduce the transport sector’s dependence on oil. Sweden. within a 5-year period. Technical approach The hub of this project is based around the Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasification Centre (VVBGC) in Sweden and the use of the biomass-fuelled pressurised IGCC (integrated gasification combined-cycle) CHP (combined heat and power) plant in Värnamo as a pilot facility. which can be transformed into renewable automotive fuels such as FT-diesel. DME and hydrogen. gasification. Maintenance needs and modification requirements have been identified and this work at the plant is currently ongoing. 32 . Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasification Centre. which has been mothballed under a conservation program for more than five years.d. This gasification/synthesis route is expected to be lower in cost than the hydrolysis/fermentation route. This implies the highest possible gas filtration temperature – in the range of 800 to 900°C – with. During the first 18 months a study providing conceptual engineering design alternatives (including mass & energy balances. This syngas process is based on steam/oxygen-blown gasification of biomass. basic equipment specifications. France. preferably an acceptable function of catalytic steam reforming to decompose methane. Objectives The primary aim of the CHRISGAS Project is to demonstrate. ash system. In these evaluated countries the potential of agricultural field residues have been found to reach 160 million o. after modification to the world’s first complete IGCC demonstration plant for biomass. gas cooling as well as auxiliary systems were checked for function and/or quality. By building VVBGC around this plant.
P. The experiments in this area are aimed at using and developing methods for high temperature measurement of particles without changing the original aerosol. Seville. Catalyst lifetime and degradation rate in the gasifier raw gas atmosphere is another significantly important area within CHRISGAS. A design of novel hot gas filtration unit to be placed and tested for the filtration on laboratory gasifier at the research premises of one of the partners has been produced. A reactivation of catalyst activity takes place when adding oxygen to the catalyst. Beijing. A key process area and piece of equipment for the CHRISGAS Project is the need for an efficient and robust hot gas filter. as well as the positive effect of increasing the temperature and O2 concentration. One of three planned workshops has already taken place and a further training and dissemination activity is planned at the University of Bologna for early September this year with a Summer School covering the whole scope of the CHRISGAS project. These results are regarded as a very valuable base for the large pilot demonstration program at Värnamo. delivered by one of the partners being used. Pilot research work has also been conducted resulting in knowledge within the area of measurement technique and the characterization of gaseous and aerosol trace components that are present in the gasifier raw gas.5 million Coordinator Dr. The specific trend of the deactivation using 20 and 50 ppm of H2S in the feed have been observed in laboratory tests.chrisgas. The production of a flyer. a website and posters with their broad approach. The novelty is related to the new type of back pulsing system as well in the application of a catalyst for tar cracking on the filter material surface.com 33 . In conjunction with the characterization and activity studies on reformer catalysts it has been identified within the first year of the project that the pilot plant would benefit from studies on commercial water gas shift catalysts. Sune Bengtsson Växjö Universitet Vejdes Plats 6 SE-351 95 Växjö Sweden Partners AGA-Linde – DE Catator – SE CIEMAT – ES Forschungszentrum Jülich – DE KS Ducente – SE Pall Schumacher – DE Royal Institute of Technology – SE S. as well as project presentations at conferences in Washington DC.6 million EC funding € 9. Work has therefore been expanded within CHRISGAS to encompass such water gas shift catalyst investigations. The analysis of the catalyst exposed to sulphur deactivation has shown a specific decrease of available Ni atoms attributed to NiS formation. This is very significant for the catalytic reforming process to become viable.E. Scandinavian Energy Project – SE Technical University Delft – NL TK Energi – DK TPS Termiska Processer – SE Università di Bologna – IT Valutec – FI Växjö Energi – SE Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasification Centre – SE To investigate the influence of process/fuel parameters on steam/oxygen blown CFB gasification a considerable number of experiments have been carried out in atmospheric conditions at the laboratories of two of the partners. with common fuels. Stockholm and in several other European cities have formed a major part of dissemination activities. Project web-page www. Moscow. The main dissemination activities have concentrated on raising public awareness of the project and of the technical possibilities to produce automotive fuels from biomass.INFORMATION Contract number 502587 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st September 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 15. An increase of the Ni0 crystal size associated with the high temperature obtained during the tests with oxygen has also been observed.
as far as storage problems are correctly addressed.a – processes for obtaining and plating fractal electrocatalytic structures WP1.b – surface protection 34 . The specific objectives of the project are: • Development of alternative low-cost membrane electrode assemblies and stack components with electrochemical performances similar to those of state-of-the-art systems. PEM offers well-known and largely admitted advantages over the more conventional alkaline water electrolysis: • Increased safety and reliability since the acid electrolyte is confined inside the solid electrolyte. For example. the stochiometric generation of H2/O2 mixtures for welding applications avoids the use of pressurized containers and storage hazards. using proton exchange membrane (PEM) – based electrochemical generators.c – test bench design and testing Objectives GenHyPEM is a project related to the electrolytic production of hydrogen from water. in order to reach three main technological objectives aimed at improving the performances of current 1000 liter/hour H2 industrial water electrolysers: The objectives are the development of nanoscaled electrocatalytic structures for reducing the amount of noble metals.cm-2) and high pressure (50 bars) operation for direct pressurized storage. Technical approach The workplan proposed within GenHyPEM addresses 4 key factors identified in state-ofthe-art PEM water electrolysers as cost-limiting factors for a larger diffusion of this technology in the industry.a – high performance electrolysis WP4. • Development of an optimized stack structure for high current density (1 A. for domestic applications.b – processes for obtaining and plating nano-scaled electrocatalytic structures WP1.a – geometry optimization WP3. and project deliverables have been identified. mostly in relation with laboratories or industrial applications. Keypoint 1 – Electrocatalysis WP1. the development and optimization of low-cost porous titanium sheets acting as current collectors in the electrolysis stack. the world situation requires the development of non-fossil sources.b – software package development WP4.Proton-Exchange Membrane based Electrochemical Hydrogen Generator GENHYPEM Problems addressed GenHyPEM gathers partners from academic institutions and from the industry who will provide a 291 man-month research effort over three years. which is supporting an increasing number of projects in this domain. the preparation of new composite membrane materials for high current density. Expected impact Hydrogen and/or oxygen of electrolytic grade are known to be useful for particular segments of the hydrogen market.2 mm). Concerning energy. In particular.c – processes for obtaining and plating non-noble catalytic compounds for hydrogen evolution Keypoint 2 – Alternative perfluorinated materials (WP2) Keypoint 3 – Current collectors WP3. All the actions aimed at reducing cost production of PEM water electrolysers are therefore expected to favour the penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the European industry and to meet environmental engagements. as expressed by the European Community. the synthesis and characterization of non-noble metal catalytic compounds provided by molecular chemistry and bio-mimetic approaches. Nine different work packages (WPs) are proposed to reduce cost-production. • Development of an automated and integrated electrolysis unit allowing gas production from intermittent renewable sources of energy such as photovoltaic-solar and wind. • Possibility of significantly reduce the investment cost by operating the cell at higher current densities close or above to 1 Amp/cm2. • Significantly high cell efficiencies (> 80%) because of the small thickness of the interpolar domain (< 0. market studies reveal that there is place for the electrolytic production of hydrogen using either photovoltaic-solar or wind when available. high pressure and high temperature operation. Keypoint 4 – Stack design and optimization WP4.
u-psud. Duration 36 months Total cost € 2. at current densities between 500 and 1000 mA/cm2 (figure 3).2 million EC funding € 1. which can be operated up to 6 bars.INFORMATION Contract number 019802 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st October 2005 Progress to date After 8 months.fr Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 35 . • Several scientific communications are presented at the 16th WHEC in Lyon in June 2006.genhypem. • Several test cells have been developed. A prototype electrolyser has been designed and constructed at CETH. 15 FR-91405 Orsay France Partners Compagnie Européenne des Technologies de l’Hydrogène – FR Delta Plus Engineering & Consulting SPRL – BE GKN Sinter Metal Service Gmbh – DE OVM-ICCPET-RO Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute – RU Project web-page www. the following achievements have been obtained: • Different non-noble compounds have been synthesized and tested in electrolysis configuration. • Simple electrolysers have also been specifically designed for educational and exhibition purposes (figure 2). which are used to characterize different electro-catalytic structures at nominal size (250 cm2) and to perform long time testing (figure 1).1 million Coordinator Pierre Millet Université Paris-Sud Avenue Georges Clemenceau. In relation to dissemination of knowledge and raising of public awareness: • Several exhibitions have been made and others are planned (details from the project website).
For example. high temperature electrolysers are built and tested. the unavoidable ohmic heat produced by the internal resistance of an electrolysis cell is not wasted but utilised for the thermal contribution in the SOEC water (steam) splitting process at high temperature. has the potential to become an efficient and cost effective way to solve the conversion problem. The operating conditions under SOEC mode are much more severe. and relatively low concentrations of water. The electrical energy needed for electrolysis decreases with temperature and is compensated by an input of thermal energy. Because this water splitting process is endothermic. 36 . Finally. These issues need to be analysed and solutions need to be found before larger. under low partial pressures of oxygen (0. The limitations and the applicability of the materials and components for high temperature solid oxide water electrolysers will be analysed. called “Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell” or alternatively “Solid Oxide Electrochemical Converter” (SOEC). Problems addressed Cells developed for SOFC applications are designed to operate at cell voltages below 1V. Noble metal catalysts are not required and higher current densities can be obtained compared to existing low temperature electrolysers. with the water concentration as high as 100% at the electrolyser inlet. It is expected that this will have an important impact on the corrosion and degradation of the cells and stack. Technical approach Two types of manufacturing methods will be used to make planar SOEC cells and stack elements with a size of 5x5 cm2: • Advanced plasma spray techniques with DC plasma generation (at DLR). long-term tests of 2000 hours range will be performed. Hydrogen production by Water Electrolysis Hi2H2 Objectives Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology used in electrolysis mode.2 bar). • To determine the limitations of the cell materials for SOEC operation at operating temperatures between 700 and 900°C. which reduces electrode polarisation. The cells and stack elements are analysed by structural and electrochemical characterisation methods. The cell voltage can be between 1 and 2V. In addition. the oxygen partial pressure is at 1 bar or higher if the electrolyser is pressurised. electrode kinetics are much faster at high temperature. The electrical efficiency demonstrated in the Hot Elly electrolyser was close to 92% compared to 50-60% in traditional alkaline electrolysers. • Wet ceramic processes (at Risø).Highly efficient. the electricity needed for electrolysis can be significantly reduced if the production of hydrogen takes place at high temperatures (700-1000°C). The objectives of the project are: • To investigate and evaluate the feasibility of a planar Solid Oxide Electrochemical Converter (SOEC) based on materials. cell components and fabrication processes of advanced thin-film SOFC technology. Compared to low temperature electrolysis. Special emphasis is given to corrosion tests of the materials. High temperature. the Hot Elly project has demonstrated that a breakthrough in water electrolysis efficiencies is possible by going to high temperatures (900-1000°C).
but again for reasonably sized systems this may be few percent only. 90% for a system. The potentially very high performance of the SOEC.48V. Thus.INFORMATION Contract number 503765 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st August 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 1. will also give Europe an important scientific. technological and competitive lead. defined as the total chemical energy (enthalpy of reaction.6 A/cm2 at the thermo-neutral voltage.1 million Coordinator Dr. Partners Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. The corrosion of the metal interconnect has been controlled by the use of ceramic protective coatings. compared with traditional water electrolysis. The Faradayic efficiency of SOEC has been shown to be 100% over a period of 1000 h. The emission of NOx/SOx/particles by cars in urban areas and the production of greenhouse gases. above any competitive technology. there are no parasitic reactions. – DE Risø National Laboratory – DK Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research – CH Project web-page www. This means that the SOEC technique has a potential of a hydrogen efficiency of ca. particularly when the cells are operated at very high current densities. it helps to solve some important future societal problems linked to our dependence on imported fuels. Philippe Stevens ElfER Institut Universität Karlsruhe Emmy-Noether-Strasse 11 DE-76131 Karlsruhe Germany Expected impact The high efficiencies obtained by this breakthrough technology makes the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel possible in a very clean way and with minimal losses. Current densities above 3A/cm2 have been achieved at cell potentials below thermo-neutral voltage and 3.e. 37 . These performances are hundred times greater than that achieved with low temperature electrolysis. This taken together with the endothermic nature of the water splitting means that the hydrogen efficiency. will be 100% minus the heat loss from the electrolyser to the surroundings. Degradation issues have been identified. Some electric energy will be consumed in the system for inverters and pumps.hi2h2. the joule heat produced within the cell equals the consumed heat in the steam generation plus the steam electrolysis process. 1 m3 stack volume) the thermal loss can most probably be well below 10%.V. i.com Progress to date Very encouraging results have been obtained on SOEC cells manufactured by Risø as well as on commercial SOFC cells. DH) in the hydrogen divided by the electric energy consumed.77 million EC funding € 1. At the thermo-neutral voltage of 1. for well-insulated SOEC stacks in systems in the range of 1 MW or above (ca. In doing so. The mechanisms for this degradation are under investigation.
• Assessment of the Westinghouse thermochemical cycle. and to compare it with the Hybrid Sulphur cycle. feasibility of coupling to a nuclear reactor. then no need for CO2 sequestration. hybrid solutions including solar and nuclear energy input are conceivable and desirable.Hydrogen Thermochemical Cycles HYTHEC Problems addressed The major challenges are the following: • Feasibility. Technical approach The work has been broken down in seven sub-projects: SP1 Project management SP2 Optimisation of the whole SulphurIodine cycle (S_I) SP3 S_I H2 production section: HI/I2/H2O system Vapour/Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) analysis 38 . and H2SO4 direct decomposition for both cycles. HI/I2/H2O system section VLE measurements show that the present model describes properly HI concentrations on the left side of the azeotrope. relevance of membrane separation techniques in this section. S_I and Westinghouse. feasibility of the main components at industrial scale and H2 production costs. to improve the fundamental knowledge and efficiency of the S_I cycle H2 production step. • A first distillation and pervaporation membrane database and characteristics have been given. feasibility of coupling to a solar and/or nuclear heat sources. The following problems are also addressed: • Assessment and improvement of the S_I thermo-chemical cycle: flow-sheet evaluation. innovative. safety assessments. H2 production improvement for S_I. This project will have an impact on: • The feasibility of both cycles. • A first component sizing and corresponding cost evaluation. safety assessments. Progress to date • S_I and Westinghouse cycle flow-sheets were produced during the first year of the project. has yielded. • The industrial and economic viability of both cycles. Expected impact This STREP addresses massive. • A first complete VHTR coupling study is also been undertaken (in collaboration with the RAPHAEL project). relative sensitivities between component sizing and the costs (parametric analysis). This includes a preliminary safety assessment (H2 production plant and coupling). • An analysis of the impact of the use of membranes on the process efficiency vs. and a new model is needed for higher HI concentrations. industrial scale-up. including the safety aspects. • Feasibility of the use of a variety of primary energies: Nuclear and Solar heat sources (last one for renewable heat and electricity sources). and to investigate a solar primary energy source for the H2SO4 decomposition step which is common to both cycles. a modelling and sensitivity analysis have been conducted on the S_I cycle. The project aims to conduct flowsheeting. specifically two major thermochemical cycles. • General feasibility of solar thermal splitting of sulphuric acid for the H2SO4 decomposition section common to both cycles. The required energy for the process can be either provided by nuclear energy or by solar energy. for a solar and/or nuclear driven process (in comparison with the S_I cycle): flow-sheet evaluations. The objective of HYTHEC is to investigate the effective potential for massive hydrogen production of the Sulphur-Iodine (S_I) thermochemical cycle. also called the Westinghouse cycle. if the production requires a continuous supply of heat. improvement of the vapour liquid equilibrium model in the HI/I2/H2O system (H2 production section of the cycle). SP4 S_I H2 production section: review of membrane Separation Techniques SP5 S_I H2 production section: experimental study of membrane distillation of HI/I2/H2O system SP6 H2SO4 Decomposition with a solar heat source SP7 Assessment of the Westinghouse cycle Objectives Hydrogen thermo-chemical cycles are processes where water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen via chemical reactions using intermediate elements. Beyond that. safety and costs modelling. medium. the different possible locations show that the most relevant one is upstream the HI/I2/H2O system section.and long-term H2 production routes. which are recycled. These cycles have the potential of achieving a better overall efficiency than electrolysis and hence to reduce the cost for hydrogen production. • CO2-Free processes: use of water as a raw material in thermo-chemical (and hybrid) cycles. feasibility of the main components at industrial scale and H2 production costs. safety and cost of massive hydrogen production for the “long term outlook” (2050).
• The conceptual process development of a 100% solar Westinghouse process has been completed.INFORMATION Contract number 502704 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2004 Duration 42 months Total cost € 2. Project web-page https://project. work has begun on solutions containing Iodine.hythec. – FR Università degli Studi Roma Tre – IT University of Sheffield – UK • A first round of stability testing of three membranes has been carried out as well as the first ever Raman spectra measurements of the gas and liquid phases of HI/I2/H2O system solutions.org 39 . • The first solar H2SO4 decomposition experiments have been performed in the solar furnace: operability has been shown and improvements of conversion and efficiency established. 31-33 FR-75752 Paris France Partners Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt – DE Empresarios Agrupados – ES ProSim S. • The optical selectivity rig has been commissioned.94 million EC funding € 1.9 million Coordinator Alain Le Duigou Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique Rue de la Fédération. • First experiments have also been performed for solar indirect (tube type reactor) H2SO4 decomposition and these allowed a quantitative evaluation of the behaviour of different catalysts.A. and initial experiments conducted to confirm the procedures using water and HI/H2O.
Sub-objectives are prototypes of: • Equipment for mobilization of fermentable feedstock • Reactors for thermophilic and photoheterotrophic hydrogen production • Devices for monitoring and control • Equipment for optimal gas cleaning Socio-economic objectives: • Increase public awareness and societal acceptance • Identification of future stakeholders Problems addressed The main challenge addressed in this project is the expected increase in demand for hydrogen from renewable resources. which form the basis of a blue print for the whole chain of biomass to pure hydrogen. In thermophilic fermentations. The main technological objective is the construction of prototype modules of the plant. ethanol or butanol are the main by-products. which offers 2 important advantages. The ensuing bioprocess is optimized in terms of yield and rate of Figure 1 – Structure of HYVOLUTION 40 . Furthermore. thermophilic fermentation at ≥70°C gives a greater hydrogen yield compared to fermentations at ambient temperatures. Technical approach HYVOLUTION is structured around this core issue with a design aimed at closely associating the events in the chain from biomass to hydrogen. In the first fermentation thermophilic bacteria are used to start the bioprocess. The work packages addressing hydrogen production are surrounded by studies in system integration and societal integration in order to develop an economically viable. Acetate is a prime substrate for photoheterotrophic bacteria. glucose is converted to. with butyrate. on average. Sub-objectives are: • Pretreatment technologies for optimal biodegradation of energy crops and bio-residues • Maximum efficiency in conversion of biomass to hydrogen • Assessment of installations for optimal gas cleaning • Minimal energy demand and maximal product output through system integration • Identification of market opportunities for a broad feedstock range. complete conversion of the substrate to hydrogen and CO2 can be established. the project adds to the number and diversity of routes for supply of hydrogen from renewable sources. fully sustainable process for hydrogen production (Figure 1). propionate. Through the combination of thermophilic fermentation with a photoheterotrophic fermentation. which will arise from the transition to the hydrogen economy. 3 moles of hydrogen and 2 moles of acetate as the main by-product. The process starts with the conversion of biomass to make a suitable feedstock for the bioprocess (WP1). compared with an average hydrogen yield of between 1 and 2 moles per mole of glucose for ambient fermentations. giving greater security of energy supply at the local and regional level. First. The second advantage is the production of acetate as the main by-product in the first fermentation. The core issue at stake is the combination of a thermophilic fermentation (dark fermentation) with a photoheterotrophic fermentation.Non-thermal Production of pure Hydrogen from Biomass HYVOLUTION Objectives The main scientific objective is the development of a 2-stage bioprocess for the cost-effective production of pure hydrogen from biomass.
The impact of small-scale hydrogen production plants is addressed in socio-economic analyses performed in WP6. Production costs will be reduced by system integration combining mass and energy balances (WP5).INFORMATION Contract number 019825 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st January 2006 Duration 60 months Total cost € 13.A. end-users or stakeholders for developing specialist enterprises and stimulating new agro-industrial development. To achieve this aim. Dedicated gas upgrading is developed for high efficiency at small-scale production units dealing with fluctuating gas streams (WP4). P.V. In HYVOLUTION. genomics and proteomics • Industrial application of thermophilic production processes will result from the development of dedicated bioreactor prototypes with associated monitoring and control • Dedicated. highly efficient gas upgrading systems designed to handle small and frequently changing flow rates with different compositions • Special gas sensor systems to enable monitoring and exert control • Modelling and simulation software of unit processes to produce control strategies for bioprocesses • Identification of the markets that will benefit from a local industry for hydrogen production from biomass • Prepare a blue-print for an industrial bioprocess for decentralised hydrogen production at small-scale from locally produced biomass. Project web-page www. which will be needed to realize the objectives of HYVOLUTION: small-scale sustainable hydrogen production from locally produced biomass. – NL TU Wien – AT University of Szeged – HU Wageningen University – NL Wiedemann Polska – PL Expected impact hydrogen production through integrating fundamental and technological approaches. Turkey and Russia are represented with prominent specialists from academia and industries and 6 Small and Medium sized enterprises. addressed in WP2 and WP3.M. • Production of hydrogen from biomass at 75% of the theoretical efficiency • Introduction of crop-to-hydrogen chains in EU agricultural systems and the systematic utilisation of bio-residues in hydrogen generation • Optimal application of thermophilic bacteria through an increased understanding of metabolism. The participants in HYVOLUTION have a complementary value in being biomass suppliers. The aim of HYVOLUTION is to deliver prototypes of process modules which are needed to produce hydrogen of high quality in a bioprocess which is fed by multiple biomass feedstocks. 10 EU countries. a coherent set of scientific and technological activities are required which are interdependent and flanked by system and societal integration for optimal economics and societal implementation.nl 41 . Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis – RU Technogrow B. Claassen Agrotechnology & Food Innovations Bornsesteeg 59 NL-6700 AA Wageningen The Netherlands Partners ADAS – UK Air Liquide – FR Awite Bioenergie – Martin Grepmeier & Ernst Murnleitner GbR – DE Bioreactors and Membrane Systems – RU Enviros Ltd – UK Lunds Universitet – SE Middle East Technical University – TR National Technical University of Athens – EL Politechnika Warszawska – PL PROFACTOR Produktionsforschungs GmbH – AT Provalor BV – NL Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen – DE Russian Academy of Sciences A.8 million EC funding € 9.V.5 million Coordinator Dr.hyvolution.
which could be a valuable asset in supporting the introduction of hydrogen into society. in conjunction with: . A literature review concerning related economic and environmental aspects of the whole gas chain from hydrogen production up to and including end-user appliances has been completed. Combustion properties of various hydrogen/ natural gas mixtures have been determined and are being used to assess safety risks. • The above issues are addressed in the project. Expected impact • The “Decision Support Tool” that will enable assessment of the suitability of any given gas system for carrying hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. • Assess the related socio-economic and life cycle aspects. In order to achieve this objective the project will: • Determine the conditions under which the existing natural gas system can safely be used to transport mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. It could enable hydrogen suppliers and end-users to be connected in the relative short term. Large-scale experiments of vapour cloud explosions are taking place and are already producing valuable results.The development of innovative hydrogen separation techniques. material tests are now being executed to obtain supplementary Technical approach The project is organised in the following Work Packages (WPs) let by the WP-leader indicated: • Socio-economic and Life Cycle assessments (University of Warwick) • Safety (Loughborough University) • Durability (Gaz de France) • Integrity (DBI-GUT) • End-use (University of Warwick) • Decision Support Tool (ISQ) • Dissemination (Exergia) • Project Management (N. • Models to determine the economic and environmental aspects of the whole chain from sustainable hydrogen production up to and including end-user appliances.Socio-economic and life cycle assessments of the NATURALHY-approach . A state of the art review concerning the interaction of hydrogen with pipeline materials (steel and polyethylene) has been completed. However. Nederlandse Gasunie) 42 . in a cost-effective manner. distribution and end-use of the gas • Affect the performance of end-user appliances. Objectives To explore the potential of the existing natural gas system. distribution and in-house infrastructures and end-user appliances. which consists of the leading NATURALHY members and leading stakeholders in fields of business relevant to NATURALHY. for the delivery of hydrogen. • Develop innovative technologies for the separation of hydrogen from hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. Progress to date The research programme has been defined in further detail and first phase tests and experiments are in progress.V. including transmission.Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by using the existing Natural Gas system as a catalyst NATURALHY Problems addressed The existing natural gas infrastructure is highly developed and proven system. For guidance and further dissemination a Strategic Advisory Committee has been established. adding hydrogen to natural gas system may: • Affect the integrity of the system • Have an impact on the safety risks associated with the transmission. • Membranes for the separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen/natural gas mixture.
INFORMATION Contract number 502661 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st May 2004 information.A.und Umwelttechnik GmbH – DE Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Metz – FR Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands – NL EUROGAS – BE EXERGIA – EL Gaz de France – FR General Electric PII Ltd – UK Högskolan i Borås – SE Institut Français du Pétrole – FR Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade – PT Istanbul Gaz Dagitim Sanayi ve Ticaret A. – NL The Health and Safety Executive – UK SQS Portugal – PT STATOIL ASA – NO Technische Universität Berlin – DE The European Association for the Promotion of Cogeneration – BE The Health and Safety Executive – UK Total S.V. – FR Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Arastirma Kurumu – TR University of Leeds – UK University of Warwick – UK X/ Open Company Limited – UK 43 Project web-page www. resulting from interaction with hydrogen. Duration 60 months Total cost € 17.net . Box 19 NL-9700 MA Groningen The Netherlands Partners BP Gas Marketing Limited – UK Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA – IT Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Compagnie d’Etudes des Technologies de l’Hydrogène – FR Computational Mechanics International Ltd – UK Danish Gas Technology Centre – DK DBI Gas. Nederlandse Gasunie P. Florisson N.0 million Coordinator Ir.naturalhy.O. Important steps forward have been made in the development of palladium and polymer membranes. papers have been presented at several international events including the World Gas Conference (Amsterdam. A range of reports on the management and repair of degradation of steel pipes. September 2005). has been completed. – EL SAVIKO Consultants ApS – DK Shell Hydrogen B.A. 3 newsletters have been prepared.S – TR Loughborough University – UK National Grid – UK National Technical University of Athens – EL Naturgas Midt-Nord I/S – DK Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – NL Netherlands Standardization Institute – NL Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NO Planet – Planungsgruppe Energie und Technik Gbr – DE Public Gas corporation S. June 2006) and the first NATURALHY-workshop has been organised (Zaragossa. A detailed analysis has been carried out on the requirements of the Decision Support Tool as a means of sharpening the focus of the other contributing work packages.V. With regard to dissemination. the project website has been established.3 million EC funding € 11. O.
This state-of-the-art small-scale. the partners involved will develop the hardware for the sub components in the three modules. This process is supported by detailed system simulation to evaluate different integration concepts and to identify interfaces between modules and components. The definition phase is used for the determination of the functional requirements for the system. as well as operating conditions and transient system behaviour are investigated. The development of innovative materials like S-resistant catalysts. Heat management. effective adsorbents or membranes for separation bares a relatively high risk. This unit will be used as a basis for an up-scaling strategy for fuelling 20 to 100 vehicles per day and the integration of decentralized hydrogen generation into the existing infrastructure of a fuelling station. Technical approach The NEMESIS project is organized in eight work packages. The integration of the various sub-components and modules into the proof-of-principle prototype is challenging in terms of interfaces and interaction between the single units and demands extensive communication and efficient project management. The new hydrogen generation unit will comprise 3 modules: • Fuel Preparation Module (FPM): evaporation.New Method for Superior Integrated Hydrogen generation System NEMESIS Objectives The scientific and technological objective of the NEMESIS project is to develop a small-scale. is used as a starting point. The integrated proof-ofprinciple prototype is tested with natural Figure 1 – NEMESIS – project work plan 44 . Problems addressed Compared to autothermal reforming. Intensive exchange of information on technical details and work progress ensures smooth integration of the newly developed components into the existing fuel processor technology. temperature swing adsorption with metal hydrides and improved pressure swing adsorption). and off-gas burner • Hydrogen Conditioning Module (HCM): purification of hydrogen rich gas employing the best of 3 alternative concepts (membrane separation. An optimized system layout and the balance of plant analysis will lead to an integrated modular design. pre-reforming and de-sulphurization of liquid feedstock • Hydrogen Generation Module (HGM): integrated steam reformer. A proof-of-principal prototype being capable of producing 10kg H2 per day will be built.V. Operation will be demonstrated with natural gas and low sulphur diesel. but leads to higher overall efficiencies. steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons represents a more challenging technology in regard to reformer design and operating conditions as well as materials incorporated. its modules and subcomponents. on-site hydrogen generator for decentralized applications will be extended to a wider range of fuels and significantly upgraded by introducing advanced separation technologies. water gas shift stage. fuel flexible hydrogen generator that is capable of working with liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock. In parallel. thus saving time and cost. which is lowered by the flexibility in process concepts and operating conditions of the modular system. The existing natural gas based fuel processor technology developed by HyGear B. new innovative materials and cost-effective and highly efficient sub-components.
The development of efficient and costeffective functional materials. As the creation of a new energy infrastructure has proven to be a tremendous effort. An up-scaled.V. that are clean.INFORMATION Contract number 019827 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st December 2005 Progress to date gas and low sulphur diesel. Being six months into the project. Duration 36 months Total cost € 3. In parallel. the targets and tasks of the project have been translated into functional requirements for the three modules and its sub-components. 45 . commercial version of the NEMESIS modular fuel processor has the potential to be integrated into the existing infrastructure and to be operated alongside existing gaseous and liquid fuels. At the same time. They will be updated during the course of the project until final approval. intelligent ways of shaping the required hydrogen infrastructure have to be found. The influence of the data for the liquid fuels on process conditions has been studied by simulation. Pfaffenwaldring 38-40 DE-70569 Stuttgart Germany Partners Ballast Nedam IPM B.KG – DE Expected impact An infrastructure for hydrogen has to be built up in the mid-term. the industrial partners and end-users of this technology will carry out an economic evaluation and cost analysis. System specifications and process concepts for each unit have been defined and their impact on the other modules has been determined. the system is being implemented into process simulation software. reformer and hydrogen conditioning with a reduced start-up time of about 45 minutes. such as catalysts. – NL Instituto Superior Técnico – PT Nanjing University of Technology – CHN Repsol YPF SA – ES Umicore AG&Co.V. Subsequently. thus ensuring smooth project progress. this is a new and very efficient technological approach to produce hydrogen from liquid feedstock by a combination of pre-reformer. The experimental investigation of the innovative materials for the sub-components has started as well as the adaptation of the existing fuel processor to the modified operating conditions.V. – NL Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute – EL HyGear B. but also realistic. adsorbents and membranes therefore is an essential part of the NEMESIS approach. On-site decentralized hydrogen production units based on small-scale multi-fuel processors can be the first step towards transition to a hydrogen-based economy.87 million EC funding € 2.2 million Coordinator Antje Wörner Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. Project coordination encloses the whole work plan. This is developed in parallel with achievements in the layout and design of single components such as the integrated off-gas burner.
The living organisms will be improved by molecular biology and tested for ability to sustained hydrogen production in bio-reactors. in particular photosystem II) and the hydrogen metabolism (in particular the hydrogenases). two front-line topics. In the artificial photosynthesis project line the focus is on development of the three catalytic chemical systems needed to: 46 . We have also developed new protein purification protocols and used these to characterize the enzymes involved with the newest proteomic techniques. mainly dealing with important spectroscopic discoveries and characterizations of intermediates in the enzymatic cycles. • To develop new concepts for bio-reactors for photosynthetic organisms and test how well hydrogen production can proceed in these. which are also developed in the programme. • Absorb the energy in solar light • Make hydrogen in a reaction driven by the absorbed solar energy • Use water as the raw-material.SOLAR-H Linking molecular genetics and bio-mimetic chemistry – a multidisciplinary approach to achieve renewable hydrogen production Problems addressed The project aims to develop two methods of producing hydrogen from water and solar energy. our methods might have enormous impact and create the start of a huge industry world wide. SOLAR-H follows a research idea developed by the participants where entirely man-made biomimetic systems are developed and tested. We select the suitable organisms both from their present ability to develop hydrogen and from the aspect that the organism shall be possible to develop by molecular biology and to grow in a bio-reactor. The formation a a fuel from these resources would provide society with an endless energy carrier that in the long-term can help in resolving the problems with global warming caused by the present use of fossil fuels. sustainable production of a valuable fuel from the cheap and never-ending starting materials solar energy and water. • To link the synthetic and biological project lines through detailed molecular studies of the natural enzymes involved in the photosynthetic light reactions (the photosynthetic reactions centers. Here the results have been good. • Identification of the most useful organisms for the photosynthetic formation of hydrogen. improve the most suitable hydrogen producing photosynthetic micro-organisms (green algae and cyanobacteria). photobiological hydrogen production in living organisms and artificial photosynthesis in man-made systems. If possible to develop. by molecular biology. The particular challenges are: • To identify and then. Some of the main challenges are to use water as raw material in a synthetic light driven process. Objectives The vision of this project is to develop promising. novel routes for sustainable hydrogen production from the inexhaustible resources solar energy and water. for the first time. Expected impact The expected result is to accomplish longterm. Progress to date The project has been running since January 2005 and we have concentrated our research on: • The biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthetic enzymes and hydrogenase enzymes. Technical approach In a unique effort the project integrates.
fotomol. The new bio-reactors are tested with the different organisms we develop to define the best combination of bio-reactor/organism to be developed in future phases of the program.uu. The latter has been very successful and we have accomplished fast hydrogen formation in an entirely man-made iron-containing catalyst. Prospects are good for the achievement of light driven hydrogen production during the project period.3 million • The use of molecular biology to improve the regulation and function of certain genetic systems in both green algae and cyanobacteria involved in the hydrogen metabolism. • We also spend considerable efforts on the development of new bio-reactors where light can penetrate well into the reactor and thereby provide the growing organisms with solar energy.INFORMATION Contract number 516510 Programme NEST Starting date 1st January 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 2.se/Forskning/Biomimetics/ solarh/index. The development of water oxidation catalysts has also proceeded according to our research plan and we have achieved the synthesis of a very large super-molecule where we have coupled three crucial components together. We have also achieved several steps of light-driven oxidation chemistry in the catalyst. EC funding € 1.8 million Coordinator Prof. • We spend much effort on the development of catalysts for both water oxidation (to use water as raw-material) and for hydrogen formation.shtm 47 . Stenbjörn Styring Uppsala University Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science Box 523 SE-751 20 Uppsala Sweden Partners Biological Resarch Center – HU Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Max-Planck-Institute for Bio-inorganic Chemistry – DE Ruhr-Universität Bochum – DE Università di Geneva – CH Université Paris-Sud – FR Wageningen University – NL Project web-page www.
14 €/GJ for the lowest CB grade sold at 0. Objectives The SOLHYCARB project addresses the development of an unconventional route for potentially cost effective hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy. • A critical analysis of the results from experiments and modelling determine the best concept of reactor suitable for solar methane splitting. two 5-10 kWth prototypes based on different concepts of solar receiver/reactor (direct and indirect heating concepts) are developed and studied.closes the project. • The design of decentralized and centralized commercial solar chemical plants (and hybrid plants) -50/100 kWth and 10/30 MWth respectively. industrial uses of the produced gas. They are measured either on line (hydrogen content) or by industrial testing methods (CB). the key issues are the hydrogen content in the off gas and the CB quality. Potential impacts on CO2 emission reduction and energy saving are respectively: • 14 kg CO2 avoided and 277 MJ per kg H2 produced. Expected impact The targeted results are: • methane conversion over 80% • H2 yield in the off-gas over 75% • CB properties equivalent to industrial products. • For each solar chemical reactor the thermal and chemical efficiency are determined on the basis of data obtained with a complete diagnostic system. study of separation unit operations.Hydrogen from solar thermal energy: high temperature solar chemical reactor for co-production of hydrogen and carbon black from natural gas cracking SOLHYCARB Problems addressed The project aims at designing. a 50 kW power pilot reactor is experimented. with respect to conventional NG steam reforming and CB processing by standard processes. The novel process thermally decomposes natural gas (NG) in a high temperature solar chemical reactor. Three main scientific and technical problems are addressed: • Design and operation of high temperature solar chemical reactors containing nanosize particulates • Production of two valuable products (hydrogen and carbon black) in the same reactor • The proposition of a methodology for solar reactor scaling-up based on modelling and experimental validation. • Based on the concept retained. • Modelling includes fluid dynamics of gas-solid flow. and particle formation process. Technical approach The work covered by the project can be described as follows: • First. reaction kinetics. and determination of CB properties for applications to batteries and polymers. • Reaction kinetics are measured separately. • Concerning the products. Therefore H2 and marketable CB are produced by renewable energy. and testing innovative solar reactors at different scales (1 to 10 kW and 50 kW) for operating conditions at 1500-2300 K and 1 bar. Two products are obtained: a H2-rich gas and a high-value nano-material. • This experimental work is highly combined with advanced reactor modelling. constructing. mass and heat transfer (especially radiation).66 €/kg 48 . carbon black (CB). Expected cost of H2 for large scale solar plants depends on the price of CB.
8 €/kg. Two main technological directions extend beyond the solar field: high temperature chemical reactors and hydrogen separation and its industrial uses. l’Énergie et le Déchet – FR Weizmann Institute of Science – IL 49 .und Raumfahrt e.V. Indirect exploitation addresses the use of the project results in fields different from solar chemistry. the exploitation of the solar reactor prototypes and the study of a hybrid concept for solar chemical reactors.997 million Coordinator Dr.INFORMATION Contract number 019770 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st March 2006 and decreasing to 10 €/GJ for CB at 0. Duration 48 months Total cost € 3. – DE Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich – CH N-GHY SA – FR Paul-Scherrer-Institut – CH Solucar Energia SA – ES TIMCAL – BE VEOLIA Environnement – Centre de Recherches pour l’Environnement. Gilles Flamant Centre National de Recherche Scientifique Odeillo FR-66120 Font-Romeu France Partners Center for Research and Technology – Hellas Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute – EL Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Direct exploitation addresses the extension of the simulation models to other reactor configurations.25 million EC funding € 1.
• Further economical and other benefits are: a) the environmental and associated health aspect (less pollution). it is possible to investigate in the wide spectrum of catalysis and coating leading to the development of the best catalytically-active absorber capable for solar reforming of various feedstocks.05 EUR/kWh (0. because of its efficient integration in hybrid power plants. Objectives The main purpose of this project is to develop an innovative 400 kWth solar reformer for several applications. For a 50 MWth reforming plant the cost of hydrogen is estimated to be around 0. Southern European countries. Solar reforming has the potential to become more cost effective way to drive solar concentration in large scale power production. d) the regional development in southern European countries. DLR. Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. A pre-design of a 1 MW prototype plant in Southern Italy and a conceptual layout of a commercial 50 MWth reforming plant will complete this project.SOLar steam REForming of methane rich gas for synthesis gas production SOLREF Problems addressed Profitability decides if a new technology has a chance to come into the market. which the technical feasibility of solar reforming has been proven. because the needed process heat for this highly endothermic reaction is provided by concentrated solar energy. This second generation reformer will make an attempt to solve the problems encountered during the previous project 50 . Moreover the SOLREF concept could offer an alternative for storage in concentrating solar thermal systems. thermal and solar concentrating technologies. several modifications and improvements to the state-of-the-art solar reformer technology will be introduced before large scale and commercial systems can be developed. etc. Expected impact The SOLREF project is aimed at developing the second generation of the SOLASYS reformer. With the catalysis group (JM.04 EUR/kWh conventional). Since the main partners. In addition to the high conversion efficiency of the “solar-upgraded” fuel in turbine cycles.V (DLR) and The Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) involved in the SOLASYS project will also participate in SOLREF. ETH will lead the thermochemical analysis and system modelling group. c) the development of new industrial enterprises and creating new jobs. like Italy. the reactor optimisation. Depending of the feed source for the reforming process CO2 emissions can be reduced significantly (up to 40% using NG). zero net CO2 emissions can be achieved. can implement the SOLREF technology. The market potential could generate an important production of new plants and new components. Middle East. b) the energy supply aspect such as reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels and increasing the security of supply. chemical. WIS) headed by the industrial partner Johnson Matthey FC Ltd. The strategic impact is three fold: • First and foremost introducing solar energy into the energy mix of Europe will have a positive ecological impact by reducing the need from fossil fuels and therefore by reducing CO2 emissions. in the pipeline system. The involvement of the Italian SME SHAP and the opportunities opened up in the south of Italy for renewable energy provide an excellent opportunity to realise the first solar reforming prototype plant. DLR and HyGear will develop an advanced solar reformer. • The technological and economical impact of the solar reforming technology arises from the combination of optical. APTL. but the concept can also be a basis for technology export to other regions of the world such as Australia. after completion of the SOLREF project. The solar reformer can also operate with biogas and landfill gas as a feed gas and thus. which will be pre-designed in this project. Technical approach The work proposed in SOLREF is based upon the activities performed in the previous project SOLASYS. synthesis gas can also be stored at ambient temperature e.g. Therefore. such as hydrogen production or electricity generation. the experience and know how acquired in SOLASYS will be efficiently applied in SOLREF. and operation procedures and the associated optics for concentrating the solar radiation. thus giving a significant step towards the integration of this new technology. SOLASYS and will provide the necessary modifications to advance the solar reformer to the pre-commercial phase. These changes are primarily to the catalytic system.
Furthermore. The vessel/front flange should have a sufficient strength against plastic deformation. a purge gas flow through defined places of the insulation can stop the diffusion of the steam containing process gas.V. – NL Johnson Matthey Fuel Cell Ltd. Activity testing is continuing on the SOLREF catalyst as part of a kinetics study. This model is focusing on the transient behaviour of the solar chemical receiver during solar operation. – UK SHAP Solar Heat and Power – IT Weizmann Institute of Science – IL Progress to date A comprehensive range of precious and base metal containing steam reforming catalysts has been prepared by several conventional and more advanced methods. The gas temperatures are approx. a light structure was chosen for which material tests were conducted. new concepts were assessed.dlr.und Raumfahrt e. CO2 could be the choice for a future solar refroming plant. A steady state system model for the WIS test plant has been implemented and tested. Their thermal durability has been assessed.de 51 .V. The SOLREF catalyst has been scaled up and the final reactor foam sections coated and supplied. the front flange has to be sufficiently even and planar. The absorptivity for solar radiation of the catalyst system has also been assessed. Stephan Möller Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. the layout of the solar reformer was realised. Linder Höhe DE-51147 Köln Germany Partners Center for Research and Technology – Hellas Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute – EL ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology – CH HyGear B.1 million Coordinator Dr. 450°C/900°C for inlet/outlet and the optimal operating pressure is 10 bars. Special construction solutions were chosen which minimise steam diffusion into the high tempeatureinsulation material. Due to the specific boundary conditions at WIS. In parallel. For the window. A testing protocol was defined and used by the collaborating partners to collect activity data (using several methane rich fuels). The construction of the solar reformer was investigated in three main areas: • Advanced holding structure of the absorber dome. It is a tool for implementing reactor controls. Purge gas is needed for start-up and shut-down procedures and for avoiding steam condensation. Based on different concepts. In 2007 partly-solar hydrogen will be produced.INFORMATION Contract number 502829 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2004 Duration 45 months Total cost € 3.solref. The absorbed power is approx. The model can be used to predict the results of changes in the system layout. Project web-page www. • Vessel/front flange interaction. 400 kWth. which was used to determine the final catalyst choice for SOLREF.45 million EC funding € 2. Manufacturing started in June 2006. For the reduction of mass compared to the SOLASYS reformer. optimising start-up and shut-down routines and assessing the influence of design changes on reactor dynamics. hydrogen was chosen. For investigating the transient behaviour of the solar reforming plant. For this purpose a small hydrogen purification line using the product gas was designed. • Different methods were assessed for the inside insulation of the vessel with steam condensation protection. Based on the boundary conditions at WIS. a dynamic model of the existing test plant was developed. a thermochemical analysis and a system model of the existing test plant at WIS were realised.
Subsequently. highly active iron-only hydrogenase by using an oxygen consuming device. by combining computational and in-vitro evolution methodologies. INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme NEST Coordinator Alfonso Jaramillo. a very chemically rich and versatile organism highly suitable for modelling. In particular. standardised molecular building blocks that will produce a photosynthetic bacterium containing engineered chemical pathways for competitive. Our engineering approach will provide the next generation of synthetic biology engineers with the toolbox to design complex circuits of high potential industrial applications such as the photo-production or photo-degradation of chemical compounds with a very high level of integration.D. we will design novel devices (e.g. we will design custom circuits of devices applying control engineering and optimisation. Laboratoire de Biochimie Ecole Polytechnique CNRS – UMR 7654 Route de Saclay FR-91128 PALAISEAU Cedex France 52 . which is connected to an oxygen sensing device and regulated by artificial circuits. Ph. our synthetic biological approach aims at creating an anaerobic environment within the cell for an optimized. devices and systems) to design artificial bacterial systems using a truly interdisciplinary approach that decouples design from fabrication. we will develop a cyanobacterial “chassis” able to integrate our synthetic circuits using a model-driven biotechnology. We aim to construct biological molecular parts by engineering proteins with new enzymatic activities and molecular recognition patterns. Furthermore. For this purpose we have targeted on a cyanobacterium.Engineered modular bacterial Hydrogen Photoproduction of Hydrogen BIOMODULARH2 Abstract The BIOMODULARH2 project aims at designing reusable. to be used as future platform for hydrogen production and biosolar applications. input/output. clean and sustainable hydrogen production. regulatory and metabolic) by combining these parts and by using the emerging knowledge from systems biology. In parallel. This project will also help to establish a systematic hierarchical engineering methodology (parts.
45 million EC funding € 7. Canada. with water as the only by-product. universities. Technical approach The project consists of 10 work packages: • 4 of these focus on developing technologies INFORMATION Contract number 019972 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2006 Duration 36 months Total cost € 13. engineering and manufacturing companies.ON UK PLC – UK / Fraunhofer UMSICHT – DE / Instytut Ekologii Terenow Uprzemys ł owionych – PL / Institute of Francais du Pétrole – FR / Meggit (UK) Ltd – UK / Norsk Hydro ASA – NO / National Technical University of Athens – EL / PETROBRAS – Brazil / Process Design Centre GMBH – DE / Shell International Renewables BV – NL / Siemens AG – DE / Stiftelsen For Industriell Og Teknisk Forskning Ved Norges Tekniske Hoegskole As (Sintef ) – NO / Suncor Energy Inc – Canada Technip France SA – FR / Tehnice Universitet Sofia – BG / Technische Universitaet Wien – AT / Chevron Energy Technology Company – USA Project web-page www. The overall goal of the project is to develop innovative technologies for hydrogen production from natural gas. Safety and Environment evaluation • 1 dissemination • 1 project management Objectives CACHET is a 3-year. The primary objective is to reduce the cost of CO2 capture from current levels to € 20 – 30 per tonne.A – IT E. integrated research project. New member states. This will be achieved through one or more novel technologies or a combination of these.cachetco2. funded by the European Commission that aims to develop technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power stations by 90%. Difficulty of comparing very different ideas. Expected impact Half cost of avoided CO2 compared to existing state-of-the-art technology.5 million Coordinator Richard Beavis BP Exploration and Operating Company Ltd HSE/Exploration & Production Technology Group Chertsey Road Sunbury Middlesex UK-TW16 7LN United Kingdom Partners Air Products PLC – UK / Alstom Power Boilers SA – FR / Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola AB – SE / Conoco Philips Company – USA / Consejo Superior de Investigation Cientificas – ES / Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics / Chinese Academy of Sciences – CHN Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) – NL / Energy Authority of Cyprus (EAC) – CY / ENDESA Generacion SA – ES / Eni tecnologie S. China and Brazil. Acceding countries. energy businesses. at different levels of consumption. EU. CACHET aims to develop technologies to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 capture from natural gas with H2 production. many of these are key in meeting the difficult technical targets and timescales.P. Reliance of developing and building new equipment for research.eu 53 . The results will be calculated on a consistence basis and enable comparison within the project and also against other FP6 projects. CACHET is a strong and diverse international consortium of highly experienced research institutes. USA. halving the cost of low-carbon energy.Carbon dioxide capture and hydrogen production from gaseous fuels CACHET Problems addressed Large size of project and number of participants (28) – may also be seen as an advantage! Complexity of a number of intercompany contributions throughout the project. • • • • 1 evaluating new technologies 1 base case 1 optimisation 1 Health. CACHET is co-ordinated by BP with funding from the joint industry/ government CO2 Capture Project (CCP). The hydrogen produced can be used to provide energy. The technical options will be ready for pilot scale installation at the end of the 3-year project.
High purity hydrogen (99. 50-60% CO2. PSA and hybrid separation systems using the improved models developed • Component design for the manufacture of a lab-scale hybrid separation system prototype • Assessment of the hybrid separation process sustainability and impact on the environment based on a life cycle analysis approach. – FR HYGEAR B. Economic recycling of this stream is not an alternative since the entire stream must be compressed to the PSA feed pressure. H2O.53 million EC funding € 1.a. CO) for well characterized membrane and sorbent materials • Development and improvement of membrane and PSA separation models • Design and optimization of membrane. A typical PSA waste gas stream is at relatively low pressure (~1. – NL Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine – UK Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Chemical Engineering – PL Process Systems Enterprise Ltd – UK Universidade do Porto – Faculdade de Engenharia – PT Technical approach • Material research related to existing and new membrane and sorbent materials • Process design and integration • Evaluation of hybrid process sustainability using Life Cycle Analysis • Component Design Expected impact • Co-production of high purity H2 (99. To achieve the above goal the following technological & scientific objectives have been identified: • Generation of transport and adsorption data for H2/CO2 multi-component mixtures (CH4.99+%) is usually recovered (80 to 93% of total hydrogen) from the reformate by using a PSA process.gr 54 . the CO2 rich stream cannot be used for sequestration since it contains significant amounts of H2 and CH4. which will be part of a fossil fuel decarbonization process used for pre-combustion CO2 capture.99+%) and CO2 ready for sequestration • H2 recovery improvement • Simplification of PSA operation without loss of recovery and product purity • Synthesis of improved membrane materials • Development of improved sorbent materials Project web-page http://hy2seps. Furthermore. 10-25% (CO and CH4).forth.56 million Coordinator Dr Vladimiros Nikolakis Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes Stadiou Street EL-26504 Patras Greece Partners Ceramiques Techniques et Industrielles s.iceht.5atm) and temperature (~30 ºC) and has usual composition of 30-40% H2. INFORMATION Contract number 019887 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st November 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 2.Hybrid hydrogen – carbon dioxide SEParation Systems HY2SEPS Problems addressed Methane steam reforming is currently the major route for hydrogen production.V. Objectives The main goal of HY2SEPS is the development of a hybrid membrane/ Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) H2/CO2 separation process. and only a small amount of hydrogen can be recovered (40~50% of the recycled hydrogen).
The consortium plans to exploit the project’s results through spin-off companies of the researchers involved and/or joint ventures. HYDROSOL-II deals with: • The enhancement and optimisation of the metal oxide-ceramic support system with respect to long-time stability under multi-cycle operation (more than 100 cycles) • The development and construction of a dual absorber/receiver/reactor unit in the 100 kWth scale for solar thermochemical splitting of water • The effective coupling of this reactor to a solar heliostat field and a solar tower platform for continuous solar hydrogen production within an optimized pilot plant (100 kWth). The project will proceed with the operation of a solar mini-plant (15 kW scale) for continuous production of hydrogen. The plant will be an advanced innovative solar thermal reactor consisting of monolithic ceramic honeycombs coated with active redox pair materials.Solar Hydrogen via Water Splitting in Advanced Monolithic Reactors for Future Solar Power Plants HYDROSOL-II Objectives The aim of HYDROSOL-II is to develop and build an optimised pilot plant (100 kWth) for solar Hydrogen production via an entirely novel. Problems addressed Within the first stages of HYDROSOL-II.29 million EC funding € 2. the manufacture of an integrated pilot plant (absorber/receiver/ reactor system) for continuous hydrogen production (3 kg H2/h). in order to exploit the developed material and reactor technologies. The target is a sustainable energy supply through a zero emission process producing hydrogen by solar energy. Athanasios Konstandopoulos Center for Research and Technology – Hellas Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute 6th km Charilaou-Thermi Rd EL-57001 Thermi. 55 . multi-cycle watersplitting-regeneration operation will be developed and optimized. and its test operation on a solar tower platform (100 kWth) coupled to a solar heliostat field.V. two-step thermochemical water-splitting process. Thessaloniki Greece Partners Centro De Investigaciones Energéticas.18 million Coordinator Dr. The evaluation of the technical and economic potential of the process in order to compare its costs against other Hydrogen production methods and the design of a solar hydrogen mass-production plant (1 MW) will complete the project. The industrial partners involved will assess the potential for development and commercialization of the proposed technology in the emerging fuel cell market and for novel applications of ceramic parts for solar thermal power plants. redox metal oxide/ceramic support systems capable for long-time. INFORMATION Contract number 020030 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st November 2005 Duration 48 months Total cost € 4. Medioambientales Y Tecnológicas – ES Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e. – DE Johnson Matthey Plc – UK Stobbe Tech Ceramics A/S – DK Expected impact The overall expected result is a successful and efficient scale-up of a carbon-dioxide emission free solar hydrogen production process that will establish the basis for mass production of solar hydrogen towards the long-term target of a sustainable hydrogen economy.
HYCONES aspires to offer a radically new. inexpensive. lab-scale storage system. fast kinetics. lightweight. CCs comprise the 4th form of carbon (fundamentally different from diamond. A wide range of advanced experimental techniques will be employed for the determination of the CCs morphology.% H2 at temperatures well suited for mobile applications. using tanks in which H2 is stored as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid. a lab-scale CC H2 storage system will be developed for testing the performance of the optimised material under realistic conditions. Additionally.% H2 at temperatures well suited for mobile applications. the H2 sorption mechanisms and the relation between them. but fully satisfactory materials have not been identified yet. the thorough investigation of the CC properties by a quite wide range of advanced. capable of storing/releasing above 6 wt. high gravimetric and volumetric densities. the overall assessment of the results of the whole spectrum of research activities will allow for the formulation of a roadmap for the 56 . The H2 sorption/ desorption capacities as well as the pertinent kinetics and cycle-life of the produced samples.e. HYCONES main target is the development and evaluation of this new carbon form towards a radically new H2 storage material with the potential to meet vehicle on-board storage requirements. the carbon cone structures in an atomistic level and the interactions between H2 and carbon cones. which is being produced exclusively in Europe. the fundamental understanding of H2 storage in CCs will be assisted by the development of multi-scale advanced computational methods. having a strong potential to be used as a practical. long cycle lifetime. effective heat transfer. Finally. i. will be determined by using different techniques. Problems addressed The CB&H process yields flat discs (80%) and cones (20%) with five different angles. In this respect it offers an exceptional opportunity for a significant European technology leap towards worldwide leadership in novel on-board H2 storage systems. and supporting the foreseen dissemination and exploitation plans. Solid storage (in metal hydrides. electron emitting devices etc. Apart from these measurements. impact resistant nanocomposites. • Development of novel modelling and characterisation methods in order to provide enhanced understanding of the interaction mechanisms between CCs and H2 on one hand and contribute to the standardisation of measurement techniques on the other. capable of storing/releasing above 6 wt. In this context. It should be specifically pointed out that the HYCONES work plan is built around a recently discovered unique material. CCs are expected to exhibit exceptional electronic-. high capacity H2 store. Additionally. aiming at optimising the usage. Expected impact The main outcome of HYCONES will mainly include: • Development of novel carbon cone materials. while a common standardised protocol for H2 measurements will be established. high storage capacity. development of a novel H2 storage process based on carbon cones. high mechanical strength and durability. sensing. leading-edge material. carbon cones (CCs). Optimisation will be further enhanced through purification and post treatment of the “as produced” material.Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Cones HYCONES Objectives The operating requirements for efficient onboard H2 storage include appropriate thermodynamics. Technical approach HYCONES intends to work tightly on the following implementation plan: The CB&H process will be appropriately tuned in order to achieve selective production of carbon cones. leading to new perspectives beyond the current state of the art. complementary computational and experimental methods will allow for the fundamental understanding of the interactions in the gas-solid interface. gas separations. chemical. chemical storage materials and nanostructured materials) holds considerable promise for meeting the targets. safety during use and acceptable risk under abnormal conditions. the major expected challenges lie within the development of novel purification and post treatment methodologies. graphite and fullerenes/ nanotubes).and mechanical functional properties stemming from their topology and opening up a wide range of spin-off applications in portable and stationary energy storage as well as in other areas like catalysis. could partly depend on the successful sample purification. produced economically in industrial quantities through the so-called Kværner Carbon Black & H2 (CB&H) Process and composed of carbon microstructures (flat discs and cones with five different angles). Efforts will also include advanced experimental and innovative multi-scale modelling activities towards the enhanced understanding of the associated mechanisms. Furthermore. the comprehensive understanding of the CC structure. Thus. It is anticipated that purified and/or post treated cone samples will exhibit enhanced sorption capacities. Finally. Current technology. since the as produced material is a mixture of radically new structures. fall far short of the mobile targets. • Development and testing of a prototype CC-based.
Under well-defined conditions. There is solid experimental and theoretical evidence that the carbon cones mainly consist of curved graphite sheets and the five different angles observed are consistent with the incurrence of 1 to 5 pentagons at the cone tips.S. Preliminary experiments on “as produced” samples clearly demonstrate unprecedented uptake-release of H2 unlike any other carbon material.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme NMP Coordinator Dr. CB&H produces a carbon material composed of microstructures. which decomposes hydrocarbons directly into carbon and H2 based on a specially designed plasma torch. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics – PL Institute for Energy Technology – NO Scatec A. In this respect. Theodore Steriotis National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos Patriarhou Grigoriu and Neapoleos Street EL-15310 Aghia Paraskevi – Attikis Greece Partners H. initial ad-hoc computational calculations were organized and performed and the results suggest an enhanced C-H bonding all over the cone surface due to the subtle electronic properties of CCs that stem from their unique topology. – NO University of Nottingham – UK SEM of the raw CC sample. Progress to date Carbon cones (CCs) were discovered in 1997 in the CB&H Process. 57 . which are flat carbon discs and cones.
with the aim of increasing cooperation. HyTRAIN provides a forum for the integration of European research activities with a view to making a significant contribution to the world-wide research effort and the creation of Europe as a key international player in the field. which will fall broadly in line with the Hydrogen and Fuel Experienced Researcher Projects • Performance Characterisation of Solid Hydrogen Stores • Hydrogen Storage Tank Design Using Solid Hydride Stores Early Stage Researcher Projects • Fabrication and Characterisation of Hydrogen Storage Alloys and Composites Produced Using Vapour Deposition Techniques • Study of Porous Materials with Nanoporosity for Hydrogen Storage • Hydrogen Ordering in Novel Hydrogen-rich Intermetallic Hydrides 58 . Expected impact HyTRAIN is expected to directly address one of the objectives of European Research Area: “the creation of an ‘internal market’ in research. Technical approach • • • • Synthesis of Hydrides Synthesis of Porous Adsorbers Materials Performance Characterisation Design. with the primary aim of training researchers in the area of hydrogen storage in solid media. Bridging the gap between these disciplines is a key feature of HyTRAIN and is viewed as an essential part of ensuring the future success of hydrogen storage. The network is funding 2 Experienced Researchers and 10 Early Stage Researchers and comprises 17 of the leading European research centres. design and realisation of hybrid storage solutions • Hydrogen Storage in Novel Activated Carbons and their Performance in an Engineering Environment • The Characterisation of Intermetallic Hydrides and Assessment of their Suitability for Storage Tanks • Investigating the Interaction of Hydrogen with Activated Graphitic Nanofibres and Novel Metallo-Organic Framework Polymers • Hybridisation of Intermetallic Hydrides with Porous Materials for Improved Hydrogen Storage Performance • Integration of Metal Hydrides into Storage Tank Design • Structure and Stability of Transition Metal Doped Magnesium Hydrides • Hybrid Tank Design Incorporating a Combination of Solid Storage and Compressed Gas. stimulating competition and achieving a better allocation of resources”. funded under the EC’s 6th Framework Human Resources and Mobility Programme.Hydrogen Storage Research Training Network HyTRAIN Problems addressed • To identify and develop practical metal hydride storage materials • To standardise synthesis methods of porous adsorbing storage materials • Design. production and safety testing of storage tanks • Concept. The major impact of HyTRAIN will be the contribution to Human Resources in the European Research Area of researchers trained in the field of hydrogen storage. Objectives HyTRAIN is a Marie Curie Research Training Network. an area of free movement of knowledge. chemistry and design engineering. The series of workshops will form the basis of a blueprint for a European Masters in Hydrogen Energy Technology. Production and Safety of Storage Tanks • Hybrid Design Solutions A total of 12 researchers are funded by HyTRAIN. researchers and technology. In addition. Hydrogen storage research lies at the interface of condensed matter physics. A series of network-wide workshops and short courses has been organised to provide a basic knowledge of all aspects of hydrogen based energy technologies and ensure that the researchers possess the necessary skills and flexibility to adapt to employment in either an academic or industrial setting.
6 nm. Firenze.65 million Coordinator Prof. A programme of outreach activities aimed at primary and secondary schools is also being developed. Duration 48 months Total cost € 2. based in the Netherlands.INFORMATION Contract number 512443 Programme Marie Curie Actions Starting date 1st January 2005 Cells Education and Training Programme. High Pressure Metal Hydride Hybrid Tank Design HyTRAIN is investigating innovative concepts and design solutions aimed at circumventing the particular drawbacks associated with high-pressure hydrogen storage or hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. – DE Queen Mary and Westfield College – University of London – UK Stockholm Universitet – SE Universidad de Alicante – ES Université de Franche-Comté – FR Université de Genève – CH University of Nottingham – UK University of Strathclyde – UK Research Highlights Novel Routes to Hydride Synthesis The MgNiH4 complex has been widely studied due to its enhanced sorption kinetics compared with MgH2. Ross The University of Salford Institute for Materials Research Salford. the hydrogen storage properties of the materials produced will be subjected to rigorous analysis at the CNRS High Pressure Hydrogen Adsorption Processes Group. Buffering of hydrogen released from the hydride has the potential to alleviate the problem of slow kinetics in the hydrides. building on current research activities to develop optimised Mg-based hydrides in the Department of Materials. drawing on the expertise of the University of Alicante to develop the methodology to consistently produce batches of carbon with high yields of material close to the optimum pore size. Subsequent characterisation of the hydrogen sorption performance using state-of-the-art characterisation techniques is being performed at the Clean Energies Unit. Project web-page www. due to the increased surface area of the material. Italy. Geesthacht. These materials will be integrated into storage tank designs at GKSS Research Centre. This work is extended in HyTRAIN. this is generally accomplished by mechanical milling of the hydride. It has been shown that ‘nanoscaling’ of the material can further improve the kinetics.K. A novel approach is adopted as part of HyTRAIN.V. Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Hautes Pressions (LIMHP) in Paris. This “hybrid” approach utilises a hydride in conjunction with a high pressure tank in order to improve the gravimetric and volumetric storage of each method alone. for example during automobile acceleration. The possibility of producing an innovative storage method that will lead to a paradigmshift in the field of hydrogen storage is an exciting prospect. Up-scaling of hydride tanks brings with it fresh challenges that must be solved if the technology transfer is to lead to commercial maturity. EC Joint Research Centre. Synthesis of Porous Adsorbers The adsorption of molecular hydrogen on the surface of activated carbons is an attractive option for achieving good gravimetric storage densities. A recent study of hydrogen storage at high pressures in these materials at the University of Alicante has indicated that the optimum pore size for hydrogen adsorption is close to 0. A major engineering challenge facing the future adoption of solid hydrogen stores by automobile companies is the transfer of technology from the laboratory to an industrial scale.hytrain. Greater Manchester UK-M5 4WT United Kingdom Partners AGH University of Science and Technology – PL CNR – Instituto Sistemi Compless – IT CNRS – Laboratoire de Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares – FR CNRS – Laboratoire d’Ingenierie des Matériaux et des Hautes Pressions – FR Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique France – FR European Commission – JRC-IE GKSS – Forschungszentrum Geesthacht – DE Institut for Energiteknikk – NO Lietuvos Energetikos Institutas – LT Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. Subsequently. Institute for Energy. Germany.net 59 . D. Tank Design Solid hydride storage technologies have the potential to provide volumetrically compact storage. Queen Mary University of London. recently published by the Initiative Group of Education and Training. Advisory Council of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform. France with the vast experience in the area of metal hydrides systems at the Istituto Sistemi Complessi. due large surface area of the material. Université de Franche Comté and the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique. producing nano-composites of MgNiH4 using Plasma Vapour Deposition at the Lithuanian Energy Institute. providing sufficient fuel when there is a high demand.65 million EC funding € 2. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. HyTRAIN is examining the feasibility of incorporating modified Mg-based hydrides into tank design. The work combines the expertise in high-pressure tank design at the Laboratoire de Mécanique Appliquée Raymond Chaléat.
have not yet been met. Further. Expected impact A series of material samples. evaluation facilities and safety aspects in the framework of the Virtual Laboratory (WP7). and intermetallic systems involving magnesium. The target of NESSHY for the weight ratio for mobile applications is at least 6 wt % (based on material weight). are addressed. When promising new materials are identified. 60 . regenerative hydrogen stores (such as the borohydrides) and solid hydrides having reversible hydrogen storage and improved gravimetric storage performance. the performance of different systems will be compared by a standards laboratory (working in collaboration with the US DoE standardisation activity). Initially. a considerable effort has been put into the search for materials suitable for hydrogen storage through various fragmented and clustered EU and national projects. weight ratio and operating conditions. Technical approach The overall S&T work plan involves mainly two different types of activities. Problems addressed Solid storage refers to the storage of hydrogen in metal hydrides. The vertical type includes four “material development” work packages. while for stationary spin-offs. two categories of reversible stores will be investigated – light/ complex hydrides. The final aim of the project is to identify the most promising solid storage solutions for such applications. For transport applications. hydrogen can be stored both reversibly and irreversibly. this weight ratio can be more relaxed depending on the system. In all cases. the development of test protocols. Within Europe. and “regenerative off-board storage”. based mainly on chemical hydrides (WP4). for both stationary and mobile applications. novel analytical and characterisation tools and measurement techniques. efforts will be made to understand the mechanisms involved by innovative modelling activities.Novel Efficient Solid Storage for Hydrogen NESSHY Objectives NESSHY aspires to develop novel materials and storage methods that provide the energy density and the charge/discharge storage/restitution rates necessary for mobile applications with spin-offs in stationary systems. a Virtual Solid H-Storage Laboratory will be established for the first time in Europe. and Dissemination/Training (WP9). both “reversible on-board storage” based on porous solids (WP1) and metal hydrides (WP2 & WP3). such as alanates and imides. tank development and testing (WP8). synthesis routes and characterization data. up-scaling. industrial and R&D collaborators will be brought in to upscale the material production. In these materials. Special attention is paid to the enhancement of energy efficiency. storage kinetics. nano-structured materials and in chemical storage materials. Such results should illuminate the future perspectives of hydrogen storage for transport and stationary applications and assist decision makers and stakeholders on the road to hydrogen economy. NESSHY is a first European attempt to adopt a holistic multidisciplinary approach. develop appropriate demonstration storage tanks and test out the prototype stores in practical conditions. testing and evaluation reports are foreseen. The envisaged objectives cover porous storage systems. in terms of storage kinetics. While the results for stationary and portable applications have in few cases reached some of their targets. In addition. These methods of hydrogen storage offer substantial opportunities for meeting the requirements of on-board storage. addressing key issues related to hydrogen storage in solid materials such as new materials. although further categories may be included later. The horizontal activities include the development and application of ab initio numerical simulation techniques for the prediction of the actual behaviour of real storage materials and the numerical optimisation of storage systems (WP5). the use of novel analytical and characterisation tools and combinatorial techniques to better understand the physico-chemical mechanisms of hydrogen storage in the novel materials investigated (WP6). ab initio and phenomenological modelling using advanced numerical methods for optimal storage design. novel simulation and characterization methods/tools and tank development. storage methods and fabrication processes. the demands for transport applications for car industry. operating conditions and safety aspects of produced materials and to the tank design. focusing on respective classes of candidate solid stores.
Contract number 518271 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st January 2006
The present Integrated Project reflects the needs expressed by the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) related to hydrogen storage in solid materials and at the same time offers a plausible alternative to US initiative on hydrogen storage, the so-called “Grand Challenge”. Indeed, NESSHY aims at the development of innovative and novel storage methods, which could lead to breakthrough solutions for hydrogen storage. The consortium is a blend of outstanding organisations, driven by the best of European academia (universities and research institutes) and the key industrial partners who have already invested a considerable effort in their short and long term strategies on hydrogen research and its applications.
Duration 60 months Total cost € 11.6 million EC funding € 7.5 million Coordinator Dr. Theodore Steriotis National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos Patriarhou Grigoriu and Neapoleos Street EL-15310 Aghia Paraskevi – Attikis Greece Partners
Air Liquide – FR CNRS – Laboratoire de Cristallographie – FR DaimlerChrysler AG – DE Delft University of Technology – NL European Commission – JRC-IE Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – DE GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht – DE Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacão – PT Institutt for Energiteknikk – NO Johnson Matthey – UK Leibniz Gemeinschaft – DE Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e.V. – DE Middle Eastern Technical University – TR Southwest Research Institute, United States Stockholm University – SE Technical University of Denmark – DK University of Birmingham – UK University of Fribourg – CH University of Iceland – Iceland University of Salford – UK Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam – NL
Progress to date
As the project has started very recently, progress and results achieved will be reported in future documents.
Project web-page www.nesshy.net
Enhancing International Cooperation in running FP6 Hydrogen Solid Storage activities HySIC
This Specific Support Action (SSA) catalyses and enhances the international cooperation on innovative activities in the frame of NESSHY by facilitating the exchange of samples and individual meetings and promoting relevant studies (benchmarking and standardisation, round-robin testing) between current NESSHY partners (coordinator and workpackage leaders), a partner from a new EU member state (Lithuania) and organisations from IPHE members (China, Russia). It is important to stress that HySIC will exploit efficiently and benefit substantially from the extended NESSHY infrastructure in terms of management, organisation of workshops, etc. Indeed, without this interaction and mutual support, the ambitious goals of this SSA would not be realised within the proposed reasonable budget and level of effort. In short, in its two years of duration, this SSA is designed so that it will enhance the international dimension of the running IP NESSHY (through the involvement of organisations from major IPHE members) while at the same time supporting innovative storage material development activities and studies that complement nicely the work done in NESSHY.
The HySIC objectives will be achieved via the successful execution of supporting activities such as: • Performance of Studies Enhancing International Cooperation: ■ Sample preparation and exchange among HySIC partners for round-robin testing that involves structural, thermodynamic and kinetic characterization using various methods including micro-gravimetric techniques, electrochemical measurements and neutron scattering. ■ Evaluation of results with a view to sample and testing protocol standardization. • Joint Dissemination Actions and Integration of HySIC/NESSHY Activities: ■ Two workshops dedicated to HySIC results and the aspects of international cooperation on hydrogen solid storage with wide participation especially from IPHE countries like Russia and China. ■ Additional dissemination through the NESSHY website and newsletter. There is special emphasis on the efficient interaction and integration of HySIC results into NESSHY activities.
In compliance with the FP6-2005Energy-4 Call work programme, the basic objective and scope of this SSA project is to facilitate and significantly enhance international cooperation (in the framework of the International Partnership for Hydrogen Economy, IPHE) on hydrogen solid storage through the running FP6 Integrated Project NESSHY. To achieve this, HySIC aims at supporting and promoting the execution of innovative R&D actions that clearly complement the NESSHY work plan. These actions refer to sample preparation and characterization (of specific novel hydrogen storage materials), benchmarking and standardisation of test protocols and round-robin testing of specific samples. HySIC also foresees a number of joint dissemination actions (workshops) in close interaction with corresponding NESSHY training and dissemination activities.
Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Dr. Theodore Steriotis National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos Patriarhou Grigoriu and Neapoleos Street EL-15310 Aghia Paraskevi – Attikis Greece Partners
General Research Institute For Non-ferrous Metals – CHN Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences – RU Institutt for Energiteknikk – NO Lithuania Energy Institute – LT Nankai University – Institute of New Energy and Material Chemistry – CHN Stockholms Universitet – SE University of Salford – UK
• HySIC is expected to contribute towards increased international collaboration in the field of hydrogen storage in solid materials. In addition, the consortium plans to help spread awareness and knowledge and explore the wider societal implications of the H2 economy with actors beyond the scientific H2 community (such as media, educational authorities, local and national governments etc) especially in IPHE members like Russia and China. • The HySIC workplan concentrates on supporting and promoting the execution of innovative R&D actions that clearly complement the workplan of NESSHY. These actions refer to sample preparation and characterization (regarding specific novel hydrogen storage materials), benchmarking and standardisation of test protocols and round-robin testing of specific samples.
Objectives Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the extensive use of H2 as an energy carrier. SP Safety Aspects & Requirements (SAR) and SP Evaluation. Expected impact The final outcome of the project is to identify the most promising storage solutions for different vehicle applications. SP Pressure Vessel. None of the current technologies satisfies all of the H2 storage attributes sought by manufacturers and end users. The vertical type includes the three technical subprojects (denoted SPs). 64 . In addition. The aim is to develop economically and environmentally attractive solutions for all three storage technologies.Hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications StorHy Problems addressed Concrete R&D work covering the whole spectrum of hydrogen storage technologies (compressed gas. These systems shall be producible at industrial scale and meet commercially viable goals for costs. In these subprojects. safe and efficient on-board hydrogen storage systems suitable for use in hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell or internal. Therefore. Progress to date Pressure Vessel – develop 700 bar compressed gaseous hydrogen storage technology including production technologies for composite vessels: • Characterisation of liner materials and manufacturing of liner prototypes • Thermoset resin wet winding process with newly developed ring winding head for thermoplastic and metal liners • Thermoplastic based modular multi cylinder vessel produced by continuous composite tube and winding manufacturing • Qualification and testing of optical sensors for monitoring the structural integrity of C-H2 pressure vessels • Evaluation of warm and cold filling procedures Technical approach The overall approach of StorHy involves two different types of activities. energy density and durability. cryogenic liquid and solid materials) is carried out with a focus on automotive applications. combusting engines. achieving sufficient hydrogen storage capacity for an adequate range is a major technology goal. cross-cutting issues are addressed in order to link the vertical activities. Such results should illuminate the future perspectives of hydrogen storage for transport and stationary applications and assist decision makers and stakeholders on the road to the hydrogen economy. The horizontal SPs include the SP Users. These subprojects concentrate on research activities addressing the technological development of innovative H2 storage solutions. SP Cryogenic Storage and SP Solid Storage. the Integrated Project StorHy aims to develop robust.
economic. 2006 in Ingolstadt.) • Definition of survival space for hydrogen storage systems in a vehicle. SAR (Safety Aspects and Requirements): • Pre-studies for the introduction of a “Probabilistic Approach” to Regulations. – DE Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial INTA – ES Linde Aktiengesellschaft – DE MATERIAL S. – BE MT Aerospace AG – DE National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos – EL Öko-Institut e.INFORMATION Contract number 502667 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st March 2004 Duration 54 months Total cost € 18. Codes and Standards to raise design flexibility • Improvement of safety tests (fire engulfment. Project web-page www.V.A. Evaluation: • Multi-criteria evaluation method applying technical.V. Volker Strubel Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik Kartäuserstrasse 120 DE-79104 Freiburg Germany Partners ADETE – Advanced Engineering and Technologies GmbH – DE Air Liquide Deutschland GmbH – DE Air Liquide S. Solid Storage – assess current progress in the storage of solid materials with a focus on alanates: • Investigation of new mixed alanates as storage materials • Improved synthesis of efficient and low cost catalysts • Upscaling of material production processes • Design of prototype tanks with advanced heat management • Chemical safety (combustion) tests of alanate powders.7 million Coordinator Dr. environmental and social criteria for evaluating the three StorHy storage technologies.net 65 . cycling. DE.A. Cryogenic Storage – develop free form lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks manufactured from composites: • Cylindrical lightweight outer jacket (Tank 1) with carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) shells and structural metallic liner • Cylindrical inner tank (Tank 2) manufactured by innovative CFRP knitting technology with galvanic liner • Lightweight double wall cylindrical tank combining the technologies used for Tanks 1 and 2 • Package and design study for free form tank • Pre-selection of manufacturing technologies for free form tanks.storhy. – DE Peugeot Citroën Automobiles – FR The University of Nottingham – UK Volvo Technology Corporation – SE WEH GmbH – DE Wroclaw University of Technology – PL • Recycling aspects of carbon fibre reinforced composite materials • Feasibility of a 700 bar exchangeable rack hydrogen storage system.7 million EC funding € 10. etc. 25-29. Users: • StorHy targets 2010 (automotive requirements) defined • Acceptance study finalized • StorHy Train-IN training course Sept. permeation. – FR Austrian Aerospace GmbH – AT BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH – DE Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung – DE Centre National de Recherche Scientifique – FR COMAT Composite Materials GmbH – DE Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Contraves Space AG – CH DaimlerChrysler AG – DE Dynetek Europe GmbH – DE ET – Gesellschaft für Innovative Energie und Wasserstofftechnologie mbH – DE European Commission – JRC-IE Faber Industrie SpA – IT Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH – DE Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – DE Fundación para la investigación y desarrollo en automoción – ES GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH – DE Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH – DE Institute for Energy Technology – NO Institute for Protection Systems – Prochain e.
Therefore a major improvement in storage performance (in particular for on-board vehicles) is necessary for hydrogen to gain acceptance as an effective energy carrier. energy efficiency. liquid. the development of safe. • Storage of hydrogen in solid state materials. system integration and cost are needed. and reasonable volumetric storage efficiency. including harmonisation of testing methods. a long-term commitment to scientific excellence in research coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders is required. Porous materials have the advantage of being much lighter. reliable and cost-effective hydrogen storage technologies is a key issue. The hydrides store hydrogen by chemically bonding to metal or metalloid elements and alloys. and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. All possible options (compressed gas. such as carbon nanotubes or metal-organic frameworks. for example by absorption into metallic. Since liquid hydrogen is stored cryogenically at its boiling point (-252°C). Add sentence on safety issues in (semi-) confined spaces. In setting-up a hydrogen infrastructure. • A facility for performance evaluation of hydrogen safety sensors under various on-board conditions. any heat transfer to the liquid causes some hydrogen to evaporate. volume. refuelling times. nevertheless improvements in weight. Of all potential alternative fuels (Biofuels. looking into hydrogen as energy storage medium for integrated renewable energy systems. the project’s scientific and technical activities have been structured to address the improvement of current and the development of new hydrogen storage technologies and to support the development of technical standards. volume storage efficiency. Objectives Air quality concerns and security of energy supply have triggered considerable interest in alternative fuels in the EU. benchmarking and identification of best practices. but have weight penalties and thermal management issues. or adsorption on the surface of porous materials or structures. The general objective of the project is to support the penetration of hydrogen as an alternative fuel particularly in road transport. validation and standardization of testing procedures for safety. conformable shapes. but their hydrogen capacity at room temperature is still very low and they need cryogenic temperatures for a considerable increase of their performance. Hydrides are unique because some can absorb hydrogen at or below atmospheric pressure and then release it at significantly higher pressure when heated. Technical approach The project addresses harmonization.Systems for Alternative Fuels SYSAF Problems addressed At ambient conditions. • Computational Fluidodynamics Codes for the simulation of refuelling conditions and accidental releases. • Liquid hydrogen: a major concern in liquid hydrogen storage is to minimize hydrogen losses from liquid boil-off. Natural Gas and Hydrogen). Special attention is given to the storage of hydrogen for vehicles powered either by modified internal combustion engine or fuel cells with a view to supporting the development of standards. hydrogen is gaseous and occupies a large volume (low energy density per volume). hydrogen offers the greatest long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and that is based on renewable energy sources. 66 . Metal hydrides offer the advantages of lower pressure storage. costs and safety aspects. • A solid-state hydrogen storage laboratory for testing and harmonisation of gravimetric and volumetric characterisation methodologies. metal hydrides and porous structures) have their advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight. conformable shapes. operational performance and environmental compliance of advanced hydrogen storage technologies. Therefore. An energy economy based on hydrogen could resolve the major concerns about security of energy supply and about greenhouse gas emissions. No current technology appears to satisfy all storage criteria required by manufacturers and end-users. To address these issues. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations and needs for improvement are: • Compressed hydrogen: this is the most mature technology (700 bars). Stationary applications are also included. light or complex hydrides. The project is structured around the following facilities: • A full-scale vehicle tank testing facility to assess hydrogen high-pressure cycling and hydrogen permeation and leak rate measurements with temperature control and instrumentation for gas analysis.
The solid-state hydrogen storage laboratory works towards identification and evaluation of experimental errors in hydrogen storage capacity using various test methods. First results have been obtained on performance assessment of hydrogen safety sensors under different environmental conditions. Behaviour of accidental release of hydrogen under various conditions has been modelled. and compared against similar CH4 cases.INFORMATION Contract number Action 2323 Programme Joint Research Centre 2003-2006 Multi-Annual Work Programme Starting date January 2003 Partners JRC institutional activity Expected impact Hydrogen as an energy carrier will not have a significant market share in the near future. efficiency and safety of hydrogen storage technologies • Support to the elaboration of harmonised technical standards • Advanced knowledge in break through technologies • Evaluation of risks related to normal operation and accidental releases. In 2005. it has co-organised the first-ever IPHE Conference on hydrogen storage and the First International Conference on Hydrogen Safety under the IPHE umbrella. 67 . It is therefore very important to build a strong European research community (skills and competences) to prepare the hydrogen storage designs which will have to meet the expected future large industrial and societal needs. It is also involved in the topics of hydrogen storage and of regulations. where it is leading tasks on inter-laboratory comparisons and performance characterisation and harmonisation of characterisation methodologies. codes and standards of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE). SYSAF staff are invited as external peer reviewer of the Hydrogen Storage Projects of the US-DoE and have co-organised with DoE a number of scientific meetings. The project actively participates on behalf of the European Commission in a number of tasks of the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement. The SYSAF project takes part in a number of FP6 Integrated Projects and Networks of Excellence. Therefore the expected impacts of this project are: • Harmonised testing procedures for assessing the performance. Publication of the results from both these activities is on going. Progress to date The above-mentioned facilities have been completed or are approaching finalisation.
Marie Curie Research Training Networks on Production and Storage of Hydrogen HYDROGEN
The network’s two research goals can be summarised as follows: • The first goal is to devise a tandem cell which can convert solar energy to chemical energy with an efficiency of 10% or more, using a new nanostructured metaloxide material (Fe2O3, or other), and based on an atomic scale understanding of the mechanism of photooxidation of water on metaloxide surfaces, this being the crucial step. • The second goal is to find the best possible hydrogen storage material for cheap on-board storage in automobiles (> 5wt%, reversible), by determining experimentally and theoretically what constitutes a good catalyst and what makes the material (and its combination with a catalyst) reversible, by investigating both well known and relatively unexplored complex metal hydrides and novel catalyst candidates, and metal ammines. The network’s training objective is to train a new generation of researchers in the skills needed for solving problems associated with production and storage of hydrogen, the solution of which is crucial to a future hydrogen economy. Training young researchers to perform research on problems related to the hydrogen economy and to teach the science associated with hydrogen are stated European policy goals. To achieve the educational goal and the research goals outlined above, training will be provided in scientific skills and complementary skills.
The HYDROGEN network will carry out research, which has the potential to deliver the breakthroughs that are needed in production and storage of hydrogen, in the promising areas of photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, and storage in alanates, borohydrides, and a new class of materials storing hydrogen safely in the form of ammonia.
In performing the proposed research and through specific training actions, the network will train both early stage researchers (360 person months) and experienced researchers (138 person months). To achieve the first research goal (identified above), a nano-structured electrode (consisting of iron-oxide, or another oxide), will be developed for use in a photo-electrochemical cell. The development will be based on an atomic scale understanding of the mechanism of photo-oxidation of water on metal-oxide surfaces, to be achieved through experimental and computational research. To achieve the second research goal (identified above), experimental and computational research will be performed on complex metal hydrides (alanates and boro-hydrides), and metal ammines. We aim at determining the atomic scale mechanisms that underlie catalysed hydrogen release and uptake, and reversibility. The network researchers work in applied and fundamental physics and chemistry, and eight partners come from academia and two from industry. The interdisciplinary character of the network ensures the presence of the wide range of expertise needed to achieve breakthrough solutions and provide training on a European scope. The inter-sectorial character ensures that promising methods for production and storage developed by the academic partners can be further developed and scaled up by the industrial partners.
Contract number 032474 Programme Marie Curie Actions Starting date 1st September 2006 Duration 48 months Total cost € 3.54 million EC funding € 3.54 million Coordinator Geert-Jan Kroes Universiteit Leiden Rapenburg 70 NL-2300 RA Leiden The Netherlands Partners
Chalmers University of Technology – SE Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne – CH Eidgenössische Materialprüf- und Forschungsanstalt – CH Hydrogen Solar Limited – UK Science Institute University of Iceland – IS Shell Global Solutions International B.V. – NL Technical University of Denmark – DK University of Oxford – UK University of Warsaw – PL
Basic materials and industrial process research on functional materials for fuel cells APOLLON-B
APOLLON-B will focus on the development and optimization of PBI derivatives (Fumatech) and PBI free blends which have already been successfully demonstrated (Fig.1). Another activity of APOLLON-B will focus on the synthesis of novel high temperature polymer electrolyte membranes, addressing problems related to chemical stability and phosphoric acid leaching. A number of different approaches are proposed as solutions, including: • The presence of polar groups with high pKa (>7) in the polymeric structure in order to avoid the deprotonation of the membrane by liquid water and the subsequent removal of the phosphoric acid • Base-doped polymer electrolytes • Self-sustained ionic conductive acid-base composite membranes One of the most challenging concepts in PEM fuel cell technology is the design and development of non noble metal electrocatalysts, thus trying to minimize Pt loading in the gas diffusion electrodes. APOLLON-B will focus on the development of electrocatalysts and electrodes for acid or base doped electrolytes. • Novel synthesis of high temperature polymer electrolyte membranes • Membrane preparation and characterization • Membrane characterization • Development of high temperature bipolar plate materials and gaskets WP2 Development of non noble metal electrocatalysts • Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations • Bi- and trimetallic nanoparticulate colloids • Electrocatalysts prepared by combustion synthesis • Electrocatalysts prepared by pyrolysis of organic resins containing metal cations • Physicochemical characterization WP3 Electrochemical characterization and testing of materials • Electrochemical testing of membranes • The electrochemical testing of new electrocatalysts • Scale up procedures and preparation of the catalyst layer of gas diffusion electrodes WP4 Long term testing of the most promising materials • Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) testing in single cells with Pt/C commercial electrodes • MEA testing in single cells with project developed electrodes WP5 Dissemination and public awareness • Dissemination of results to the scientific and industrial community WP6 Innovation activities • Contribution to standards and regulations • Preparatory measures for patent application
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells have recently received increased attention as an efficient and environmentally friendly power generation technology and have high potential for market penetration addressing both stationary and mobile applications. One of the most ambitious challenges faced in the development of efficient high temperature PEM fuel cells is the advanced design, construction and testing of new concepts aiming at a reduction in the costs of components, thus allowing the simplification of the whole system manufacturing and operation. The main objective of APOLLON-B is to provide significant progress and innovative solutions in efficient and low-cost high temperature PEM electrode assemblies. Fuel cell development demands the integration and combination of several methodologies, including theoretical calculations and several physicochemical methods, as well as engineering aspects and technical substantiation. APOLLON-B will combine the advanced knowledge of 7 research and academic organisations and 4 industrialists that specialize in different aspects of fuel cell technology.
The overall approach of APOLLON-B is described by the following work packages. WP0 Project Management • Project coordination – Execution of the project steering committee’s decisions • Progress monitoring • Work package coordination WP1 Development and manufacture of high temperature membrane electrolytes • Optimization of the composition of polymer blends based on materials synthesized during the previous APOLLON project
such as pyrolitic carbon. morphology and physicochemical properties of the various materials and interfaces.V. • Theoretical design and synthesis of various nanostructured anode and cathode electrocatalysts. – NL Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg – DE Technical University of Denmark – DK University of Patras – EL Expected impact The main milestones of the project are briefly described as follows: • Synthesis development and optimisation of novel acid or base doped polymer electrolyte membranes operating within the temperature range of 130-200ºC. • Development of Gas Diffusion Electrodes (GDEs) based on baking materials. which will be compatible with high temperature PEMs. • Engineering. determination of the structure. carbon nanotubes and Ti4O7 magnelli phases. Figure 1 – I-V curves of the PBI-free membrane 71 . design and construction of single cells and small stacks aiming at the long term testing of the materials.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme NMP Coordinator Stylianos G. • Bulk and surface composition analysis. Neophytides Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes Stadiou Street EL-26504 Rion Achaias Patras Greece Partners ADVENT – EL Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas – ES FUMATECH – DE GERMANOS SA – EL Institute of Chemical Technology Prague – CZ National Institute of Chemistry – SL Nedstack Fuel Cell Technology B. • Manufacture of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs).
To prove the concept of the new membrane and MEA technology. Technical approach autobrane is structured in sub-projects. • The humidification requirement of PEM fuel cell membranes causes system complexity. Despite the fact that a PEM fuel cell system has a significantly better efficiency than an internal combustion engine. Objectives autobrane is tackling some of the fundamental technological problems of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automotive application by integrating Europe’s fuel cell polymer synthesis and membrane development expertise and combining it with European catalyst. membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and stack technology competencies into one effort. Seven automotive companies from Europe will provide advice and guidance concerning automotive needs and operation conditions. • PEM fuel cell membranes have a restricted allowable ambient temperature range for operation. there are training and networking activities within SP6000 and SP7000. Sub-zero operation poses particular problems. a stack with realistic cell areas and a representative power of approximately 1 kW will be operated. climate and energy sustainability. All together 30 partners are involved the project. with the R&D activities taking place in SP1000 through SP5000 (see Figure 2). Current transportation Figure 1 – Heat rejection of an ICE and a PEM fuel cell system 72 . In addition. are targeting this goal in major RD&D efforts. The final target of the project is a membrane electrode assembly technology and its demonstration in a state of the art stack adapted to higher temperature demands and lower humidification conditions. A “simultaneous engineering” strategy is being pursued involving development and demonstration activities to gain “real world” experience and basic research activities to overcome some principal hurdles. The European Commission many national governments and all major car manufacturers. The autobrane project addresses the following basic issues: • The characteristic low operating temperature of the PEM fuel cell stacks causes heat rejection problems for fuel cell vehicles. Figure 1 illustrates the heat rejection issue as an example of these challenges. Expected impact Mankind has a substantial impact on the environment. it has to get rid of about twice the heat via the radiator and this at a lower temperature of about 80°C compared to 100+°C of the ICE.Automotive high temperature fuel cell membranes AUTOBRANE Problems addressed Fuel cell powered vehicles fuelled with hydrogen promise to make the dream of environmentally friendly cars with zero emissions come true without sacrificing comfort or the driving experience. The OEM partners are forming a steering group to provide guidance with respect to the needs of their products and markets. SP2000 is the central key sub-project dedicated to the development of novel polymer electrolyte materials (accordingly about 40% of the total funding is allocated to this sub-project).
4 million EC funding € 8.3 million Coordinator Dr. Since the project start in November 2005 two “satellite” activities have been initiated: • A co-ordination action for a working group on high temperature membranes. in particular with member countries of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE). Duration 48 months Total cost € 14. Project web-page www. The autobrane partners are attempting to integrate the principal European expertise to accomplish the decisive transition of PEMFCs from a promise to a wellestablished energy technology. define the short-term work plans and the interfaces with the other sub-projects in detail. in combination with hydrogen. • Work on the important issue of standardizing test protocols has started.autobrane. major hurdles for a commercialization of fuel cell powered vehicles will be overcome. Proposals for these activities have been submitted to the European Commission by members of the autobrane consortium and are presently in negotiation. Fuel cell powered vehicles.INFORMATION Contract number 020074 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st November 2005 technologies contribute considerably to this impact.V. If the project goals are achieved. • New catalyst materials have been characterized. It was envisaged that the autobrane project team would also collaborate with institutes from non-EU member states. • A specific targeted research project establishing a collaboration with partners from China and Russia.org Figure 2 – Organizational chart of autobrane 73 .und Raumfahrt e. – DE Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Institute for Energy Research – DE Freudenberg FCCT KG – DE Fumatech GmbH – DE Honda Europe – DE Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells – UK Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan – SE Llika – UK Max-Planck-Gesellschaft – DE Nuvera Fuel Cells – IT Opel – DE PEMEAS GmbH – DE Renault Recherche et Innovation – FR Solvay Solexis SpA – IT Technical University of Denmark – DK Timcal SA – CH Toyota Europe – BE Umidore – DE Università di Perugia – IT University of Helsinki – FI University of Lund – SE Volkswagen – DE Progress to date The project kick-off meeting took place in November 2005 and all technical sub-projects have also had their internal kick-off meetings to refine the initial planning. Erich Erdle DaimlerChrysler RBP/FM Wilhelm-Runge-Strasse 11 DE-89081 Ulm Germany Partners Bulgarian Academy of Sciences – BG Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – FR Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT Chalmers University of Technology Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – IT Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Thus the world wide competitive position of European industry will be strengthened and new employment opportunities will be created.and ionomer materials have already been synthesized. • Samples of benchmark membranes have been supplied to MEA development. Initial formal results are as follows: • First new mono. offer a solution which is as environmentally and climatically friendly as it is sustainable.
Material will be exchanged between WPs/partners for further development/testing. Problems addressed The technical barrier that IPHE-GENIE addresses is that of the low operating temperature of PEM fuel cells and the need for high humidity of the reactants. In addition. a university and an industry from Russia and China. In relation to this it is also an objective to affiliate IPHE-GENIE with the existing Integrated Project autobrane. size and weight of the fuel cell system can be reduced considerably since heat and water management issues will be less severe. this will enable PEMFC to be applied in a wider range of climate conditions. the complexity. A quantified description of the objectives is given in Table 1. The work packages are defined to match the specific expertise areas of the partners. By doing so. addressing the specific topic of “enhancing strategically important international cooperation initiatives” with non-EU IPHE member states on the matter of solving technical barriers to hydrogen and fuel cell deployment. Results of the tests will be exchanged to create an iterative process of material improvement. cost. IPHE-GENIE thus responds to Call FP6-2005-Energy-4.International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy for GENeration of New Ionomer membranes IPHE-GENIE Objectives The objective of IPHE-GENIE is to achieve an increase in the operating temperature of PEMFC while reducing the need for humidification. in which many important European institutes and industries collaborate on the topic of HT-PMEFC. An additional objective of the project is to increase the span of international cooperation in the area of PEM fuel cells in general and High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells (HT-PEMFC) in particular. thereby increasing the probability that PEM fuel cell technology will become the universal automotive propulsion technology. These operational boundary conditions of existing proton conducting polymers form an obstacle for the wide spread introduction of fuel cell vehicles. 74 . IPHE-GENIE does so by cooperation with a research institute. Technical approach Figure 1 – Project structure. in various power ranges and under a wide variety of climatic conditions. by establishing a cooperative project comprising partners from both EU and non-EU IPHE member states.
0 subzero to ~ 120°C ≤ 1. of such membranes will be improved.8 A/cm2 @ 0. This novel approach leads to improved life-time of both the membrane and the MEA. At the same time infinite swelling at high temperature will be limited by covalent cross-linking and hybrid membrane technologies.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Ronald Mallant ECN – Energy research Centre of the Netherlands PO Box 1 NL-1755 ZG Petten The Netherlands Partners Boreskov Institute of Catalysis – RU CNRS Montpellier – FR Dongyue Shenzhou New Materials Company – CHN FuMA-Tech GmbH – DE Shanghai Jiao Tong University – CHN Expected impact The expected outcome of IPHE-GENIE will be an MEA that tolerates temperature excursions to 120ºC and that operates at RH 25-50%. Air < 2. The MEA should also tolerate -40ºC and start up at -20ºC. No work has been reported so far on the stabilisation of PFSA membranes by cross-linking using fluorinated multifunctional monomers. IPHE-GENIE also addresses the issue of catalyst stability at elevated temperature by the development of new catalysts.H. catalysts supports and electrodes that under automotive conditions and at the targeted operating temperatures and humidity will have an operational life time of at least 5000 hrs.5 bar (abs) Partial water vapour pressure of maximal 500 mbar 75 . The approach chosen is that of a welldefined in-situ cross-linking of low equivalent weight fluorinated membranes.65 V ~ 100 cm H2 < 1. Qualified objectives of IPHE-GENIE ITEM Performance: Cell size: Stoichiometry: Temperature range: Pressure: Humidification: VALUE ~ 0. The conductivity at low R.5. Progress to date Project is in negotiation phase Table 1.
and this timely grouping into a Coordination Action will increase the impact of on-going Community funded and nationally funded programmes. Development of high temperature membranes. Integration and interaction between groups will be enhanced via a number of cornerstones that will underpin the R&D activities of the Coordination Action. requiring a major and concerted research effort. and their strengths and weaknesses can be identified by appraisal of the technical challenges. national and regional basic and applied research and development efforts to substantially increase their impact.Coordination Action for Research on Intermediate and high temperature Specialised Membrane electrode Assemblies CARISMA Problems addressed The present scenario across Europe is one of separate actions and projects being undertaken at European and national level. High temperature membranes and MEAs are a priority area of the Strategic Research Agenda and the International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) scoping paper on PEMFC. The group will interact with the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) to refine the Strategic Research Agenda and will facilitate interaction with equivalent groups in other continents. centred on membranes. No single action coordinates these efforts. For example. catalysts and high temperature MEAs. including the impact of high temperature 76 . Objectives The CARISMA Coordination Action seeks to provide a forum for the integration of the research effort in Europe to develop high temperature membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In addition to its other aims and objectives. It will provide a channel for communication with similar action groups in other continents. It will represent a seat of expertise to act in advisory capacity to the HFP in the high temperature MEAs field. current approaches to intermediate and high temperature MEA development are not all appropriate. Technical approach Expected impact CARISMA will integrate funded European. horizontal actions of relevance to all the EC and nationally/regionally funded programmes implicating high temperature MEAs. CARISMA will complement completed and on-going Community funded RTD projects on MEA materials by its cross-cutting topics of proton conduction mechanisms and the durability/degradation issue. A timeline will be devised to phase in and integrate the above activities. catalysts and membrane-electrode assemblies with required properties are particularly challenging goals. and such an initiative can only be taken at European level. It will provide a framework for federative. and technical specifications for high temperature PEMFC applications.
alignment of current materials properties with stationary and automotive applications technical specifications. A programme of visiting researchers will promote sharing of best-practices. CARISMA will take the initiative for organisation of an international conference on high temperature membranes and MEAs to which it will invite key international speakers.eu 77 . The success of all the above initiatives is guaranteed by mobilisation of a critical mass of European researchers encompassing the major actors in the high temperature MEA field: university and research institute groups. – IT Paul-Scherrer-Institut – CH PEMEAS GmbH – DE Solvay Solexis SpA – IT Technical University of Denmark – DK Timcal SA – CH TU München – DE Umicore AG – DE University of Helsinki – FI University of Lund – SE University of Newcastle upon Tyne – UK University of Patras – EL Università di Perugia – IT University of Reading – UK Università di Roma La Sapienza – IT Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata – IT Universität Stuttgart – DE University of Surrey – UK Volkswagen – DE Zentrum für Sonnenenergie.carisma-network. – DE Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Institute for Energy Research – DE Forschungszentrum Jülich – DE Freudenberg FCCT KG – DE FUMA-TECH GmbH – DE GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht – DE Groupement de Recherche Piles à Combustible Electrodes Membrane – FR Ilika Ltd – UK Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Ltd – UK Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan – SE Max-Planck-Gesellschaft – DE Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc. the mechanisms of proton transfer under essentially water free conditions. It could enable more expeditious evaluation of plausible approaches to high temperature membranes.V. Progress to date Project in negotiation phase © CEP Project web-page www.und Raumfahrt e. degradation and durability. industrial developers and representative end users.und Wasserstoff-Forschung – DE operation on MEAs and MEA components. A robust set of characterisation approaches will be available in CARISMA that may be complementary to those available in an individual programme.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Deborah Jones Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université Montpellier II Place Eugène Bataillon FR-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 France Partners Bulgarian Academy of Sciences – BG Centre for Process Innovation Ltd – UK Chalmers University of Technology – SE Cidetec – ES Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – IT Deutsches Zentrum für Luft.
These two preliminary steps will provide a selection route to determine the most promising systems and compositions to take forward into the subsequent stages.Non-noble Catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes FCANODE Problems addressed There are major challenges involved in the search for such catalysts. the challenge is to find binary. noble metal based systems alone exhibit both the stability required in the strongly acidic humidified environment of the fuel cell and the sufficiently large current densities required. This could reduce the cost of the fuel cells and bring them closer towards full commercialisation. The next step will be the Combinatorial Fast Screening of catalysts for these descriptors. which can rapidly screen a range of compositions for a given material. The replacement of such catalysts by cheaper non-noble alternatives is therefore the objective of this project. or 50:50 platinum/ruthenium alloy supported nanoparticle catalysts (for reformate gas). Technical approach In order to accomplish these aims. Such studies provide an invaluable starting point for catalyst selection procedures and help to develop and compare a range of descriptors for potential anode catalysts. to date. or a novel flame deposition method and subsequently investigated with regards to their performance for the hydrogen oxidation Objectives Noble-metal based catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are expensive. Currently. The need to utilise such a range of expertise within the work program makes it important to perform this research at a European scale. Initially. Hence. ternary or even quaternary systems. The selected catalysts will then be produced as nanoparticles supported on a carbon support using traditional techniques. new developments in PEM Fuel Cell technology highlight the need to explore the performance of catalysts in a higher temperature regime (in the region of 130-200°C). For the hydrogen oxidation reaction platinum has significantly the highest turnover rate and. Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies will be used to calculate critical bond energies and activation barriers of processes relevant to the fuel cell electrodes and produce trends in reactivities for metal alloy species and intermetallic compounds. which have the necessarily high rates of hydrogen oxidation and which are stable in the environment of the fuel cell. a novel route will be used involving a multidisciplinary approach covering the full range from theoretical 78 . It is only recently that development in computer power has provided the possibility for fast throughput of a high number of systems in this manner. • To derive entirely new systems of nanoparticulate catalysts which are completely non-noble. The research program therefore combines two routes towards achieving these scientific objectives: • To modify noble metal based systems by incorporating non-noble species to lead to an overall reduction in the quantity of precious metal used. Furthermore the optimisation of carbon support materials for the developed nanoparticle catalysts will be investigated. are used for the hydrogen oxidation reaction at the anode. which is attracting efforts to reduce costs by finding alternative cheaper non-noble metal-based systems. In addition. pure platinum (for pure hydrogen). design through to the final operating membrane electrode assembly by the methodology outlined below.
Progress to date Project is currently in the negotiation phase. Ib Chorkendorff Danish Technical University Anker Engelundsvej 1 Bygning 101A DK-2800 Lyngby Denmark Scientific Coordinator: Dr. it will be confirmed that these catalysts retain the tolerance to CO2 demonstrated by the platinum standard. Trends in reactivity obtained from DFT modeling and combinatorial fast screening to process a large number of potential non-noble metal based catalyst systems hereby supplying a smaller number of promising systems and composition for development at the single cell level.INFORMATION Contract number Under negociation Programme NMP Coordinator Financial Coordinator: Prof. As the final stage. the behaviour and stability of selected catalysts will be assessed within the single cell environment and the potential of the catalysts for large-scale production investigated. The output of the project will therefore consist of a series of well-characterized supported nanoparticle anode catalysts with the aim to provide a catalyst with a performance level considerable enough to provide a potential alternative to the current industry standard. © Forschungzentrum Jülich 79 . Behaviour relating to the two main mechanisms for carbon monoxide tolerance at fuel cell anodes – the ligand effect and the bifunctional mechanism – will be investigated by a variety of electrochemical and adsorption techniques. Furthermore. In addition structural information regarding the novel nanoscale catalysts will be obtained. Georgios Tsotridis European Commission Institute for Energy Joint Research Centre Partners Bayrisches Zentrum für angewandte Energieforschung – DE Boreskov Institute of Catalysis – RU Southampton University – UK TU München – DE Umicore AG and Co. KG – DE Expected impact reaction and their stability to acidic media.
reformer and burner development. • Improved electrodes and Membrane electrode assemblies with long lifetime. blending. Expected impact Technical approach The project has a main line in which polymers are synthesized and cast into membranes. strength and lifetime. 80 . • Stacking cells with novel temperature resistant materials for bipolar plates and sealing. catalyst Development of advanced materials. and fabricating inorganic-organic composite membranes. The single cell performance target is 0. modelling and simulation. manufacturing techniques. • A Diesel reformer and a burner developed and integrated with the stack into an auxiliary power system for larger Diesel vehicles.000 hours. • Improvement of electrode performance. The final stack is integrated into the final Diesel reformer system. The commercialisation of this technology will substantially increase the energy efficiency and reduce polluting emissions. which are the main objectives of the Programme. The durability shall be more than 5. with a nominal working temperature of 170°C.7 A/cm2 at a cell voltage around 0. component development is continuously carried out and. Objectives The main goals of the project are: • New high temperature membranes for PEMFC at temperatures between 120 and 200°C. Membrane electrode assemblies (cells) are manufactured with fuel cell electrodes and later assembled into stacks. in parallel with membrane development.6 V. electrode refinement. demonstration of the high temperature PEMFC stack and integration of such a system are expected to sufficiently promote the commercialisation of the fuel cell technology for both vehicle propulsion and stationary applications. development.Further Improvement and system integration of High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells FURIM Problems addressed Key challenges are: • Membrane improvement in terms of conductivity. • A 2kWel HT-PEMFC stack operating in a temperature range of 120-200°C. Along this main line. The system will run on reformate without CO cleanup due to the high CO tolerance at elevated temperatures compared to conventional PEMFC. • Development of the integrated Diesel reforming system. For temperature-resistant membranes the technical approaches include cross-linking.
It had been designed and modelled and is now under construction.furim. – NL IRD Fuel Cell A/S – DK Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NO University of Newcastle upon Tyne – UK Universität Stuttgart – DE Volvo Technology Corporation – SE Project web-page www. Niels J. Duration 48 months Total cost € 6.V. Greece have been held.1 million EC funding € 4. The design and construction of the stack has started with a short test stack for proof of concept. Bjerrum Technical University of Denmark Department of Chemistry Anker Engelundsvej 1 Bygning 101A DK-2800 Lyngby Denmark Partners Between Lizenz GmbH – DE Case West Reserve University – USA Danish Power Systems ApS – DK Foundation of Research and Technology – EL Freudenberg FCCT – DE HyGear B.0 million Coordinator Prof.com 81 . The reformer system is developed in parallel.INFORMATION Contract number 502782 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2004 Progress to date Several polymers have been synthesized and characterized. Along with the training at the universities a workshop in Newcastle as well as a symposium in Patras. After year 2 the most promising systems will be identified for further research.
it must serve a wide range of applications that require models for different kind of fuel cells (SOFC. for system modelling. Work package 3 (Back End) contains the data management. DMFC and other types) in several levels of detail (e. The user of such a modelling environment expects to be able to choose a model out of a set of different types of fuel cells. Each type of fuel cell can be available in different implementations and each implementation is suitable for a particular application. With this modularisation. These models represent the computational core of GenFC. The interface to the implemented models should be extendable to new fuel cell models as well as for the integration to new front-end applications. The basic approach is to combine the flexibility of a mathematical simulation with the development process of a hardware component. Different elements of the simulation are replaced with the actual hardware components in later stages. Fuel cell and fuel cell systems developers can then use this tool to improve and accelerate fuel cell development and to contribute to a future success of the fuel cell technology. Work package 2 (Middle Ware) compiles the fuel cell models in their different implementations so it can be regarded as a toolbox. The starting point is commonly a full simulation of the investigated system. GenFC will be an integrated mathematical modelling environment applying to all important fuel cell types from the system level down to the electrode level. Since the software must be generic. Work package 4 contains the development and integration of a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) model.g. type of model. GenFC is not limited in terms of how many models can be incorporated and the 82 . overall cell modelling. As a generic tool. it is important to show that the goals of GenFC will be met by choosing a few representative example models for incorporation. detailed cell modelling).Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment GenFC Technical approach The projects lifetime is 36 months and it is structured in 5 work packages: Work package 1 (Front End) contains all the tasks necessary for designing and developing the portal to the Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment. stack modelling. PEFC. The overall goal is to provide a generic modelling tool to fuel cell and fuel cell systems developers making fuel cell modelling expert knowledge available for all of them. Within the frame of this project. a fuel cell modelling environment is desirable which can be used for simulation tasks exactly catering to the demand of the application engineer. Hardware Objectives The main objective of the project is to bring the available expert knowledge on fuel cell modelling under a common umbrella. HIL is an industrial key technology commonly applied in the development of hardware solutions. It is believed that from the fuel cell (hardware) developer’s point of view. the underlying data structure can easily be adapted to future changes of the IT systems or to existing data management systems at other organisations beyond the frame of the project.
GenFC will enable virtual experiments by using virtual components in fuel cell test hardware and by complete fuel cell systems simulations including fuel processors and other auxiliary equipment. Andreas Gubner Forschungzentrum Jülich DE-52425 Jülich Germany Partners aixprocess GbR – DE EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research – CH Fluent Deutschland GmbH – DE REDHADA SL – ES Technische Universität Graz – AT components can thus be fully operated and tested even though the full system is not actually available as hardware solution. Since the models and data sets in GenFC are validated and quality assured. and to perform the dissemination task. This includes the setup of the GenFC website (for public information) and a WIKI server (for discussions and information of the project members).67 million EC funding € 1. Expected impact The vision behind GenFC is to speed up the transfer of expert knowledge about fuel cell modelling from R&D laboratories to facilitate the design and manufacturing process. to set up the material and tools for dissemination. An important part of this must be the provision of quality assured data sets and validated models. Commercially attractive integrated fuel cell systems may become available in a shorter time to market with the help of GenFC. to prepare the GenFC manuals. Project web-page www. The main objectives of work package 5 are to demonstrate the use of GenFC for different target groups.INFORMATION Contract number 019814 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st October 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 2.org 83 .7 million Coordinator Dr.genfc. virtual experiments conducted using GenFC can show potential weaknesses in the systems that could lead to safety risks without risking actual failures.
the focus is on: • Gas turbine blades for aero-engines and power generation turbines • Catalytic devices such as Raney®-type catalysts and hydrogen fuel-cell electrodes Correspondingly. not only in the field of intermetallics but also in adjacent metallurgical and chemical industries. Objectives The primary scientific objective of the IMPRESS Integrated Project is to understand the strategic links between the solidification processing of intermetallic compounds. including minor additions of other elements and alloys produced for preliminary testing (processing routes with great deal of promise). droplet/atmosphere chemical interactions and ultimately atomistic powder leaching in caustic solution. thermal conductivity. dendrite growth kinetics and key thermophysical properties of liquid alloys. the technical objectives are to develop.and nanoscale. such as novel Raney®type powders for hydrogenation/ hydration and catalytic electrodes for hydrogen fuel cells. The work has been divided into different work-packages: • Alloy selection for (a) turbine blades (b) catalytic powders • Fundamentals of intermetallic (a) alloy solidification (b) powder formation • Materials processing routes for (a) turbine blades (b) catalytic powders • Benchmark space experimentation • Comparative benchmark testing • Experimental & computational thermodynamics & kinetics • Thermophysical properties measurements • Numerical modelling and validation • Materials structure characterisation • Mechanical properties testing • Industrial aspects • Education and dissemination • Training and technology transfer Expected impact The expected impacts. • Integrated modelling of gas atomisation. include: • The solidification processing and physical metallurgy. produce and test intermetallic alloys for: • High-quality 40cm investment-cast γ-TiAl gas turbine blades for aeroengines and power generation • Advanced catalytic Ni-Al and Co-Al powders with particle size < < 20 microns for use in hydrogen fuel cell electrodes and hydrogenation reactions Progress to date Science and new data • Rigorous selection of the most promising intermetallic systems as: . Prototype development will be continued after the end of IMPRESS by the industrial manufacturers and end-users. • Technical prototypes of advanced catalytic devices such as Ni-based hydrogenation slurries and hydrogen fuel cells will be set for market exploitation. • Batches of fine Raney®-type Ni-Al powder with various dopants produced. at the micrometric and nanometric scales respectively. microstructure selection maps. alloy compositions and microstructural features. emissivity and melting range. 84 . density. using gas atomisation and vapour synthesis processes. the structure of the material at the micro. covering the macroscopic process scale.TiAlNb. chemical and physical properties. like Eureka. specific heat. namely higher performance turbine materials and catalytic powder materials. and the final mechanical. selectivity & stability. by varying the process types. with unprecedented activity. process parameters. • Phase field model for 3-D polycrystalline solidification (generic applicability to both casting and powder production). • Data generated for equilibrium phase diagrams. In terms of industrial applications. droplet solidification. the break-up of liquid into droplets. for the turbine material . by the end of the project. relevant to the catalytic part of IMPRESS.Ni-Al plus dopants. lighter turbine blades giving increased efficiency of gas turbine engines above ≈ 35% and potential weight savings of 50% in aero-engine components. • Detailed map of the process–structure– property relationships. followed now by subsequent activation and catalytic evaluation. for the catalytic material. with the support of market-oriented funding schemes. viscosity. • Catalytic products. Technical approach The overall approach involves two vertical research strands.Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification IMPRESS Problems addressed • Longer-lasting. like surface tension.
• Nanoscopic powder formation and agglomeration – Planning for sounding rocket module for flight in 2008. – UK QinetiQ Nanomaterials Ltd.int/impress/ 85 . • Considerable awareness with more than 40 internet articles. several magazine/ newspaper articles. Hydrogen fuel cell tested at Hydrocell (Finland) Project web-page http://www.und Werkstoffforschung – DE Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH – DE National University of Ireland – IE NPL Management Ltd.9 million Coordinator Dr.spaceflight. – ES Turbocoating S. – FI Ufa State Aviation Technical University – RU Universität Ulm – DE Universiteit Leiden – NL University of Leeds – UK University of Greenwich – UK University of Wales Swansea – UK University of Birmingham – UK Space experimentation performed onboard ESA sounding rockets Industrial Aspects • Key work packages coordinated by the commercial partners. – CH CEMEF-Armines – FR Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – FR Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas – ES CNR-IENI – IT Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. – UK Calcom ESI S.A. Materials Science and Engineering.V.A.esa. microgravity research.und Raumfahrt – DE Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne – CH Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung eV – DE Helsinki University of Technology – FI Hydrocell Ltd. – DE ALD-Vacuum Technologies AG – DE British Ceramic Research Ltd. ‘05) for both TiAlNb and various Ni-Al alloys using the electromagnetic levitation (EML) technique. interviews and a TV appearance. material supply chain. • Web based Virtual Institute established with educational resources such as on-line lectures. • Techno-economic assessment (Life Cycle and Cost-Benefit Analysis) to guide process selection and identify future concerns. – IT Tylite International Oy. including the economic viability of various industrial processes. In March ‘06 parabolic flights used to test hardware components and generate precursory results of nanopowder formation. David John Jarvis European Space Agency Directorate of Human Spaceflight Keplerlaan 1 NL-2200 AG Noordwijk The Netherlands Partners ACCESS e. – UK Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics – HU Rolls-Royce Plc. • Four training courses organised in gas atomisation. • Three patents granted in the area of alloy development and early prototypes produced in the form of Ni-based powders integrated into a commercial hydrogen fuel cell and a model hydrogenation reactor. The results used now as input data in the numerical models of intermetallic solidification processing.A. ‘05 and May ‘06) and sounding rockets (TEXUS. – FI INASMET Foundation Ltd. Duration 60 months Total cost € 41 million EC funding € 15. ensuring the successful steering of the project towards industrially relevant objectives from an early stage. Journal of Physics and Nature Materials. Nov. – UK Slovak Academy of Sciences – SK Tratamientos Superficiales Iontech S. Intermetallics. coating technology and TiAl casting technology. multimedia and useful links.INFORMATION Contract number 500635 Programme NMP Starting date 1st November 2004 Space Experimentation • Thermophysical properties measurements of liquid alloys performed on parabolic flights (Sept.p. Dissemination and Education • 29 peer-reviewed papers in conference proceedings and academic journals like Physical Review. recycling strategies and the overall environmental impact. – ES Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine – FR Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse – FR Institute of Structural and Macrokinetics & Materials Science – RU Institute of Chemical Problems for Microelectronics – RU Katholieke Universiteit Leuven – BE Krakow University of Mining and Metallurgy – PL Kungl Tekniska Högskolan – SE Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper.
• Testing of the fuel cell prototype and comparison of its performance with the system LSM/YSZ/Ni-Cermet at ~700°C. . • Developing synthetic procedures for fabrication of nano-architectured micro(meso-)porous electrodes (both cathodes and anodes) of catalystdoped oxide matrix by a templating approach as well as to investigate the influence of doping and surface nanoengineering of the electrodes on their working parameters. the following activities will be undertaken: • Development of synthesis methods for the electrolyte materials. 86 . morphology. as well as to design and prepare cells including: • Low cost. Nickel reduction Proposed solution Objectives The main scientific objective of the MatSILC project is to develop an alternative concept of SOFCs based on novel low cost silicate based electro-lytes. • Synthesis methods for nano-structured powders for graded electrodes and incorporation in electrodes for their activation. • Use of electrophoretic deposition for electrolyte and cathode preparation. • Elaboration of a novel design of fuel cells. Improve the ionic conductivity and stability of the electrolyte Increase electrocatalytic activity and conductivity at reduced costs.Novel Materials for Silicate-Based Fuel Cells MatSILC Problems addressed SOFC component Challenge to take up development Electrolyte development Use of low cost silicate based electrolytes.Electrocatalytic layers. • Analysis. focusing on H2 and/or methane fuel transformation on selected anodes. • Up-scaling. heat treatment. determination of the structure. Development of pure silicates or mixtures with mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Elaboration of surface nanoengineering approaches for catalyst impregnation Use of electrophoretic deposition for electrolyte and cathode preparation which results in high green densities. • Study of materials degradation. • Manufacture of prototype fuel cells based on the most promising amongst the aforementioned materials. Proper selection of composition. • Testing of the performance of complete fuel cell prototypes. Avoid inter-facial reactions during sintering Achieve stable operation for at least 1000h Identify the causes of the deterioration of the fuel cell performance with time Achieve stable operation for at least 1000h SOFC prototype Proper selection of materials and methods for the manufacturing of the prototype based on the detailed study of the electrochemical characteristics and of the compatibility of the SOFC components Upscaling of the prototype Selection of the methods for the manufacturing of the up scaled system based on the previous experience with the operation of the prototype and on the use of optimized methods for depo-sition of the electrode or electrolyte layers Technical approach To develop materials and complete cells. Electrode development Advanced design and synthesis of nanostructured silicate based electrolyte powders with high ionic conductivity resulting in reduced ohmic overpotential at the electrolyte. efficient silicate based electrolyte materials. including the use of catalytic interlayers and diffusion blocking nanolayers along grain boundaries (if necessary). The project partners intend to develop materials for the core components of a novel SOFC. . chemical and mechanical compatibility and aging mechanisms. morphology New micro(meso)porous electrode materials with high catalytic activity regarding oxygen reduction on the cathode and hydrogen oxidation on the anode. • Compatible electrodes: . physicochemical properties and electrical conductivity of the electrode and electrolyte materials and interfaces. • Synthesis methods for the various anode and cathode materials. • Up scaling of the fuel cell prototype by 1 order of magnitude. • Evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity of electrodes.Cathode based on silicates or with similar thermal expansion coefficients. based mainly on the information from half and complete cell testing. • Study in half-cells of the electrochemical performance of the various electrode/electrolyte systems.Anode cermets based on silicates without noble metals or MIEC based on silicates. and suitable processing technologies for the corresponding cell components. • Development of suitable processing technologies for cell preparation. and requires lower sintering temperatures Processing of components Overcome the problems of poor sinterability of the silicate electrolyte.
matsilc. Progress to date Project in negotiation phase. Project web-page http://www.U. the environment and in general the social life is expected to be positively revolutionary as it is expected to change our way of thinking and physical resources utilization for a self sustainable social development both in Europe and globally. The potential impact on the economy. Christos Argirusis Technische Universität Clausthal Institut für Metallurgie Robert-Koch-Strasse 42 DE-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany Partners Boreskov Institute of Catalysis – RU Ceramics and Refractories Technological Céramiques Techniques et Industrielles – FR Development Company – EL Foundation of Research and Technology – EL Grenzflächenforschung – DE K. Leuven Research and Development – BE Max-Planck-Institut für Kolloid.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Coordinator Dr.und Universidade de Aveiro – PT Expected impact MatSILC project aims to develop a highly efficient electrochemical system that will allow achieving substantial cost reductions and high efficiency compared to the stateof-the-art SOFCs.com Figure 1 – gives a graphical representation of the work packages and the work package leaders 87 .
In addition. liquid water production. species. momentum. backing layers and flow channels. • A large end-user performs experiments on a PEM fuel cell stack. However. which will enable them to develop betterperforming fuel cell-related products more efficiently. efficient and validated software-based tools for PEM fuel cell component and stack-designers PEMTOOL Problems addressed The heart of a typical PEM fuel cell. In order to be able to design and construct as cheap. as shown in Figure 1. in tandem with a coordinated experimental approach. • 2 RTD performers supply theoretical knowledge. efficient and reliable a PEM fuel cell as possible. • SMEs perform experiments on PEM fuel cells. it is often difficult to make measurements in the heart of a cell. and rapid numerical software. and output necessary for model validation. involving mass. automotive and stationary applications. • Theory is then programmed into software (Comsol Multiphysics). it is necessary to be able to understand qualitatively and predict quantitatively how it functions. there are electrochemical reactions. both to determine material input data necessary for modelling. experimental methods must be complemented by modelling. Objectives The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a promising alternative to traditional power sources for a wide range of portable. To do this more effectively. and one which develops numerical software. in the form of computer software. specify a list of primary issues of interest in PEM fuel cells. the actual situation is threedimensional and time-dependent. During operation. anode and cathode catalytic layers. Both of these depend principally on the design and properties of cell components and stacks that are developed by SMEs. Figure 1 – Heart of a PEM fuel cell 88 . which the validated models help to optimize. Technical approach The consortium consists of 7 partners from 3 countries. efficient and validated software tools. reductions in cost and improvements in both performance and reliability must both be achieved before mass commercialisation of PEM fuel cells can occur. heat and charge transfer. Ohmic heating and so on. This project aims to provide SMEs with novel. However. However. Understanding these interactions in order to design PEM fuel cells requires experimentallyvalidated mathematical modelling.Development of novel. consists of a polymer electrolyte membrane. efficient and validated modelling tools. a wide array of physical phenomena can occur. In addition. leading to lengthy model solution computation times. mathematical analysis. which is typically only a couple of millimeters across in total. The partners’ roles are as follows (see also Figure 2): • 3 SMEs whose core business involved the design and development of PEM fuel cells. will be use to develop novel.
net 89 .A. • Mathematical models for kinetic and transport phenomena and structure mechanics analysis have been derived. Progress to date • A common list of primary issues of interest has been established. – IT Volvo Technology Corporation – SE Figure 2 – PEMTOOL work structure Expected impact After 24 months from the start of the project. • Cut the cost of PEM fuel cell product development by 50-60%. there should exist efficient and validated software tools that can be used for optimising PEM fuel cell design and which lead to the following measurable achievements: • Accelerate the development cycle. – IT Fundacion INASMET – ES Hysytech S. • Improve PEM fuel cell performance by 30-50%. for PEM fuel cell product development by 50-60%.82 million Coordinator Dr.R.P.18 million EC funding € 0. in terms of time.pemtool. Project web-page www.INFORMATION Contract number 508341 Programme Horizontal Research Activities involving SMEs Starting date 31st May 2005 Duration 24 months Total cost € 1. • Key data on the material properties of PEM fuel cell components has been measured experimentally. Michael Vynnycky Kungl Tekniska Högskolan Osquars Backe 18 SE-100 44 Stockholm Sweden Partners Cellkraft AB – SE Comsol AB – SE Environment Park S.L.
components. Advanced testing procedures for lifetime prediction. Besides the materials development. and • Training and dissemination as a tool of human resource management and a contribution towards gender equality. • CO2 reduction/Sustainability of energy supply: Suitability for biogas and syngas from biomass gasification. • Minimisation of environmental impact: SOFC Life Cycle Inventory and Analysis. agreement on further progress and possible re-adjustment of working programme. and eventually lowering costs and improving industry competitiveness. operation temperature. Energy Efficient and Cost Effective SOFC Systems Real-SOFC Problems addressed • Understanding of aging of SOFC for industrial applications • Improved and new materials. Expected impact • Geometric volume. • Lifetime. • Lifetime verification: Lifetime models. • SOFC Testing Standards and System Integration Interface. compactness: high power density > 0. thermal cycling up to 100 cycles. Step 2: Communal review and assessment after 12 months. Durable. beginning of long-term testing (> 10 000 hrs. including long-term testing over 10. Following the state-of-the-art first testing campaign at the start of the project. the restrictions on industrial handling and recycling options for the materials used • Standardisation as a means of achieving comparability of results. 90 .000 h of operation at degradation <0.Realising Reliable. final testing (> 3000 hrs. current etc. Step 3: Communal review and assessment after 30 months. reliability. Step 1: Characterisation and collection of existing data for materials at the state-of-theart stage at the beginning of the project.5%/1000 hours. Technical approach The project aims at generating materials and components of two subsequent waves of improvements.) of Gen 3 components. agreement on further progress and possible re-adjustment of working programme. durability operation: 10.5%/1000 hrs at operating temperatures T 800°C. The modified materials then are used in: • Manufacturing of improved components under commercial conditions and subsequent characterisation in long-term and cycling tests – re-referring to step 1. This includes gaining full understanding of degradation processes. continuous development of new materials and access to analysis data by all project participants for review and inclusion in their component development. agreement on “Generation 2” standard “by definition” after 18 months. two further “feedback loops” are being performed for the second and third generation of cells and stacks. Sulphur tolerance > 10ppm. agreement on “Generation 3” standard “by definition” after 36 months. finding solutions to reduce ageing and producing improved materials that will then be tested in cells and stacks. cells and con-cepts for systems with increased dura-bility and performance • Manufacturing of cells and stacks • Standardisation of SOFCs and test methods • Environmental aspects of SOFC operation. These results will flow into: • Adaptation of materials and protective coatings in order to reduce ageing to well below 0. In close co-operation between industry and research institutions the following steps are to be accomplished: • Improved understanding of ageing phenomena in planar SOFC stacks considering all modes of operation.) on basis of Generation 2. Objectives The aim of the Integrated Project Real-SOFC is to work towards solving the generic problems of degradation with planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) in a concerted action of the European fuel cell industry and research institutions. high quality testing specimen. termed “Generation 2” and “3”. • Cost competitiveness: potential for stack costs < 2500 € /kW at 800°C. further continuous development of new materials as above. • High reproducibility of results: European Agreement on SOFC Quality Assurance.000 hours. the project addresses the topics of: • Assessment of the environmental impact. and the influences of fuel composition.6 W/cm2 cell area at 700°C.
V. • Re-definition of degradation to relate directly to physical properties of cells and stacks.0 million Coordinator Dr.real-sofc.und Vertriebsgesellschaft Brennstoffzelle mbH – DE Foundation for Research & Technology Hellas – EL Gaz de France – FR H. • Expansion of testing conditions in order to simulate operating conditions nearer to “real” SOFC system operation and induce higher damage on cells within the 3000 hour tests.INFORMATION Contract number 502612 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st February 2004 • Human resources: Joint training and high student (and staff) mobility in the fuel cell field. • Second year results on cathode. Robert Steinberger-Wilckens Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH DE-52425 Jülich Germany Partners Commisariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Starck GmbH – DE Hexis AG – CH HTceramix SA – CH Imperial College of Science. • Generation 2 prototypes tested and G2 stacks defined.und Raumfahrt e. electrolyte and anode materials induced a change in project planning and focussing on the most promising options achievable within the time frame.26 million EC funding € 9. all with protective coating.C. • Dissemination: International networking. • First long term test (>10 000 hours) on G2 initiated. • Gender equality: Equal opportunities regardless of sex.org 91 . Technology and Medecine – UK Plansee SE – AT Risø National Laboratory – DK Rolls Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd – UK Stiftelsen for industriell og teknisk forskning ved Norges – NO Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Technical Research Centre of Finland – FI Testing and Research – CH Topsøe Fuel Cells A/S – DK Ugine-Alz (Groupe Arcelor) – FR University of Birmingham – UK University of Chemical Technology & Metallurgy – BG Università di Genova – IT University of St Andrews – UK Wärtsilä Corporation – FI Progress to date • Conclusion of state of the art baseline testing. • Choice of interconnect steels reduced to three candidate materials. Duration 48 months Total cost € 18. Project web-page http://www. • Generation 3 prototype testing has begun. religion and origin. – DE Electricité de France – FR ENERGOPROECT AD – BG Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL Entwicklungs.
The project comprises three phases. Whilst the degradation rate of virtually all stack components is assumed to be considerably reduced by the lower operating temperature. stack-sealing options for low temperature SOFC operation are addressed. sensors. Fine grained. generally require complicated and thereby expensive construction solutions. actuators etc. • Reduced magnitude of phenomena related to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients of cell and stack components. repeating units and (short) stacks is executed in Work package 5. The operating temperature of the SOFC system is an important parameter determining both aspects. • Decreased Cr evaporation and deposition in the cathode. Besides expensive materials. • Lower contribution to the degradation rate of the repeating unit because of the decreased corrosion rate of the interconnect materials. rotating equipment. This WP is subdivided in four tasks. applying test procedures defined in the FCTESTnet project. especially metal-based compressive seals. which is active during the first 18 months. electrolyte and cathode and the integration of the components into cells. In Work package 3. Furthermore the currently high operating temperature (around 800°C) of SOFC systems necessitates the application of expensive high temperature steels for SOFC stacks and balance of plant (BOP) components.Demonstration of SOFC stack technology for operation at 600°C SOFC600 Problems addressed The main barriers for the introduction of SOFC based systems for combined heat and power generation and auxiliary power for transport applications are the lifetime of stacks and costs of systems. and these will be slowed down significantly by decreasing the operating temperature. Work package 2 works on the selection and development of combinations of interconnect materials and contact coatings. Finally. the best available state-of-the-art cells and 92 . stability of phases and mutual reactivity of components. anode. Technical approach: The project is subdivided in seven work packages: Work package 1 comprises all the cell development activities. Degradation mechanisms that limit lifetime are generally thermally activated like sintering of electrodes. In phase 1. for systems that can meet commercial lifetime and cost requirements. Objectives The project aims to develop Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack components for operation in the temperature interval between 550 and 650°C. on the three specific cell components. • Facilitate the use of cheaper commercially available steels and simplified construction of BOP components. • Facilitate additional options for stack seals. in close cooperation with such activities in the RealSOFC project. Reducing the operating temperature of SOFC stacks and systems offers the following advantages: • Decreased rate of thermally activated degradation mechanisms of the cell components. The evaluation of cells. Work package 6 will deal with all communication. the major challenge for the project will be the development of components that equal the performance of state-of-the-art components at 800°C. hence reducing costs. supporting the cell component and contact coating developments. possibly nano-sized powders are developed and manufactured in Work package 4. dissemination and training issues.
e. endurance and thermal and redox cycling resistance. will focus on the development of components for internal reforming of natural gas. Project web-page www. this project also takes a generic approach in solving these. It is anticipated that an operating temperature around 600°C. Phase 2 runs the full duration of the project.eu Progress to date Due to the recent start of the project no significant results can be reported at this stage. Because the functionality and cost issues are generic for all envisaged applications.5 million Coordinator Bert Rietveld Energy research Centre of the Netherlands Westerduinweg 3 NL-1755 LE Petten The Netherlands Partners Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – FR Chinese Academy of Sciences – CHN Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH – DE HTceramix SA – CH National Research Council of Canada – CA Nuevas Tecnologias para la Distribución Activa de la Energía – ES Risø National Laboratory – DK Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research – CH The Imperial College of Science. Main targets for this phase are related to performance. hydrogen and reformate compositions. preventing carbon deposition and sulphur tolerance. This phase addresses the development of components operated on relatively easy fuels.INFORMATION Contract number 020089 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st March 2006 Duration 48 months Total cost € 11. The results will therefore facilitate progress towards deployment of SOFC based systems for small and large-scale stationary power generation as well as auxiliary power supplies for transport applications. 93 . with targets related to reforming catalysis of the anode. the development of advanced components.sofc600.48 million EC funding € 6. Phase 3. will alleviate many of the functional problems that caused stack failures in the past and will facilitate the use of significantly cheaper materials for stacks and systems and therefore significantly increase the feasibility of commercial product targets. Technology and Medecine – UK Topsøe Fuel Cells A/S – DK University Court of the University of St Andrews – UK Universität Karlsruhe – DE Universität Leoben – AT Expected impact components of the cell manufacturers will be evaluated for setting the reference and for determining the relative contributions of the components to the losses within the repeating unit. i. In a wider context the project will assist considerably in the establishment of the envisaged renewable hydrogen and fuel cell based society.
electrolyte. provides SOFC testing Validates the stack performance in their own systems Thermal spray expert INASMET (INASMET Foundation) FZJ (JUELICH Research Centre GmbH) Expert in SOFC and ceramic powders 94 .L) FUCELLCO (FUCELLCO AG) CTI (Céramiques Techniques Industrielles) FC (FUELCON AG) TMQ (TELEMAQ) Role in the Consortium Coordinator. These cycles require carefully controlled conditions during several hours. Both of these hurdles combine to impede the commercialisation of SOFC technology. due to the need for long thermal cycles in order to process the individual cell components adequately. SOFCs could be used in large.Development of Low Temperature Cost Effective Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFCSPRAY Problems addressed There are two main challenges related to SOFC technology. Some Technical approach The partners of this project come from various fields and are strongly relevant for the success of SOFCSPRAY: Contractor NTDA (Nuevas Tecnologías para la Distribución Activa de Energia S. which holds great promise for highly efficient generation of heat and power. cell interconnect) will be produced mostly by HFPD spraying and APS and will incorporate new materials that will enable a lower temperature of operation (<700ºC). The consortium is well balanced because all partners contribute to different aspects of the research and in particular many SMEs will be the primary beneficiaries of the research. high power applications including industrial and large-scale central electricity generation stations. produces SOFC cathode and anode Expert in testing of SOFC. All the partners are involved in the development and characterization of the new fuel cells and stacks. Expected impact Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) enable the direct conversion of the chemical energy of hydrocarbons into electricity and are drawing increasing interest as a power generation system. develops and industrializes SOFC Manufacturer of stacks. The elements (anode. Standard SOFCs operate at temperatures between 900-1000ºC. The second is related to the manufacturing costs of current SOFCs. cathode. The first refers to the need to lower the operating temperature in order to improve durability. manufactures the stacks Manufacturer of the technical porous ceramic. Objectives The main objectives of the project are: • Reduction of the working temperatures of planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) from 1000-800ºC to 650-700ºC • Reduction of manufacturing costs by 50 % by using new powders and advanced thermal spraying techniques. They possess high power generation efficiency of up to 70%.
To date there has been no successful result achieved for CGO powders.61 million Coordinator Ms. product quality and suitability of the supplier. Some modifications of the thermal spray gun were carried out to improve the process ability of the CGO powders by HFPD spraying. A test rig for cell and stack testing has been designed and installed. Work has also concentrated on the development of the electrolyte. The test rig geometry is the one of the system. • This project contributes to the long-term progressive development of fuel cell co-generation systems by increasing the quality and efficiency of SOFC and by reducing their costs.com • • • • Progress to date • Work has been performed on industrial applications selection. The design is based on the Fucellco fuel cell system. The proposed activity contributes to the implementation of EU policies in several fields: • The SOFCSPRAY project acts toward the European Directive on National Emissions Ceilings (NECD) 1 to reach 2010 targets for the NOx and SO2. Fuel cells in general. Furthermore. • In SOFCSPRAY. The LSCF cathode slurry was prepared and specific tests were executed to lay the slurry on disk (painting). • Data on the materials for fabrication of the coatings have been collected to define the 1 2 COM(1999) 125-1 final COM(2000) 769 final 95 . as well as for their the flow and feed ability of the powders. fuel cell system design and optimisation as well as fuel cell system specification and stack specification. results to be delivered soon. and in achieving the emissions reduction targets outlined in the Kyoto protocol.INFORMATION Contract number 508266 Programme Horizontal Research Activities involving SMEs Starting date 13 April 2005 developers also see potential for SOFC use in motor vehicles and are developing fuel cell auxiliary power units. it was decided to employ the HFPD and APS processes instead of the proposed HVOF and MPS processes. Furthermore. heat management and gas distribution devices. assisted by this project in particular can play a major role in this increasing sector. This will lead to the diminution of CO2 emissions in Europe. The project objectives correspond to the green paper “Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply”. Further optimization will probably be needed.5 kW stacks for urban light electric vehicles and as power sources for professional tools (agricultural applications). pending test results on button cells. potential suppliers have been investigated on costs.sofcspray. leading to highly dense and hard electrolyte layers. Work has also been done on the test system for the methanol reformer. as well as developed an engineering approach on stack cells due to the optimization of the coating procedure for stack cells. Duration 24 months Total cost € 1. The process parameters have been successfully optimized for all delivered ScSZ powders. Current installations allow single cell testing with hydrogen or reformed methanol. button cells have been prepared. • The tendency towards decentralized electricity production in Europe is reinforced by increasing regulations requiring the use of waste heat produced through electricity production. The electrolyte layers by HFPD spraying have been successfully developed. In addition. the powders have been tested for performance. Marta González Eguizábal NTDA Energía ES-46022 Valencia Spain Partners Céramiques Techniques et Industrielles – FR Forschunngszentrum Jülich GmbH – DE Fucellco AG – CH Fuelcon AG – DE Inasmet Foundation – ES Telemaq – FR • • • Project web-page www. Following the latest results in this field. • SOFCSPRAY contributes directly to a reduction of European energetic dependence.18 million EC funding € 0. end-user (TELEMAQ) intends to use new cost effective SOFC 1. 2 • powders to be used.
A long term test at a commercial gasification site will demonstrate the selected gas cleaning technologies in order to verify the specifications obtained from the gasification tests. The results will be used for the development. Hence the first part of the project will focus on the investigation of the impact of pollutants on the degradation and performance characteristics of SOFC fuel cells in order to specify the requirements for appropriate gas cleaning system. However. In warmer climates and for applications with little heat demand. They operate with exhaust gas temperatures between 800°C and 1000°C and are able to convert not only hydrogen but also carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. These tests will be performed at four existing gasification sites. even within a power range of few tens or hundreds of kW. • The system integration has to achieve efficiencies of at least 40 – 50 percent even within a power range of few tens or hundreds of kW in order to achieve a cost target of 0. high system efficiencies are needed as little or no revenue can be realized for a heat product. Fuel cells are an attractive option for distributed generation from biomass and agricultural residues. The BioCellus project addresses in particular these two aims – the investigation of the pollutants impact on the fuel cell and the development and demonstration of an integrated fuel cell system which meets the special requirements of biofuels. This so-called TopCycle concept promises electrical efficiencies of above 50 percent even for small-scale systems without any combined processes. Expected impact Technical approach The Biocellus Project addresses the two outstanding challenges outlined above. which will especially match the particular requirements of fuel cell systems for the conversion of biomass feedstock. In addition. applicable gasification technologies. This reduces the fuel cell efficiency and the physical limitation of the cold gas efficiency of any gasification system.Biomass Fuel Cell Utility System BIOCELLUS Problems addressed Biomass energy systems need to be highly efficient at a small-scale to achieve cost effective solutions for decentralized generation. the main challenge of the conversion of biogenous fuel gas is to achieve the required efficiency of the fuel cell system. which represent the most common and The main three results of the project will be: • Identification of the performance characteristics of SOFC membranes (“polarization curves”: cell voltage with respect to the current density) for different gas compositions and varying operational conditions. Internal cooling of the stack and the recirculation of waste heat increases the system efficiency significantly. Thus the system performance and the thermal integration of the gasification process is of particular importance. Common biomass fuel cell systems with realistic boundary conditions will hardly reach efficiencies above 30% due to the low hydrogen and methane content of biogenous fuel gases. the project will investigate the requirements for the 96 . The TopCycle concept can achieve system efficiencies of at least 40-50%. even if the fuel gas matches the strict requirements of SOFC membranes. Measuring the cell voltage and its degradation under realistic conditions is necessary for a reliable estimation of the fuel cell efficiency. installation and testing of an innovative SOFC – Gasification concept.05 €/kW. Due to their robustness Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are especially suited to the use of gaseous fuels from biomass. The innovative concept involves heating an allothermal gasifier with the exhaust heat of the fuel cell by means of liquid metal heat pipes. Objectives Fuel cell systems for biomass have to meet at least two outstanding challenges: • Fuel cell materials and the gas cleaning technologies have to treat high dust loads of the fuel gas and gas pollutants like tars alkalines and heavy metals.
• The project will accomplish the design and demonstration of an appropriate gas cleaning concept. An innovative stack design which implements the TopCycle concept. This will be measured and evaluated by means of a detailed cost analysis based on the chosen system design. which matches the severe requirements of SOFC systems.INFORMATION Contract number 502759 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st July 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 3. In order to perform these tests at the gasifiers. has been devised for planar and tubular fuel cells. the longest lasting 168 hours.5 million Coordinator Dr. The pre-reforming can be bypassed in order to examine the effects of higher hydrocarbons on the performance of SOFCs. tests at three different gasifiers have been carried out. Karl TU München Lehrstuhl für Energiesysteme Boltzmannstrasse 15 DE-74758 Garching Germany Partners gas conditioning system and the economic assessment of upcoming SOFC concepts based on biomass feedstock. which avoids carbon deposition. The two concepts will be tested by initially building short prototype stacks. one for planar and one for tubular SOFCs. as no degradation was observed during the 24 hour testing. two fixed bed and one fluidized bed gasifier. the consortium will choose the most promising concept to be realized through a 5kW stack. At all gasifiers.de Progress to date In order to characterize the performance of SOFC membranes with different gas compositions and varying operational conditions two test rigs have been designed and built. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – EL COWI – DK DM2 GmbH – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL HTM Reetz GmbH – DE Institut für Wärmetechnik – TU Graz – AT iT Consult – DE MAB Anlagenbau – AT National Technical University Athens – EL Prototech – NO Siemens – DE Technical University of Denmark – DK TU Delft – NL Universität Stuttgart – IKE – DE University Lubljana – Powder technology – SL Project web-page www. • The project will achieve design and demonstration of an innovative stack and system design (internal stack cooling by means of heatpipes) which meets the special requirements of highly efficient fuel cell systems with integrated gasification of biomass and wastes. with its high efficiencies by means of heatpipes. degradation of the membranes was observed during short term testing. no 97 . particle removal and pre-reforming. J. It will be further improved and adapted for the long term testing at a commercial gasification site. The gas cleaning device has proved its functionality and reliability during the tests at the different gasifiers. These two designs achieve an effective heat transfer from the stack towards the gasifier and an isothermal temperature distribution within the stack. The testing will be continued at one other gasifier with different testing parameters. With the help of these test rigs preliminary tests using synthetic wood gas have been carried out in order to identify degradation processes with gas mixtures of hydrocarbons. After the successful testing with synthetic gases.36 million EC funding € 2.-Ing. After this.biocellus. a gas cleaning device has been designed and built which comprises desulphurization.
delivering a small power energy generator. and targets high replicability as a main aspect. all purpose applications. but is combined with all the components required to make its application flexible. Technical approach FEMAG proposes to develop a product which is based on Fuel Cells.125 to 1 kW based on the integration of PEMFC with complementary power ancillaries • Develop symbiotic hybrid modes to effectively meet the varying load requirements of each specific application at the lowest cost and the most responsive operating mode • Identify adequate set of components for such systems (batteries. Experimental design is a very powerful and comprehensive methodology.Flexible Ecological Multipurpose Advanced Generator FEMAG Problems addressed Fuel Cells based systems have the potential to replace. It is very useful in the investigation of several aspects in the course of knowledge acquisition from experimental data. operating in a symbiotic hybrid mode to effectively meet the varying load requirements of each specific application at the lowest cost and the most responsive operating mode. for flexible supply at variable power of small portable non-automotive devices. every battery powered electric system. entrusting to backup batteries and ultra-capacitors the supply of power transients. 98 . in principle. In addition. The aggregated FEMAG generator will be designed around the criteria of minimising fuel cell rated power.125 to 1 kW • Deliver a low-end (250W) prototype demonstrative generator powering a wheelchair for people with disabilities • Deliver a high-end (1 kW) prototype demonstrative generator powering an industrial AGV. fuel cells need to be combined with battery storage and ultra capacitors. For generic. Objectives FEMAG intends to explore the optimised integration of components and power aggregates. and exploits experimental design to set up rigorous testing activities. ultra-capacitors and controllers) • Certify the boundary conditions within which such systems are able to operate reliably • Develop and demonstrate and advanced expert system for the design of complex generators based on FCs in the range of 0. Expected impact The expected outcomes of the FEMAG project are the following: • Define and test suitable design configurations for power systems in the range from 0. extending its life. This will be based on the integration of a fuel cell with a battery pack and supercapacitors. FEMAG methodology is based on the integration of commercial and pre-commercial devices and components. but also relative peaks of consumption of associated machines. and put the cell in the condition to work only at fixed power output. within utilisation profiles prefixed at the design stage. they can also be applied in many more applications currently impossible for battery powered systems for reasons of autonomy and therefore presently performed by internal combustion engines. The project involves both experimental and computational optimisation of aggregated systems. allowing the project team to plan and carry out experiments in such a way that maximum possible information is gained. simple and able to satisfy not only a base power consumption. Design criteria will be incorporated into an expert system for the design of aggregated generators basing on boundary utilisation profiles.
and the outcomes of the project.59 million Coordinator Alfredo Picano LABOR S. autonomy. A further integration of the generators in the proposed demonstrators (AGV and wheelchair) is foreseen in the next few months.r.labor-eu. – PL TU Graz – AT Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata – IT Project web-page www. but is used to generate virtual experiments that integrate the different set of components. with a proper sizing of the main components.INFORMATION Contract number 508119 Programme Horizontal Research Activities involving SMEs Starting date 15th September 2004 Prototypes are being built and will be tested. The experimental design technique has to be used to generate the maximum knowledge with the minimum effort. super-capacitors. from a technical standpoint.o. The Simulink model is yet to be extensively validated. The consortium has performed extensive market surveys regarding fuel cells. Several units have been identified as suitable for the scope of the project and have been selected for prototyping different versions of the FEMAG generator. exploiting the power available from different sources.l – IT Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E – IT Enertron GmbH – DE IBE Ingenieria Bioenergetica S.L. batteries. Via Giacomo Peroni 386 c/o Tecnopolo Tiburtino IT-00131 Roma Italy Partners AGT S. and metal hydride tanks for hydrogen storage during the first year of the project. are satisfactory and consistent with the expected achievements.l. A controller that couples the super-capacitors pack and the FC. Duration 24 months Total cost € 1. initially in the laboratory environment. has been designed and a suitable symbiotic model has been developed and implemented inside the coupling devices. The results expected by the contemporary application of this technique will lead the consortium to an optimization tool able to match the project requirements (costs.net 99 .06 million EC funding € 0. A comprehensive Simulink-Matlab model has been developed as a pre-requisite for the expert system design.o. Progress to date The work performed in the framework of the FEMAG project has generally followed the path outlined in the proposal. The next test sessions will lead to a validation of the SimulinkMatlab model that will then be used as a virtual knowledge generator. performance). – ES Molecular Networks GmbH – DE Nouva Fima – IT SZWED sp.r.
• No de-ionized water management will be needed. but also on liquid fuels (diesel like heating oil. Objectives The overall objective of the FlameSOFC project is the development of an innovative SOFCbased micro-CHP system capable to operate with different fuels and fulfilling all technological and market requirements at a European level. The target nominal net electrical output is 2 kWe (stack electrical output ca. Figure 1 100 . • Multi-fuel feedstock is enabled.Fuel Flexible. Modular. the SOFC stack with power electronics and the BoP section. As the fuel has to be in the gas phase when entering the reformer. which is expected to represent the future mainstream high volume mass market for micro-CHPs. industrial gas oil (IGO) and renewables. like FAME).5 kW). implying formidable challenges. The main focus concerning the multifuel flexibility lies on different natural gas qualities and LPG. • Up-scalable and potentially low-cost SOFC technology is applied. The proposed solution will incorporate the following: • No sensitive catalysts are used for the fuel processing. and Electrically Integrated SOFC-System FlameSOFC Problems addressed The overall proposed technological solution is significantly simpler and innovative in comparison to existing practice. Technical approach The proposed system will generate electrical power from a range of gaseous and liquid fuels. liquid fuels will be vapor-ized in a cool flame unit (Figure 2) and reformed in a TPOX catalyst-free reformer based on a porous ceramic structure (Figure 3). enabling an exceptionally long durability. 2. In both cases the fuels will be desulphurized at the system entrance. Air-regulated. The overall system is split up into three main sections: the fuel processing stage. Any soot produced will be trapped in a tailored SiC wall-flow monolith prior to feed of a planar SOFC module (Figure 1). • The large operational windows of the individual components and the additional operational safety given by the soot trap yield a robust non-sensitive design.
INFORMATION Contract number 019875 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st October 2005 Expected impact The project is divided in three subsequent phases: • Definition of specifications. LPG. Coop.26 million EC funding € 7. Technology and Medicine – UK Instituto Superior Técnico – PT Merloni TermoSanitari SpA – IT National Technical University of Athens – EL Öl-Wärme-Institut GmbH – DE PMC Porous Media Combustion GmbH – DE Politecnico di Torino – IT Stobbe Tech Ceramics ApS – DK TU Bergakademie Freiberg – DE Progress to date The project just started recently. In order to achieve a fast market impact of the FlameSOFC micro-CHP unit the main scientific.org Figure 2 Figure 3 101 . Jürgen Valldorf VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH Rheinstrasse 10B DE-14513 Tettow Germany Partners Budapest University of Technology and Economics – HU EBZ Entwicklungs.000 h • Overall micro-CHP unit target costs of <1950 € (for series production >20. Ltda. • System evaluation/demonstration (months 37-48). heating oil and FAME representing all major European feedstocks including renewables at the domestic level • Start-up time: < 60 minutes • Long term durability of >30. biogas. • Full-scale system prototype development (months 19-36).000 pieces per year).und Vertriebsgesellschaft Brennstoffzelle mbH – DE EC BREC Instytut Energetyki Odnawialnej – PL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne – CH ELCO Shared Services GmbH – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL Fagor Electrodomesticos S.5 million Coordinator Dr.flamesofc. Project web-page www. Specifications and system architecture have been defined and the project has entered the component development phase. technological and cost achievements expected may be summarized as follows: • Net electrical power of >2 kW with a 4:1 turndown ratio • Overall electrical efficiency >30% • Total CHP efficiency >90% • 2 tons annual CO2 reduction per unit (compared to condensing boiler and European electricity mix) • Fuels: natural gas. components development and lab-scale integration (months 0-18). Duration 48 months Total cost € 12. – ES Friedrich-Alexander-Universität ErlangenNürnberg – DE HTceramix SA – CH Ikerlan – Technological Research Centre – ES Imperial College of Science.
According to these specifications. Technical approach The technical idea of this project is to design an upscalable char bed that can be integrated into existing gasifiers in order to reduce tar concentrations to a level low enough to avoid tar-related problems in an SOFC-system.SOFC Fuel Cell Fuelled by Biomass Gasification Gas GREEN-FUEL-CELL Problems addressed The resulting challenge is to prepare a basic design for a full-scale (1-50 MWth) innovative gasifier and gas treatment system for integrated biomass gasification SOFC systems with the following expectations: • Tar content of the gas < 10 mg tar/ Nm3 gas. downstream of the gasifier. Objectives The project aims at developing an innovative biomass-to-electricity concept with high electric efficiency based on SOFC-technology combined with gasification process. The main objective is thus to produce a gas suitable for SOFC application through reliable. The overall technical objective is to develop a tar decomposition and gas cleaning system that can be integrated to biomass gasifiers. Indeed. • Cold gas efficiency > 85% for the whole gasification process • Carbon conversion > 99% • Minimal process waste streams and by-products so as to reduce the environmental impact of the waste from the gasifier and the operational cost. 2 different char-bed systems (with or without bed material) are being developed and tested at laboratory and pilot scale. for at least 100 hours each. Figure 1 – Units of the system and the associated work packages 102 . with less environmental problems from streams containing tars or char. char has been proven to be suitable as catalytic agent for the reduction of tar concentration at high temperatures (900°C or higher). In addition. A specific and more fundamental task aims at better understanding tar formation and their destruction in char beds in order to minimize the tar content in the gas. the performance of a SOFC is investigated in relation to the presence of organic compounds (representing tars) and inorganic impurities in the feed gas in order to determine the required gas specification for its possible utilization in a SOFC. upscalable and cost-effective staged gasification of biomass. a complete train of dry gas cleaning system. Two new designed up-scalable staged gasifiers are being developed. Finally a long term testing of two complete integrated gasification-fuel cell stacks plants will be performed on woody biomass. integrating tar removal technologies based on char beds. The advantages of both designs will be further evaluated and compared. will be implemented and the operation parameters will be identified.
• An analytical quantitative protocol with a SPME method is under development at CEA. • Lab-scale experiments have been conducted at DTU to characterize char in terms of residual tar release. A pilot gasifier including a hot char bed has been designed and constructed at TKE. • Experiments are in progress at RISØ and CIRAD to study tar destruction in char beds. Inorganics behaviour and modelling Thermodynamic calculations were performed by CEA to evaluate the composition of syngas at equilibrium. Gas cleaning system A dry gas cleaning system is currently being designed in order to reduce the levels of particles.INFORMATION Contract number 503122 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st September 2004 Expected impact The two suggested concepts are innovative gasification technologies. various applications can be considered including fuel synthesis. A comparison with char obtained on a pilot-scale pyrolysis unit at CIRAD is in progress. the work was devoted to the following activities: Char bed gasification The two different designs are in progress of development by TKE and the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands.dk 103 . This is of importance for corrosion risks evaluation and also for gas cleaning strategy.force. the sensitivity of a single SOFC was investigated with respect to organic compounds with synthetic pre-mixed gases.17 million EC funding € 3. As the gas produced is expected to be a clean gas with very low tar content and because appropriate dry clean system will solve inorganic contamination. SOFC vs pollutants So far. the range of temperature where condensation occurs is determined for each species. Tar research The activities are carried out to gain knowledge on tar formation and destruction in char beds. The facility aiming at studying the influence of inorganic pollutants on SOFC material is almost ready for experiments at CEA. 3 gas cleaning trains (2 lab scales and 1 pilot scale) are going to be dimensioned and built.0 million Coordinator Dr Philippe Girard Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement TA 10/16 FR-34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 France Partners Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL FORCE Technology – DK Institute of Chemical Technology – CZ Risø – DK Technical University of Denmark – DK TK Energi AS – DK Progress to date During the first 18 months of the project. Duration 36 months Total cost € 5. S-compounds. the origin of char. In both cases. The achievement within the project will be the two fuel cells coupled to gasifiers for at least 100 hours each. which enable an efficient conversion of biomass into a tar free gas product. At RISØ. Cl-compounds and alkali to a level acceptable by the SOFC. cold models have been built and led to experimental data useful to the design and construction of hot lab-scale pilots which are currently being or have been tested. which are reformed. Toluene is reformed but induces a degradation of the cell due to carbon deposition. • The partial oxidation mechanisms of tar destruction are being investigated at DTU. experiments with isotopes labelled compounds aim at determining the mechanisms of irreversible binding. There was no impact of C2H2 and C2H4. taking into account the conditions of gasification. ICT has constructed the facility and performed experiments to test the efficiency of sorbents that will be used. mainly with regards to HCl and H2S. This degradation might be decreased or avoided by increasing the H2O content and/or limiting the maximum allowable concentration of the organic compounds. For condensable species in the gas. Naphtalene creates a sharp and irreversible degradation. with regards to the nature of tars and Project web-page http://gfc.
and security cameras. The aimed electrical characteristics are 40 A. Fuel cells are clean technology with low emission levels and could mainly work on the basis of renewable fuels. the membrane electrode assembly. The DMFC design is based on an overall system modelling design and control carried out by POLITO together with CRF. followed by mobile and stationary fuel cells. mostly wood) in large scale. cellulosic material. The project goal is the development of a market competitive compact portable fuel cell. In this sense it will also help to meet the targets of the Kyoto Protocol. Methodologies for tests have been developed by CRF together with IMM and NFCT.e. JM and CNR are also developing 104 . Anode catalysts for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation with enhanced activity and cathode catalysts with improved alcohol tolerance than the platinum black materials have to be developed. • New catalyst for the cathode with enhanced oxygen reduction activity and decreased adsorption of carbon monoxide. The application of nanotechnology and the examination of new compositions of transition metals are tools to achieve the goals. The construction of the DMFC is the task of IMM. • Optimised structure of the electro-catalyst and electrode for efficient operation at low temperatures with practical flows and pressures. NFCT and NFCC basing on the chemical/electrochemical reaction description. signal units. • Optimised.Compact Direct (M)Ethanol Fuel Cell for Portable Application MOREPOWER Problems addressed The effective operation at this low temperature is particularly challenging and can be achieved by the development of: • New low-cost proton exchange membranes with reduced fuel crossover.5 V (maximum power 500 W) with a single cell performance of 0. Catalyst and MEA development is carried out by JM and CNR. APU’s. Objectives The objective of the MOREPOWER project is the development of a low cost. Their utilisation in fuel cells will contribute to replace conventional power systems which work on fossil fuels or electrochemical batteries and will lead to reduced CO2 emissions. gas sensors. GKSS is also developing new inorganic modifications for further improvement of the proton conducting materials. Expected impact Portable fuel cells are assumed to be the first to have an established market. low temperature portable direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) device of compact construction and modular design. medical devices. simplified and miniaturised design of the DMFC device. 12. suitable for devices such as weather stations. Here the fuel cell will ensure a much longer power autonomy and will enable the use of different devices even in remote areas.2A/cm2 at 30-60°C in atmospheric pressure air. • New electro-catalyst materials with enhanced low temperature (m)ethanol electro-oxidation activity of the anode. Methanol and ethanol can be produced from biomass (i.5V/cell at 0. Technical approach The development of new polymer electrolyte materials is the task of GKSS and Solvay.
The “Morgane® N100-40V” has been selected for the 500W demonstration stack of the project. • GKSS has focused on the inorganic modification of a membrane supplied by Solvay with low cross-linking level (CDS100). 60% Pt. Therefore there is no limitation for the MEA scaling up. 60% Pt.5% Cu/C and 60% Pt. Suzana Pereira Nunes GKSS Forschungszentrum Institute of Polymer Research Max-Planck-Strasse 1 DE-21502 Geesthacht Germany Partners Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l’Energia Nicola Giordano – IT Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz – DE Johnson Matthey – UK Nedstack Components – NL Nedstack Fuel Cell Technology – NL Politecnico di Torino – IT Solvay SA – BE Progress to date • Solvay and GKSS have developed new proton exchange membranes. namely a cold start heater. A maximum power density of about 90 mW/cm2 in the presence of PtRu (1:1)/C (2. the colloidal procedure was followed by an impregnation step. • SOLVAY has pursued its efforts on membrane optimization exploiting its radio-chemically grafting technology. • MEA fabrication was also carried out by JM and CNR. • A colloidal preparation procedure was developed by the CNR-ITAE for the preparation of the anode and cathode catalysts. Two membrane prototypes have been scaled up to semi-industrial reactor. a humidity-heat exchanger. MEA’s have now been tested and the cathode performance with a low loaded carbon supported catalyst was similar to that of Pt black on air. • IMM has designed. a radiator and a catalytic afterburner.5% Co/C catalysts were produced within the project with optimised morphological properties to mitigate the effects of methanol crossover (mixed potential at the cathode). • Significant progress has been made over the last six months to control the diffusion properties of the catalyst layer within the MEA.INFORMATION Contract number 502652 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st February 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 3.5% Fe/C. built and has finished most of the testing of the first generation prototype devices originally planned for the liquid management system of the MOREPOWER fuel cell.93 million EC funding € 2.g. These materials offered a 75% reduction of Pt content and similar intrinsic activity to Pt black whilst running on pure oxygen. manufactured and tested by CRF. The large area single cell results obtained by Nedstack were quite similar to those obtained for the small single cells.de/mpower. • At JM a series of new Pt catalysts have been developed with the aim of tailoring the catalyst/support specifically for DMFC operation. The device is based on the electro-oxidation of MeOH under limiting current conditions. Project web-page http://morepower. 85% Pt-Ru (1:1)/C bifunctional catalysts were prepared and optimised in terms of morphological and physico-chemical properties.15 million Coordinator Dr.2 nm particle size) and PtFe/C catalyst was achieved. • The MEA performance is also dependant on the flow distribution. For the oxygen reduction process.gkss. In the latter case. with methanol crossover rate significantly lower than that of currently available materials (e. For the anode. • An electrochemical sensor for detecting the MeOH concentration in aqueous solution was conceived. a gasliquid separator. inorganic modification of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketones) and the development of new functionalized fillers. Nafion).html 105 .
Fuel Cell System. in addition.g. blowers. The High Temperature technology allows significant system simplification and requires different operating conditions. In FP5 Vaillant. The mechanical robustness of the MEA needs to be improved to meet the requirements of stationary applications. such as a Fuel Cell microCHP system for the European market as well as combination with components (e. components development and integration will lead to a developed and tested 5 kW HT PEM fuel cell prototype microCHP system with modular design for global markets. pumps. NextGenCell will address specific objectives for the US application as well. The market Objectives NextGenCell’s objectives are the development and testing of a 1-5 kW High Temperature PEM fuel cell prototype microCHP system with modular design for a global market perspective. The High Temperature Fuel Cell System must be integrated with CHP system components to complete the NextGenCell microCHP system. R&D on MEA. such as fuel processor. The Fuel Cell System is a subassembly of the NextGenCell system and includes the HT Fuel Cell stack as well as all components necessary to operate it. The overall CHP controller (Energy Manager) has to be improved to achieve robust system operation in existing hydraulic systems and scalability for different target applications. The modular system design of the Fuel Cell System will enable easy development of point products for different market applications. and other European partners have successfully demonstrated low temperature PEM fuel cell microCHP systems.The Next Generation of Stationary microCHP Fuel Cells NextGenCell Problems addressed Designed as a joint EU and US collaborative effort within the framework of the EU-US Cooperation Agreement on fuel cells. the MEA’s have to be adapted to the operational cycles and the conditions of stationary. which will be addressed in the NextGenCell project. inverters. NextGenCell aims to take the next step towards commercialisation for domestic fuel cell microCHP systems. 106 . Plug Power. controls) for the Japanese or US market. Development of the CHP system will concentrate on low cost component development and system integration. Three major hurdles were identified: • Costs must be reduced significantly • Reliability must be improved via system simplification • System temperature must be increased. valves and a Fuel Cell System controller. residential applications. High Temperature (HT) PEM MEA technology at 160-180°C has the potential to overcome those hurdles.
The work will be carried out by 7 European and 2 US partners. Progress to date Project under negotiation 107 .INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Alexander Dauensteiner Vaillant GmbH Berghauser Strasse 40 DE-42859 Remschein Germany Partners Bulgarian Academy of Science – BG Domel Elektromotorji in gospodinjski aparati – SL Gaia Group Oy – FI Imperial Colle of Science. which will be integrated into a sustainable energy system designed for different market applications based on a modular system design. but the value proposition for the end-users is different to Europe. 10-15 kW. The exploration of different applications may drive the system design for the US to a larger Fuel Cell System. with the same technologies adopted to meet the requirements. Technical approach NextGenCell is designed as a joint EU and US collaborative effort within the framework of the existing EU-US Cooperation Agreement on fuel cells. a 5 kW HT PEM fuel cell prototype microCHP system with modular design for a global market perspective is developed and tested. Technology and Medecine – UK PEMEAS GmbH – DE Plug Power Holland bv – NL Expected impact for a grid connected residential product in the US is quite attractive due to the large volume. The project will contribute to the scientific and technical objectives of developing a new and clean energy technology in the field of stationary fuel cells. At the end of the project.
Problems addressed • Testing of fuel cell stack under aircraft environment operating conditions. • Development of all relevant safety and certification requirements for fuel cell system on board of an aircraft. Balance of Plants and controller). Technical approach 108 . low pressure. like low temperature. air supply.Fuel Cell System Application in a New Configured Aircraft CELINA Objectives • Investigation of the technical capabilities and behaviour of an existing fuel cell system under aircraft operating conditions by means of a simulation model. • Identification of the deltas between a state of the art design and a required design for aircraft application. • System Integration of the complete fuel cell system (the fuel cell system in-cludes a kerosene reformer. vibrations. fuel cell stack.
Duration 36 months Total cost € 8. • Controller model in January 2007.V.5 million Coordinator Christine Schilo Airbus Deutschland GmbH Kreetslag 10 DE-21129 Hamburg Germany Partners Air Liquide – FR Airbus France SAS – FR CNRT INEVA – L2ES – FR Dassault Aviation – FR Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e.INFORMATION Contract number 516126 Programme Aeronautics and Space Starting date 1st January 2005 Expected impact • Technology studies about Fuel Cell System applied on board an aircraft • System Integration studies • Modelling and Simulations • Testing • Complete dynamic model in September 2006. • Identification of deltas of the complete fuel cell system in October 2007. • Complete model with all components integrated in July 2007. • Top level requirements for onboard installation in December 2007. 109 . • To set the basis for a proposal for fuel cell systems with EASA in April. – DE European Commission JRC-IE Diehl Avionik Systeme – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company – DE Germanischer Lloyd – DE Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg – DE INP Toulouse – FR Institute of Technical Thermodynamics – DE IRD Fuel Cell A/S – DK Josef Stefan Institute – SI KID Systeme – DE THALES AES Avionic Electrical Systems – FR Universität Hannover – DE University of Patras – EL Progress to date The project is on schedule and has achieved the following main results: • Stack model/kerosene reformer model in July 2006.1 million EC funding € 4.
a Polymer Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell system able to deliver up to 1. able to provide power 110 . according to its rated power. typically devices providing safety related functions. The actual design of the DEMAG Central Unit (CU) is based on a Ballard Nexa Power module. and can be connected to any plug of the house (this is possible because the maximum instantaneous power of the system is rated around 1 kW. In current large scale interconnected supply grids a problem in any portion of the massive generation. • DEMAG AUTOMATIC DISCONNECTION MODULES (ADM) will be used to connect to the domestic grid devices and appliances which are both high in power consumption and do not provide emergency functions (e. from a technical standpoint. The fuel cell is expected to provide a basic power output. and will segment the domestic electrical plant in case of black-out. but is also designed to support some limited essential functions of the sub-grid connected. Technical approach DEMAG will be composed of two integrated units + peripherals: • DEMAG CENTRAL UNIT will supply the electrical energy. This unit is supplied by a set of metal hydride storage tanks. keeping such an amount of chemical batteries in a house would not make sense. rated at 10 kWh and based on the integration of a PEM fuel cell with ultracapacitors and with a metal hydride hydrogen storage. transmission and distribution chain can leave customers in a wide geographic area without power and vulnerable. because of their inherent characteristics of energy density. the Master Switch Interface. operating at 2 bar and room temperature • Automatic start-up during black-out and shut-down on grid reconnection • Flexible and easy installation both for new installations and retrofit • Able to supply a load exceeding the rated power for a limited time. so that DEMAG can operate within the range of its rated power. This means that the system does not properly match the total nominal power of the sub-grid connected. Expected impact The expected outcomes of the DEMAG project are: • 10 kWh Emergency Power Supply. and exclude connected loads from the mains. authorities and final users. these modules will intervene immediately after the black out takes place. An Emergency Power Supply with a rated capacity of at least 10 kWh based upon existing accumulator technologies is unfeasible and impracticable for weight and size reasons. The FC system is coupled through appropriate power conditioning systems to a supercapacitor pack. thus improving the efficiency of the DEMAG system. but is able to supply part of it. are satisfactory and consistent with the expected achievements. exploiting the heat in excess coming from the Fuel Cell. making it possible to revolutionise stationary and mobile power generating applications. a washing machine). and deliver an Emergency Power Supply (EPS). after input from Progress to date Progress of the DEMAG project has generally followed the path outlined in the proposal. An answer can be found in fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. lightweight and clean generation. Objectives The future reliability of centralised energy supply is questioned by energy experts. thanks to the integration of Fuel Cells and Ultracapacitors. which delivers hydrogen at suitable pressure and ambient temperature. thus compatible with the electric load capacity of every plug and every secondary branch of a domestic electric system).2 kW of unregulated power to the load. whereas ultracapacitors can supply temporary peak loads. The EPS is supposed to start autonomously after a black out.g. the two units need to communicate in order to coordinate the disconnection and reconnection to the grid. in order to avoid the DEMAG system supplying neighbouring circuits. and the outcomes of the project. able to supply 1 kW for 10 hours • 220 Volt @ 50 Hz power output • Power generation by means of a 1 kW PEM Fuel Cell • Safe energy storage through a state-of-theart metal hydrates LaNi5 hydrogen tank. • DEMAG MASTER SWITCH INTERFACE (MSI) will be installed serial to the general switch of the domestic sub-circuit.Domestic EMergency Advanced Generator DEMAG Problems addressed DEMAG intends to investigate the indoor domestic application of advanced hydrogen technologies to life saving emergency energy generators.
or the energy consumption of a wireless connection). Particular attention has been given to the design of the ADM and MSI. – IT Seira Elettronica Industriale S.l. to get into a laboratory test session and then refined for field tests. control blocks. 111 .o.64 million Coordinator Alfredo Picano Labor S.l. – IT SZWED sp. when compared to the one initially foreseen. – IT Enertron GmbH – DE Ideatel Inenieria S.r.o. for example limit the maximum instantaneous power. without harming the system. avoiding FC overloading and fast.r. A control system has been developed to monitor the behavior of the whole DEMAG central unit. and is therefore able to saturate the nominal power available from the DEMAG CU.net up to 2kW for short transients.l. which presents similar components is enclosed in a DIN rail case to be hosted in an ordinary electric panel. guaranteeing the maximum retrofitting capability. and relay). The design tasks of the DEMAG project have been almost concluded. power supply. and/or supply only a subset of the loads (priority I. micro-controller and on-board sensors.13 million EC funding € 0. while the MSI.labor-eu.l.INFORMATION Contract number 512811 Programme Horizontal research activities involving SMEs Starting date 15th December 2004 Duration 24 months Total cost € 1.r. and implements the power management strategy. are equipped with a transparent communication device over the Power Line Channel (thus avoiding the use of an additional cable. – ES Più costruire il Futuro S. Via Giacomo Peroni.L. and the system is being prototyped at LABOR’s facilities. ADM and MSI cases have been selected to integrate easily into existing domestic power grid. 386 c/o Tecnopolo Tiburtino IT-00131 Roma Italy Partners AGT S. ADM is completely contained in a SCHUKO adapter (comm device. communicates with the Peripheral Units (PU). or I/II). in order to let the user select different priority for different loads.r. In fact these units. Once this association (priority – load) has been made the system can be set for a predefined strategies. – PL Technische Universität Graz – AT Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata – IT Project web-page www. This strategy has been improved and refined.
112 .Fuel cell power-trains and clustering in heavy-duty transport FELICITAS Challenges Two of the FC technologies most suitable for heavy-duty transport applications are Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Objectives The Integrated Project FELICITAS focuses on the development of fuel cell (FC) drive trains capable of meeting the exacting demands of heavy-duty transport for road. Currently neither technology is capable of meeting the wideranging needs of heavy-duty transport either because of low efficiencies. or poor transient performance. Where necessary the FC technologies are complemented therefore by other technologies such as: • energy storage • dedicated technologies for thermal and/or for kinetic energy recuperation. Requirements are: • power levels above 200 kW • power density about 200 kW/t • system efficiency about 60% • hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon fuelled • robustness and longevity • improved environmental impact and • price competitiveness to conventional IC engines. SOFC. and • internal or external reforming. Achievements PEFC • FC Cluster to enhance power and reliability • BoP development SOFC • basics for marine APU application • basics for heavy rail-application • definition of standards and requirements. PEFC. rail and marine applications.
Total cost € 12.INFORMATION Contract number 516270 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st April 2005 Progress to date • definition of application requirements • definition of FELICITAS simulation platform • SOFC tests of marine reformate.KG – DE French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research – FR Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg – DE Imperial College of Science. contaminants etc. Matthias Klingner Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung eV Zeunerstrasse 38 DE-01069 Dresden Germany Partners AVL List GmbH – AT CCM – NL Czech Railways – Railway Research Institute – CZ Fr. – UK Université de Technologie de BelfortMontbéliard – FR Technische Universiteit Eindhoven – NL Technische Universität Graz – AT Università di Genova – IT Project structure 113 . Lürssen Werft GmbH & Co. Technology and Medecine – UK National Technical University of Athens – EL NuCellSys GmbH – DE Rolls-Royce Marine Electrical Systems Ltd. • design of the GT rotating components and first evaluation of resulting GT improvements • hybrid PEFC – cluster design • PEFC – long term durability tests in operation • hybrid PEFC – cluster installation within test vehicle.7 million EC funding € 8 million Coordinator Dr.
Hybrid high energy electrical storage HyHEELS Problems addressed It has to be noted that this projects also carries potential and substantial technological risks for the manufacturers of Ultra Capacitors because of challenging targets. Finally.g. -20°C. but have to be seen in combination with the vehicle for which it delivers the energy supply. Sometimes batteries are not able to supply enough power. All the material needs to have a high electrochemical stability in order to operate the components at a higher voltage for long periods. HyHEELs is a necessary prerequisite for the development and validation of a hybrid vehicle with a vision to achieve “well to wheel” energy efficiency exceeding 35% on the extended European urban drive 114 .7V. because of the high investment in the past and during the project. with innovative power trains and the possible realisation of short-term benefits in combination with state of the art power train technology. The following development targets will achieve this: • Increasing of the max. CO2 emissions are a present and demanding problem. The component packaging weight must be minimized and special attention must be paid to the tightness and mechanical resistance of the packaging. High ambient temperature and extremely dynamic driving profiles cause accelerated aging processes of the cells/modules this is contrary to the life time demands of the car manufacturers. cost efficient energy supply concept for hybrid vehicles based on an advanced. satisfying the requirements of cost. • Advanced UltraCap module packaging with optimised thermal behaviour. providing all necessary information to enable the integration into the fuel cell vehicle architecture. • Advanced UltraCap component electrode and packaging. Expected impact The deployment of fuel cell cars in the European fleet will be a process that takes some decades. A Hydrogen fuel cell has to be provided with power and energy during start up phase as well as during continuously operation. • Cost reduction of the electrodes by new production technologies. weight and cost. High power is needed for the acceleration of the vehicle and for high power auxiliary fuel cell loads. A powerful and reliable energy supply is crucial to fulfil the requirements of the future generation of hydrogen fuel cell powered passenger cars. operating voltage of UltraCaps from 2. powerful UltraCap. This could be in high power charge and discharge conditions as well as operating at low temperature e.5 V to 2. efficiency. its combination into scalable modules with integrated power balancing within the modules. The final goal of the project is the installation of an advanced reliable and cost efficient UltraCap module. all efforts to bring this product to market would have to be stopped. safety and reliability. Objectives The detailed scientific and technical objectives of the HyHEELS project are the result of a thorough analysis of the challenges in the energy supply architecture of Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The aim of this project is the development of an improved. providing extended UltraCap information to the Fuel cell system Super Visor. In the worst-case. the electrolyte and the packaging materials. The work programme consists of two technical work packages for the development of the UltraCap modules and the UltraCap controller. Technical approach The development work comprises the optimisation of the electric properties of the basic cap. The approved UltraCap storage technology is available but needs to be adapted to future automotive hydrogen applications. Ultra capacitors (UltraCaps) could fill this power gap. The industry favours solutions with both future potentials. • Development of a UltraCap controller. power prediction and the communication interface with the drive train. high charging and discharging currents. UltraCaps modules will not be installed in hybrid cars. like low weight. high mechanical stability. • Cost reduction of cells and modules by industrialization. and a work package concentrating on simulation and modelling as well as on testing and evaluation of the developed hardware. Nevertheless. The results of HyHEELs to Societal and policy objectives cannot be regarded in isolation. The higher cell voltage requires electrochemical stability of the electrode. including a single cell voltage measurement and a cell balancing. if affordable costs can not be reached.
INFORMATION Contract number 518344 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st November 2005 cycle.64 million Coordinator Rainer Knorr Siemens AG Siemens VDO Automotive Group Ostenhofener Strasse 11 DE-93055 Regensburg Germany Partners Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft – DE Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. the capacitors and the controller have been investigated. 115 . Duration 36 months Total cost € 4.V. The results will be compiled and reported on.und Raumfahrt e. and “tank to wheel” CO2 emissions not exceeding 80g/km CO2 (when fuelled by hydrogen derived from fossil based fuels) and near zero CO2 and other pollutant emissions (if fuelled by hydrogen produced from renewable sources).73 million EC funding € 2. Requirements for the vehicle. forming the basis for further developments. – DE EPCOS AG – DE Irion Management Consulting GmbH – DE Maxwell Technologies SA – CH Politechnika Warszawska – PL Scania CV AB – SE Université de Technologie de BelfordMontbéliard – FR Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek – BE Vrije Universiteit Brussel – BE Progress to date The project started on the 1st November 2005 and all work packages were started with an individual kick off meetings.
the fuel cell system and the vehicle integration. including microstructured steam reformer. reformate hydrogen stack and balance of plant components. both technical and economic barriers need to be overcome for these technologies to be successfully introduced in mass markets. The need for breakthroughs and innovations at the component level in order to meet the project objectives leads to the following development within HyTRAN: • Innovative 80 kW direct hydrogen stack with strong weight and volume reduction. increased efficiency. durability and start-up time. Technical approach Components and sub-systems are major bottlenecks towards commercializing fuel cell based powertrains. components and main subsystems including the fuel processor and auxiliary components. which all need to be improved. To validate the progress towards these objectives. • TP2 “APU”: development of a compact 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit for both lightduty and heavy-duty vehicles. Two innovative integrated and compact Fuel Cell Systems will be demonstrated: • Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell (DHFC) system. HyTRAN therefore largely focuses on the development of the necessary components and sub-systems to make them meet the requirements derived from the two applications. efficiency. and clean-up reactors. and with innovative MEAs • 5 kW reformate fuel cell stack. durability. work on innovative electrocatalyst and MEA elements: introducing novel catalysts and electrode structures • Innovative humidification/dehumidification apparatus • Heat exchanger and radiator customised for the application • Micro-structured diesel steam reformer and gas purification units. volume. clean-up reactors. The factors that must be dealt with are: cost. Issues to work on are the fuel cell stack. fuel cell Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) – possibly coupled with on-board fuel reformers – are also seen as a promising technology for both light and heavy duty vehicles. including micro-structured diesel oil steam reformer. 116 . weight.Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies for Road Transport HyTRAN Problems addressed Hydrogen fuel cells are increasingly seen as a potential propulsion technology of the future for road transport. However. stack and balance of plant. The table below gives an overview of the “component challenges” that HyTRAN will address. 80 kW power size (innovative stack and balance of plant (BoP)) • APU Diesel reformed gas PEM fuel cell system 5 kW power size. Objectives The overall objectives of HyTRAN are to advance fuel cell technology towards a commercially viable solution by developing components and systems. as well as the choice of fuel with its implications for technology and infrastructure. two corresponding Technical Platforms (TP) will be developed and used for assessment: • TP1 “POWERTRAIN”: development of a compact system for traction power by an 80 kW direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell system implemented on a passenger car. Additionally. despite the potential of these technologies to reduce the environmental impact of road transport and to improve energy efficiency.
The last years will then focus on the integration of these components into subsystems. in vehicles. Progress to date In general.A. Project web-page www. will have bridging function for commercialisation of fuel cells for propulsion. characterising tests. Prototype micro-channel plate reactors and fuel and water vaporisers have been designed. incorporates various technologies. cycles and durability. the first three years of the project will mainly be devoted to the development of innovative components to widen the technology. Major efforts have been focused to the testing of the stack on sensitivity. chemical and process systems engineering.V. an APU application. Duration 60 months Total cost € 16. which is a vital part of the APU system. – IT Gillet GmbH – DE Imperial College of Science. Technology and Medicine – UK Institut für Mikrorechnik Mainz GmbH – DE Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Ltd – UK Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe Srl – IT Opcon Autorotor AB – SE Paul-Scherrer-Institut – CH Politechnico di Torino – IT Reinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen – DE Renault Recherche et Innovation – FR Volkswagen AG – DE Weidmann Plastics Technology AG – CH Figure 1 – Towards virtual assessment of the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. air supply.hytran. The vehicles preliminary layout definitions are performed. chemistry. constructed and successfully tested. e. so that the overall potential efficiency on the NEDC is really competitive in respect of conventional vehicles: a fuel consumption reduction of some 30-35% in comparison with conventional vehicles has been estimated and even obtained in a certain number of FC vehicles.8 million Coordinator Per Ekdunge Volvo Technology Corporation AB Chalmers Teknikpark SE-412 88 Göteborg Sweden Partners Adrop Feuchtemesstechnik GmbH – DE Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT DAF Trucks N. Moreover. Since fuel cells can provide electrical energy with much higher efficiency than the generator in ICE-vehicles. realization of a scalable FC system considering the required characteristics of efficiency and compactness. even not directly related to the typical products developed by the automotive industry. a fuel cell APU running on diesel will contribute to reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle. This work focused on the definition of the specification that could make possible the For the diesel fuelled FC APU system.8 million EC funding € 8. A fuel cell system. water and thermal management studies.g. – NL DaimlerChrysler AG – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL Environment Park S. Since this project strongly involves the components suppliers. This will result in good chances to create a market for the suppliers involved by avoiding unique solutions.org Figure 2 – 2kW Steam reformer / catalytic burner prototype 117 . These activities have later resulted in that many key issues have been identified and “frozen”. even utilising fossil fuel. All reactors are based on micro-channel heat exchangers. activities have been devoted to develop the key components and provide a viable system design. During the first year the main events for developing the hydrogen fuel cell platform were stack design.INFORMATION Contract number 502577 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st January 2004 Expected impact The energy efficiency of a direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell can reach values of some 55-60% at the stack level and some 45% at the system level. this growing technology is a chance for such companies to achieve a considerable share in the very dynamic automotive sector. has been made. Catalysts are now available for each stage of the reforming and CO-clean up system and have been matched to the operating conditions identified from the system modelling activities. During the second year progressive development of the fuel processor. including tests and preparation for implementation into vehicles. The database of results is available to enable understanding of the stack behaviour in conditions close to the real ones in the vehicle.
With Phase 2 (Development and Production (D&P) of SC Materials).g. ILHYPOS has challenging scientific and technological objectives potentially able to overcome present technology limitations. Moreover. Hybrid SC components will designed and assembled in the final prototypes In PHASE 4 (Application Testing). The Hybrid SCs to be developed are based on the use of Ionic liquids as electrolytes. frequently encountered within fuel cell powered vehicles and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems. • Synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymers (ECPs) optimised for the use as positive electrode in Ionic Liquidbased supercapacitors by electrochemical techniques. the focus will be on the scale up processes for optimising the materials production. 118 . electrochemical. and. safe. Technical approach During Phase 1 (Electrode Materials R&D).Ionic Liquid-based Hybrid Power Supercapacitors ILHYPOS Objectives The ILHYPOS Project aims at developing green. These properties make ionic liquids excellent candidates as electrolytes in super capacitors. an application specific study will be performed by two end users in collaboration with a research organization as hybrid vehicle configuration investigator. The scientific objectives are: • Synthesis and characterization of an Ionic Liquid (or a mixture of Ionic Liquids) having improved properties (overall ionic conductivity. Temperatures above 40°C. may cause the degradation of the commercial supercapacitors in terms of performance and safety. Surface treatments will be developed onto the Al current collectors used in these hybrid supercapacitors to decrease the series resistance of the cells. activated and aerogel carbons) optimised for the use as negative electrode in Ionic Liquid-based supercapacitors. Ionic liquids are excellent ionic conductors. and high specific energy and power Hybrid Super Capacitors (SCs) for application as peak power smoothing device in fuel cell (PEM) powered electric vehicles and as an additional option in delocalised PEM FC based Combined Heat and Power Production. Problems addressed Commercially available supercapacitors based on organic electrolytes suffer of limitations associated with the operating temperature. Expected impact The main technical objectives of the project are to: • Prepare Ionic Liquids in large amounts. chemical and thermal stabilities) at low temperatures (down to -20°C). • Investigations of the electrochemical performance of current collectors in Ionic Liquids based supercapacitors. In Phase 3 (Application Requirements and Full-scale Prototype Production). • Identification of high surface area carbons (e. Their electrochemical stability window easily exceeds 5 V. based on these studies. The volatility of organic solvents such as acetonitrile increases sharply with temperature making the devices containing them unsafe at 50-60°C. ILHYPOS Supercapacitors overcomes the problems of more polluting chemicals largely used in present SC (organic electrolytes substituted by “green” ionic liquids). academic and basic research organizations work on the optimisation of the electrode and electrolyte materials in order to significantly improve the overall technical performances of each single component with the respect to present State-of-the-Art. demonstrated at the 50/100 grams level and extended to the level of at least 2 kg per batch. while maintaining its superior performance at 60°C and above with respect to present ionic liquids. virtually non-volatile and thermally stable up to 300°C. testing procedures will be developed and used to experimentally verify the performance of the prototype with the respect to the project target.
On the other side.86 million EC funding € 1. starting from purchased active carbons and purposedeveloped cryo. by favouring a larger and faster introduction of cleaner vehicles and small and more efficient delocalised power generation systems. Analogously. mainly devoted to the research and development of key materials for the preparation of SCs.enea.l. – IT Techniques Department – IT Università di Bologna – IT Université Paul Sabatier – FR Progress to date • Prepare Electronically Conducting Polymer in large amounts.INFORMATION Contract number 518307 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st December 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 2. • A “green” future based on hydrogen and fuel cells. when used with ionic liquids. Electronically Conducting Polymer (ECP) has been produced via electrochemical processes and used for preparing composite electrodes. Mario Conte Ente per le nuove tecnologie. many samples of the other electrode have been prepared using different materials. In the first 6 months of the project. • The relief from more polluting chemicals largely used in present SC (organic electrolytes substituted by “green” ionic liquids). l’energia e l’ambiante – ENEA Casaccia Research Centre Via Anguillarese 301 IT-00060 Santa Maria di Galeria Italy Partners Arcotronics Technologies S.64 million Coordinator Dr. in-line with the planning. demonstrated at the 50/80 grams level and extended to the level of at least 2 kg per batch. the activities are.p. which should improve largely the performance of the hybrid super capacitor (specific energy and power).and xero-gel carbons. fully characterised and then prepared in suitable quantities (batches up to 30g) for verifying the compatibility and performance characteristics of electrodes materials with these new compounds.r. demonstrated at the level of 1-10 cm2 and extended to the level of at least 1 m2 per batch.A. The achievement of the technical objectives will favour: • The positioning of Europe as a leader in the developing field of High Voltage and Environmentally Safe Supercapacitors and to maintain the leadership in the field of Ionic Liquids. which have shown specific capacitance. preliminary analyses of the applications with fuel cells have already started for a preliminary design of the final modules. • Prepare electrodes in large amounts. New ionic liquids (and mixtures) have been synthesised using simple processes.it 119 . Project web-page www. – IT Bullith Batteries AG – DE Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers – FR Degussa AG – DE Micro-vett S. • Develop the LAMCAP® technology (softpackaged laminated capacitor). Tests are underway to optimise the composition and the materials. close to the target value.
• To reduce the weight overhead of fuel cell hybrid systems by ensuring the combined weight of DC/DC converter and super-capacitor are less than that of an equivalent advanced battery system by careful topology. packaging and thermal management. • To isolate the fuel cell positive output from the traction system. The DC/DC converter concept will obviate the need for batteries (or at the very least greatly reduce their size. The overall concept/power plant architecture however is still thought to be unique and may give rise to a Patent application. subject to a successful development. • Testing of final modified bench model • Converting road homologated test vehicle for rolling road testing and demonstration (Additional to programme) • Modifications and improvements • Benchmarking • Completion – client testing/market reviews/ Patent(s) application(s) publicity. super-capacitor condition etc. Trans Electric has urgent need to solve technical and commercial problems relating to commercially viable power train solutions for personal rapid transit systems. super-capacitor will provide the cache energy storage during braking and power distribution peak energy demand. HILTech generally focuses on mobile and vehicle applications IRD generally focus on stationary fuel cell applications. Furthermore new hybrid super-capacitors and more efficient sensors are or will become shortly available. Sloan Electronics. short-circuit. • To improve safety and reliability of fuel cell systems by protecting the fuel cell from adverse operational conditions by making the DC/DC converter intelligent. The DC/DC converter will establish a reliable regulated DC rail and the long-life. In addition the original Project set out some demanding criteria on weight. IRD and HILTech will greatly benefit in their shared objective of becoming EU fuel cell integrator/application engineers. earth leakage. It is known that objective 5 can be achieved.Intelligent DC/DC converter for fuel cell road vehicle INTELLICON Objectives • To reduce the unit capital cost and maintenance profile of fuel cell hybrid power trains by the development of an intelligent (smart) DC/DC converter with a regulated DC output thereby replacing batteries with super-capacitors (saving weight and maintenance). Intellicon is a key element for a potential demonstration of a PRT system at Philips in Eindhoven in the Netherlands by 2007/8. size and cost all of which needed careful and sustained effort to achieve bearing in mind the significant strides by third parties in DC/DC converter development. thereby creating opportunities for greater flexibility in the choice of fuel cell options and independently optimisation of both fuel cell operation and the traction system. maintenance free. adverse temperature. weight and consequent cost) in any particular application. consequently the detailed design were modified from the original and the production system will be CANbus multiplexed. Problems addressed After submission of the Proposal and discussions with potential clients it became clear that the technical requirements of the market were changing. are anticipating an increase in its annual revenues by 2008/9 and Technical approach • Review of published research and patents • Detailed discussions with the potential clients and current suppliers • Review of market trends and regulatory issues and possible health and safety implications • Review of converter design and architecture (power topology only) leading to breadboard bench model (power only) and preliminary testing • Intelligent feature review and design leading to interface board (module) breadboard and preliminary testing • Revising design and producing of first complete system for test bench testing • Modifications • Testing of bench model identifying final modifications – prototype 120 . This feature will be developed during the course of the Project regarding contaminant warning/protection and hydrogen/air pressure. Expected impact Current expectations are that the Project deliverable will achieve objectives 2 to 4 at least to a very great extent and subject to final costing may well achieve objective 1. • To design the DC/DC converter by adopting modular construction whereby various power handling modules and drivers can each be supplied by the same logic board and also ensure Regulatory and homologation compliance of the DC/DC converter and overall system.
Project web-page www.48 million Coordinator HILTech Developments Limited 22 Larbre Crescent Whickham. The Project is anticipated to generate at least € 2.intellicon. Newcastle upon Tyne UK-NE16 5YG United Kingdom Partners IRD Fuel Cells A/S – DK Manchester University – UK Maxwell Technologies – CH Ransomes Jacobsen – UK Sloan Power Electronics Limited – UK Trans Electric bv – NL Vrije Universiteit Brussel – BE Progress to date the creation of additional full-time jobs. Intellicon products are likely to generate up 15% of Sloan annual revenues from 2009/10. The programme has continued slightly behind the original schedule. and some eighteen full-time high added value engineering jobs by 2008/9.5 million revenues p.INFORMATION Contract number 512271 Programme Horizontal research activities involving SMEs Starting date 15th December 2004 Duration 24 months Total cost € 0.96 million EC funding € 0. The current position is that the project is at the testing of final bench model concurrent with the conversion of the road vehicle.info 121 . however to date problems and issues have been resolved on a timely basis.a.
Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cells for Waterborne Application
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells have advantages linked to their high operating temperature, their environmentally friendly characteristics and the cost reduction potential, which makes them one of the most promising technologies to give a significant contribution to the objectives of sustainable energy generation. If low temperature fuel cells are most suitable for application in small boats or passenger ships, either fuelled by pure hydrogen or by reformate gases, high temperature fuel cells are more appropriate for large ships where their higher specific weight disadvantage is over-compensated by the higher APU system efficiencies they can enable. The MC-WAP project will use as an important starting point the activities already carried out and still in progress in another industrial project funded by the WEAO organisation: MCFC-NG “Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Naval Generator”. This project involves two MC-WAP partners (Ansaldo Fuel Cells and TUBITAK) and aims at the fabrication and on-land operation of a 500 KWe plant based on a diesel oil processor coupled to MCFC stacks. This plant is under construction and will be operated in late 2006, thereby providing extremely useful information to drive the MC-WAP developmental efforts towards success in the marinization of MCFC power plants. Through the involvement of key OEM developers, research centres and universities, the MC-WAP project will: • Improve the current performance of MC Fuel Cells and relevant components, to allow an efficient, reliable and safe use on board • Improve the performance of Fuel Processor (Desulphurizer and reformer) technology making it suitable to be used on board ships • Achieve an high level of integration between the Cells, the Fuel Processor and the Ship, increasing the overall efficiency of the system. • Design, construct, install and test on board a ship a 500 kW APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) prototype, to verify its functionality and reliability for the foreseen upgrade of the system to Multi-MW size. • Design a completely new ship(s) with an innovative generation plant lay-out in which the traditional Diesel generators will be (entirely or partially) substituted by multiMW Fuel Cells plants perfectly integrated with the ships’ systems, equipments, plants and facilities.
The main objective of the MC-WAP project lies in the development and design of multi-MW power plants based on molten-carbonate fuel cell technology and fuelled by marine Diesel oil, to be integrated on board large ships.
The MC-WAP Integrated Project is structured in a number of Sub-Projects interacting each other. The basic distinction is between “vertical” research and experimental activities and “horizontal” actions The project structure is illustrated below:
Contract number 019973 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st September 2005 Duration 60 months Total cost € 17.17 million EC funding € 9.9 million Coordinator Dr. Marco Schembri CETENA SpA Via Ippolito d’Aste 5 IT-16121 Genova Italy Partners
ADROP Feuchtemesstechnik GmbH – DE Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A. – IT FINCANTIERI – Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p.A. – IT Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg – DE Institute of Chemical Technology Prague – CZ Johnson Matthey p.l.c. – UK National Technical University of Athens – EL Öl-Wärme-Institut GmbH – DE Politecnico di Torino – IT PROMEOS GmbH – DE Registro Italiano Navale – IT Technip KTI S.p.A. – IT TU Bergakademie Freiberg – DE Turbec R&D AB – SE Turkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Arastirma Kurumu – TR
The main achievements by the MC-Wap project will be: • Improvement of MCFC system compactness and efficiency • Integrated design of fuel processor, fuel cells and ship plants • Sulphur adsorbers for desulphurisation: storage capacity 50% higher than today, working at higher temperature • Development of high sulphur tolerance (up to 100 ppm) ATR reforming catalyst for marine diesel oil, with 30.000 h lifetime • Development of high efficiency and ultra-low emission premix porous burner to provide heat for fuel processor • Improved design of heat exchangers to increase compactness • Development of all components to be reliable in marine conditions (i.e. in humid and salt air, under rigid body motions and vibrations, and so on) • Emissions reduction in energy supplying • Reproducibility of results by properly developed simulation tools • Training of involved partners and of universitary students • Dissemination: internal and international networking • Gender equality: equal opportunities regardless of sex, religion and origin. The MC-WAP project is thus aimed at a strongly innovative application of technology in the field of on-board efficient and environmentally friendly Auxiliary Power Units and cogeneration systems. The results achieved within the Project will provide EU manufacturers with a meaningful opportunity to maintain and improve their market share, with high benefits in the ship-manufacturing context. MC-WAP also fits society’s demands on the environment, climate change and energy sustainability, paving the way for the introduction of fuel cells for ship propulsion by installing on board a 500 kW APU and by designing multi-MW integrated power plants. Furthermore, an important impact will derive by the pre-normative character of MC-WAP Project. The design of the innovative system based on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells and its implementation on board will be necessarily driven by a full consideration of safety rules. This project is thus expected to contribute to the identification of possible critical points to be considered in safety standards. The Project will develop the basis for future Rules, expressely related to installation and operation of fuel cells power plants on board large ships.
Project web-page www.mc-wap.cetena.it
Assimilation of Fuel Cells in maritime applications
Taking fuel cells and hydrogen aboard a ship will demonstrate a fairly new technology in a completely new environment, which is both wet and salty and hard on electronic equipment. This offers new challenges related to the shipboard requirements. The aim of the project is to identify technical, operational and societal obstacles related to the shipboard system- requirements and infrastructure for maritime fuels. As preparation for real demonstrations, the project will suggest mitigating actions so that investments and the technology for using hydrogen on board will be feasible and secure. Main goals for the project are: • Identification of technical barriers (showstoppers) for FC and H2 on board ships • Mapping the road to H2 drive propulsion in ships and making recommendations for further Research and Development • Creation of reference list of R&D activities regarding fuel cells and hydrogen in maritime applications • The project will identify supporting European activities in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in maritime applications and pre-screen potential partners.
This 15 months project is a specific support action (SSA) to ensure continued work on earlier national initiatives and EC projects concerning the use of hydrogen as fuel in marine applications. The foundations are the outcomes of projects like the FC-SHIP (ended in June 2004) and EURO-HYPORT (ended in July 2003). The New-H-Ship will bridge the gap in this field to assist in the creation of a new European Research Agenda.
Progress to date
The project has identified that one of the main issues is regarding using hydrogen in ships is connected to storage of H2 on board the larger vessels (specifically those who are at sea for weeks or months). However, smaller vessels and also those ships that come frequently into harbour can use hydrogen for main propulsion (larger ferries might start with APU systems). Storage of hydrogen is therefore ranked as one of the key elements for research. Currently there are many such projects ongoing and results from them will also be beneficial for maritime applications. Connected to storage, but potentially different from conventional transport applications is the availability and distribution of hydrogen for marine applications. The distribution
Fighting increased greenhouse emissions is a global issue and all emissions contribute to that. Fuel is not readily available. fishing and transport. However it is of utmost importance to set up similar projects (as the CUTE/ECTOS) in the marine sector with multi-stakeholder participation to learn and to overcome most of the potential barriers mentioned here above. especially with the projects CUTE and ECTOS (bus demonstration). Currently they are incomplete and non-harmonised. Work conducted in all aspects of RCS will benefit hydrogen use in marine applications but direct participation in that work should be done in connection with the existing classification agencies for ships. Practical design and operation is currently lacking for hydrogen fuelled vessels. higher risk. Also with lack of policy and incentives the drive for a vessel owner is very low to change to a different fuel. Other issues are also important. Currently there is a very limited H2 market and the distribution of the energy carrier must match the current/future vessel trade. etc. other societal barriers might have to be overcome. There have only few demonstrations of marine applications. codes and standards (RCS). Here it is not only the EU policy but also national initiatives. Experience from the Lake Constance showed that the technology worked well for such an application but unfortunately a follow up was not successful. financial incentives may be a necessary tool for the initial steps.3 million Coordinator Jón Björn Skúlason Icelandic New Energy Ltd Borgartuni 37 IS-128 Reykjavik Iceland Partners Delft University of Technology – NL Det Norske Veritas – NO Fincanterie – IT Fisheries Technological Forum – IS Germanischer Lloyd AG – DE Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg – DE Institute for Technological Development – IS Marintek – NO MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH – DE Norwegian Shipowners Association – NO SINTEF Energiforskning – NO network for marine application is likely to differ from the future hydrogen distribution network for other transport applications. specifically from nations that rely heavily on marine activities. for example the vessel power demand which is different from vehicles or buses. In this regard government policy is in many cases missing. At this stage in the general development of hydrogen technologies investment costs and operation will be higher than for conventional ships. All these factors (barriers) needed to be reduced to increase the interest for the vessel owner/operator and also to encourage shipyards to take the initial step to design and build the first vessels for demonstration purposes to verify that the technology is fully valid for use in marine applications. In this sense governmental incentives could jump-start both market and investment.INFORMATION Contract number 502651 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st February 2004 Duration 15 months Total cost € 0. though the visibility from marine activities are lower they have the same impact. Similar incentives are necessary for marine applications if such projects are to become a reality in the near future. special extra training might be needed. 125 . Already considerable measures have been taken by both the EU and national governments to initiate programs involving vehicles and buses. There is a lot of work currently being done on RCS (global cooperation) and it is important that in all international cooperation for RCS there should be a reference to marine applications of hydrogen. Valuable learning has been generated in those two projects and that can strongly benefit projects that take the technology out to sea. regulations are not ready. Closely connected to a practical vessel design and operation are regulations. etc. Currently there is no “carrot” for the vessel owner/operator. In this sense.55 million EC funding € 0. Already considerable know-how has been generated regarding use of hydrogen in the transport sector.
V. Dr. high power density. Progress to date Specifications of the OEM First test boards INFORMATION Contract number 019848 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st January 2006 Duration 36 months Total cost € 4.Wolfgang Siemens AG Otto-Hahn-Ring 6 DE-81739 München Germany Partners Bosch – DE DaimlerChrysler AG – DE ETH Zurich – CH Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. HOPE Objectives Power electronics for HEV and high temperature power electronic.eu 126 . high temperature.and ICE-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains Problems addressed Cost issues.fp6-hope. Expected impact Appropriate solutions for automotive applications: DC/AC-inverter and DC/DCconverter.E. reliability. – DE INRETS – FR MagnaSteyr – AT Politechnika Warszawska – PL Renault – FR Université de Technologie de Belford-Montbéliard – FR Valeo – FR Volkswagen AG – DE Project web-page www. Technical approach Two approaches of power electronics to meet the OEM’s demands: low cost inverter and high temperature power electronics with SiC devices.© DaimlerChrysler AG High Density Power Electronics for FC.4 million Coordinator Prof.09 million EC funding € 2.
Specific tasks required to adapt the internal combustion engine to the use of hydrogen include: • Bringing together representatives of the automobile industry and researchers from both inside and outside Europe • Developing components which fit to the new fuel. Principle strategic objectives include: • Answering customer demand regarding both engine performance and fuel efficiency • Developing a product that can be sold at a reasonable price • Direct conversion of chemical bound energy. European researchers are providing leadership in the production and marketing of corresponding systems and components. in the form of hydrogen. Contract number 506604 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 5th January 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 7. HyICE technologies may present not just an intermediate. to mechanical propulsion energy. with respect to its specific characteristics • Development of suitable concepts for mixture formation and combustion • Adaptation of CFD-models to the specific behaviour of Hydrogen to support the development process of future production engines • Ensuring the dissemination and exchange of important and valuable know-how. but also a long-term solution. At the same time it aims to offer customers a product with similar characteristics to those of conventional automobiles. HYICE is a three-year European Integrated Project aimed at contributing to the development of a clean and economical hydrogen fuelled automobile engine. As a renewable and carbon-free energy carrier. hydrogen produces no CO2 emissions during combustion. hydrogen is the third most abundant element on Earth and it can be produced using any kind of solar or geothermal power. The goal of HYICE is to work out an engine concept that has the potential to beat both gasoline and diesel engines with respect to power density and efficiency at reasonable costs. the HYICE project is applying a well-developed technology to the requirements of the future without demanding profound changes in the organisational structures of automotive manufactures. Technical approach INFORMATION By taking the combustion engine as its starting point. using the well-established internal combustion engine (ICE) • Rapid integration of HYICE technologies into mass market vehicles.7 million EC funding € 5 million Coordinator Hans-Christian Fickel BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH Hanauer Strasse 46 DE-80992 München Germany Partners ANSYS Germany GmbH – DE Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH – DE Hoerbiger Valve Tec GmbH – AT Institut Français du Pétrole – FR Irion Management Consulting GmbH – DE MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG – DE Mecel AB – SE Technische Universität Graz – AT Universität der Bundeswehr München – DE Volvo Technology Corporation AB – SE 127 . In the range of high-power vehicles. Now widely expected to usher in a new era in global energy production.Optimisation of hydrogen powered internal combustion engines © MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG HYICE Objectives As scientists around the world seek to advance new hydrogen technologies.
high durability and reliability • Optimisation of energy management • Development of low cost components for mass production • Validation of component and system performance on FC Vehicles. high power density drive train • Low cost high power Li-Ion batteries • Enhanced FC-drive train efficiency.Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle System Component Development HYSYS Problems addressed • Low cost automotive electrical turbochargers for air supply with high efficiency and high dy-namics • Low cost humidifiers with high packaging density • Low cost hydrogen sensors for automotive use • Effective low cost hydrogen supply line • High efficient. high performance. Expected impact • Final delivery are two different FC-hybrid delivery vans • The project focuses on most important FC and electric propulsion system components • It is a goal to use the technical achievements of the project in future FC and ICE-hybrid vehicles for the mass market • Improved FC-system and e-drive components could be mass-produced and delivered by the suppliers to the automotive industry.8 million EC funding € 11. Jörg Wind DaimlerChrysler AG Neue Strasse 95 DE-73230 Kirchheim-Teck/Nabern Germany Partners ATB Technologies GmbH – AT AVL List GmbH – AT Centro Nacional de Microelectronica CSIC – ES Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT Conti Temic Microelectronic GmbH – DE Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne – CH ENEA – IT Fachhochschule Esslingen – DE Fischer AG – CH Fumatec GmbH – DE Magna Steyr – AT MicroChemical Systems SA – CH PSA Peugot Citroën – FR Renault Recherche et Innovation – FR Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen – DE Rivoira SpA – IT Robert Bosch GmbH – DE Saft Industrial Battery Group – FR Selin Sistemi SpA – IT TNO Industrie – NL Université de Montpellier II LAMMI – FR University of Maribor – SK Volkswagen AG – DE Volvo Technology Corporation – SE Objectives The objectives of the HySYS project are as follows: • Improvement of fuel cell system components for market readiness • Improvement of electric drive train components (Synergies FC and ICE-hybrids) for market readiness • Optimisation of system architecture for low energy consumption. Progress to date • Update of existing simulation models of vehicles • Milestone Report: First version definition of system and vehicle requirements for validator vehicles • First operating specification • First electric propulsion system components specifications • Decision on FC-system to be purchased for DC-validator drawn • HySYS Web page installed.hysys. providing competitive FC vehicles • The results of HySYS will be one step further towards the hydrogen economy and also a basis for future European research activities • The validator vehicles built up in HySYS could be prototypes for vehicles in future EC demonstration projects • HySYS could be one nucleus for the JTI as strategic partners are cooperating in the project.de 128 . Project web-page www. INFORMATION Contract number 019981 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st December 2005 Duration 48 months Total cost € 22.2 million Coordinator Dr.
to provide a high power battery with a long life and an intrinsically safe electrochemistry. Expected impact The aim of POMEROL is to develop high-power. fuel cell hybrid systems and ICE-HEV for automotive applications. POMEROL combines the complementary skills of Progress to date The project is only in its sixth month. 7 industrial partners and specialised subcontractors. lithiated metal fluorinated oxides. Objectives POMEROL intends to develop high power. savings of time and resources. safety and life. non-flammable ionic liquids based electrolytes and high performance graphitised carbons) that will respond to the very ambitious challenge of adequate low-cost. in line with the Statement of Work.47 million Coordinator Philippe Biensan Saft Direction de la Recherche Boulevard A. safe and low-cost Lithium-ion batteries as core technology for hydrogen. so that rather limited results have been obtained so far. However. The materials and batteries will be used for fuel cell hybrid and conventional hybrid drive train automotive applications. This objective will be achieved together with two others. low-cost and intrinsically safe lithium-ion batteries by a breakthrough in materials. INFORMATION Contract number 019351 Programme Sustainable Surface Transport Starting date 1st December 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 4. having proven expertise in the research. Technical approach We propose innovative solutions through the development of speciality materials (LiFePO4. These systems need a breakthrough in battery technology as power supply. Daney 111-113 FR-33074 Bordeaux Cedex France Partners Commissariat à L’Énergie Atomique – FR DaimlerChrysler AG – DE Merck KGaA – DE Timcal Ltd – CH Umicore – BE Volkswagen AG – DE 129 . Having automotive end-users. Technical and cost specifications are targeted for the battery. material suppliers and a battery maker allows a rapid validation of results.86 million EC funding € 2. a first generation of materials have been designed and transferred between the partners.Power Oriented low cost and safe MatERials fOr Li-ion batteries © ZERO REGIO POMEROL Problems addressed The challenging objective is to develop new materials to strongly reduce cost of high power lithium-ion batteries to 25 EUR/kW. development and production of materials and batteries. the cell and each new material to be developed in order to reach these goals. one of the very critical issues for a widespread development of this bottleneck technology for fuel-cell hybrids.
Technical regulations will contribute to an open market if they are harmonised and globally accepted. Amongst these fuels. a particular attention has been dedicated to the numerous Hydrogen potential production routes. There is not sustainable means of transport without considering its full impact on the environment.Alternative fuels and vehicle power train VELA-H2 Expected impact The transition to a sustainable transport founded on hydrogen-based energy systems depends among other factors on non-technical barriers as technical regulations for assessment and homologations purposes as well as public acceptance. hybrids and H2-vehicles. The key action of the activity is: Development of test programmes and test procedures for the assessment of efficiency and overall environmental performance of electrical.Fuel consumption . They will also contribute to the acceptance of the new technology by the public.GHG emissions (hybrid) . WtW aims at establishing.Some safety aspects (hydrogen leakage/evaporative emissions) • Assessment of electrical/hybrid vehicles in terms of: .Evaporative emissions (hybrid) 130 . in a transparent and objective manner.Fuel consumption . Objectives The overall aim of the project is to contribute to the EC’s political objective of 20% conventional fossil fuel substitution with alternative fuels in the road transport sector by the year 2020.Energy efficiency .Energy Efficiency . With particular emphasis on: • Assessment of FC vehicles in terms of: . The projects participates jointly with EUCAR and CONCAWE on Well to Wheels studies. a consensual well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions assessment of a wide range of automotive fuels and power trains relevant to Europe in 2010 and beyond.
networks of excellence and specific targeted research projects.cec. • Furthermore. Germany and Mantua. Coordinator Dr.cec. the potential availability and the energy and greenhouse gases balance of alternative fuels including hydrogen. • “Well to Wheels” study: From January 2006. One of the specific objectives of the ZERO-REGIO is the demonstration of the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel via automobile fleet field test at two urban locations in the EU (Rhein-Main.eu. GPL and CNG. offering new data and projections. the reviewed version of the WTW study is available online: http://ies. Adolfo Perujo European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability Project web-page http://ies.eu.INFORMATION Contract number 2113 Programme Joint Research Centre 2003-2005 Multi-annuel Work Programme Starting date 1st September 2004 • Testing facilities for hydrogen vehicles’ evaporative emissions and fuel consumption have been completed. Progress to date • The project participates in the UN ECE (The World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations) within the GRPE dedicated to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles. In particular it chairs the subgroup dealing with Energy and Environmental considerations with the aim of producing a Global Technical Regulation (GTR).e. New developments regard also the vehicles technology has been added.int/wtw. the project’s scientific knowhow is strengthened through involvement in EC co-financed integrated projects. In the area of low-emission transport system the project also participates in ZERO-REGIO.jrc.int/ 131 . The document is a reference for comparing the direct costs. i.jrc.html. Regione Lombardia – Italy). These facilities have been also retrofitted to be able to use other gaseous fuels. Many chapters have been revisited.
renewables and nuclear energy) in promoting sustainable development. It focuses on information collection. to enable perspective analysis of the conditions where a transition to an energy system dominated by hydrogen is possible. It applies a variety of models including modelling teams from outside the EU and Associated countries to carry out common exercises. It is essentially split into two distinct parts: • Part 1 focuses on modelling. It addresses two fundamental issues. general-equilibrium. storing and producing hydrogen from different primary sources. • Part 2 involves the use of a wide range of operational energy and energy/economy models in order to build analytical consensus concerning the impacts of policies aimed at sustainable energy systems. by bringing together a number of the leading energy. scenario evaluation and detailed analysis of the prospects of the hydrogen economy. explicitly aiming at consensus building between model experts and finally to bridge the communication gap between energy modelling and policy analysts. CO2 capture and storage. These include all demand categories where fuel cells can be used. R&D strategy elaboration and the measurement of associated risks. namely the importance of hydrogen and fuel cells. Particular emphasis in this joint case study project is given on policies influencing technological development. perfect foresight. It involves development and use of detailed energy models that received assistance from previous Framework Programmes of DG Research. Objectives CASCADE MINTS is a project involving the development and use of energy and energy/economy models with special emphasis on analysing technological developments. First. medium term). Expected impact Part 1 of CASCADE MINTS involves the enhancement of a wide energy models. The extended versions of the models are then applied to analyse scenarios in order to explore under what conditions and to what extent the hydrogen economy may materialise (technology dynamics mechanisms are also incorporated in the models and stochastic modelling is also applied). renewables and nuclear energy in influencing the energy system towards sustainability and the extent to which appropriate policies can foster the development of these technologies and their subsequent deployment. It is an innovative project in the sense that currently no applied integrated analytical framework for carrying out such analysis exists. models and enabling them to describe all possible configurations of a hydrogen economy. The main outcomes of Part 2 are policy reports addressing the potential role of technologies (hydrogen and fuel cells. These issues have posed particular challenges to analysts and the energy-economy-environment models (E3) can provide useful insights. Apart from hydrogen. scenario evaluation. This will deliver detailed databases and advanced versions of all participating models that will be capable of analysing in an integrated manner the complex hydrogen economy system. First the project aims to analyse the prospects of the hydrogen economy within the overall energy system. as well as the different options for distributing. renewables and nuclear on future energy balances also attracted considerable interest in the context of tackling climate change and improving security of supply. varying technological resolution and operate at different levels of spatial and sectoral disaggregation (simulation. used by all partners in their 132 . Aiming at the most thorough analysis and the most robust policy responses CASCADE MINTS applies a range of E3 models to build scientific consensus on the impacts of policies aimed at promoting sustainable energy systems – in particular through technological developments. policy makers and society at large in recent years. modelling work. long-term. with particular emphasis on their role in Technical approach CASCADE MINTS is a modelling project emphasising technological analysis and is divided into two main parts: • Part 1 looks specifically on the prospects of the hydrogen economy. Second. it establishes a common information base containing the technological background information. economic and environmental modelling teams in Europe (together with some institutes in the US and Japan) the CASCADE MINTS project aims to inform the debate on the prospects of transformation of the European and World energy system towards sustainability.Case study comparisons and development of energy models for integrated technology systems CASCADE MINTS Problems addressed Fuel cells and the prospects for the transformation of the energy system by hydrogen as a carrier attracted enormous interest from industry. CO2 capture and storage. the potential impact of CO2 capture and storage. • Part 2 investigates the role of different policies and measures in addressing sustainable policy objectives.
security of supply and cost and investigates the trade-offs and synergies of alternative technology policies.gr/cascade. The third report summarises models’ results on policy schemes concentrating on technology standards. The final report focuses on the effects of different technology policies on greenhouse gases. Additional scenarios have also been built by combining optimistic technological developments with other favourable conditions such as large world endowments in natural gas resources or effective climate change policies at the European or World level. Project web-page www. After some harmonisation of assumptions (including a common technology-bytechnology R&D Outlook) model generated baseline and R&D Policy Scenarios have been developed and compared. The first of these policy briefs examines the possible contribution of renewable energy to a sustainable energy system. Work on Part 2 of the project has also proceeded considerably and policy reports summarising the main results have already been prepared. The first policy report provides an outlook on the global and European energy developments towards 2050. A major accomplishment of the project and prerequisite for all subsequent work has been the construction of an information base for fuel cell technologies and hydrogen production/ distribution options and the collection of statistical information on public and private expenditure in R&D activities directed to hydrogen technologies. taking the form of doubling the R&D funding addressed at specific clusters of hydrogen economy related technologies.95 million Coordinator Prof. Pantelis Capros National Technical University of Athens Institute of Communication and Computer Systems 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street EL-15773 Zografou Greece Partners CNRS LEPII-EPE – FR Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e.73 million EC funding € 0. Subsequently. A set of technological story scenarios has also been defined primarily. – DE Energy research Centre of The Netherlands – NL Ecole Centrale de Paris ERASME – FR European Commission – JRC-IPTS International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis – AT Paul-Scherrer-Institut – CH Universität Stuttgart IER – DE Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung – DE reducing GHG emissions and import dependence. Strategies for energy technology innovations and transitions will also be evaluated. a series of policy briefs have been prepared. The second report analyses the potential role of nuclear energy.ntua. Preliminary results indicate that R&D is important pre-condition for the improvement of hydrogen technologies but there are strong signs of diminishing returns. The reports intend to enhance the communication between model experts and policy-analysts.e3mlab. Progress to date The project is now reaching its closing stages and has successfully completed the tasks which constitute essential building blocks of the methodology.INFORMATION Contract number 502445 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st January 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 1.V. emission caps and investment subsidies for carbon capture and sequestration technologies. Two alternative R&D Scenarios have been examined: one pessimistic. implying the elimination of hydrogen related R&D and one optimistic.html 133 . The resulting unique information set has served as a suitable sample for the econometric estimation of the technology dynamics module.
to be used for enhanced oil or gas recovery. The main objective is to prepare the ground for large-scale European facilities producing hydrogen and electricity from fossil fuels with CO2 capture and permanent storage or. DYNAMIS undertakes to investigate viable routes to large-scale cost-effective hydrogen production with integrated CO2 management for use in either power production or other aspects of society. In order for Europe to comply with the Kyoto Protocol there is a need for new low emission technologies including decarbonised fuels and the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. In this perspective it becomes essential to enable efficient ways of isolating the CO2 and storing it safely (for thousands of years) at reasonable cost and efficiency.Towards Hydrogen and Electricity Production with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage DYNAMIS Problems addressed Fossil fuels will remain the prevalent energy supply for Europe over the foreseeable future (2015-2020) despite their drawback in the context of climate change issue. 134 . eventually. Objectives The overall objective is to prepare for large-scale decarbonised fossil fuel power generation with hydrogen production and geological storage of CO2.
A.A. – FR ALSTOM AG – CH ALSTOM Power Centrales – FR ALSTOM Power Environment ECS – FR BP International Ltd – UK Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe – DE Ecofys v.dynamis-hypogen. • 50% capture cost reduction envisaged from a (current) level of €50-60 per tonne of CO2 captured. Nils A. • Produced hydrogen will be in accordance with the specifications of a European hydrogen infrastructure (beyond 2010). • Hydrogen production corresponding to 25-50 MW with the flexibility to adjust the output of the plant from 0 to 100% hydrogen.0 million Coordinator Dr.46 million EC funding € 4.ON UK plc – UK Etudes et Productions Schlumberger – FR European Commission JRC-IE Fraunhaufer Geselschaft ISI – DE Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland – DK IEA Environmental Projects Ltd – UK Institut Français du Pétrole – FR Natural Environment Research Council British Geological Survey – UK Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NO Progressive Energy Ltd – UK Siemens AG – DE SINTEF – NO SINTEF Petroleum Research – NO Société Générale – UK STATOIL ASA – NO Store Norske Spitsbergen Grubekompani AS – NO Technical University of Sofia – BG TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – NL Vattenfall Utveckling AB – SE Expected impact DYNAMIS undertakes by 2008 to substantiate that the following targets can be deemed achievable for practical operation by 2012: • Power generation in the 400 MW class using advanced flow cycle(s) with hydrogen-fuelled gas turbines in the 250-300 MW class.p. Røkke SINTEF Energy Research Sem Sælandsvei 11 NO-7065 Trondheim Norway Partners Air Liquide S.a. By June approximately five promising site locations for the demonstration plant will be determined for further and more detailed investigation. – NL ENDESA Generación S.INFORMATION Contract number 019672 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st March 2006 Technical approach Duration 36 months Total cost € 7.v. – IT E. • 90% CO2 capture rate envisaged.com 135 . Progress to date DYNAMIS started 1 March 2006. Project web-page http://www. – ES ENEL Produzione S.
the development of project ideas and partnership building.A visibility catalogue containing the profiles. This will be done through: • An in-depth analysis of the needs and barriers which impacted on the low participation of NMS and ACC actors in the European research • The development of training modules and guidelines based on the needs analysis • The organization of 3 national workshops in Poland.) of the 40 or more working hydrogen and fuel cell actors in the 5 reference countries. Expected impact The ENFUGEN project is fully devoted at networking the NMS and ACC competencies with the initiatives and R&D activities that are at present almost exclusively carried out in Western Europe. contacts. expertise. accessing funds. knowledge sharing.Needs analysis report 136 . The reasons of these difficulties in taking advantage of the opportunities made available by the European Commission and in taking part to the European Research Area can be found in: • The scarce visibility of candidate Countries’ research activities and expertise in the international scenario of fuel cells • The lack of experience in building international partnerships and accessing to EC funds. Czech Republic and Slovakia and 2 Associated Candidate Countries: Romania and Bulgaria. Improving NMS and ACC R&D competences visibility by: • Mapping R&D competences in the 5 reference countries. accessing to funds and building partnership. networking and contract research.R&D competencies mapping . • Developing and widely disseminating a visibility catalogue containing all the relevant information (profiles. Directly supporting the creation of MS and NMS/ACC partnerships trough: • The organization of at least 1 large brokerage event • The large dissemination of the visibility catalogue • Direct brokerage and mediation activities • Networking and promoting ENFUGEN Community to other initiatives at EU level. 2. Improving NMS and ACC actors capability in promoting their expertise. 3. empowered with the necessary tools and know-how to raise their visibility and actively operate at EU level. Technical approach The approach adopted by the project can be summarized as follows: 1. • The wide dissemination (to at lest 200 Western hydrogen and fuel cell stakeholders) of: . Creating a collaborative virtual environment (ENFUGEN Portal) for the exchange of experience. The platform will allow for: • Documents exchange • News and document publication • Partner search posting • Expertise and CV publication • The creation of thematic forums • The concurrent development of documents and project proposals (Wiki Tool). Objectives The objective of the ENFUGEN project is to maximize the participation of research centres and researchers in the field of fuel cells and hydrogen energy from 3 New member States: Poland. expertise and the contact details of NMS & ACC R&D performers . facilities. • Creating a database of research facilities and active researchers in the field. etc. Czech Republic and Slovakia • The activation of a Skype based help desk made available trough the ENFUGEN platform.Enlarging fuel cells and hydrogen research co-operation ENFUGEN Problems addressed In past Framework Programmes the participation of partners from the New Member States (NMS) and the Associated Candidate Countries (ACC) has been very low. Within this framework. the relevant end results can be identified in the following: • The creation of a NMS and ACC research community. 4.
o. • The timing and structure of the 3 Workshops have been agreed. • The following deliverables have been finalized: . • An in-depth needs analysis was carried out for the 5 countries in object and inputs for the preparation of the training and mentoring activities were given.r. • The realization of at least one large brokerage event.25 million EC funding € 0. . – CZ Polish Academy of Sciences – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research – PL Instytut Energetyki – PL Technical Support for European Organisations Sprl – BE Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata – IT • The organization of 3 Workshops in Poland.2 R&D competencies mapping report-basis for database content. • The creation of at least 2 consortia (with a strong presence of NMS/ACC partners) ready to present proposals in FP7.1 Needs analysis report – basis for guidelines towards an entrepreneurial university. – SK Czech Technical University in Prague Faculty of Electrical Engineering – CZ Energy Centre Bratislava – SK Enviros s.Del 1.r. • The Polish. Czech and Slovak partners worked at the competencies mapping in their own country and for Bulgaria and Romania. • The consortium named an advisory board for the supervision of the scientific and technical issues. Project web-page www.Del 1.enfugen. Progress to date The project was kicked-off in April 2005 and in the first year the consortium worked at those preliminary activities essential for an effective implementation of the action and the full achievement of the project goals. • The ENFUGEN web platform and related tools have been designed.r.Del 2. Via Giacomo Peroni.1 List of confirmed members of Scientific Advisory Board.21 million Coordinator Alfredo Picano Labor S.net 137 .o. 386 c/o Tecnopolo Tiburtino IT-00131 Roma Italy Partners BIC Bratislava. . S. • A first version of the database records was prepared and is continuously updated.INFORMATION Contract number 510435 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2005 Duration 24 months Total cost € 0.l. Czech Republic and Slovakia with the participation of at least 30 participants per event. implemented and tested.
• Implement the coordination process and offer a complete administrative and organizational support to the different bodies of the Platform (Advisory Council. The HyCell TPS project was launched for an initial period of 24 months from 2004. relevant and qualitative manner. • Act as a neutral and independent party. In 2006 the project has been extended for a further period of 18 months. analyse.to long-term commercial and environmental potential. demonstration and subsequent deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies mid. the Platform and the political agenda to assist participants in their engagement with European decision-makers. the structure of HyCell TPS will be different since its Steering Panels and Initiative Groups have successfully accomplished their mission. inclusiveness and commitment of participants. and to initiate supporting activities necessary to foster market entry by 2010 – 2015. • Deal with the complexity of the coordination and communication process within the Platform. the functionalities covered by the project are divided into six work packages: Work package 1: Management Strategy Advice to the Advisory Council (AC) and the development of the engagement plan. • Support the Advisory Council and the other bodies of the Platform so that they can meet their goals in a timely. development. Steering Panels. which has advanced mature concepts and actions for integrated research. the Executive Group. Project Structure The project structure for the original phase of HyCell TPS was as follows: 138 . For the extended period of operations. Initiative Groups and General Assembly). Objectives The HyCell TPS has the ambition to: • Develop an efficient coordination and governance mechanism for the Technology Platform in co-operation with the Advisory Council. namely the AC. the Implementation Panel. validate and disseminate the Platform’s achievements to the stakeholders within and outside the Platform and raise awareness towards the general public on hydrogen and fuel cell related matters. • Act as an information and communication centre for the Technology Platform. • Align the priorities of the project. interest and internal groups – without increasing internal bureaucracy. • Seek to find a balance between transparency. Technical Approach During the new period of operations. resulting from the multitude of stakeholders. They have therefore been dissolved and replaced by the Implementation Panel (IP). Work package 2: Support of the different elements of the Platform. • Collect.Development and implementation of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Secretariat HyCellTPS Problems addressed The HyCell TPS will: • Provide flexible and efficient operational and administrative support to the Platform operations and different Platform governing bodies.
the Mirror Group and the discussions on the setting up of the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI). including through the organization of the General Assembly.38 million (initial period and extension) Coordinator Alfons Westgeest and Silvia Vaghi European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Secretariat Avenue Marcel Thiry 204 BE-1200 Brussels Belgium Partners European Commission – JRC-IE Kellen Europe NV – BE Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH – DE Project web-page www. A set of messages. In the second period.78 million (initial period and extension) EC funding € 2. Work package 4: Dissemination of the activities and achievement of the Technology Platform. the HyCell TPS will further develop the work started under some of the work packages described above and will build on the results achieved in the first period of operations. as well as financial reporting. Duration 27 months + extension Total cost € 2. in particular through the development of an Implementation Plan by the Implementation Panel based in the SRA and DS and through supporting stakeholders involved in preparing the possible Joint Technology Initiative on hydrogen and fuel cells. The DS consolidates the overall implementation of a European hydrogen vision by making recommendation to foster the commercialization of mobile. publications and information packages to be distributed to the wider public will be developed and proposed to the Technology Platform. Both documents have been summarized in a Strategic Overview. Work package 5: Appropriate support to the HFP in case there is a JTI on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the possible organization of the second Technology Review Days event.INFORMATION Contract number 006272 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st May 2004 Expected impact the Working Groups. Work package 6: Control of the implementation of the Technology Platform Secretariat and reporting to the European Commission both in terms of activity progress and deliverables. national and regional decision-makers. 139 . which both attracted approximately 500 stakeholders from the hydrogen and fuel cell communities as well as European. The HyCell TPS successfully accompanied the work of the bodies of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform who produced a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and a Deployment Strategy (DS). Work package 3: Development and Implementation of the Platform communication strategy and further improvement and adaptation to the changing requirements of the Platform Information and Communication Centre (including the website). stationery and portable hydrogen and fuel cell applications. adopted in June 2005. The HyCell TPS also successfully organized two General Assemblies of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform.hfpeurope.org Progress to date For the first period of operations see above. including notably a publication on the achievements of the HFP to be distributed at the General Assembly. second period not started yet. The SRA proposes a mid-term strategy (until 2015) and a long-term strategic outlook (until 2050) for research and development in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells. A broad communication strategy aimed at raising awareness and promoting the developments and results of the Platform to the wider public will address different types of stakeholders in Europe and internationally.
Co-ordination action to establish a Hydrogen and Fuel Cell ERA-Net. With an ambitious integration process. and targeted integration activities • To promote and develop a strong and coherent RTD policy on hydrogen and fuel cells in Europe. management personnel exchange. which will enable the implementation of a joint European (trans-national) funding scenario. Harmonisation. In addition. especially with its Member States’ Mirror Group (https://www. Actively involving Member States. timing and mutual opening of the programmes and the EC’s Framework Programmes are the ultimate goals to aim for. the European Union and the Member States should work together as stated in the report “Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: a Vision for our Future” published in June 2003 by the High Level Group for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – a group initiated by the European Commission in October 2002. the strong international competition and drive must be stressed. projects and initiatives into the European ERA-Net. the programmes of nonparticipating Member and non-Member States will be evaluated to achieve a complete trans-national integration and to enable Europe to position itself better in international activities for the transition to a hydrogen economy. Objectives The goal of the HY-CO project is to network and integrate national and regional R&D activities by establishing a durable European Research Area (ERA-Net) for hydrogen and fuel cells. The vision behind it is to create an internal market in research and development • To realise the implementation of durable co-operation with respect to European hydrogen and fuel cell activities. Although individual research activities in Europe are of high scientific quality and can compete with research performed all over the world. regional and local research programmes. development and demonstration activities. HFP.hfpeurope. each with a WP Leader. 140 . To meet this global challenge. Technical approach The technical approach is based on five work packages (WP). and stimulate the “cooperation and co-ordination of national and regional research and innovation activities”. Associated States and Candidate Countries in this project is essential to generate the leverage associated with drawing national. hydrogen co-ordination HY-CO Problems addressed The tight coordination and co-operation of the most relevant national programmes (or programme parts) within the European Union and the close contact between key players in the leading funding systems will support the exploitation of the tremendous potentials of hydrogen and fuel cells for the security of supply and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. Networking of research. HY-CO is providing an active interface with the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform. development and demonstration activities carried out at national level in the field of fuel cells and hydrogen technologies is the core of the ERA-NET. The general methodology involves all four steps/levels of coordination and co-operation proposed by the European Commission in the relevant documents on the ERA-Net scheme: • Systematic exchange of best practices • Strategic activities • Implementation of joint activities • Transnational research. The main objectives are: • To offer a common platform for information and coordination of programmes and R&D activities at national and regional level • To establish a common knowledge base for development of a European policy towards a hydrogen economy as the basis for a contribution to a future sustainable energy system • To strengthen the European R&D and demonstration infrastructure on hydrogen and fuel cells through joint programming.org/hfp/mg). HY-CO aims at a mutual opening of the involved national partner programmes.
From a quantitative point of view.7 million Coordinator Dr. As research in these domains demands substantial investments in resources and technology. the public resources have to be used as efficiently as possible.net.net 141 . an annual funding of €160 million will be coordinated by HY-CO. a critical mass will be achieved through HY-CO to answer both the increasing complexity and the upcoming challenges and chances in hydrogen and fuel cells. These expressions of interest are seen as basis for common calls. By coordinating the fragmented research activities throughout Europe. dell’Universita e della Ricerca – IT Nordic Energy Research – NO Orkustofnun – IS SenterNovem – NL Statensenergimyndighet – SE Tekes – The Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation – FI The Research Council of Norway – NO Project web-page www. by bringing together 21 hydrogen and fuel cells RTD programme managers/owners.INFORMATION Contract number 011744 Programme ERA-NET Starting date 1st October 2004 Expected impact The impact of the HY-CO project is to provide the basis for and to set up a durable ERA-NET for the promotion of hydrogen and fuel cell technology towards a hydrogen economy. Progress to date To get an overview on existing research. Duration 48 months Total cost € 2. the HY-CO project will map public funding RTD programmes. opportunities and threats (SWOT) for trans-national cooperation in the field of H&FC RD&D. funding agencies and industry topical research themes in H&FC were evaluated. In several workshops and with the support of representatives of ministries. weaknesses. The working programme and costs of HY-CO progress is as planned.7 million EC funding € 2.hy-co-era. The evaluated data are stored in a database accessible to HY-CO partners and the EC. data about member and competing states programmes on H&FC have been collected via questionnaires. HY-CO will help to avoid duplications in research and to structure European RTD efforts with a maximum of potential synergetic effects. Providing an interface with the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform. In parallel an “Action Plan to support the Mirror Group” was developed that aims at the interaction of public programmes with the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Implementation Panel. HY-CO will address the issue of breaking down the barriers between national/regional programmes. Innovation und Technologie – AT Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie – DE Ceska energeticka agentura – CZ Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Danish Energy Authority – DK Die Österreichische ForschungsförderungsGesellschaft mbH – AT Fundação para a Ciencia e a Technologia – PT General Secretariat for Research and Technology of the Greek Ministry for Development – EL Ministère de la Recherche – FR Ministère de la Région Wallonne – BE Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap – BE Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia – ES Ministero dell’Istruzione. In addition. Furthermore there is a thorough analysis of strengths. development and deployment in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells (H&FC). the necessary efforts at Member State level will be undertaken to improve the position of the hydrogen and fuel cells research field in Europe and to stimulate the translation of its achievements into concrete valuable results. Along these themes co-operation fields have been refined in which several HY-CO partners agreed to collaborate. With the help of HY-CO.hy-co-era. national authorities. Eberhard Seitz Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH DE-52425 Jülich Germany Partners Bundesministerium für Verkehr. Public awareness and dissemination of results is taken care of via the HY-CO web pages www. In this regard.
and storage.Marmara Research Center. Technical approach Objectives The strategic objective of the proposed project is to improve the research capacity of the Centre on Hydrogen Technologies at TUBITAK MRC (“the Centre”). organizing exchange of personnel. Management activities WP1 Project management Activities Specific for the Support Action WP2 Renewal and upgrading of S&T Equipment WP3 Conferences WP4 Brokerage events WP5 Advisory Board (AB) Meetings WP6 Courses WP7 Technical visits WP8 Short stays Figure 1 – Hydrogen Laboratories – Hydrogen Production Systems 142 . the Centre aspires to improve its research capacity in the areas of hydrogen production. The project will be completed through the implementation of eight Work Packages and tasks will be realized through a series of activities under the two main headings Management and Activities Specific for the Support Action.Improvement of the S&T Research Capacity of TUBITAK. Expected impact The main goal is to improve the scientific research capacity of national research centre (TÜBITAK MRC) and to create a Centre of Excellence. etc. technical visits. One of the main impacts of this project is to achieve effective networking with other research centres in Member States (MS) or Associated Candidate Countries (ACCs). The approach includes: • Upgrading and renewal of related laboratory equipment • Participation in international conferences • Coordination of national & international brokerage events to enhance the participation in the FP6/FP7 project proposals within Turkey and EU • Advisory board meetings between the Centre and Member States (MS) or Associated Candidate Country (ACC) organizations to identify joint research activities • Training courses for appropriate Centre personnel on select hydrogen technology topics • Technical visits to and short-stays at hydrogen laboratories abroad. purification. Specifically. All activities for each work package are summarized in Table 1. training. improved laboratory infrastructures. conferences. short stays. brokerage events. Energy Institute in the field of Hydrogen Technologies HY-PROSTORE Problems addressed There are no direct R&D objectives on this project. The approach for accomplishing the project objective is multi-faceted. results and joint experiments.
mam.tr/hyprostore www.gov.tr/eng/institutes/ee/ index.65 million Coordinator Dr. Atilla ERSÖZ TÜBITAK – Marmara Research Center Energy Institute TU-41470 Gebze Kocaeli Türkiye Project web-pages www.html Figure 2 – TUBITAK MRC Energy Institute Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Laboratories Progress to date All the activities of the first period of the project were managed and finished successfully.tr www.mam.tr http://www.65 million EC funding € 0.gov. There were also several networking activities during the past 12 months.INFORMATION Contract number 016362 Programme INCO Promotion of co-operation with Associated Candidate Countries Starting date 1st May 2005 Duration 36 months Total cost € 0.mam. 143 .gov.tubitak.gov.
One of their missions is to support the growth of the local economy fostering technology and innovation. Objectives HYTETRA has the aim of supporting European SMEs in incorporating H2 technology and being able to satisfy the new requested technical requirements. but little effort has been made in transferring these technologies. 144 . number of partners. Since the project is not intending to carry out scientific research. These actions are aimed to: • Identify which industrial sectors and sub-sectors could be interested by the new market fostered by Hydrogen. but significant. Support from RTD Centres: the RTD Centres represent the other side of the medal in the technology transfer activity and they are fundamental actors of the process. This also will result in a higher than average number of concluded TTT (trans-national technology transfer) agreements. and supporting their development. have expertise in carrying out TT projects. where needed. Therefore their daily work is carried out in a close contact with the companies. The RTD Centres that will be involved in the project are very well known by the partners and there is a long history of mutual co-operation. too. no specific technical challenges are to be faced. to establish network activities. Expertise in building up efficient supporting initiatives/events: all the partners. much of the emphasis has been given to the improvements produced by hydrogen technology in several fields. analysing their strengths and weaknesses. The proposed project will apply part of the most efficient actions that are usually adopted by IRC Network among a restricted. The innovative idea behind the project is to bundle existing knowledge in hydrogen technologies in Europe and the success factors for efficient trans-national technology transfer in order to initiate crossborder contacts. Technical approach The proposed project methodology takes origin from the ones already consolidated in Innovation Relay Centre Network. Nevertheless all the processes involving technology transfer are implicitly risky and their success depends upon many factors: Knowledge of SMEs: all the partners have a deep knowledge of the industrial tissue in their regions of competence.Hydrogen Technologies Transfer Project HYTETRA Problems addressed To date. to support and. Finally to push SME’s product developments in this technology field. belonging (directly and indirectly) to the Innovation Relay Centre Network. Therefore their engagement will produce beneficial results for the project. They are used to build up initiatives and activities in this field and proved to be very successful in their previous projects.
Therefore Hydrogen. The project aims to achieve 16 Technology Transfer agreements through the organisation of 660 pre-organised meetings that will enable hundred of companies to become aware of the technology progress in the field of Hydrogen. Technology Providers: They will be the “owner” of the technical know how and will drive and suggest SMEs on the best technologies to be implemented. SMEs: They will be the beneficiaries of the projects and will be asked to check their internal needs in perspective of their involvement in the Hydrogen market. for its overall good performance in terms of pollution and efficiency. Several research projects have tried to find out better solutions for efficient national and Trans-national Technology Transfer. organisation of events.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Structuring the European Research Area Research and Innovation Coordinator Marco Mangiantini Camera di Commercio Artigianato Agricoltura di Torino Via Carlo Alberto 16 IT-10123 Partners Coventry University Enterprises Ltd – UK Foundation for the Development of New Hydrogen Technologies in Aragon – ES IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation – SE ZENIT GmbH – DE Expected impact • Identify the technical improvements or changes to be adopted by SMEs in order to supply systems or components that fit with the Hydrogen Technology. which are the most suitable technologies to be adopted. could be a very good alternative to them. • Use the IRC network as a multiplier. They will play the role of catalyser among SMEs and RTD centres. facilitating the interface between them through visits. and coordination of all the actions.eu 145 . present-day society is characterised by problems such as a continually growing demand on few energy sources (hydrocarbons). Faster progress into the hydrogen society Hydrogen and the connected technologies represent one of the most highly debated topics within the world technical and scientific community. There are 3 “actors” relevant to this project: IRCs: The IRCs will carry out all the activities that will concern the technology transfer. From an energy standpoint. what the market requires. …) and in the meantime give the opportunity to meet some of the most important RTD centres in Hydrogen field in order to personally discuss issues under a technical point of view. TTT. without finding the perfect solutions. these sources have an adverse environmental impact both on a local (emission of pollutants) and global (emission of CO2) scale. Furthermore. A success within this area could double the economic growth within the Union. One brokerage event will be organised at the end of the contractual period. publication of technology profiles…. creating dependency. • Create awareness of the sector (which are the trends. • Coordinate European and National/Regional initiatives. The potential impact of the project could be summarized as follows: Trans-national Technology Transfer effects It is well known that the transfer of knowledge from universities and institutes to companies and especially SMEs are not efficient enough. It is also well known that companies with a good network grow faster than companies without. Economic growth for European companies within the emerging hydrogen society field The growth of the hydrogen society is expected to be significant.hytetra. Project web-page www.
They will address: • The build-up of hydrogen production and supply and infrastructure facilities 146 . An action plan for the support of the introduction of hydrogen technologies will be derived from this Roadmap. as renewable energy storage. both transition and long-term hydrogen scenarios will be developed. The assessment framework includes the use of a well-balanced set of models addressing impacts on micro. and the UK). priorities in technology development. These relates to individual geographical and climatic conditions. Poland. Technical approach HyWays comprises two phases of 18 months each. Moreover. • To validate the results of HyWays and to give these stakeholders a say in the process of selecting energy chains and developing realistic and preferable pathways. the analysis is extended to another four countries (Finland. EU balance of trade. This action plan will address issues such as: • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals • Energy diversification in order to reduce dependency on finite energy sources • Anticipated market shares of FC/ICE hydrogen vehicles and small and medium-sized hydrogen fuelled Combined Heat-and-Power (micro-CHP) systems. Germany. Economic impacts analysis Impacts is assessed at micro-. meso and macro level. In the first phase. Objectives HyWays aims to develop a validated and well-accepted roadmap for the introduction of hydrogen in the European energy system. society and environment. including possible synergies between these applications. meso. A further inclusion of 2050 will help to understand the development trends and gradients in 2030. and local policy orientation Scenario development. Policy measures analysis Different policy measures. Infrastructure build-up analysis Estimation of capital investment costs and timescales for the hydrogen infrastructure build-up developed through the scenarios. as well as an analysis of a hydrogen infrastructure build-up. This will lead to recommendations for a European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap reflecting countryspecific conditions in the participating Member States. and training/education. • The penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the transport and power market. Emissions analysis Determining potential GHG and pollutant emission reductions under the given scenarios. Finally. it will describe the effects and impacts of such an introduction on the EU economy. such as carbon trading and differential taxation is analysed for their effects on hydrogen penetration into different markets. Spain. The goal of the national stakeholder workshops is twofold: • To collect information on stakeholder preferences and other country specific conditions. HyWays will propose relevant policy measures. Development of datasets Well-to-Wheel (WtW) or Source-to-User (StU) datasets for hydrogen pathways will be developed and analysed.and macro-economic level. This includes impacts on Gross Domestic Product. Analysis of technology impacts The impacts of technology learning is assessed. For the 2020 and 2030 time horizons. employment creation/substitution as well as security of supply. Greece. Both stationary and mobile applications are addressed. the Netherlands. and for stationary and portable end-use. Italy.European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap HYWAYS Problems addressed HyWays combines expert and stakeholder discussions with technology databases and socio-techno-economic analysis to evaluate selected stakeholder scenarios for future sustainable hydrogen energy systems. and Norway). In the second phase. a key-changes and actor mapping exercise. Stakeholder interaction Validation workshops both within the consortium and with wider stakeholder groups in the participating countries play a crucial role in the HyWays process. an analysis of the introduction of hydrogen was performed for six countries (France.
• For six member states. the process will be repeated for another four member states (Finland. In the presently ongoing Phase II of HyWays the following activities are under way: • Finalisation of the actor analysis. the build-up of supply infrastructure and end-use technologies will be integrated into a proposal for a European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap for the participating areas. 2030 and 2050. In the second phase of HyWays. In Phase II. a country specific analysis has been performed in HyWays Phase I. preferred hydrogen production and infrastructure technologies. the assessment framework as developed and applied in Phase I will be used again.de 147 .9 million EC funding € 4. • Evaluation of the process as well as contents produced in Phase I of the HyWays project. • Identification of open issues not yet covered.A. the aggregated Member State specific results for GHG emissions. Poland. the emphasis was on the development and validation of the assessment framework. Project web-page www. S. – ES SenterNovem – NL Statkraft Development AS Total France – FR Université Louis Pasteur – FR Vattenfall Europe – DE VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland – FI Western Norway Research Institute – NO Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung – DE Expected impact For the timeframes 2020. • The development of a common framework to derive a general EU-wide roadmap based on member state specific analyses.INFORMATION Contract number 502596 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st April 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 7. Höchst KG – DE Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial – ES Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica – Instituto Superior Técnico – PT Linde AG – DE Norsk Hydro – NO Repsol YPF. and United Kingdom).hyways. – ES Adam Opel AG – DE Air Liquide – FR Air Products – UK BMW AG – DE BP plc – UK Centre for Research and Technology Hellas – EL DaimlerChrysler AG – DE Department of Trade and Industry – UK Det Norske Veritas – NO Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH – DE Electricité de France – FR ENEA – IT Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands – NL Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research – DE French Atomic Energy Commission – FR GE Oil & Gas Nuovo Pignone – IT Glówny Instytut Górnictwa – PL Hydrogenics Europe – BE HyGear – NL Infraserv GmbH & Co.0 million Coordinator Reinhold Würster Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH Daimlerstrasse 15 DE-85521 Ottobrunn Germany Partners Acciona Biocumbustibles S.A. In the first phase of HyWays. Spain.
endorse the adoption of individual approaches from each other. the project aims at an in-depth assessment and comparison of the individual elements of the national/ regional strategies. micro-. The learning effects for each IPHE partner are expected to be an important outcome from these comparative and benchmarking exercises hence leading to a better alignment of the road mapping activities.and macro-economic modelling. Whenever applicable a benchmarking between individual models (e.S. running from months 10 through 18. modelling approaches and experiences in the EU and the U. and progress. Thereby the understanding about the ongoing activities should be improved among the partners to find to a common language and mutual understanding and thus nurturing an alignment of international approaches as well as a worldwide scenario. active between months 16 and 24. comparative activities in STEP 1 as well as for the reviews of the different state of maturity of the systems analyses and road mapping activities achieved by the different IPHE partners participating in STEP 2. Benchmarking runs of the models will be performed. the project aims to broaden its scope within IPHE by including and involving other IPHE partner countries such as Japan. WP3 and WP4). the jointly developed understanding on modelling techniques and approaches as well as on stakeholder interactions will be presented to and exchanged with other IPHE member countries in workshops.S. This may include tasks and goals of expected results. etc. The implementation of institutional and personal exchange under the patronage of IPHE is one of the expected outcomes of this work package. India etc. This will include infrastructure analysis. Technical approach The project is structured in three main phased work packages (WP2. will be compared during months 1 through 12. communication with stakeholders and dissemination activities. work and getting them engaged in this process. especially through benchmarked lessons learned for avoiding mistakes. In WP3.S. In WP4. for the EU-US case: E3database and H2A+GREET) may be performed using generic datasets. infrastructure analysis and stakeholder consultation efforts and the scenarios and roadmap drafts developed. in-depth technology analysis / assessment. Modellers from the different nations/world regions shall compare in detail their models and experiences in dedicated workshops in order to foster a better mutual understanding of the models and their contribution to the hydrogen road mapping process. basis for scenario development.© ZERO REGIO Benchmarking of the European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap with International Partners HyWays Problems addressed In a first step. introducing these partners into the EUU. The deliverables of the project will be reports presenting the results and presentations of the assessment and comparison activities. In a second step. eliminating redundancies.S. timelines. modelling assumptions for the E3database in Europe and for H2A and GREET in the U.g. meso. cash flow analysis. Future hydrogen roadmap development and proceeding implementation efforts in these partner countries shall benefit from the results. 148 . interfaces and interaction between the different types of models used. facilitate the exchange of the methodologies and. HyWaysIPHE plans to get other IPHE partner countries with road mapping activities in the field of hydrogen engaged in discussions and exchanges of experience between the regions as well as implementing institutional and personal exchanges in this field under the patronage of IPHE. HyWays-IPHE Objectives The HyWays-IPHE project intends to compare road mapping and systems analysis activities in Europe and the USA. both IPHE partners. inefficiencies and removing. Key assumptions adopted in the running HyWays project [SES6 502596] as well as first conclusions drawn may become cornerstones around which to compare the different modelling approaches. models used. taking into account infrastructure / resource analysis. In WP2. actor analysis. a comparison of further models and approaches will be performed. and stakeholder consultation in road mapping processes. where applicable. macro-systems models. stakeholders involved. Well-to-Wheels (WtW) analyses. process related issues. stakeholder consultation processes. for both the bilateral EU-U. China. model methodologies. unfounded frictions and misunderstandings between the different approaches and underlying drivers. The results are also expected to provide broadly proven and consented common elements of approaches on how to implement hydrogen technologies and infrastructures efficiently. Workshops will be held.
key changes and actor mapping.A.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Reinhold Würster Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH Daimlerstrasse 15 DE-85521 Ottobrunn Germany Partners Acciona Biocombustibles S. etc. The HyWays-IPHE project will set the ground for the establishment of a global understanding of the necessary instruments.A. together with facilitation of global alignment of hydrogen road mapping activities and on structuring international activities among IPHE member countries will provide the IPHE Implementation and Liaison Committee with guidance for the next steps. – IT National Renewable Energy Laboratory – USA Total France – FR Expected impact The goal of the HyWays-IPHE project is to develop recommendations for the preparation of an International Hydrogen Roadmap. stakeholder consultation processes on road mapping. as a basic element for a clean and energy effective mobility and a better pathway for hydrogen economy penetration. in depth hydrogen technologies assessment enriched by feedback from early hydrogen demonstration projects. Presentations at various national and international workshops and publications will also increase public awareness of the availability of these new tools (infrastructure / transition analysis. Both the EU and the U. The recommendations on how to proceed. their application in road mapping activities and their international alignment in preparing and facilitating the introduction of Hydrogen application technologies. Project web-page www. This will contribute to the sustainable development of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies and their diffusion. – ES DaimlerChrysler – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Commission JRC-IE Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research – DE Instituto Superior Técnico – PT GE Oil & Gas Nuovo Pignone S. micro-.p. meso and macro-economic modelling.org 149 .hyways-iphe.).S. resource analysis. have a good experience in hydrogen road mapping but only at national/continental scale.
5 MW solar tower.Innovative High Temperature Routes For Hydrogen Production Coordinated Action INNOHYP CA Problems addressed The growth of global energy demand and the necessity to reduce GHG emissions will require the introduction of new and universal energy carriers with hydrogen from low emission sources being the most promising. organise it. the other WPs (“WP1: Definition of Methodology”. The work has five major objectives: • Investigation of the existing knowledge on high temperature processes and comparison with other innovative ideas for massive scale hydrogen production. and process it into a roadmap for actions necessary to develop high temperature technologies for sustainable massive hydrogen production. Since the industrial technologies for the massive scale production of GHG free hydrogen are not available yet. • Offer support to the European Hydrogen and Fuel-cell Technology Platform. • To propose the coordination of the European activities at the International level specifically with the IEA and the IPHE and to establish a strong connection between Europe and Australia through the national Australian project SolarGas of CSIRO on solar steam reforming of methane. INNOHYP-CA will provide the necessary information for Europe to develop and integrate its actions in a most efficient way into a sustainable hydrogen economy. • Creation of a platform for sharing and coordinating the results of the Specific Targeted Research Projects (STREP) on high temperature hydrogen production in progress to start clustering the innovative ways. Expected impact INNOHYP-CA will support decisions on how to develop technologies for massive scale hydrogen production from research to industrial application. “WP3: Roadmap”) are structured to efficiently acquire sufficient information. and the present research environment is analysed. 150 . particularly in a greenhouse-constrained world. Progress to date Since the project is in its final phase most of the tasks have been completed. Preliminary results show that the potential for high temperature processes to play a major role for massive scale hydrogen production is extremely high. medium and longterm research programmes. Besides the general topics of “WP4: Communication & dissemination of results” and “WP5: Co-ordination and Management”. “WP2: State of the Art”. The data acquired and evaluated will be processed into a roadmap that proposes actions for future research and development activities to realise a fast and efficient implementation of a sustainable hydrogen economy based on advanced large scale high temperature processes. The principles and methodology of the roadmap are defined and the final roadmap is currently under construction. Objectives INNOHYP CA aims to coordinate efforts on the knowledge of sustainable hydrogen production technologies and to propose a roadmap for short. In the short-to-medium term. zero-emission energy Technical approach The project is organised in five workpackages. including the set-up of a 0. One of the biggest challenges is the comparative assessment of technologies with severe differences in maturity and wide bands of uncertainty. Necessary breakthroughs for the most promising technologies are identified as well as knock-out criteria. The state of the art of high temperature processes is available and includes data an all research initiatives accomplished in Europe and Australia. focused effort must be spent in their development. and to support the road-mapping in Europe mainly by HYWAYS. • Define the needs and propose the research activities needed in the future up to consolidation of industrial production.
the question of the heat-sources and their temperature limits must be answered.empre. as well as the time schedule and the cost for their introduction. materials issues.php 151 . In the medium-to-long term. – DE Empresarios Agrupados – ES Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie. These energy intensive processes require low-cost and readily available energy sources.es/innohyp/index. Duration 27 months Total cost € 0. and product separation must be checked to avoid dead-end pathways.INFORMATION Contract number 513550 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st September 2004 can be used to upgrade hydrocarbons as a transition from carbon-based to carbon-free hydrogen production and drastically reduce CO2 emissions in a competitive way compared with capture and sequestration technologies. Specifically. Knock-out criteria like irreversibilities and the prevalence of side reactions.V. Medioambientales y Tecnologicas – ES Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation – AU Deutsches Zentrum für Luft -und Raumfahrt e. l’Energia e l’Ambiente – IT European Commission – JRC-IE Sheffield University – UK Project web-page https://eagw.5 million Coordinator François Le Naour Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Avenue des Martyrs 17 FR-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 France Partners Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas. It is recommended that a few of the most promising processes should be developed into large-scale demonstration. nuclear and renewable energy will be used to conduct water splitting via high temperature electrolysis and thermochemical cycles. Worldwide efforts in this area should be pooled as in the nuclear energy sector to generate synergies. The phase of thermodynamic studies on hydrogen production processes is now largely completed.62 million EC funding € 0. Technical developments must now be achieved to demonstrate the feasibility of the processes. temperature limits.
Nanocomposite approach in developing 300-600°C LTSOFCs 152 . thus power outputs. see a picture on right from the 3rd Sino-Swedish ILTSOFC workshop. promoting the trans-tech. superior performance FCs to increase the marketability. • Networking efforts in EU level and cooperation with China by integrating critical mass to speed up the FC R&D and commercializing process. thus tremendously reducing SOFC working temperature from 1000°C to 300-600°C. The project is based on existing SinoSwedish IT/LTSOFC (intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cell) network cooperation with prominent research institutions in EU and Turkey. to enhance significantly the FC charge carrier concentrations. resulting in excellent LTSOFC technology.Fundamentals on interfacial phenomena and theories on nano. workshops. Project technical approaches are: • Application of nanotechnology to fuel cells creating ultra low cost. allowing researchers to reach these equipments will boost research capacity. and research achievements to industry and establishing new ways of production research in cooperation with China. 10-1 Scm-1 at 500°C (comparable to YSZ conductivity at 1000°C). Objectives The project aims to enhance research capacities on nanotechnology. • To establish and develop network mechanisms and make joint efforts targeting the problems/challenges. opportunities and potentials. An example is the Sino-Swedish IT/LTSOFC network involving 20 Swedish and Chinese academic and industrial partners. • Innovations in materials and technical approaches of nanocomposite LTSOFCs to explore new FC commercial routes. exchanging and sharing personnel. The EU-level networking NANOCOFC will carry out the world leading R&D activities in the addressed areas. organizing the seminars and EC-China NANOCOFC (nanocomposite LTSOFCs) workshops.Superionic conduction in interfaces between the constituent phases of the composite (see Figure 1).Dual H+/O2. • Correspondingly new interesting research fields are growing: . • The innovative approaches for material and advanced FC technology: LTSOFC. Raising public participation and awareness.conduction and next generation fuel cell (FC) technology.and nanocomposite ionics . meetings. . see also previous Fig. • Organize and motivate NANOCOFC studies: .conduction.. and aims at networking research cooperation and joint activities. and dual phase O2-/H+ conduction. Nanocomposite approach has created superionic conductivity. resources and research methodologies. Expected impact • To establish EC-China NANOCOFC network and a database for existing human and equipment potential in EU and organizing activities such as seminars. multi-functional materials and advanced applications. Technical approach The project network consists of: • Seven Europe countries. These are our unique advantages and advanced LTSOFCs not reported by others. Innovations and advances are created on the multi-functional nano-composites possessing superionic and dual (hybrid) H+/O2.Development of advanced nanocomposites and multi-functional materials . developing centres’ infrastructure and research or innovation strategies. mobilizing senior and young scientists in cooperation with the FC and nanotechnology areas. This interfacial superionic conduction mechanism in composites is advanced with much lower activation energy and continuous transport channels compared to the conventional single-phase materials. 800-1000 mWcm-2 at 500-580°C. superior performance FC systems to increase marketability. summer courses. one United Nations’ organisation and four Chinese participants selected from the Sino-Swedish IT/LTSOFC network. information.Enhancement of Research Capabilities on Multi-functional Nanocomposites for Advanced Fuel Cell Technology through EU-Turkish-China Cooperation NANOCOFC Problems addressed • Creation of ultra low cost. which guarantee successful applications.
• In addition to an industrial IT/LTSOFC network involving Sweden (EU). • Establishing EC-China NANOCOFC network. such as nanocomposite ionic conductors. Project web-page www. interfacial superionic conduction. to setup future production base using plentiful resources to commercialize the EU technology/products as the world most competitive products. seminars and website development will provide better dissemination of knowledge and expertise available in the participating institutions. the workshops. • The Sino-Swedish IT/LTSOFC network.se/avdelningar/krt 153 . dual or hybrid H+/O2.conduction. EU and China. nanocomposite ionics.kth. China and USA. engineering and producing to provide the solution and feasibility to develop marketable FC technologies. • To raise public participation and awareness and impacts on China. • Exchanging accumulated knowledge of the parties.Material and device processing. • It opens many new interesting research subjects.ket. new LTSOFC electrolytes and technologies based on innovative material advantages in addition to new and advanced technologies/applications.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme NMP Coordinator Dr Bin Zhu Royal Institute of Technology Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology SE-100 44 Stockholm Sweden Partners Dalian Maritime University – CHN ENEA-CR Casaccia – IT European Commission – JRC-IE GETT Fuel Cell International AB – SE Helsinki University of Technology – FI International Center of Hydrogen Technologies – United Nations Nigde University – TR Shanghai Shenli High-Technology Ltd – CHN Tsinghua University – CHN University of Ulster – UK Universidade de Aveiro – PT University of Science & Technology of China – CHN Progress to date . • Invented materials play an important role in developing next generation FC technology: LTSOFCs.
The project is structured to fit with the activities of HyLights. specifically to stimulate growth in Hydrogen and Fuel Cell markets via the research agenda. Roads2HyCom assesses the European state of the art relative to infrastructures. Assessment. Objectives Roads2HyCom is a project to coordinate. relative to the needs of early-adopting communities and the stakeholders who will support them. support the Commission in the monitoring and coordination of 154 . while Roads2Hycom focuses on identifying opportunities for research activities relative to the needs of Hydrogen Communities. ongoing and future research and demonstration activities. within an integrated EU strategy. along with the Coordination Action HyLights. Outputs from the project will support the Commission and Technology Platform (HFP) in future planning activities. Deployment and Support to HyCOM Roads2HyCom Problems addressed Engineering the transition to a sustainable energy economy is one of the greatest challenges ever faced by society.Research co-Ordination. objective approach that employs “metrics” to assess technology and infrastructure gaps against community needs. albeit in a framework of future environmental pressures. The new technologies must ultimately compete with those in use today. in order to identify where research effort is needed to close the gaps and exploit opportunities. assess and monitor research in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells. Roads2HyCom maps technology capability against hydrogen resources and community needs using a unique. Technical approach Roads2HyCom. resources and the expected needs of early adopters. The two projects are complementary – HyLights focuses on the preparation of large-scale demonstration for transport applications.
and public-domain summary information suitable for the non-expert. Outputs will include: • Expert-level Technical Reports from each stage of the process. and review of HFP planning outputs. recommendations for the Higher Education agenda. discussions on Financing issues.roads2hy. initial assessment of technology state of the art. structures. an assessment of the similar US DoE activity. • Hydrogen Community Manuals backed up by a decision-making guide tool to help match communities and technologies. • Web-based maps and calendars of research activities. key events. It has developed preliminary project deliverables including a mapping of researchers.8 million EC funding € 4. West Sussex UK-BN43 5FG United Kingdom Partners Air Liquide – FR Air Products – UK Airbus – DE AVL – AT Centre Cortes – RU Centro Ricerche FIAT – IT College d’Europe – BE Coretec Ventures – UK CRES – EL DaimlerChrysler – DE Element Energy – UK EnergieTechnologie – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Commission – JRC-IE FEV Motorentechnik – DE Gaz de France – FR Icelandic New Energy Intelligent Energy – UK Institite of Energy – PL Institut Francais du Pétrole – FR JBRC Prague University – CZ Norsk Hydro – NO NTDA – ES PLANET – DE Risø – DK RWTH Aachen IKA – DE TNO – NL Volvo Technology – SE Progress to date In its first year. and initial collation of information on prospective hydrogen communities. Project web-page www. financing and governance to support the development of hydrogen communities via the research agenda. together with HyLights. support the Commission and HFP in planning for Framework Seven and beyond. mapping of infrastructures and resources. Duration 36 months Total cost € 7. • Training packages for marginal stakeholders – Technical and non-technical issues. Roads2HyCom has supported the Commission in the 2005 “Review Days” event.com 155 . incorporating recommendations for research needs.5 million Coordinator Nick Owen Ricardo UK Ltd Shoreham-by-Sea. milestones.INFORMATION Contract number 019723 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 16th October 2005 Expected impact Roads2HyCom will.
mainly based in the indicative targets prescribed by the IPHE 156 . ENERDATA and CNRS/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique LEPII-EPE ran. even without accelerated hydrogen technology deployment. The key messages of this report can be summarized as follows: • A Reference projection to the year 2050 indicates that. The Institute for Prospective Technology Study – JRC/IPTS was responsible of the preparation of the technology breakthroughs to be considered in the EU strategy. which was described by the BfP. structured around 3 scenarios that have been used to describe options for technology and climate policies in the next half-century: • “Reference projection” that describes the developments of the world energy system up to 2050 and the related CO2 emissions. the conditions attached to the development of a “hydrogen economy” and the simulation of a related scenario. supply and price in the period to 2050. JRC/IPTS ran the “hydrogen case”. finally. and the world energy/ technology outlook report will be published shortly. which has been significantly improved to cope with the project objectives. specifically in charge of the model adaptation. France) (project coordinator) • CNRS/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique LEPII-EPE (Grenoble. Belgium) • Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands)/SPRU (England) The work plan consisted of 4 work packages: • WP1: Production of a world energy/technology reference case to 2050 • WP2: Assessment of technological breakthroughs • WP3: Evaluation of EU strategies • WP4: Production of the long-term world energy/technology outlook report. This study has been carried out with the Prospective Outlook on World Energy Systems (POLES) energy model. • “H2 case” that has been developed. Spain) • Bureau Fédéral du Plan (Brussels. Five teams were involved: • ENERDATA (Grenoble. The projections and the evaluations will be made in a quantitative way using the POLES model – a global sectoral model of the world energy system. The “reference case” and the “carbon constraint case”. ENERDATA was the overall co-ordinator of the project and contributed to the work on the POLES model. in association with CNRS/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique LEPII-EPE which was more Progress to date The project led to the production of a longterm world energy and technology outlook report. In addition. • “Carbon constraint case” the description of the impact on this world energy system of constraint on CO2 emissions. Such projections are vital for long-range energy strategy development and to support international negotiations.World Energy Technology Outlook 2050 WETO-H2 Problems addressed A comprehensive reference document is needed to outline the situation of Europe in the long-term outlook for world energy demand. studying the conditions for a development of hydrogen as an energy carrier. assessing the impact of the implementation of stronger policies to constrain CO2 emissions and. from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2005. the impact various technological breakthroughs could make over the next half-century needs to be assessed. some penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier would take place at world level by that date. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands and SPRU developed an electricity portfolio optimization adapted on the POLES model. Objectives The WETO-H2 study had various objectives: describing the future world energy system up to 2050 within a framework of minimal climate change policies (including renewable energy). • An “optimistic” hydrogen energy technology characterisation. mostly through the extension of the model time horizon from 2030 to 2050 and the introduction of hydrogen production and consumption technologies. Technical approach The project lasted 2 years. France) • JRC/IPTS (Sevilla.
Electricity production The move to a hydrogen economy induces further changes in the structure of generation. however. • The hydrogen production mix. 157 . Around 90% of hydrogen is used in transport. Around 80% of the cars using hydrogen are powered by fuel cells.fraunhofer.39 million Coordinator Bruno Lapillonne ENERDATA S. worldwide GHG reductions. A presentation of the results can be viewed at: http://www. • The hydrogen deployment scenarios represent a significant change within the transportation sector.fr The world energy system in the H2 case The hydrogen scenario The hydrogen scenario is derived from the carbon constraint case. whose effects in terms of welfare and GDP gain seem not negligible. leading to GHG concentration stabilization around the UNFCCC B2 scenarios. The share of fossil fuels in 2050 is less than 60%. there are significant changes in the fuel mix compared to the Reference case. Total energy demand As in the carbon constraint case.de/trias/workshopfeb-2006. • Technological bottlenecks are seemingly more severe in the consumption and distribution side than in the production side. production increases ten-fold to 1 Gtoe / year. The assumptions made on progress for the key hydrogen technologies are deliberately very optimistic. the deployment of hydrogen seems to be entirely compatible with ambitious. The share of nuclear and renewable energy increases. From 2030 to 2050. In the longrun. driven by substantial reductions in the cost of the technologies for producing hydrogen and the demand-pull in the transport sector. carbon free electricity seems to prevail.INFORMATION Contract number 501669 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st January 2004 and European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform delivers a significant penetration of hydrogen. representing a share of 36% of the consumption of the sector by 2050. would entirely depend on the intensity of the carbon emission constraints.46 million EC funding € 0. compared to 2% in the Reference case. hydrogen production based on primary. The availability of abundant and relatively cheap hydrogen as a transportation fuel would facilitate a steady (even iif modest) growth in the energy transportation demand.isi. Thermal electricity production continues to grow and is associated with CCS (66% of electricity generation from fossil fuels in 2050). mainly in the transportation sector. but also assumes a series of technology breakthroughs that significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen technologies.enerdata. in particular in end-use. with a drop of the demand for coal drops compared to the Reference case. Hydrogen production and use The use of hydrogen takes-off after 2030. the share of nuclear reaches 38% and the share of renewables about 30%. especially between 2030 and 2050. By 2050. hydrogen provides 13% of final energy consumption. 2 Avenue de Vignate FR-38610 Gieres France Partners Bureau Fédéral du Plan de Belgique – BE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL European Commission – JRC-IPTS Polish Academy of Sciences MEERI – PL University of Sussex SPRU – UK Project web-page http://www. The share of renewable energy in hydrogen production is 50% and that of nuclear is 40%. partly because of the high carbon values across the world and partly because of the increased demand for hydrogen.A.htm Duration 24 months Total cost € 0. • Under appropriate policy setup.
• Scenario calculations to simulate the impact of certain initiatives on the market demand of alternative motor fuels.premia-eu. • Review of on-going support projects to accelerate R&D in the field of alternative motor fuels and to demonstrate the technology and the definition of a common framework for assessment. dissemination. focus on hydrogen for transport applications. Specific measures will be related to the market maturity of the technology and the country dependent situation.org 158 . • Definition of options for cost efficient measures to stimulate the market demand of alternative motor fuels. dissemination. Demonstration and Incentive Programmes Effectiveness to Facilitate and Secure Market Introduction of Alternative Motor Fuels PREMIA Technical approach Literature review State of the art of AMF. Modelling Scenario calculations for the introduction of AMF in the EU and policy recommendations.R&D. focus on biofuels for transport applications. project listing. development of indicators. INFORMATION Contract number 503081 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st June 2004 Duration 36 months Total cost € 1. • Dissemination of policy recommendations and suggestions to facilitate and secure the market introduction of alternative motor fuels. • Description of country-specific boundaries which impact the potential for AMF market introduction. • Review of initiatives outside the EU and international cooperation to develop common assessment framework for R&D and demonstration actions. development of indicators to describe the market maturity of alternative motor fuels (AMF). Local workshops National boundary conditions for introduction AMF and policy measures. Specific focus is given to the assessment of demonstration actions to promote hydrogen as a transport fuel in the long term and market incentives to promote the use of biofuels in the short term. • Evaluation of past and on-going national incentive programmes.0 million Coordinator Leen Govaerts VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research Belgium Partners Centre for Research Hellas CERTH-HIT – EL European Commission – JRC-IPTS SETREF South-East European Transport Research Forum – EL VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland – FI Project web-page http://www. incentive programs. International workshops International cooperation on assessment framework.0 million EC funding € 1. Objectives PREMIA’s objective is to investigate the cost effectiveness of policy measures on alternative motor fuels and to give appropriate policy recommendations on the national and international level to support the market transition to alternative motor fuels. Expected impact • Description of market maturity and technical prospects of alternative motor fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The development of an assessment framework will be done in cooperation with international partners. Expert interviews Effectiveness of ongoing and past RD&D.
• Pre-commercial manufacturing lines will be set up to reduce costs as well as to improve quality. Technical approach The following four-step approach will be implemented. innovation activities. leading to the demonstration of hydrogen and the fuel cell economy at a European scale. providing favourable conditions for achieving a significant reduction both in manufacturing and operating costs. all powered by hydrogen fuel cells. nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. Increasing the security of energy supplies Security of energy supplies is a major concern for the European Union due to the dependence on imported oil. • A network of comparable subprojects using the common demonstration vehicles will be implemented in the four regions of Europe. including small utility vehicles. dispensing) will be established based on an even exchange of innovative refillable storage solution. Germany and Italy) operating on hydrogen as an alternative fuel. including fossil fuels. The project will start from existing prototypes of five low power fuel cell applications that: 160 . research and also management actions. scooters and cargo-bikes. has a great potential for reduction of greenhouse gases compared to combustion engines. demonstration. The development of all these sub-projects involves a wide field of activities. distribution. including development. thus promoting diversification and distributed generation. Improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy Some of the Hydrogen used in the HYCHAIN MINI-TRANS project will be locally produced from renewable energy sources. Objectives The HYCHAIN-MINITRANS Project will allow citizens from four European Community regions to test a group of more than 150 small urban vehicles. This project will also demonstrate the use of innovative logistics for hydrogen distribution. It is the ultimate objective of HYCHAIN-MINITRANS to bridge this gap between R&D and early market development by deployment of several fleets of innovative fuel cell vehicles in four regions in Europe (in France. • Are optimised in design and functionality. wheelchairs.Deployment of innovative low power fuel cell vehicle fleets to initiate an early market for hydrogen as an alternative fuel in Europe HYCHAIN-MINITRANS Problems addressed Reducing greenhouse gases The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier and to the use of highly-efficient and clean energy conversion devices (fuel cells). The HYCHAIN MINI-TRANS project is composed of a network of sub-projects. The deployment will enable a large and wide variety of end users to be attained in a cost effective way. Spain. minibuses. • The required hydrogen distribution logistics and services (transport. Hydrogen opens access to a broad range of primary energy sources.
org 161 . HYCHAIN-MINITRANS will launch a first commercial hydrogen model with the financial participation of the end users from the local communities. Therefore. – ES Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR DemoCenter Centro Servizi por l’Innovazione SCARL – IT Ediciones y servicios escolares Domenech SA – ES CIEMAT – Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas.S. Medioambientales y Tecnológicas – ES Enkat GmbH – DE Federazione delle Associazioni Scientifiche e Techniche – IT Iberdrola SA – ES Institut National de l’Evironnement et des Risques – FR Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble – FR Masterflex AG – DE Moroni Autoservice SRL – IT Nacional Motor S. The project will set up pre-commercial manufacturing lines to reduce costs as well as to improve quality. the first two years of the project are being dedicated to the optimisation and homologation of the vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure. Umwelt. Market-orientated hydrogen distribution logistics and services will be established based on an even exchange of innovative refillable storage solutions. Finally.INFORMATION Contract number 020006 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 5th January 2006 Total cost € 37. For this purpose. – ES Universidad San Pablo-CEU – ES Wuppertal Institut für Klima. The 158 units to be deployed and the full hydrogen infrastructure shall be ready in January 2008.U. Project web-page www.L. more than 2000 refill storage units using innovative high pressure gaseous hydrogen technology will be designed.hychain.A. The innovation activities are also playing a key role in the first months of the project. – FR Rücker Lypsa S.A. the fleets are based on similar modular technology platforms in a variety of applications to achieve a large enough volume of vehicles that allow for an industrial approach to lower costs and overcome major cross sectional barriers. certified and deployed to obtain a representative sample and achieve a critical mass sufficient to seed an early market. Progress to date Started in January 2006.0 million Coordinator Philippe Paulmier Axane Fuel Cell Systems Rue de Clémencière 15 FR-38360 Sassenage France Partners Air Liquide Germany – DE Air Liquide Italy – IT Air Liquide Spain – ES Association de Surveillance et de Contrôle de la Pollution Atmosphérique – FR Besel S. Energie – DE WiN Emscher-Lippe Gesellschaft zur Strukturverbesserung mbH – DE Expected impact HYCHAIN-MINITRANS will provide attractive solutions for clean light transport by optimising existing prototypes of five fuel cell applications in the power range of 250W to 10 kW.65 million EC funding € 17. particularly the dissemination activities and the intellectual property protection.A. – ES PaxiTech S.
Madrid. • Development. These are illustrated in Figure 1. including investments in publicprivate partnerships. authorities and NGOs enabling them to take key decisions on various issues within their areas of responsibility. Objectives The core objectives of the overall project are: • Reduction of the energy and fuel consumption of the whole public transport bus transportation system through the use of hydrogen. • Education and training of new European Union member states on the advantages of H2 as a fuel in combination with ICE and FC propulsion systems. • Design. demonstration. construction and successful operation of 14 hydrogen ICE buses. and progressive optimisation of their energy efficiency and reliability. Hamburg. • Design. and hydrogen powered stationary fuel cells are used to power the site and to feed excess power back into the electricity grid. politicians. Beijing (China). London. construction and operation of a highly innovative integrated “hydrogen refuelling station of the future” where the hydrogen is provided through multiple production paths. • Deliver data and recommendations to the EC to underpin possible future revisions of the Community’s energy or environment policies. Figure 1 – HyFLEET:CUTE Project key areas 162 . • Design. construction. Luxembourg. Barcelona. • Design. construction and testing of the prototype of the next generation of hydrogen fuel cell bus. training and dissemination”. • Design. construction and operation of 14 hydrogen powered internal combustion engine buses for Berlin (4 naturally aspirated engines. based on sound facts. 10 turbo-charged engines). testing and demonstration of a highly energy efficient next generation fuel cell bus prototype. optimisation and testing of existing hydrogen infrastructure. • Successful operation of fuelling stations at 10 city sites on three continents around the world. • Development and testing of a new hydrogen refuelling infrastructure including an integrated refuelling station with gaseous hydrogen produced from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and stationary fuel cells powering the site. Expected impact • Successful operation of 33 fuel cell buses to achieve distances travelled and hours of operation far greater than in any other fuel cell vehicle project anywhere in the world. Perth (Western Australia). Technical approach The project is active in four key areas: “Research. Reykjavik.Hydrogen for Clean Urban Transport in Europe HyFLEET:CUTE Problems addressed • Operation of 33 hydrogen fuel cell powered buses in 9 cities on three continents around the world – Amsterdam. • Deliver a comprehensive set of data and information to industrial stakeholders. • Analysing and predicting public opinion on the risks and advantages associated with hydrogen and hydrogen powered transport systems.
– NL Technische Universität Berlin – DE TOTAL Deutschland GmbH – DE Transports de Barcelona S.V.com 163 .A. Progress to date • 33 Fuel Cell buses in operation in 7 European Cities as well as in Beijing. • Train non-consortium parties on hydrogen technologies and the potential benefits to energy savings. Western Australia • First 2 hydrogen ICE buses handed over to transport authority in Berlin and in operation • Hydrogen fuelling stations at all 10 sites in operation • Web site for the project established and being rapidly developed • Initial project pamphlet in print • Initial Project Decision Makers’ Forum held in Melbourne Australia • Project wide safety and quality Incident reporting and analysing system established • Project wide data management and evaluation system established. – UK MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG – DE MVV Consulting GmbH – DE NEOMAN Bus – DE Norsk Hydro ASA – NO PE Europe GmbH – DE PLANET – Planungsgruppe Energie und Technik GbR – DE Repsol YPF – ES Shell Hydrogen B. – IS Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade Técnica de Lisboa – PT London Bus Services Ltd. and minimizing environment damage from greenhouse and other emissions. China. politicians and senior decision makers and to provide supplementary information in a format that can assist future policy developments. – ES Universität Stuttgart – DE University of Iceland – IS Vattenfall Europe Berlin – DE Vattenfall Europe Hamburg – DE © MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG • Disseminate results to key stakeholders. – UK BVG – DE China FCB Demonstration Project Management Office – CHN Department for Planning and Infrastructure. and in Perth.16 million EC funding € 19 million Coordinator Monika Kentzler DaimlerChrysler AG Fuel Cell Drive System Development RBP/F Neue Strasse 95 DE-73230 Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern Germany Partners Air Liquide – FR Autobus de la Ville de Luxembourg – LU BP Gas Marketing Ltd. Government of Western Australia – AU Empresa Municipal de Transportes de Madrid – ES Euro Keys – BE EvoBus GmbH – DE GVB – NL Hamburger Hochbahn AG – DE Hydrogenics Europe N.global-hydrogen-bus-platform.INFORMATION Contract number 52298 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 10th January 2006 Total cost € 43. Project web-page www.V. energy self sufficiency. – BE Islensk NyOrka ehf Icelandic New Energy Ltd.
Experience gained during the fleet tests and the results obtained in the project will contribute to the short and medium time frame objective of the European Commission of replacing 5% of motor fuel in road transport by hydrogen by the year 2020. For gas refuelling a 350 bar and a 700 bar dispenser will be employed. Hydrogen Sources • Chemical plant by-product • “On-site” reforming of methane • Industrial production Infrastructure • High pressure transport line • Refuelling dispensers for compressed Hydrogen and liquid Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Fleets • F-Cell. The demonstration phase of the project will be accompanied by an evaluation of the data acquired during the fleet tests with respect to energy efficiency. The project is intended as an exemplar to demonstrate how 5% hydrogen substitution of fossil transport fuels can take place by 2020. Italy Objectives The Zero Regio project consists of construction and demonstration of hydrogen infrastructure in two European regions for supplying fuel cell passenger cars. Germany and Mantova. The reformer will produce hydrogen from natural gas at the service station. The project combines 16 Partners from 4 EU countries and uses a range of hydrogen sources. A dispenser unit for hydrogen gas at 300 bar will be built and integrated in the public multi-fuel service station to be built within the project. After the construction of hydrogen infrastructure fuel cell vehicles (F-Cell. 164 . The service station will supply liquid hydrogen at -253°C as well as compressed hydrogen gas. The project aims at developing and demonstrating zero emission road transport systems in normal daily use for the European cities.Lombardia and Rhein-Main towards Zero Emission: Development and Demonstration of Infrastructure Systems for Hydrogen as an Alternative Motor Fuel ZERO REGIO Technical approach Total execution period for this important EU project is 5 years. Specific Objectives for the project are as follows: • Use of Hydrogen from different sources as an alternative transport fuel • Development and demonstration of 700 bar refuelling technology • Integration of Hydrogen fillers in conventional service stations • Demonstration of reliability of Fuel Cell cars in different applications • Socio-economic and environmental assessment of using Hydrogen as a motor-fuel. infrastructure configurations and vehicles in two different locations. A-class (DaimlerChrysler) • Panda (Fiat) Demonstration Locations • Frankfurt. A large hydrogen source (30 Mm3/y) is available at the Höchst industry park as a chemical plant by-product. In Lombardia hydrogen will be available from a central production facility and from an “On-Site” reformer facility developed within the project. This source will be connected via a 2 km long transport line to a public service station to supply hydrogen for vehicle fueling. class-A from Daimler-Chrysler in Rhein-Main) will be driven in normal daily use in different applications. environmental impact and socio-economic aspects.
Heinrich Lienkamp Infraserv GmbH & Co. Project web-page www. Höchst industry park.p. Hydrogen) service station in Italy expected in month 19-20 for the service station in Germany expected in month 19 for the high pressure H2-transport line in Germany • Detailed infrastructure component design completed and in construction • Preliminary Assessment Framework developed • Fleet demonstration expected to begin in month 24 as planned.de 165 . compression & distribution equipment • Obtain certification • Integrate H2 in service stations • Assure overall safety • Prepare test procedures Phase II Demonstration (2007-2009) • Acquire fleets at both sites • Organise personnel training • Perform field tests • Acquire data on infrastructure & FCV's • Analyse & evaluate data on energy.INFORMATION Contract number 503190 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Short-Medium Term Starting date 15th November 2004 Duration 60 months Total cost € 21. Höchst KG Industriepark Höchst – C 526 DE-65926 Frankfurt am Main Germany Partners Agip Deutschland GmbH – DE Airport Services Worldwide Comune di Mantova – IT Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT DaimlerChrysler AG – DE EniTecnologie S. production unit.l.r. – IT Saviko Consultants Ltd.46 million Coordinator Dr.A – IT European Commission – JRC-IE Fraport AG Frankfurt – DE Linde Gas & Engineering AG – DE Lunds Universitet – SE Regione Lombardia – IT Roskilde University – DK Sapio Produzione Idrogeno Ossigeno S. – DK TÜV Hessen GmbH – DE Università commerciale Luigi Bocconi – IT Expected impact Project Implementation takes place in 2 Phases: Phase I Construction (2005-2006) • Develop and construct modern multi-energy service stations • Design & construct H2 infrastructure transport lines. performance and emissions • Analyse and evaluate data on socio-economic aspects • Disseminate & exploit project results Challenges • Use of Hydrogen as zero emission transport fuel from different sources • Development & demonstration of 700 bar refuelling technology for Hydrogen • Certification and integration of Hydrogen (CGH2 and LH2) fillers in conventional service stations • Demonstration of reliability of fuel-cell cars in different applications • Socio-economic and environmental assessment of using Hydrogen as a motor-fuel.zeroregio. Progress to date The kick-off meeting of the project took place in November 2004 at Infraserv. • Demonstration of Hydrogen as a transport fuel • Building up Hydrogen infrastructure to serve road traffic in European cities • Reliability assessment of fuel cell vehicles in urban transport • Promoting public acceptance for Hydrogen as an alternative motor fuel • Models for faster penetration of Hydrogen over larger urban areas in the EU (5% substitution by 2020) • A successful step towards making Hydrogen economy a reality.4 million EC funding € 7. Progress since then is as follows: • Building permits from the local regulation authorities obtained for the multi-fuel (incl.
Both activities require a consensus between: • The institute partners. 166 . Progress to date The first 5 project months have been devoted to the methodology development for the demonstration project preparation and the establishment of the initiative for the project family “Hydrogen for Transport”. responsible for developing the methods. • Management. HyLights will assist all stakeholders in the preparation of the next important phase of the transition to hydrogen as a fuel and long-term renewable energy carrier.A Coordination Action to Prepare European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport HyLights Problems addressed Which lessons do we learn from past and ongoing demonstration projects on “Hydrogen for Transport”? • Technological achievements • Economic achievements • Project management • Public acceptance • Safety and regulatory issues Which is the necessary Monitoring Assessment Framework to be used for planning and assessing the outcome of the coming large-scale demonstration program and the individual projects? How will we manage and finance the demonstration projects for transport and transition phase and which is the necessary legal framework? How will we contribute to the visibility and acceptance of hydrogen as transport fuel in the public? • Accepted “Project Assessment Framework” to be used by the coming large-scale demonstration projects on hydrogen for transport. and the HyLights industry partners • All HyLights partners and the European Commission • Other relevant projects (Roads2HYCOM and the LHP study). Furthermore it will offer services to the European project family “Hydrogen for Transport” to develop better coherence between the individual activities. Objectives HyLights sets out to accelerate the commercialisation of hydrogen and fuel cells in the field of transport in Europe. • Higher visibility of the European strategy on hydrogen for transport by establishing the European project family on “Hydrogen for Transport”. Expected impacts The following major output is expected from the assessment work carried out in HyLights: • Compilation of lessons learnt from past and ongoing demonstration projects. financial and legal guidelines for the planning of the coming large-scale demonstration projects on hydrogen for transport.
1 million Coordinator Dr.HyLights. Further options for joint activities have been identified and will lead to concrete actions increasing visibility of the European strategy for “Hydrogen for Transport”. organised to disseminate information to experts of the “Hydrogen for Transport” project family. One is the drafting of the HyLights Monitoring Assessment Framework.EU 167 . Duration 24 months Total cost € 4. Ulrich Bünger Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH Daimlerstrasse 15 DE-85521 Ottobrunn Germany Partners Air Liquide DTA – FR Air Products PLC – UK BMW Group – DE BP – UK Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT DaimlerChrysler – DE Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands Policy Studies – NL EniTecnologie – IT Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen – DE Opel – DE Hydro – NO Kellen Europe – BE Linde – DE PSA Peugeot Citroën Automobiles – FR Repsol YPF – ES Total – FR Vattenfall Europe – DE Volkswagen – DE Associated Partners Chevron – USA Hydrogenics – BE BMVBS – DE Project web-page www.INFORMATION Contract number 019990. Two significant project results have been achieved so far. Various international assessment frameworks have been analysed for their applicability to the HyLights Monitoring Assessment Framework (MAF). The depth of data/information for this Framework is now being extended by calculation routines to enable aggregation of the data. A survey has been devised to map the regional interests in “Hydrogen for Transport” across Europe. Previous and ongoing demonstration projects are currently addressed by personal communication.4 million EC funding € 4. The other result is a first workshop. Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date January 2006 The basic methodology comprises all HyLights work packages and tasks and has been agreed upon at the HyLights general assembly meeting in May 2006. elements of the gaps analysis have been defined to address industry and possible endusers of the coming demonstration projects and the activity profile and organisational details for the initiative group “Hydrogen for Transport” have been developed.
It is however not the intention to duplicate these activities but to be complementary. to promote awareness. but presents much better performance in terms of efficiency and emissions. IEC. therefore. This is the approach taken by the STREP FCTESQA. the technology is not yet mature enough for end user application in a broad range and needs to be further developed. results will be disseminated among the IPHE members. This requires harmonised. a multinational effort to establish a common methodology to assess and compare R&D-results as well as industrial products is clearly needed.Fuel Cell Testing and Dissemination FCTEDI Objectives FCTEDI has two major objectives namely: To further disseminate the results of the ongoing FP6 Fuel Cells TEsting Safety and their Quality Assurance (FCTESQA) STREP to a wider audience within the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) members and to other International Organisations. fuel quality – on the performance can be traced back through a common agreed basis. commonly agreed measures for system efficiency. Figure 1 – FCTEDI Project flow chart 168 .g. by definition. IEA. Problems addressed Fuel cell technology is a competitor to several energy technologies used today. To perform a “Meta-gap” analysis for regulations. ISO and IEC. codes and standards (RCS) for fuel cells intended for stationary applications. caused by different applications. ISO. However. This is one of the objectives of the World Trade Organization/ Technical Barrier to Trade (WTO/TBT) agreement. which explains the term. Secondly. have international value only if they incorporate the needs of different sectors and different countries. through dedicated workshops addressing important areas of testing. stack technologies. results will be disseminated to the International bodies and Standards Developing Organisations (SDO) such as HFP. there is a need for a world-wide dissemination of the results and an accurate and dedicated analysis for addressing the gap in present ongoing RCS activities and programmes world-wide. power density. Technical approach The FCTEDI workplan consists of 4 work packages: • 1 devoted to consortium management (WP0) • 3 devoted to the scientific activities of the project (WP1-WP3) The interdependency of the work packages is illustrated in Figure 1. For the rating of improvements in fuel cell technology. since there are significant technological challenges still to be addressed. like IEA. They are the lubricants of the economy as they contribute to the reduction of technical barriers to trade. types of fuel. Standards have a recognised contribution to international trade. Codes & Standards. This action originally started with the FP5 Fuel Cell TEsting and STandardisation NETwork (FCTESTNET) thematic network project and is followed up by FCTESQA while it is now mature enough to assist the standardisation processes. The intention for a “Meta-Gap” analysis for fuel cell RCS intended for stationary applications is to build upon the experiences and the results of the gap analyses performed by the Initiative Group RCS of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Platform (HFP). However. HFP. so that the effect of tremendous variety of boundary conditions – e. The dissemination of results will be achieved in two ways: Firstly. dynamic behaviour and durability are indispensable. validated and benchmarked testing procedures for entire fuel cell systems as well as system components. “Meta-Gap” analysis. The implementation plan explains the structure of the FCTEDI work plan and how it will lead the participants to achieve the project’s objectives. the CEN/CENELEC activity and the FP6 HarmonHy SSA in the area of fuel cells for stationary applications. IPHE members will further disseminate information to their regional forums.
Joint Research Centre. In many instances pre-existing relationships and connections exist between the involved parties allowing for smooth collaboration and division of responsibilities within the consortium along with strong lines of communication. l’Energia e l’Ambiante – ENEA Lungotevere Grande Ammiraglio Thaon di Revel 76 IT-00196 Rome Italy Scientific Coordinator: Georgios Tsotridis European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy Westerduinweg 3 NL-1755 ZG Petten The Netherlands Partners Central Electrochemical Research Institute – IN Centre for Solar energy and Hydrogen Research – DE Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics – Chinese Academy – CHN Dutch Standardisation Organisation – NL Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg – DE Inmetro – BR Italian Centre for Experimental Electrotechnology – IT Kiwa Gastec Certification BV – NL Korean Institute of Science and Technology – KR Ovidius University of Constantia – RO The Association of German Engineers – DE The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology – NO University of Iceland – IS The project consortium brings together partners from well-known research centres. For this reason the dissemination effort and meta-gap analysis is also a valuable input to the process of drawing up and implementing EU legislation. experimental validation of technical procedures is very expensive and time consuming. this activity illustrates the achievements and the needs at the European level. the results of efforts of 54 partners but. Expected impact Dissemination is one of the core parts of FCTEDI with an exploitation potential beyond 5 years. Several partners have participated in FCTESTNET and are participating in IPHE or HFP. In fact. IEC. Institute for Energy. and can subsequently stimulate international co-operations and national activities that can help further development of RCS taking into account the European point of view. Dissemination is addressed to both international organisations and forums. the dissemination results will eventually be used to set up and improve international standards. other partners are actively participating in IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197. The partnership is managed by the DirectionGeneral. with all the related experience gained in the field. NL (Dr. is critical at this stage. In fact. Petten. Angelo Moreno) acting as the Coordinator responsible for financial and administrative matters. Each Work Package (WP) has its leader. The European legislator may rely on these standards to define legal requirements. responsible for its coordination and completion. thus it is beyond the scope of standardisation committees to experimentally validate technical procedures. such as IEA. due to the round-robin testing undertaken within FCTESQA. The dissemination towards international organisations. universities and industrial partners. ISO. that are directly or indirectly involved in fuel cells RCS. The success of the dissemination is guaranteed by the extended experience of the partners in dissemination and in international cooperation. they also represent the experimental validation of the testing procedures. Disseminating results to IPHE members has a strategic relevance for European fuel cell development.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Administrative & Financial Coordinator: Angelo Moreno Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie. Tsotridis) acting as the Scientific Project Coordinator and ENEA (Dr. and to IPHE partners. Additionally. In fact. HFP. Results of FCTESTNET and FCTESQA represent not only Progress to date Project under negotiation 169 . G.
Two main approaches are considered as relevant for the success of the project. The role of each WP is summarised hereafter. for the first time within the EU. power density.Fuel Cell Testing. The experimental activity of the project will validate test procedures for evaluation of performance. This comprised of 55 partners and its main result was the collection and compilation of pre-existing. Thereby. Technical approach The main objectives of the project are addressed in 6 Work Packages (WPs) and several tasks. down to stacks and cells. validated and benchmarked testing procedures for entire fuel cell systems. providing a voice for all interested and affected parties. that the internationally agreed harmonised test procedures (FCTESTNET results) will be validated through experimental campaigns. especially addresses the aspects of pre-normative research. MCFC and SOFC. For the rating of improvements. This requires the definition of harmonised. so that the tremendous variety of boundary conditions – e. and market-oriented development of specifications and pre-standards. FCTESQA progresses beyond the current stateof-the-art by ensuring. as well as system components. FCTESQA. industry-wide test protocols and testing methodologies. dynamic behaviour and durability are indispensable.g. as the natural successor of the FCTESTNET. However. types of fuel. The requirements of such harmonised procedures are not just a European need. It is the aim of FCTESQA to work on pre-normative research. and to contribute to the early. Such harmonisation is necessary to enable unbiased and objective comparison of R&D results and evaluation of technological progress in this field. and further development of harmonised testing procedures. it is not mature enough for end-user application in a broad range and needs to be further developed since there are significant technological challenges still to be addressed. The market-oriented approach concerns the applications. debated and agreed in co-operative progress meetings and dedicated workshops under the IPHE auspices. stack technologies. caused by different applications. Safety and Quality Assurance FCTES QA Problems addressed Fuel cell technology has made rapid progress in recent years. benchmarking. and validation through round robin testing of harmonised. In addressing the above-mentioned issues an international consortium from EU and INCO members has been established. as illustrated in the following figure. common agreed measures for system efficiency. safety and environmental compliance of fuel cell systems. and to the support of European contributions to the standardisation process. operational characteristics. it is rather a world-wide one. FCTESQA results will be discussed. efficiency. While the application defines the performance and 170 . fuel quality – can be traced back to a common agreed basis. The fuel cell testing harmonisation activity started in Europe with the FCTESTNET project. Test protocols will undergo benchmarking and round robin testing in different laboratories. Objectives FCTESQA aims at establishing a formal European process for validating and benchmarking – by means of experimental campaigns – the results of the Fifth Framework Program (FP5) funded Thematic Network project FCTESTNET (the Fuel Cells Testing and Standardisation Network). and the technology-oriented approach concerns the relevant fuel cell types PEFC.
and the International Energy Agency (IEA). For this reason. Korea. Expected impact Within FCTESQA round robin testing will take place in several testing facilities aiming at supplying with validated testing methods and procedures to be applied for comparative testing. as well as on exchange and collaboration with other relevant European and overseas networks and institutions (specifically the international bodies such as IPHE. and can provide significant scientific and technological input to relevant activities planned by the European Commission. – IT AVL List GmbH – AT CESI – IT Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Co-ordination & Project management. the technical feasibility and the technical risks are mainly influenced by the technology.A. the foundation of the International Electrotechnical Committee. such as IEA. (ISO – TC 22). to the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP). However. – DE EnBW – DE Energy research Centre of the Netherlands – NL Flemish Institute for Technological Research – BE Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH – DE General Electric Research Laboratories – DE Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg – DE HTceramix SA – CH Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria S. and China). – DE Viessmann Werke – DE Zentrum für Sonnenenergie und WasserstoffForschung – DE Participants from non EU Members States: Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences – CHN Department of Energy – USA: • DoE – National Energy Technology Laboratory • DoE – Los Alamos National Laboratory • DoE – Argonne National Laboratory Institute for Physics and Power Engineering – RU Korean Institute of Science and Technology – KR New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation – Japan Russian Research Centre “Kurtchatov Institute” – RU safety targets.und Raumfahrt e. Dissemination of FCTESQA results to international bodies. quality assurance and safety issues on single fuel cells. due to the strong importance of results dissemination outside the project consortium. l’Energia e l’Ambiante – ENEA Lungotevere Grande Ammiraglio Thaon di Revel 76 IT-00196 Rome Italy Scientific Coordinator: Georgios Tsotridis European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy Westerduinweg 3 NL-1755 ZG Petten The Netherlands Partners Participants from the EU Members States: ANSALDO Fuel Cells S. FCTESQA will have a strong linkage with the SSA Project FCTEDI. FCTESQA also contributes to the Energy Work Programme goals of higher efficiency and lower energy cost/kW.INFORMATION Contract number 020161 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st May 2006 Duration 48 months Total cost € 4. and SOFC have common objectives. This objective will be fulfilled by stepwise creation of industrial acceptance for the common use of the harmonised testing methods and procedures being developed within the thematic network FCTESTNET or being supplied by overseas partners. is devoted to the planning and scheduling of resources. WPs 2. 3.U. and 4. PEMFC. to disseminate FCTESQA results. In this way the work of the standardisation bodies will be strongly supported and promoted by this research activity. The proposed project will contribute to the overall environmental targets of the EU. It is the goal of WP1 Applications-Stationary. At the present. IEA and the Japanese FC network. 2006. IEC. the US-DoE. the Application track and the Technology track. but also institutions of the former USSR. IEC. the testing procedures are being developed within the thematic network FCTESTNET are being reviewed by WP members. to define a general set of tests and the associated test parameters for stationary applications. Co-operating with these international organisations is extremely important. MCFC. Progress to date The project started on May 1. stacks and systems for industrial applications.p. WP0.V.A. – ES Spanish Institute for Aerospatial Technologies – ES Technical Research Centre of Finland – FI Technische Universität Graz – AT TÜV Nord GmbH – DE UMICORE AG & Co. which has the task.9 million EC funding € 2. 171 . and to State members of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) is not foreseen in FCTESQA as a specific activity. Testing procedures developed and examined within FCTESQA will be a valuable tool/ input for the international standardisation bodies such as the International Standards Organisation. These are to define the main parameters determining the performance of a fuel cell system and to establish common test procedures and methodologies for evaluation of cell and system components among the fuel cell community both for comparison and for identification of criteria and guidelines for future standardisation. the organisation of FCTESQA consists of two main tracks of WPs.5 million Coordinator Administrative & Financial Coordinator: Angelo Moreno Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie. the European Committee for Standardisation (Comité Européen de Normalisation – CEN) and its Electrotechnical Standardisation part CENELEC.V. KG – BE Universität Karlsruhe – DE Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard – FR Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e. among others. WP5 Quality Assurance & External relations will concentrate on horizontal quality assurance matters within the WPs. namely. (IEC – TC 105).
• To provide underpinning experimental and theoretical work on Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) degradation mechanisms.Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization FCTEST Objectives Fuel Cells (FC) are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply and may in the long-term replace a large part of the current combustion systems in all end use sectors. sintering of the catalyst. hydrogen. including fuel processor and power conditioning. poisoning. Significant technological challenges still need to be addressed. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of FC transport phenomena at different scales enhance scientific insight into FC performance and behaviour in support to testing and allow identification of important parameters that need to be controlled and/or monitored for test results to be representative. and safety of single cells. Targeted research is indispensable for improving system performance of FC technology. in the medium and long-term. a priori harmonised and experimentally verified and benchmarked. measurement methodology and test protocols for FC stacks. test procedures and protocols. Fuel cells are currently introduced into the market and find an ever-increasing use in stationary and transport applications. The latter specifically include the internationally oriented FP6 FCTESQA STREP and FCTEDI SSA in continuation of the successful FP5 FCTESTNET thematic network and participation in RCS activities of the European Hydrogen and 172 . energy savings and emissions abatement in diverse applications ranging from micro and portable devices. residential CHP. the FCTEST facility includes a vibration table housed in an environmental chamber. which also has to cope with environmental constraints. Such research includes progress in understanding FC behaviour by theoretical and experimental means. FC stacks and FC systems. efficiency. thus supporting the ongoing European and worldwide Regulation Codes and Standards (RCS) definition process. Problems addressed FC systems offer a clean and highly efficient way to convert energy carriers (e. safety and environmental compliance. Project structure FC is a key component of the JRCs Strategy for Sustainable Energy. The FCTEST action of JRC-IE provides an integrated S&T in full text support to EU policies centred on the three major pillars: • Operation of the Fuel Cell Testing (FCTEST) laboratories • Coordination of and participation to networking activities on pre-normative FC Testing & Standardisation • Scientific insight of FC performance by means of mathematical modelling and numerical simulations. environmental compliance. In combination with conventional fuels such as natural gas. the technology is not yet mature and needs to be further developed. flooding of reaction sites. and networking activities.g. This comprises the operation of the FCTEST facility including future expansions into single cell and FC power chain testing. • To provide direct comparisons between competing FC technologies in terms of performance. valid and reliable. The Fuel Cells Performance Testing and Standardisation (FCTEST) action of the JRC’s Institute for Energy focuses on the following major objectives: • To harmonise. a considerable potential for energy savings and for strong reductions in CO2 and pollutant emissions. For this purpose. such as membrane deterioration. propulsion power to large scale power generation. • To investigate and facilitate the set up of a European Reference System on FC-based energy systems testing. operational characteristics. fuel crossover and corrosion of bipolar plates that limit performance and lifetime of the FC. MeOH) into electricity and usable heat with great potential for high energy efficiencies. Technical approach Generally accepted and harmonised testing procedures. are required to provide a reliable and trustworthy base to market actors and as a necessary step for the establishment of RCS. However. experimentally verified. components and systems in stationary and transport applications are compiled. Expected impact The main goal of the action is to initiate a European Reference System for FC Testing and to support RCS activities. improved and benchmarked. validate and benchmark test procedures for operational performance. and comply with end-user requirements for a large variety of boundary conditions. natural gas. • To provide scientific insight on FC performance by means of mathematical modelling and numerical simulations at different scales. allowing simulation of actual service conditions that FC systems are subjected to. Of particular importance in this respect is the representativeness of the test and of its results for the actual application in mind. • To upgrade the FC Testing facility to allow performance characterisation of elements in the entire FC power chain. they have. In addition.
Laboratory expansions to include single cell and reformer testing are well under way. FCTEST is recognised as preferred discussion platform with US-DoE FC standards program. this activity will result in RCS developments.INFORMATION Contract number Action 2322 Programme Joint Research Centre 2003 – 2006 Multi-Annual Work Programme Duration 48 months Fuel Cell Technology Platform and within the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy. verified and benchmarked test procedures will represent a scientific input for the formulation of European and international standards. and. the Russian Research Centre “Kurtchatov Institute”. and the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. 173 . In addition. and FP6 FCTESQA). It operates the FCTEST facility in experimental campaigns as part of JRC-IE institutional activities and in competitive projects (FP6 CELINA. and established cooperation within FP6 FCTESQA STREP project with well known institutions. various modelling results on physico-chemical and transport phenomena in PEFC and SOFC single cells and stacks were disseminated. JRC-IE successfully operated FCTESTNET as scientific coordinator. It was asked by ISO TC 197 WG12 to investigate on the possibility to carry out specific research on hydrogen fuel impurities and align international efforts in this area. FP5 FEBUSS. Coordinator Georgios Tsotridis EC Scientific Officer Partners JRC institutional activity Progress to date The FCTEST action started in 2003. This project produced testing procedures for FC performance ranging from MEA. In the short and medium term. in particular. On behalf of the European Commission JRC-IE attained EC liaison status with IEC TC 105. JRC-IE was invited to act as technical interlocutor for CEN mandate M349. The compiled within the FCTESTNET consortium FC glossary was recognised as an updated terminology reference by IEA AFC IA Annex XIX and IEC TC 105. single cells to stacks and system components. such as the Chinese Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. as well as the South Korean Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).
the work will be structured in the following work packages: 174 . WP2: State of the art of pre-normative research (ENEA) Mapping of research. rendering it more effective and homogeneous as well as corresponding to its major interests. Technical approach In order to ensure achievement of the goals. as well as action to ensure concordance between standards and regulations. development & demonstration (RD&D) projects in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen for transport and WP1: State of the art of codes and standards (VUB) This WP aims to identify and map the state of the art of ongoing activities in hydrogen specific regulations. WP3: Interaction with outside bodies (JRC) The establishment of exchange of information and the collaboration with the relevant European and overseas networks and institutions is the main objective of the WP3. As a conclusion to this Specific Support Action (SSA). Potential conflicts between codes. On this basis gaps will be identified and propositions to solve fragmentation will be made. Particular attention will be paid to identifying the needs for standards as perceived by the industry. In addition the project will result in guidelines for the setting up of adequate bodies to solve the identified problems. codes and standards. stationary applications in EU is the necessary basis and input source for the identification of pre-normative data able to support the development of regulations and standards. The final goal of the project is to make European collaboration in the field as effective as possible and to increase European contribution at the worldwide level. the partners intend to organize a conference with the aim to present the results of the project. This WP has the general objective to map existing EU and international RD&D projects and identify gaps. WP0: Management (AVERE/VUB) Project coordination and dissemination. standards and regulations will also be investigated and propositions to solve the conflicts will be made.Harmonization of Standards and Regulations for a sustainable Hydrogen and Fuel Cell HarmonHy Objectives HarmonHy is a 15 month project that aims to make an assessment of the activities on hydrogen and fuel cell related regulations and standards on a worldwide level.
Project web-page www. to serve manufacturing industries. performance and use adequacy. Safety and performance characterization is required in order to correctly address the market demand and meet the requirements for a safe and effective vehicle use. with the consequence for the social benefits in terms of environmental quality and energy conservation. components and the hydrogen and fuel cell system industry needs standards support as a guideline for technical development of vehicles and systems. standards and pre-normative research projects. taking into account all ongoing European and international initiatives. • The final objective of this SSA is to give support to the hydrogen and fuel cell technology development. Automotive. users and governmental and public authorities. and TRANS/WP. according to reproducible procedures.29/GRPE/2003/14 Add. addressing a safe and practical utilization of the products. Successful submission and support for approval of the formal documents to the two drafts for new ECE regulations for hydrogen vehicles submitted to GPRE (TRANS/WP. trying to enhance them where suitable or necessary.29/GRPE/2003/14 and TRANS/WP.53 million EC funding € 0.V – BE L-B-Systemtechnik GmbH – DE Norsk Hydro – NO Volvo Technology Corporation – SE Brussel – BE Expected impact HarmonHy will have a two-fold strategic impact on major policy initiatives put in place by the EC on these key technologies: • The SSA will bring together key information and will propose a strategic assessment. WP5: Action plan and road map (LBST) The preparation of an action plan for further work on harmonization of regulations.1 for liquid hydrogen vehicles. Governmental and public authorities need an indication about how to characterize and approve the products to certify safety and performance outputs. This work package will also facilitate the required process of recognition as an EC-directive through the European Council and the European Parliament support by the member state representatives. Standards and Regulations on hydrogen and fuel cell are fundamental background for the safe and effective development and diffusion of the technology for products in both fields mobile and stationary.harmonhy.46 million Coordinator Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan 2 BE-1050 Brussels Belgium Partners Avere – BE Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft – DE Centro Ricerche Fiat – IT CCS Global – Canada ENEA – IT European Commission – JRC-IE European Natural Gas Vehicles Association – NL Hydrogenics Europe N.com 175 . Duration 15 months Total cost € 0. agreed at international level.29/GRPE/2004/3 for compressed gaseous hydrogen vehicles) should be facilitated. related to regulations.INFORMATION Contract number 513542 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st May 2005 WP4: Analysis of industrial and societal needs (CRF) The analysis of industrial and societal needs is the main objective of WP4. for the design and the characterization of the products in terms of safety. codes and standards on an international basis is the main objective of WP5. aimed at supporting the activities of the Advisory Council of the European Technology Platform on Fuel Cell and Hydrogen and the promotion of international co-operation. Both standards and regulations have to reflect the user demand. Another outcome will be to propose activities towards international standards on ISO and IEC committee level for those areas identified in the other work packages. through indication how to establish a rational and harmonized body of standards and regulations.
The project will be performed over 24 months by a balanced. or even municipal requirements differing widely within the EU. USA). Objectives HyApproval is a Strategic Targeted Research Project to develop a handbook facilitating the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS) and assists companies and organisations in the implementation and operation of HRS. definition of a uniform safety assessment process and safety features required for the approval of HRS in the member states. The project will finalise the HRS technical guideline started under EIHP2 and contribute to the international standard under development at ISO TC197. WP6 will identify the requirements for HRS from the vehicle side. This has not allowed the infrastructure companies to propose cost efficient standard refuelling station layouts. HySafe. installing. WP2 “Handbook Compilation” will write the “Handbook” for facilitating approval. regional. This position could be maintained and extended if these products can be applied without major modifications on a world scale. although the technical requirements of the bus manufacturer for the refuelling stations in several EU countries where strictly the same. There is also potential to apply this handbook in ocutries outside the EU (e. 176 . HyApproval aims to produce a Handbook which will assist all interested parties in laying out. Key partners from China. • WP2 has suggested safety scenarios to WP4 and has prepared a list of applicable regulations. national and local decision makers dealing with refuelling station approval processes and international standards institutions about the Handbook for HRS and to involve them in the verification process of this Handbook. codes and standards. HRS operators and owners and also the EC will benefit from the handbook that is expected to contribute to the safe implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. best practise will be developed from the experience obtained in projects such as CUTE. • WP1 has prepared a draft design paper of a “virtual” HRS to be reviewed by the other work packages. SMEs and institutes. construction and operation of HRS. but also includes the flexibility to allow new technologies and design to be introduced at a later stage. the resulting refuelling stations were significantly different from one from the other. liquid as well as compressed hydrogen at the available filling pressures. Technical approach HyApproval is structured in 7 work packages (WPs) as follows: WP0 comprises project management activities divided into “Administrative Project Management” and strategic management by the Project Steering Group. ZERO REGIO. Europe still has a leading position in standards for both compressed and liquid hydrogen refuelling technology.Handbook for Approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations HyApproval Problems addressed As experience form the CUTE project has proven. Japan and the USA the HyApproval process will include a handbook review by country authorities to pursue “broad agreement” and to define “approval routes”. reflecting the existing technical know-how and regulatory environment. China. WP3 “Infrastructure and Deployment” has to identify the requests of the responsible authorities for the approval of HRS in the five selected EU member states with respect to the safety approach that the authorities will apply in the approval process and the refuelling station infrastructure in order and to come to a future “uniform” HRS and the Expected impact HyApproval aims to facilitate harmonised and uniform approval procedures for HRS for Europe. Progress to date • The project web-site has been prepared for internal and public communication. codes & standards activities. Japan. Infrastructure companies. In 5 EU countries (F/D/I/E/NL) and in China. HyFLEET:CUTE. installation and operation of HRS in Europe and finalise the draft guidelines of HRS initiated in EIHP2. experienced partnership including 25 partners from industry. Because of different requirements of various tank systems there is the need to establish strong collaboration to define the interface requirements for both fuels. ECTOS. After finalising the Handbook process the developed requirements and procedures to get “Approval in Principle” shall be sufficiently advanced to seek approval in any European country without major modifications. EIHP1&2. Japan and USA provide an additional liaison to international regulations. CEP and from partner activities. These differences are dictated by national. In order to meet these goals. WP1 “Hydrogen Refuelling Station Definitions and Requirements” will define a “virtual” HRS with essential components of a uniform design and required safety features.g. WP5 has to identify and inform European. Thus allowing the development of standardised components and subsystems for refuelling stations with the potential to reduce cost and increase uptake. The handbook will be based on best practice. approving and operating HRS for compressed and liquid hydrogen for use in road vehicles on an EU-wide level. WP4 will develop a uniform approach based on ‘best practice’ experiences to give guidance to developers and regulatory authorities on public safety issues related to design. local authorities.
– NL Total France – FR • The partners of WP4 have established a safety matrix and ‘best practises’ for safety and have agreed on the safety documentation for the Handbook.95 million EC funding € 1.A.p. on actions to complete HRS documentation as well as on the required modelling tools & techniques for risk assessment and simulations. – IT European Commission – JRC-IE Federazione delle Associazioni Scientifiche e Tecniche – IT Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – DE Health & Safety Laboratory – UK Hydrogenics Europe N.V. • WP6 has prepared a general interface description for LH2 and CGH2 storage systems. Project web-page www.INFORMATION Contract number 019813 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st October 2005 Duration 24 months Total cost € 3. Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry – CHN Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Det Norske Veritas AS – NO Engineering Advancement Association of Japan – JP EniTecnologie S. • WP4 partners have also identified and reviewed reliability data form past data collections and risk studies and have developed simulation scenarios based on present HRS systems. – IS Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques – FR Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial – ES Linde AG – DE Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH – DE National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos – EL National Renewable Energy Laboratory – USA Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – NL Norsk Hydro ASA – NO Shell Hydrogen B.hyapproval.org 177 .V. accident scenarios and credible leak rates. – BE Icelandic New Energy Ltd.9 million Coordinator Reinhold Würster Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH Daimlerstrasse 15 DE-85521 Ottobrunn Germany Partners Adam Opel AG – DE Air Liquide – FR Air Products PLC – UK BP plc – UK Chinese Academy of Sciences.
• Contribute to an improved technical culture on handling hydrogen as an energy carrier. • Identification of a set of specialised complementary codes and models that can be used for consequence analyses and safety studies. knowledge hardware and software tools relevant to hydrogen safety. • Establishment of an open hydrogen incident and accident database. The required long-term integration will be provided by the European Hydrogen Safety Centre. “Phenomena” Cluster • Promoting fundamental research necessary to address hydrogen safety issues. • Integration and harmonisation of the fragmented research base. • Integration of the European experience. Other activities (see http://www.Safety of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier HySAFE Problems addressed The IPHE recognised HySafe network focuses on safety issues relevant to improving and coordinating the knowledge and understanding of hydrogen safety and to supporting the safe and efficient introduction and commercialisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier of the future. Technical approach Research elements are integrated within Internal Projects like “InsHyde” and “HyTunnel”. harmonising and validating methodologies for risk assessments. “Tools” Cluster: • Creation of a set of specialised research facilities. • Developing. • Provide contributions to EU safety requirements. standards and codes of practice.hysafe. The objectives of the network include: • Contribution to common understanding and approaches for addressing hydrogen safety issues. The research activities are structured around all levels of safety control and all relevant applications.net/WPlist) are conducted in a highly collaborative manner grouped in activity clusters. the Biennial Report on Hydrogen Objectives The overall goal of the HySafe Network of Excellence is to contribute to the safe transition to more sustainable development in Europe by facilitating the safe introduction of hydrogen technologies and applications. • Extracting net outcomes from safety and risk assessment and the relevant safety experience gained in other EC funded projects. “Dissemination” Cluster • Disseminating the results through the “HySafe” website. • Promote public acceptance of hydrogen technologies. mainly in the private sector. which will be founded by the HySafe consortium during the subsidised phase. 178 .
public interface late summer 2006.INFORMATION Contract number 502630 Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Starting date 1st March 2004 Duration 60 months Total cost € 13 million EC funding € 7 million Coordinator Dr. • On-line Questionnaire. • Draft Handbook for Hydrogen Safety to be issued late summer 2006. • Support the harmonisation of standards. • Organising training and educational programmes on hydrogen safety. • Prototype of HIAD database with first 40 entries. robust and reliable solutions for hydrogen applications. • A safety roadmap for future progress.hysafe. by providing the unambiguous scientific basis. • On-line catalogue of all relevant European experimental facilities. maintained and disseminated by the European Hydrogen Safety Centre to be founded by the HySafe project consortium. • Studies as input to EU-legal requirements. • 4 further proposals for new projects to the EC (e. • Harmonised tools for safety and risk assessment. Expected impact • Progress in common understanding of hydrogen safety and risk.net 179 .g. • Early IPHE recognition of HySafe. HYPER). including on-line mode (e-Academy). expert surveys and PIRT study to define research headlines and identify safety relevant knowledge gaps. • Highly dynamic website www. • Successful initiation of the First Hydrogen Safety Summer School HYCOURSE and early stage training network HYSAFEST. Project web-page www. • Huge online database for hydrogen industries (>1000 entries) and hydrogen safety bibliography. • Successful organisation and IPHE integration of the International Conference for Hydrogen Safety (300+ participants). • Organisation of 4 special workshops/ information exchange meetings on experiments and instrumentation.hysafe. Thomas Jordan Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – IKET Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Germany Partners Air Liquide – FR BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH – DE Building Research Establishment Ltd – UK Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Det Norske Veritas AS – NO European Commission – JRC-IE Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing – DE Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH – DE Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft ICT – DE Foundation INASMET – ES GexCon AS – NO Institut National de l’Environnement industriel et des Risques – FR Instituto Superior Técnico – PT National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos – EL Norsk Hydro ASA – NO Politechnika Warszawska – PL Risø National Laboratory – DK The United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Laboratory – UK TNO – NL University of Calgary – CA University of Pisa – IT Universidad Politécnica de Madrid – ES University of Ulster – UK VOLVO Technology Corporation – SE Progress to date Safety and the Biennial International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS).net with several communication features. • A framework for training and education. especially where the standards are designed for safe. All above integrated. including a database for incidences and a Handbook for Hydrogen Safety. standards and codes of practice.
contributing to closing the knowledge gaps in hydrogen safety.1million Euro). The project will add a further dimension and contribute to the main objective. integrate and focus fragmented research efforts to provide a basis for the removal of safety-related barriers to the implementation of hydrogen within the market. INFORMATION Contract number 020245 Programme Marie Curie Actions Starting date 1st September 2006 Duration 48 months EC funding € 0. risk assessment of hydrogen applications. http://www.Early Stage Training in Fundamentals of Hydrogen Safety HySAFEST Abstract The aim of this EST (Early Stage Training) in Fundamentals of Hydrogen Safety (HySAFEST) project is to offer a unique opportunity for researchers in the early stages of their professional careers to work in an internationally recognized multi.hysafe. an important field for efficient introduction and commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Vladimir Molkov FireSERT Institute University of Ulster Newtownabbey UK-BT37 0QB United Kingdom Partners Not applicable 180 . funded by the UK government in 2001 (8. as well as providing a wide range of complementary skills. to build long-term collaboration and make a contribution to overcoming fragmentation of European research in the field. UU is carrying out a joint programme of activities as a partner in the European Network of Excellence HySafe (“Safety of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier”. Four researchers will undertake doctoral studies in the emerging field of hydrogen safety. The principal output from the proposed project will be the creation of new European cadres of researchers. mitigation of explosions. etc.7 million Coordinator Prof. to strengthen.and interdisciplinary research team of scientists and engineers within the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Ulster (UU).org/).e. formulated by the HySafe consortium. hydrogen ignition. at the Fire Safety Engineering Research and Technology Institute (FireSERT) pursuing wide national and international research collaboration strategy. including the use of contemporary techniques such as large eddy simulation. HySAFEST offers structured scientific and technological training. The purpose of HySAFEST is to complement and enhance UU activities in the NoE HySafe. conjugate heat transfer from jet fires to construction elements. The researchers will have access to one of Europe's most advanced research facilities. Trained fellows will be able to handle such diverse outstanding problems in hydrogen safety as the formation and combustion of non-uniform clouds after accidental releases of gaseous or liquefied hydrogen in confined geometries and open atmosphere. i.
is presently responsible for the development of the e-Academy of Hydrogen Safety. an activity undertaken by the European Network of Excellence “Safety of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier” (NoE HySafe). work-in-progress sessions. INFORMATION Contract number 029822 Programme Marie Curie Actions Starting date 1st March 2006 Duration 48 months EC funding € 0. the “European Summer School on Hydrogen Safety (HyCourse)”. the e-Academy of Hydrogen Safety developed an International Curriculum on Hydrogen Safety Engineering as a first step. The coordinator of this project. During every summer school. Round table discussions. as well as from outside the network have contributed to the curriculum. in Belfast. Vladimir Molkov FireSERT Institute University of Ulster Newtownabbey UK-BT37 0QB United Kingdom Partners Not applicable 181 .62 million Coordinator Prof. namely. The development of teaching materials on hydrogen safety and related key areas according to the curriculum has now become a priority. Depending on the cost-effectiveness of these offers these events will either be held at a different location. as well as possible additional attendees. There will be four events. funded by the EC. or. the first of which is Belfast. Leading experts from HySafe. keynote speakers will deliver lectures to sixty delegates. each lasting for ten days. the University of Ulster (UU). software demonstrations/training are included to stimulate contact building between leading experts and junior researchers. possibly held at four different locations. The presentations developed by the keynote speakers will be made available on-line in the first instance. There will be calls for offers to organise subsequent events at different locations. This will essentially be accomplished by organising four summer schools on hydrogen safety where leading specialists will deliver keynote lectures to an audience of researchers.European Summer School on Hydrogen Safety HyCourse Abstract The aim of this project is to create a possibility for professionals working in the hydrogen economy to acquire expertise in hydrogen safety matters by establishing an appropriate European training course. Because of the absence of hydrogen safety training and educational programmes in Europe. The teaching materials will contribute to reinforcement of educational programmes by the e-Academy of Hydrogen Safety of partners from NoE HySafe.
This will be achieved through a comprehensive series of case studies of systems representing the main types of stationary fuel cell and hydrogen applications. It will address the major safety and procedural issues relating to the installation of systems that are permanently connected to the power grid. by developing an agreed installation permitting process for developers. industry. manufacturers. serving industry. codification bodies. • A number of carefully targeted dissemination initiatives aimed at ensuring the adoption and use of the IPG and project results by stakeholders. and CHP units utilizing a range of fuel cells technologies. The detailed strategic and operational goals of HYPER are to: • Identify gaps and deficiencies in the regulations in force and in the current codes and standards with respect to fuel cell installations and fuel supply.Installation Permitting Guidance For Hydrogen And Fuel Cells Stationary Applications HYPER Objectives The overall objective of the project is to produce an Installation Permitting Guide (IPG) for small stationary hydrogen and fuel cell systems for use in a range of environments. • Compile the IPG which will take the form of a generic document structured around the different types of stationary system that will be used and bring together the work from all parts of the project. • A three stage drafting process for the IPG. • Ensuring the continuous development of the IPG after the end of the Project. adopted and applied by all stakeholders (regulatory agencies. many of which will be situated in urban environments. Expected impacts The key output and deliverable from the Project will be an IPG for small hydrogen and fuel cell stationary system that is widely accepted and used provides solutions to a number of outstanding technical problems Figure 1 – Schematic showing potential elements of stationary fuel cell/hydrogen system. detection. USA and Canada. provide back up power or form stand-alone electrical systems.) to accelerate the rate of installation of stationary hydrogen systems across the European Union. • Disseminate and implement the IPG to ensure that the guidance developed is widely disseminated. dispersion and combustion phenomena. Experimental work to fill gaps in current knowledge in relation to release. design engineers. local authorities. manufacturers. SME’s and domestic premises. renewable energy storage systems. which will take feedback from interested stakeholders. ventilation. In order for this market to grow harmonised standards and guidance covering in particular safety issues have to become available for developers. • Modelling and experimental risk-evaluation studies to investigate fire and explosion phenomena associated with foreseeable and catastrophic fault scenarios of hydrogen and fuel cell systems and associated fuel supplies. The work programme includes: • A review of current Regulations Codes and Standards to identify deficiencies and gaps. • Produce a structured database that will support the development of the IPG and will enable its evaluation. • A risk evaluation/assessment of fuel cell systems/installation to identify key scenarios which be investigated as part of detailed case studies of representative fuel-cell and hydrogen installations carefully selected from across Europe. etc. installers and authorities having jurisdiction. design engineers. installers and regulatory authorities. ignition. best practice and experience and identify and fill gaps in current knowledge. The IPG will provide a means to fast track approval of safety and procedural issues for such systems. (Note that connections are simply schematic) 182 . dispersion. At present small installations are in place providing back up power. At present there is limited relevant guidance available to assist installers of fuel cell and hydrogen stationary systems in Europe. Carry out a risk evaluation/assessment of fuel cell systems/installation to identify key scenarios to be investigated as part of the case studies and through experimental and modelling work to produce pre-normative data. fire and modelling of hydrogen release. Technical approach To develop the IPG the project will bring together all currently available documents. Problems addressed The future development and commercialisation of hydrogen and fuel cell systems for stationary power applications will lead to a wide range of uses.
standards and regulations in terms of explosive atmospheres prevention and detection. • Understand the consequences of catastrophic failure and the measures necessary to prevent its occurrence.r. a number of innovative steps will need to be made including: • Identify gaps and develop scenarios capable of shaping the risk evaluation work both modelling and experimental. • Investigate selected scenarios capable of generating new data to support the definition of safety distances for small stationary hydrogen and FC systems and including storage.eu 183 . – IT A. Tchouvelev & Associates Inc – CA Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – FR Ecofys bv – NL Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH – DE Health and Safety Executive – UK Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques – FR National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos – EL PlugPower Holland BV – NL Pro-science Gessellschaft fur wissenschaftliche und technische Dienstleistungen mbH – DE Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute – RU Sandia National Laboratories – USA University of Manchester – UK University of Ulster – UK Università di Pisa – IT Vaillant GmbH – DE and that promotes a harmonised approach to permitting of these systems across the European Union.l.V. • Use a number of carefully selected industrial case studies to identify and document best practice for different types of representative installations and associated environments.INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Sustainable Energy Systems Coordinator Daniel A Spagni University of Manchester PO Box 88 Sackville Street Manchester UK-M60 1QD United Kingdom Partners Arcotronics Fuel Cells s.hyperproject. • Provide detailed advice on how to achieve compliance with codes. Project web-page www. To achieve this.
Hydrogen Combustion in the Context of Fire and Explosion Safety HYFIRE Abstract We are at the dawn of a hydrogen economy. we will also aim to achieve several major breakthroughs. a relatively new field where such young talent is at present lacking. • Flame impinging on surfaces and the resulting effect on hydrogen transport cylinders and storage vessels. In common with a new industry. There is an increasing demand for substantial efforts to ensure the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Systematic training will be provided through research and dedicated training in the following multidisciplinary and interconnected areas: • Hydrogen jet flames from very high-pressure release. The research will be conducted using CFD based numerical modelling approaches while the abundant published experimental data from small. In the mean time. ignition and combustion of hydrogen within the context of fire and explosion safety. The principal output from the project will be the establishment for further development of a pool of EU trained researchers specialising in hydrogen fire and explosion safety. The project will focus on cutting edge research in the underpinning areas of hydrogen safety. The project aims to offer a unique opportunity for researchers in the early stages of their careers to work in internationally recognised inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary research teams of scientists and engineers to acquire specific scientific skills and competencies in the diffusion. there is also a pressing need to train young talents who will take on the challenges ahead in their proud stride to carry the industry forward. • Liquid hydrogen spill and combustible cloud dynamics. INFORMATION Contract number Under negotiation Programme Marie Curie Actions Coordinator Professor Jennifer Wen Faculty of Engineering Kingston University Friars Avenue.and large-scale tests will be used for model validation. • Hydrogen combustion in semi-confined and vented geometries and the conditions for deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) processes. Collaboration with a major industrial company and an established research laboratory will also open up further proprietary experimental data for this purpose. Both governments and industries are investing heavily on hydrogen. Roehampton Vale London UK-SW15 3DW United Kingdom Partners BP – UK Health and Safety Laboratory – UK 184 .
pdf • Deployment Strategy (DS) https://www.europa.europa.HFPeurope.org • Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) https://www.eu/research/energy/ • Brochure: “Introducing Hydrogen as energy carrier” http://ec.hfpeurope.europa.pdf • Joint Technology Initiative on H2/FC (JTI) https://www.hfpeurope.pdf • HFP Strategic Overview https://www.europa.eu • The Well-to-Wheel study http://ies.ec.europa.eu/wtw.org/uploads/677/893/HFP_StrategicOverviewDocument_2005.jrc.europa.pdf • Energy research website http://ec.eu/energy/ • Calls for proposals http://cordis.cfm • Towards the Seventh Framework Programme http://ec.eu/research/future/ • Joint Research Centre http://www.europa.eu/research/energy/pdf/h2fuell_cell_en.pdf • Energy policy http://ec.ec.org/hfp/jti • EU projects on H2/FC (first edition) http://ec.eu • Institute for Environment and Sustainability http://ies.org/uploads/677/686/ HFP-SRA004_V9-2004_SRA-report-fi nal_22JUL2005.europa.REFERENCES • European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform www.hfpeurope.eu/fp6/dc/calls.jrc.jrc.jrc.org/uploads/677/687/HFP_DS_Report_AUG2005.europa.eu/research/energy/pdf/hydrogen_22002_en.ec.ec.html 186 .europa.eu • Institute for Energy http://ie.hfpeurope.
– 21. Contact the sales agent of your choice and place your order.eu) or you can apply for it by fax (352) 29 29-42758.europa.7 cm ISBN 92-79-02692-5 ISSN 1018-5593 SALES AND SUBSCRIPTIONS Publications for sale produced by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities are available from our sales agents throughout the world. .European Commission EUR 22398 – European Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Projects 2002-2006 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2006 – 188 pp. You can fi nd the list of sales agents on the Publications Office website (http://publications.0 x 29.
distribution and storage. The scope of the projects covers a wide range of issues in the hydrogen and fuel cells field. codes and standards to fuel cell components and systems for stationary. Global Change and Ecosystems” of the Sixth European Research Framework Programme (2002-2006). . socio-economic analysis and regulations. and includes large-scale technology validation. through hydrogen pathway analysis.KI-NA-22398-EN-C This publication is a compilation of synopses of research. transport and portable applications. including public funding trends and statistics. technological development and demonstration projects and other supporting actions on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. For each project. and a future perspective on the Seventh European Research Framework Programme. The booklet also includes an overview of the portfolio of FP6 activities in these areas. as well as under other Thematic Areas and programmes. the participating organizations and contact points. from hydrogen production. The booklet also includes the direct actions relating to Hydrogen and Fuel Cells undertaken by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. basic information is provided with regard to the scientific and technical scope. The projects include those funded under the Thematic Area “Sustainable Development.
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