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Construction and Consulting
Table of Content Preface Dr. Peter Ramsauer Dr. Thomas Bach /Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi Olaf Hoffmann Projects Algeria The Mosque in Algiers Bahrain An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit Egypt Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Iraq Railway Network Project Jordan Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Kuwait Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Lebanon Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Libya Design and Construction Morocco Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Oman Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Palestine Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip 54 10 10 6 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 .
Projects 4 / 5 Qatar Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha Saudi Arabia Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Sudan The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Khartoum New International Airport Syria Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Tunesia The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit United Arab Emirates Lotus Garden German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Ultimate Flight Catering Yemen Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen Special Topics Working Group Infrastructure and Construction Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies List of Contributors Imprint 58 62 70 78 82 86 100 104 114 120 .
The building and property sector benefits significantly from this. The Federal Government is wholeheartedly in favour of such expansion and will continue to do everything it can to support it. This shows just how important the Arab countries are for the German construction industry. Dr. it received orders worth around 1. In the future.Projects 6 / 7 Preface Dr. The Gulf States. between Germany and the Arab world. Peter ramsauer Federal Minister of Transport. the German construction industry carried out building work worth around 850 million euros. Peter Ramsauer Federal Minister of Transport. With their cutting-edge technologies. based on a spirit of trust. The tallest building in the world in Dubai is an especially impressive example of this. Building and Urban Development . the Arab countries continue to be one of the most dynamic and attractive economic areas in the world. German companies are perfectly placed to assist the Arab course of modernization. To enable these countries to manage their ambitious investment plans in the years ahead. plus their profound knowledge of the countries and markets involved. But the construction sector is also booming in the other countries in the Arab world. The building projects presented in the Ghorfa Yearbook illustrate just how successful the economic partnership between the Arab countries and Germany is. German know-how and German investment will continue to be in demand for strategic partnerships in the region.5 billion euros. Both sides can build on the long-standing relations. The reasons for this are an expected economic growth rate of just under five percent per year over the period to 2020. have pushed ahead with spectacular large-scale projects in recent years. This is especially true of sustainable and energy-efficient construction. there will be massive investment in the infrastructure in this region. Building and Urban Development Despite the global economic and financial crisis. In the windy and sun-kissed countries of the Arab world. In 2009. in particular. extensive expertise and experience in the service sector. an above average annual increase in population of 2 percent and the increasing expansion of the cities. The Yearbook is thus also an encouragement to further expand Arab-German economic relations. too. At the same time. there is huge potential for this.
We are looking forward to sum up successful examples of collaboration in technology. One of the objective targets of our new serie is to show that Arab countries welcome German enterprises as credible partners and invite them to participate in the continuing economic growth. Kuwait. Impressive building activities starting from designed superhomes to the tallest skyscrapers in the world are above all known from Dubai. This yearbook shall therefore be a useful tool to introduce various exemplary construction and consulting projects realised or planned by German enterprises in cooperation with partners in the Arab world. Ghorfa therefore understands itself as a bridge between partners from different backgrounds. In the following years other thematic priorities will be chosen to give companies from all business branches the opportunity to contribute to this new serie. Egypt and other Arab countries invest on a large scale in infrastructure and numerous other construction projects to meet the requirements of fast growing megacities and rising demands of the populations. The Arab region is undergoing important changes making it a location of progress and growth. Abu Dhabi or Riyadh. This directory serves to further promote the relationship between the Arab world and Germany. The main aim of our Chamber is to develop and deepen business relations between Germany and the Arab world. Impressive traces of the ongoing construction boom can also be found in other Arab countries and experts predict a further acceleration of the building and construction industry. thomas Bach President aBDulaziz al-mikhlafi Secretary General . education or health care in the following editions of our yearbook. In Saudi Arabia for example the expansion of infrastructure needs to keep pace with the tremendous growth of population of about half a million a year. Algeria. The Arab world has established itself as one of the most dynamic and potentially rewarding regions for high-scale construction and consulting projects. science. Qatar. Due to the common understanding of the principle of mutual benefits both sides can gain great advantage from increased collaboration. Growing economic activities in the Arab world as well as the strong demand for provision of housing and rising infrastructural requirements stimulate activities in building. Dr. Thomas Bach President Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi Secretary General We are proud to present the first edition of our annual ArabGerman Yearbook. Libya. It focuses on construction and consulting and is to be the first of a new serie. German enterprises are appreciated for their reliability and quality of products and services as well as for the respected and trusted cooperation with Arab companies. Iraq.Preface Dr.
At the same time. However. This is especially true for the newly industrialised economies which can be found among Arab countries. we really appreciate their readiness of sharing their insights. just to put the focus on impressive architecture. Thus. Thus this yearbook and its sequels are dedicated to describing the Arab world of today and tomorrow. This Arab-German Yearbook would not have been possible without the contributions of German companies considerably engaged in the Arab world like Siemens. Despite the challenging economic situation. over 500 projects in Qatar and Kuwait. The growing population together with a strong migration and large financial resources for the realisation of development projects stimulates the demand for housing and infrastructure for public and cargo transportation as well as energy.Projects 8 / 9 Preface Olaf Hoffmann CEO Dorsch Holding Dear readers.3% offer a lot of opportunities and potential for the construction industry. ThyssenKrupp and many others. Strong growing countries like Saudi Arabia or especially Iraq with its emerging market and an economic growth rate of 5. too. Ferrostaal. Why have we chosen the format ‘yearbook’? At the beginning of our century the Arab markets just added colourful detail to the media business coverage: Dubai for instance was described as a firework with no long-term impact. the desire for (more) Western standards in water supply and sanitation as well as sustainability is booming. KfW. Roads. as population growth in the Arab world exceeds the average growth of the entire world population. olaf hoffmann CEO and Shareholder of Dorsch Holding Member of the Board of Directors Chairman of the Working Group ‘Infrastructure and Construction’ Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry . nearly 200 projects in Oman and almost 150 projects in Bahrain the construction industry lives up to the demands of a growing population. productive and growing economy. Lufthansa. the Arab world has built up a stable. big infrastructure or renewable energy projects would not show the whole picture. more than 50% of the population in the Middle East is younger than 25 years. However. Enjoy reading! Sincerely yours. electricity. it seems to be the right time to keep track of the further development of the Arab economy by an annual publication. communications and water networks have to be constructed or upgraded. the Arab world has shown a remarkable resilience in coping with the debilities of globalisation: on the basis of oil and oil exports. I therefore want to very warmly thank all who contributed to our first ArabGerman Yearbook ‘Consulting and Construction’. Thus. We are pleased to present the first edition of our ArabGerman Yearbook ‘Construction and Consulting’. in the last two years.100 projects in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. the Middle East remains the world leader in the construction industry: with more than 2.
180.741 km2 Arabic French. Setif . Annaba.Algeria Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria 34. Blida.381. English 1 Algerian Dinar (AD) = 100 centimes Algiers (Capital).000 (2009 estimate) 2. Oran. Constantine.
Algiers. the world’s third largest mosque is soon to be erected in the bay of Algiers.A. Located only 6 km east of the historical town centre and not far from the airport.R. is also reflected by the architecture chosen. work. Friday mosque has always been at the centre of islamic everyday life. social and business life – and not least the centre of life for all community members. Sebastian Tokarz The Mosque in the bay of Algiers. study.000 m2 and will be able to host up to 120. Other local partners are: Krebs und Kiefer & Partners International S. The complex – complete with prayer hall. devoted to religion. All buildings in . Introduction At present.L.000 visitors a day. Imam School. cultural centre. and Krebs und Kiefer Algérie EURL. forecourt and minaret – will have a GFA of about 440.Projects 10 / 11 The Mosque in Algiers KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten GmbH Anke Wünschmann. Frankfurt/Berlin.Tunis. the mosque will encourage the future development of the adjacent district of the city. courtyard. The unity of these buildings. Darmstadt. Construction is scheduled to begin before the end of 2010. teaching and prayer. which has been designed and developed on behalf of the Algerian government by a group consisting of KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten.. and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer International.
perforated Moucharabieh façade elements that protect the thermal glass skin behind from direct solar radiation. but combine load-bearing properties with other technical functions: they provide a surface acoustic equipment. it rises up to some 265 m. restrained ornamentation and indirect natural light creates an impressive spatial experience.The ‘Floral Columns’ and Mosque Courtyard The leitmotif for the design throughout the edifice are floral pillars with protruding capitals in all areas of the ensemble. Visitors can reach the upper. The platform also ensures the complex’s clear spatial separation from the parallel motorway to the north and the profane buildings in the vicinity. Here. and is thus on the same scale as major skyscrapers. Together with the traditional elements. a cube of about 22. the Mihrab. The floral columns not only blend harmoniously with the local palm vegetation. if not mystical character. The mosque’s courtyard serves as an extended area for prayer during the holy days. public floors by means of panorama elevators. which are up to 45 m in height. the mosque complex share a plinth that is in places up to 5 m high. structured by folds. The different façade architecture reflects the different sections and functions. which is divided into five equal sections each comprising five floors. Layout plan of the complete complex. Moreover. it will be the highest building in Africa. while also integrating ventilation and drainage. the insignia of the islamic religion and the regular rows of pillars.000 people. Daylight from above steeps the hall in continually changing patterns of light and shadow. design and size make the minaret unique in the history of Islam. All the traditional religious elements such as the Qibla wall. Above this will be two research areas accessible only to accredited scholars – the Research Centre. quite stunning in a region strongly threatened by earthquakes. The interior with its choice materials.50 m in height. the courtyard links in architectural and in functional terms the sacred prayer hall to the esplanade in the west. Its external appearance is defined by the following triadic composition: as basic volume a cube with a footprint of 145 x 145 m. which bears the central dome. . Minbar and Dikkah are integrated into a hall of modern aesthetics. The vertical configuration corresponds to the classical subdivision of towers into a plinth. ornamental skin made of prefabricated. The multilayered façade for the museum and Research Centre is made up of an outer. The Moucharabieh The Mosque’s Prayer Hall The prayer hall or Salle de Prière is a massive cube towering up to 45 m and able to take up to 35. which will highlight the religion’s different epochs and dynasties. the free plaza with the main entrance and the adjacent forecourt. it will be a visible vertical landmark for the City of Algiers per se. the mosque’s outer skin is made of natural stone. shaft and upper capital. once finished. on this raised plateau. they are aligned from west to east in the direction of Mecca. Moreover. creating a space with a sacred. For a building of this height. These are clearly separated from one another by all-glass sky-lobby façades. Museum and Research Centre are housed in the tower’s shaft. namely of 1:10. friezes and decorative entrance portals. At its apex. the slender tower has unusual proportions (of width to height). These floors house the Museum of Algerian History. It is embraced and clearly structured on all sides by two/three rows of colonnades featuring the graceful slender blossom-topped columns typical of the entire complex. slightly set back from the edge. Minaret Its use. the interplay of light and shadow is the real adornment of the interior. The minaret’s plinth is completely glass-covered and opens out invitingly to the plaza. the latter reaches a height of some 70 m and has a diametre of about 50 m at its base. Following the architecture of traditional islamic prayer halls.
Darmstadt. . The four access routes at the tower’s corners also provide the due rigidity for the minaret.P. The Park The mosque complex is linked to the buildings in the south. The design by KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten. designed in keeping with traditional Algerian patterns.Projects 12 / 13 The top of the minaret will be transparent. Frankfurt/ Berlin. Palm groves right round the mosque provide ample shade. The prayer hall. give the tower a clear texture of light and shadow. The glass will cover two viewing platforms. the materials thus set this section off from the other parts of the minaret. elements. In terms of the tradition and the modern rejuvenation of the religion. are structured by palm trees planted in regular rows – they thus serve as a supplement to the architecture. visible from afar as a point of orientation in Algiers and as its new landmark. and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer International. They can practice their faith their in line with the customary ritual and can familiarise themselves in the adjacent institutions with contemporary islamic doctrine. adding an additional sense of depth and dynamism. the illuminated glass skin radiates. the building complex forms a successful combination of Algerian tradition and the present. by a spacious park. Summary The new mosque (Djamaâ el Djazaïr) in Algiers is firmly set in the lineage of the major Friday mosques in Algiers. namely the cultural centre. The high beacon of the minaret (manâra) is reminiscent not only of a lighthouse showing the way to those seeking the right path. This landscaped outdoor area can house a large number of people and also offers a haven of tranquillity. the other for V. and will wrap around the sommah as the minaret’s crowning tip. not to mention for an entire culture. The mosque’s courtyard with entry to the prayer hall. Instead.I. guests. Fountains foster the overall sense of calm and concentration. namely the islamic religious community as a whole. but could well emerge as the new iconic landmark for the City of Algiers. Thlemcen. The palm is the predominant tree defining the identity of the whole area. and are clad in bright natural stone. the library and the Imam School. At night. reinterprets traditional Algerian architecture without erasing the historical references. The mosque brings together the cultural wealth of Islam and Algeria with German excellence in architecture and engineering. by contrast. the mosque represents the religious and social needs of the community’s members. one for visitors. Cordoba and Medina. The mosque’s plazas and forecourts.
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities The Kingdom of Bahrain 718,306 includes 235,108 nonnationals (July 2008 estimate) 711.85 km2 Arabic French, English 1 Bahraini Dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils Manama (capital), Muharraq, Isa Town, Riffa, Hamad Town
Projects 14 / 15
An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit
Tilke GmbH & Co. KG
Bahrain International Circuit – aerial view.
Tilke Engineers & Architects, originally established in 1983, is recognised as the world leading designer for racetrack and test facilities. Tilke designs individual and state-of-the-art racetracks including grandstands, pit buildings, team buildings and other infrastructure facilities by both fulfilling clients’ needs and the permanently changing requirements on track layout and safety. The design of a racetrack and its appropriate buildings depends on various principles, e.g. its location, approach, picture, function and detail. Each of these principles is interconnected with one other. Removing one of them would be comparable to dislodging a supporting column: the structure would collapse.
Bahrain International Circuit
The Bahrain International Circuit is a good example of Tilke’s design philosophy. Its Arabic architecture is reflected by its colours, materials, the tent-shaped roofs, the wind towers etc. Thus, Bahrain’s tradition and culture has been interpreted in a modern way, all of which promotes the circuit’s unique atmosphere. The beautiful landscape around Sakhir oasis is where the racetrack is located. The contrast between the oasis and the desert is taken as inspiration: the spectators view follows the drivers taking a ride into the outside desert coming back to
The roofs of the grandstands and several other buildings are equipped with a combination of light fabric tent structures that are based on the traditional Bedouin tents, and the traditional Bahraini wind towers (badqeer) used as basis for the wide-stretched tents. The motif of the wind towers is again taken up for some of the solid building elements. Generally, all solid building elements integrate and interpret elements of Bahraini architecture: the small window sizes, the deep embrasures and the clear sand colour represent all the compactness of traditional architecture. The dynamism of the architecture is not only noticeable during the daytime, but also at night: the external illumination provides a striking effect.
Bahrain International Circuit.
the oasis styled as a centre. This striking feature makes for the unique character of the track, which also inspired German photographer and artist Andreas Gursky to produce one of his famous oversized photo collages. The landscape design of the racetrack leads the visitor into the centre (oasis) of the circuit, which is formed by a double-serving paddock area, allowing operating two circuits independently during the day-to-day business, thus optimising the commercial benefits. The connection of both circuits forms a maximum loop length of 5,400 m for the Formula 1 track. As the track’s width varies at the end of the different straights it enables different race lines, thereby offering various possibilities for breathtaking and challenging overtaking manoeuvres. The impressive building ensemble includes all facilities necessary to host the Formula 1; they are state-of-the-art as well as fully sufficient to support the daily business. The architectural idea took all aspects into consideration: on the one hand lots of high-tech equipment is needed, on the other hand there is the unique and beautiful landscape with its colours and moods and an impressive architectural tradition with its own and distinctive materials. The intensive work with these fundamentals led to the present appearance of the circuit. Besides the character of being a desert track, the circuit’s particular charm is presented by an attractive mixture of traditional Bahraini and modern architecture combined with the high-tech equipment of a Formula 1 race circuit, while the outstanding V.I.P. tower, as well as the fabric-roofed grandstands, are the outstanding landmarks of this track.
Project Significance and Impact
The significance of the project is high, as a Formula 1 racetrack is immediately popular everywhere in the world. But not only the important and famous events give the arrangement a significance, also the special architecture and the characteristics of this unique racetrack, like the double-serving paddock area, make Bahrain International Circuit stand out among all Formula 1 circuits worldwide. Thus, the impacts are many-sided: the notoriety of the racetrack leads to an increase in tourism and accordingly promotes the diversification of Bahraini economy further, as the whole economy will profit from the events and all happenings around the racetrack. Due to the immense publicity, the yearly benefits are circular und support the growing infrastructure. Thus, the racetrack can be seen as a constant impulse for the economy in combination with a high identification worldwide. The track and its buildings can become a symbol of Bahrain.
Main grandstand and the paddock area.
I.Projects 16 / 17 Race control. V.P. Bahrain International Circuit by night. . tower by night.
112 (Jan. 2009) 1. Mahalla el-Kubra.001. Suez. Tanta. Hurghada. Alexandria.054.Egypt Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Arab Republic of Egypt 76. Giza. Sharm el-Sheikh . Shubra el-Khema.450 km2 Arabic 1 Egyptian Pound = 100 piaster Cairo (Capital). Port Said.
the former slum has grown so much over the past years that it is now almost located in the city centre. shops and teahouses shape the street scene. nonetheless. Since then. Commonly known as ‘Garbage City’. in between the multistory buildings small enterprises. Within the dynamic urban quarter even a little industrial area has evolved generating income from recycling and traditional handicrafts. settlement of the government-owned land mostly took place without any authorisation. While still a very poor district of Cairo. more and more impoverished people had been driven out of central Cairo – a megacity with an estimated current population of around 17 million people – into districts such as Manshiet Nasser in the wake of rapid urbanisation. Manshiet Nasser is home to between 800. The community of Manshiet Nasser is beyond doubt working towards its own future. the capital of Egypt. Manshiet Nasser represents one of Cairo’s largest informal settlements. People have limited .Projects 18 / 19 Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser KfW Entwicklungsbank Mandana Bahrinipour and Andreas Holtkotte. Today. slowly extending uphill to the east as more migrants arrived. Bernd Bauerfeld (Dorsch Gruppe) Cairo. land titles and construction plans – simple dwellings being erected along the Autostrada. The area among the foothills of the Mokattam mountains has been developed since the late 50s and early 60s by rural migrants from Upper Egypt. As a result the urban development is quite haphazard and entirely lacking any legal basis and proper administrative infrastructure.000 to 1 million people.
the implementation of an organised sewerage system and – to a lesser extent – the upgrading of the road network. After the Egyptian government had abandoned its initial plan to demolish the squatter settlement in 1997. The sense of ownership of the improved facilities by the beneficiaries will thus guarantee the sustainability of the project. Cultural centre. inter alia in Manshiet Nasser. the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has supported this decision by financing the Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP). Disbursements to contractors are being managed Abdel Aal Canal in Manshiet Nasser. A participatory approach is being applied.Manshiet Nasser: From informal settlement to legalised district. in close cooperation with the Cairo governorate. KfW Entwicklungsbank (German Development Bank) and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) are carrying out a participatory development project to establish and secure basic needs. the residents are encouraged to put forward their own solutions in order that aid projects can be tailored to their needs. The prime objective of this project is to improve the living conditions of – and hence reduce potential health risks to – poor residents in Manshiet Nasser by rehabilitating and upgrading the urban infrastructure. access to basic services such as drinking water. this involves the provision and extension of a secure water supply distribution system. in order to combine the demands of the residents on the one hand and the constraints related to the provision of infrastructure by the several authorities on the other. . sanitation and electricity or other social services such as education and health provision. On behalf of the German government and the Egyptian Ministry of Economic Development (MoED). and decided instead to turn Manshiet Nasser from an informal area into a legalised district. civil society organisations and nongovernmental organisations. local administrations. The key element is that residents are involved in the planning processes and that local democracy is promoted.
It seems that the whole community of Manshiet Nasser does not simply accept the programme. . focussing on the three main infrastructure sectors of water supply. mainly stretching along the King Khaled Autostrada. its people virtually identify with it and the success story is catching on: similar projects have been launched in several other suburbs of Cairo and Alexandria.490 households. The project will also influence the wider urban development of Manshiet Nasser through small Community Development Investments in public facilities and communal initiatives in cooperation with a technical cooperation programme provided by GTZ. The project is implemented in the form of an open fund.5 km of the internal roads.900 in 6. which have been identified as priorities in the Manshiet Nasser Guide Plan and the subsequent Participatory Budget Planning. Phase II extends the project to further parts of Manshiet Nasser.1 ha). The main objective in the design of the water and sewerage systems is to minimise the excavation depths of the gravity lines in the very narrow lanes. sanitation and roads. although all dwellings have privately installed septic tanks). administered externally on behalf of the client. Phase I commenced in Ezbeth Bekhit. the result of quarrying over the centuries. is dominated by limestone cliffs. causing sewage to overflow into the largely unpaved streets and stagnant pools to develop in depressed areas. the existing gravity sewers are in a structurally unsound and poorly maintained condition. the critical environmental and public health conditions prevail in the quarter.Projects 20 / 21 through a local disposition account. Due to the low water supply standard (only 59% of households having access to the public potable supply system and some during night hours only) and lack of proper sanitation (only 56% have access to the informally constructed sewerage network. in order to prevent the collapse of adjacent buildings. The technical cooperation component assists the district predominantly in formalising the urban planning and community development as well as the administration on process development for legalisation. similarly. a sheikha (subdistrict) of Manshiet Nasser with a 1998 population of 28. The quarter covers an area of 47 feddans (20. A central sewage collection plant has been built and many have already been connected to the drinking water network. The topography. including annual audits by an independent financial adviser to international standards. The funding allocated will allow full water distribution and sewerage services to be extended to approximately half of the population and to pave 4. which is characterised by extreme differences in elevation. to fully use the available resources. At present neither the quantity of potable water resources nor the pressure in the supply network is sufficient to cover overall demand. Shortly after the start of the project things have indeed improved for thousands of people in Manshiet Nasser. small lifting stations are envisaged to evacuate sewage from otherwise inaccessible areas.
072 km2 Arabic and others 1 Iraqi Dinar (ID) = 1. Mosul. Kirkuk.Iraq Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Iraq 28.657 (2009) 437.945. Najat . Basra.000 fils Baghdad (Capital).
It is expected that this will change to the better as soon as the newly improved railway network starts to operate. Dry Channel Development of strategy with regard to Iraq’s long-term visions had included the discussion of the so-called Dry Channel. etc. Apart from the technical issues (broken facilities due to lack of maintenance. a basic concept to improve the transportation network . operational cost. Umm Qasr and al-Fao. it connects both Asia and Europe. the importance of Iraq as one of the most important gates in the Middle East is heightened: thanks to its favourably located harbours in the southeast of Iraq. and vice versa. within Iraq – especially the railway network – in order to link Umm Qasr and al-Fao ports to the north. low speed. Background International freight traffic to and from Southeast Asia mainly use the route through the Red Sea passing by Suez Canal. as it introduces an alternative and more cost-efficient route for the logistics industry with benefits regarding travel time. there are several reasons that hampered the operation of those routes. Thus. However. low capacity. due to the presence of Somalian pirates security has deteriorated. However. So far. The implementation of Dry Channel will therefore play an important role in Iraq’s future.). Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Deer El Azour (Syria). Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Halab-Lattakia (Syria). the political situation in Iraq does not allow for a competitive transport provision. and the sea route through the Persian Gulf as an alternative becomes more attractive for freight carriers today and definitely in the future. etc.Projects 22 / 23 Railway Network Project Dorsch Gruppe Ulrich Beer Training of Iraqi railway engineers at Dorsch Gruppe. security. similar routes were already in operation linking Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Mosul–Turkey.
Iraq–Jordan Railway Link The Iraq–Jordan railway link as the major part of the planned transportation network of the Iraqi Transport Masterplan (ITMP) shall connect Iraq with its neighbouring country Jordan.300. in addition to a mine field area from the Iraq-Iran war where explosive ordnance disposal services had to be executed. From the Jordanian point of view Iraq is up to now the country that needs Jordanian transportation infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of transit goods between the Port of Aqaba and the central part of Iraq. Iraq and Jordan have agreed to expand their railway network to achieve this goal. Design of structures include 25 wadi bridges. Challenge of the Project The railway network project in Iraq with a total length of 660 km comprises a new West–East railway link – as part of the Dry Channel – connecting Jordan with the Iraqi railway network. railway technology has been further developed. During this time local conditions and constraints have changed.000 tons and 8. The existing Hajama–Sawa line from Baghdad to Basra has to be upgraded. both countries have agreed to expand their railway networks by realising a new railway line from the Jordanian city Zarqa to the Iraqi border at Trebil and from Trebil to Mafraq Al Rutba road junction in order to facilitate freight and passenger traffic between the two countries. Furthermore.000 passengers are transported each year. three small und three large stations (Al Rutbah. The connection between Iraq and Jordan is currently realised by a two-lane road on which approximately 2. Iraqi railway engineers on-site visit by train. the rehabilitation of al-Fat Ha Bridge. . the project sites pose particular difficulties: the project area consists partially of desert and some marsh areas.200. In addition. damaged severely during the Iraq war in 2003. 19 rural road overpasses. was commissioned. as three wars and the imposing of sanctions in the 1990s led to the deterioration of economy in general and of infrastructure in particular: no routine transport facility maintenance or opening of new routes has come about which led to limited mobility for the Iraqi people. 3: the Basrah–al-Fao railway project as part of the planned infrastructure network of the Master Plan shall connect the city of Basrah – an industrial and cultural centre in southern Iraq – with the new al-Fao port to facilitate Survey of railway line Hajama–Sawa. when Henderson Hughes & Busby initially analysed alternative routes. Basrah–Fao The idea to improve the transport network in Iraq was already discussed in the early 1980s. It is expected that freight and passenger traffic will increase significantly in coming years. Furthermore. Furthermore. The 400-km railway section comprises 14 passing stations. making it imperative to update all designs. Therefore. The Basrah–Fao line to be established in southern Iraq is an important connection of the network to al-Fao. station 6 at km 341+800 and Trebil).Parts of the project were conceived more than twenty years ago. It is expected that the new railway link will improve freight and passenger movement to a faster. The study recommended the so-called route No. ten rural road underpasses and approximately eighty culverts with various dimensions. Fourth part of the project is the Ramadi–Kerbala track through Mesopotamia. the government of Iraq aims to improve the transport situation in general. more competitive and more secure access to the national and international markets.
generally medium to stiff clayey silts and sandy silty clays. others will be exchanged completely. five road underpasses. one temporary bridge. has been damaged by allied bombing in the Iraq war 2003.500 m and ends at Sawa station. The predominant soil types in the Mesopotamian plain are finegrained sediments. which is an important part of the railway line between Haylaniyah to Kirkuk. Design of structures includes four railway bridges. In addition. Due to this situation. the al-Fat Ha bridge has to be reconstructed. pedestrian underpasses and standard rural road overpasses. Al-Fat Ha Bridge The existing railway bridge.526% the eastern end of the bridge is higher than the western end by 4. heavily. assuring the movement of goods and therefore boost the economy in Iraq. Al-Fat Ha Railway bridge damaged in Iraq war 2003. These fires affected the bridge. pipeline box culverts.345 m. 17 road bridges. Railway network’s improvement projects above will result in better mobility for the Iraqi people. This bridge is located at the midway between the al-Fat Ha Way station and the Sarai al-Fadhil Way station. three road underpasses and 37 standard culverts. Basrah–al-Fao railway project. The construction of the additional track Hajama–Sawa starts at Hajama station 0+583. Ramadi–Kerbala The Ramadi–Kerbala railway project is designed as a double track with a total length of approximately 133 km. the alignment will also pass three local roads on single superstructure bridges.Projects 24 / 25 international trade. Design includes seven railway bridges. Iraqi Republic Railways (IRR) intends to upgrade the line between both Hajama and Sawa stations with a second track running parallel and as close as possible to the existing track. Hajama–Sawa The Hajama–Sawa railway with a length of approximately 17 km is part of the existing single-track railway line from Baghdad to Basra. . Design of structures includes pipeline overpasses. This railway bridge is the longest bridge of the line Kirkuk– Baiji–Haditha (24 spans x 40 m = 960 m) and crosses the Tigris at al-Fat Ha. Certain members of the bridge will be reused or strengthened. The railway project will cross the Euphrates and two of its branches – the rivers al-Suwer and al-Atshan – on three major bridges. The project railway has a length of approximately 110 km. and standard culverts. its alignment will run through the Mesopotamian plain. Due to the slope of 4. As a consequence pipelines in the neighbourhood were set on fire. namely the piers.
Ajloun. English widely spoken 1 Jordanian Dinar (JD) = 1. Al Mafraq. Aqaba .300km2 Arabic official language. Al Ramtha.198. Irbid.000 fils Amman (Capital).) 92. Jarash. Salt.Jordan Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 6. Zarqa.677 (July 2009 est.
the challenge for the passive-solar design of the building was to provide a comfortable indoor climate. to create a buffer that prevents the main spaces such as bedrooms from heating up too much in summer. Thus. including living room. environmentally friendly building of 420 m2. Together with the Center for Study of the Built Environment in Amman. a Jordanian working in Sweden. Together with strict planning rules from the local municipality and a beautiful view towards the Gulf of Aqaba – there were enough ingredients for a challenging design process. Due to rising energy prices there is a growing awareness among the public of the need to save energy. Environmental Architecture Embedded in Local Setting Aqaba is located in the south of Jordan. garage. the use of materials and the reduction of construction waste: environmentally friendly materials are scarce and local suppliers are often not familiar with material specifications. which further minimises the cooling load by decreasing the heat transfer. The result is a multifunctional. study. The design brief for AREE did not only include residential functions. The passive use of solar energy is optimised by the orientation and layout of the house: spaces used for brief periods (bathrooms. garage. All to be either used as one-family home or to be divided per floor. This main volume is finished in traditional plasterwork with added straw. wind Design concept. Additionally. three bathrooms.Projects 26 / 27 Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Sustainable building is a recent phenomenon in Jordan. however. with the public area at the ground floor and private apartments on the upper floors. in a manner similar to the local Bedouin tent tradition. commissioned the construction of a pilot project to demonstrate the advantages of sustainable building and the economic feasibility of energy-efficient buildings. the building also had to serve as an information centre for sustainable building design and construction and should provide rooms for visiting researchers to work. many local Jordanian contractors are not used to work with these materials and to build from drawings. family room. and winters are mild. the hottest area of the house. An analysis of sunshine. where summer temperatures rise above 40 ºC. gtz International Services Florentine Visser conditions and views on site. kitchen. Moreover. There is hardly any need for heating. but allow for solar heat to enter during the winter to minimise the heat load. three storeys high. were the starting point for the architectural concept. The biggest challenge for sustainable building in Jordan is. and basement. . Water efficiency is also important for Jordan. Movable shades prevent solar warming in the summer period. each floor has an attractive and comfortable outdoor space that is shaded and enjoys a refreshing breeze. natural ventilation is improved by carefully positioned windows. On top of that. The north-facing main volume accommodates the bedrooms to reduce the cooling load. which is designed to work as a ‘wind tower’. ventilation openings and the main staircase. as it is listed among the four poorest countries worldwide in terms of water. six bedrooms. storage. doors. Here. together with the most common construction methods in Jordan (plastered blockwork and stone cladding). Tariq Emtairah. corridor) are located on the southwest side. occupants can spend the day during the hot season.
In addition. All design and construction elements were easy to plan on the drawing board. the installations are the last step in the strategy for energy-efficient design. To make AREE almost self-sustainable in terms of energy supply. . To ensure significant savings on electricity bills. Jordan Energy Savings The design and construction save 30% on the cooling load compared to conventional practice. the design provides the possibility Design view. With the solar cooling system the total savings on electricity costs are estimated at 72%. the natural stone in the interior wall finishing and the roof garden. Although shades prevent interior spaces from receiving solar heat. Kitchen and dining area are designed as open-plan featuring oriental ornaments and continuous floor finishing. Another is ‘solar cooling’. which is uncommon in Jordan. too.aree FACTS The use of cement is reduced – an environmentally important aspect. tool – and the result is a nice texture that will get more expressive in time. the roof structure is insulated. This is the first application of a solar-cooling installation in Jordan and very promising. Aqaba. the roof garden works as a ‘cooling element’ and contributes to reduction of the cooling load. Taking in consideration the additional investment cost. The subvolume of the living area is cladded with recycled stone from local stone companies. construction techniques improve the insulation and heat accumulation capacity of the building envelope significantly: the cavity walls are insulated by blocks with volcanic and perlite aggregate as well as insulation materials such as rockwool and polystyrene. Since the 40-cm-deep garden soil has a great capacity of accumulating heat and the plants provide further shade. The heat accumulation capacity is further increased by the north cavity wall being filled with sand. the expected payback time is less then nine years. The energy-efficient lighting design provided by Philips is one aspect. Even more unusual for Jordanian construction practice is the insulation of ‘heat bridges’ at the floor-wall connections. a sustainable cooling concept based on hot water from solar panels as a source of energy for an adsorption chiller that produces chilled water to cool the space: the sun heats the water needed to run the cooling system. however. ARCHITECT: Florentine Visser (Netherlands) CLIENT: Tariq Emtairah (Sweden) BUILDING PERMIT: Mohammed Abu Afeefeh (Jordan) GARDEN DESIGN: Matilda Nilsson (Sweden) CO -FUNDING: MED ENEC (European Union) SUPPORT: Philips Lighting NV (Netherlands) Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (Jordan) National Energy Research Center (NERC) (Jordan) PR: Center for Study of the Built Environment (Jordan) PROJECT ADRESS: Project address: 9th area. The roof garden above offers a fine view to the front and an outdoor terrace. it required a lot of discussion with the structural engineer and contractor on site. to connect the interior and exterior spaces between the main volume and the living area.
Grey water from showers and sinks is filtered by a sand-gravel bed with bamboo and supplies the required water for irrigation. As everything is subject to change.Projects 28 / 29 Climate concept plan 1st floor. too. AREE offers a model and ‘lessons learned’ on the possibilities and challenges in the field of sustainable building in Jordan. Together with water-saving taps. Ground floor plan. AREE opened as The Aqaba House. toilets and shower heads. a good architectural design and improved building technology and installations are not enough to achieve sustainable building: cooperation and communication are essential in both the design and execution phases to achieve an integrated project. Hopefully. landscape architect Matilda Nilsson selected plants and trees that are suitable for the Aqaba climate and minimise the need for irrigation. Second floor plan. . The total savings could then reach 93%. AREE is also an inspiring work of architecture and pleasant homes. no funding for these additional features was available. but water saving is essential for the future of Jordan: AREE is the first residential project in Aqaba equipped with a dual plumbing system for grey and black waste. to incorporate photo-voltaic panels to generate electricity and to add further shading for outdoor spaces. However. Energy saving is important. so is the use of the house: in early 2010. the first environmentally friendly Bed & Breakfast in Aqaba. Climate concept plan section. So far. the total expected saving on water consumption is 51%. In her garden design.
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Currency Main Cities State of Kuwait 2.7 million, including 1.3 million nonnationals (2009) 17,820 km2 Arabic English 1 Kuwait Dinar (KD) = 1.000 fils Kuwait City (Capital), Salmiya, Ahmadi, Shuwaikh
Projects 30 / 31
Al-Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium)
ASS Planungs GmbH Architects and Engineers Susanne Schmid schlaich bergermann und partner structural consulting engineers Dipl.-Ing. Knut Göppert
From top to bottom, left to right: View from training field. View from parking area. Roof, top view. Upper tier seating.
During the first years of this century the State of Kuwait and its authorities promoted the development of a new National Sports Complex. The site selected for this International Football and Athletics Stadium is situated within the suburb of Ardiyah, north to the Sixth Ring Road and bound between Mohamed Ibn al-Qasem Street and East Ardiyah Road, ca. 12 km southwest of Kuwait City centre. After various realignments the total site comprises an area of approximately 400,000 m². The re-aligned area complies with the appropriate site requirements of an international stadium for 60,000 spectators and approximately 7,500 car parking spaces as well
as various stadium-related training and warming-up facilities comprising a 400 m running track of 8 lanes with all associated athletic (track & field) facilities, including an interior turf pitch and a special football pitch. In principle, the complete FIFA and IAAF (international sports federations for football and athletics) regulations, guidelines and recommendations were carefully taken into consideration for the planning of the facilities mentioned.
Out of various concept alternatives the design idea of the stadium was briefly named as ‘dhow shape’. Behind the overall
architectural configuration of the stadium’s huge, bulged building mass with its saddle-shaped roof this indigenous feature is recognisable. However, the form was essentially developed out of stadium-specific conditions and was not transferred from the historic vessel of the Arabian Gulf itself: first, the preferred seats are alongside the playing field or the running track; second, spectators’ viewing distances grow proportionally to football-related limits at 150 m (to max. 190 m) between the extreme corner of the playing field and the spectator. Thus, to form a bowl on an almost circular footprint (although the playing field itself is rectangular) is the obvious solution, as thereby an optimum viewing circle for most spectators can be assured. The second prominent feature of the design idea is the entailing double-curved roof geometry in form of a hyperbolic paraboloid (saddle shape), a condition, which strongly influences the economy of an prestressed cable structure with translucent cladding.
front of the entrance and reception hall with a passage leading to the fully air-conditioned viewing lounge. On the western stadium side, this level includes conveniences for HH the Amir and his retinue, additionally – via segregated entrances – lobbies, working spaces, special boxes and studios for the media as well as offices for the administration can be found. Arranged around the central stadium axis and on the eastern side a total of 42 corporate boxes (hospitality suites) including associated lobbies are provided. On the northern, eastern and southern sides this concourse level also provides spectatorrelated facilities and access to the seating areas. The lower tier of the stadium bowls offers seating for approximately 22,000 spectators, including 250 primary V.I.P. seating in the viewing lounge and another 500 secondary V.I.P. seats; additionally, the corporate boxes provide seating for approximately 500 guests. Furthermore, a special space on the northern and southern sides of the gap at the upper edge of the lower tier provides best views for physically handicapped spectators visiting sports events with or without attendance.
There is a clear structure in the functional and spatial allocation strictly following a very detailed space allocation programme, the aforementioned FIFA and IAAF handbooks and media guides as well as the overall local regulatory frame and, last but not least, stadium-specific experience and trends. Level 0 as the lowest of a total of four levels is arranged approximately 5 m below ground or access level. Access is provided by four ramps to the arena gates. An internal road corridor provides access to all functional spaces for the athletes and sports event participants and, furthermore, to all stores and the main central building services plant rooms. The arena itself with its four gates is fitted out with all footballand athletic-related facilities and has received full olympic characteristics in size, shape and visibility. Level 1 is arranged above ground at all sides and is therefore the actual ground level with respect to the access roads and the surrounding stadium perimeter apron. The V.I.P. entrance is provided on two levels, the lower assigned for V.I.P.s, the upper is dedicated to HH the Amir, state officials and honorary guests. Level 2 is placed in the approximately 3-m-high gap between the lower and the upper tier of the stadium bowl. A prominent, almost processional access system on the western side for HH the Amir and honorary guests is set up in a circular drive-up covered by an arts-craft glass canopy in
Bowl Access, Circulation and Viewing Distances
Level 3 as the upper concourse is an intermediate level and is designed to continue the concourse of level 2. It extends to all sides and forms an additional perimeter circulation area for the spectators of the upper tier and ends, where the conveniences for the Sovereign and his guests in the gap zone between the tiers begin. On all bowl sides (except main stand) the access stairways coming from level 2 lead to the lower and also upper vomitoria of the upper tier, thus fulfilling the FIFA requirements for an access and egress system of stringent order and discipline for the sake of spectators’ safety. The total spectator bowl lies within a 130-m circle from the centre of the playing field and the optimum viewing circle of 90 m encloses the complete lower tier on both longitudinal stadium sides.
Since a stadium roof is based on the spectators’ comfort requirements (or demands) for providing shelter against rain, sun, wind and dust. And since FIFA not only recommends, but requests to have stadia with world cup qualifications with at least 70% of the seats covered, the International Stadium is provided with a roof unique in structure and dimensions: the roof top view shows the almost circular roof area of
its geometry is determined by the shape of the seating bowl which results in a double-curved structural system. Stuttgart/Germany. ASS’ is an expert in the field of sports architecture and has. Stuttgart/Germany. The combination of steel tubes for compression forces. been responsible for the planning and construction of the wrestling and the weightlifting hall for the Commonwealth Games 2010 in New Delhi. final design and tender documents by early 2002. responsible for as many as twenty realised large stadium roofs. another one is the continuous slot between the two tiers promoting favourably the air circulation for spectator stands and arena by this jet principle. furthermore. The strict structuring of the bowl exteriors with their boom-like vertex tops make the support positions of the compression ring as one essential roof element clearly visible. but also the elliptic area above the arena. forming thus an ellipse of 146/118 m axis lengths. The roof cladding is composed of conical membrane elements supported by flying masts. Time Flow Preliminary design was finalised by mid 2001. with offices in Stuttgart. The arrangement of two tiers overlapping each other – thus providing less distance between the spectators of the upper tier to the arena – is one characteristic feature of the design. whose design and planning architects (and engineers) are now based at the architectural and engineering office of ASS Planungs GmbH. design and planning of the Jaber al-Ahmad International Stadium Kuwait the State of Kuwait.Projects 32 / 33 approximately 42. appointed (the former) Weidleplan Consulting GmbH. The compression ring is clearly perceptible at the exterior perimeter. Assignments For the study. The design team included as special and expert subconsultants for the project’s roof structure the renowned office of schlaich bergermann und partner. Its managing director Knut Göppert is one of the world’s leading experts in roof design. Berlin. The sections also show the continuous ventilation gap between the upper bowl perimeter edge and the compression ring of the roof. among others. Section-related Findings and Expertise The sections reveal the figurative origin of the term ‘dhowshaped’: dived in the ground by one storey (arena level) and booming up to the bulged stand perimeter a similarity between the traditional vessel and the stadium cross section is evident. and the radial-concentric cablenet system spanned between compression and tension rings provides a visually simple but unique structural composition. Construction started in 2004. programme-related requirements and standards. among others for Dubai Sports City. Tender procedure including evaluation was concluded by end of 2002. represented by the Public Authority for Youth and Sports. The roof cladding excludes of course not only the structurally required circular area of the central opening. The local collaboration partner was Sief Engineering Consultants of Kuwait. as is the tension ring which encloses the inner roof opening and the cladding edge. the latest new stadia in South Africa (in Port Elizabeth. Cape Town and Johannesburg) for the FIFA World Cup 2010 and many new stadia on the drawing boards. after an interruption due to political reasons only. The translucent PTFE-coated glassfibre fabric is perfectly suited to provide sufficient natural light for the seating area. the cantilever beams further underline the bearing and stiffening function of the whole superstructure and call to mind the indigenous feature of the Arabian Gulf dhow. Its saddle shape is interrupted by an elliptical-circular opening just above the centre of the playing field which has an diametre of approximately 88/113 m.500 m². Its structure of a single-layer cable-net system is based on a bicycle wheel: the radial and ring cables are arranged within the steel compression ring (the rim of the bicycle wheel) and the inner main tension ring (replacing the central node of a typical spoked wheel). New York and São Paulo. The placing of the compression ring on the main concrete cantilevers. Durban. The elevations on each side convey a stadium image of motion and emotion as well as functional compliance with the . high-strength prestressed cables for the tension elements and the light weight membrane material is most qualified for large roof coverings of the magnitude of the new Kuwait stadium. and was completed in 2008. its self-cleaning properties are superior.
452 km2 Arabic with both English and French widely spoken Lebanese Pound = 100 Piaster Beirut (Capital) .971.Lebanon Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Lebanon 3.941 (July 2008 estimate) 10.
parts of the landfill are washed into the sea and thus pollute the beaches. Negotiations are ongoing to establish a joint venture between IBC and a German partner to guarantee an adequate management of MSWTC Saida during the next 15 to 20 years. Lebanon.Projects 34 / 35 Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Passavant-Roediger GmbH Michael Pfeifle Municipal solid waste treatment plant in Saida. but the municipality has been under high political pressure to find alternative solutions for the waste management of the city. .000 m². The landfill used for the disposal of waste is close to the seaside. the plant was ready for commissioning. biogas treatment and storage. In September 2003. The treatment plant is located at the southern periphery of Saida where soil had to be raised to built an artificial peninsula of approximately 20. It has a population of over 230. Background Saida is an ancient coastal city at the Mediterranean Sea. The environmental impact is very high: in times of stormy weather. In May 2009. 40 km in the south of Beirut.000 and is still growing. sludge dewatering. and after performing the necessary cold tests the authorities granted the operation permit. the private Lebanese investor IBC signed a contract with several partners for the design. The main contractors are the Lebanese construction company Sidoon Environmental and the German company PassavantRoediger for the mechanical-electrical part of the digestion plant. Construction was completed by September 2008. erection and commissioning of a complete mechanical-biological treatment plant for the municipal solid waste of Saida. there is no other area for the landfill available. However.
The entire process is an intensified digestion process well mixed by the Passavant-Roediger gas injection system with 14 hanging gas lances in each digester. By this anaerobic process. and valuable substances like metal.e. the enriched organic fraction is treated anaerobically. are separated from the organic waste fraction by means of crushing. may cause many incidents. comprising a total volume of 7. glass. which are coming with the waste in considerable amount. wearing and tearing of pumps. which is used for the generation of heat and electricity. 10 to 30% of process water is treated prior to its disposal into the sea or to its reuse. ceramics. The light reject is regularly taken out of the reactor to keep the surface free of scum. consisting of the following: Average know-how and technology.300 m³. The temperature inside is maintained by continuous sludge heating. stones. i. Another aspect of this process is the biological treatment of organic waste in order to produce biogas and fertiliser for agricultural use. The gas-injection system Organic material Paper/cardboard Plastics Glass Metals Textiles Inert/others Total 63% 11% 11% 5% 3% 4% 3% 100% 58% 19% 10% 6% 3% 2% 2% 100% 60% 15% 11% 5% 3% 3% 3% 100% The treatment concept consists of two steps: the mechanical pretreatment and the biological treatment using the principle of anaerobic digestion in which Passavant-Roediger here applied their extensive experience and integral development . The separation itself is performed by a special backwashing and heavy reject-removal procedure. the socalled mechanical pretreatment. At this stage the mineral fraction containing sand. paper. is separated from the organic suspension. vegetable market waste. tires. The residual waste is economically separated and prepared for recycling. The solid waste includes: house garbage. light reject material is then collected in containers. which contains the organic matter of the waste. During the following digestion process the organic substance is decomposed by means of microorganisms. light particles. Within the first step. the fractions. The gained bio-suspension. which are not biodegradable and/or can be reused as raw material. e. batteries. plastics. Within the second step. The fine fraction produced through the mechanical treatment is fed to two feed preparation tanks (FPT) where it is transformed into a liquid suspension by adding process water coming from the process water tank. branches and tree leaves. etc. The process water used for several treatment steps is to a high degree reused in the plant. which is regularly applied and part of the continuous feed preparation process. which are entrapped in the thicker feed suspension. metals and whatever is reasonably described as municipal waste. pipes and gate valves. float to the surface of the digestion liquid. The dewatered. textiles and plastics can be recycled.g. biogas is produced. The concept guarantees: – Minimising of the total solid waste to landfill – Reutilisation of recyclable matter – Protection of the resources by utilisation of the produced biogas – Reuse of the waste water after treatment and disinfecting – Reuse of the organic fraction from waste and waste water by conditioning and utilisation as fertiliser Daily. The digestion process generates enough energy to run the entire plant without the need for any external source of energy. which are build concrete and have a total height of 30 m each and an inner diametre of 19 m. splitting and separation.The Treatment Process The company Passavant-Roediger has developed a treatment process by which household waste can be separated in various fractions. 300 tons of solid waste of the City of Saida are delivered to the plant with vehicles. The output of the digestion process is a compost-like material which contains organic carbon as well as nutrients like nitrogen and phosphate. is finally fed to the two digesting tanks. metal and plastics. Consequently. cardboard. which is run in completely closed digestion tanks without any air and light. sand blockages. the so-called biological treatment. This is particularly important as minerals. The bio-suspension coming from the feed preparation tanks is mixed with a certain amount of recycled sludge from the digesters. paper. It is then pumped into the digesters.
Measuring instruments are installed to monitor the digestion process and the gas utilisation. Especially odorous substances are thus removed and the odour of waste is after purification not noticeable . For this purpose approximately 11.000 m² of open space is available to produce compost which can be used in agriculture as fertiliser or for landscaping.g. Sand and minerals are separated through the hoppers by means of pneumatic sluices.000 kWh/d of thermal energy. Air emissions are captured. Furthermore. From a buffer storage tank the anaerobically treated sludge is pumped to the four mechanical dewatering machines where it is mixed with flocculent to support the dewatering process.Projects 36 / 37 Environmental Measures and Outlook A comprehensive waste water and waste air management is provided in order to reduce emissions from the plant as far as possible. Approximately 19. the water consumption is optimised in such a manner that the water needed for the process is reused in an internal cycle as far as possible. in the cement industry. all noise-intensive machinery is installed inside or equipped with sound-damping so that noise emissions from the operation of the plant are reduced as far as possible. All separated fractions with a high calorific value can be used as an auxiliary fuel. e.000 m³/d of cleaned biogas is available for further use. Therefore. ensures an excellent mixture of the reactor content to maintain minimum temperature and concentration gradients. The filtrate which comes out of the dewatering machines is pumped into the process water tank for the internal recycling and reuse in the feed preparation tanks. In the digestion process 50 to 60% of the organic load is converted into reusable biogas.000 kWh/d of electrical energy and approximately 45. in which the sludge is dewatered to a dry solid content of approximately 30%. The municipal solid waste treatment plant of Saida is a first step towards an overall concept for waste management in Lebanon and is to be considered a pioneer plant for further similar projects in the Middle East and Northern Africa. This is particularly important for a proper working digestion process with maximum organic conversion rates and a maximum gas yield to be achieved. The biogas produced contains approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide as main components. Conveyor belts transport the mechanically pretreated waste to the feed preparation tanks where the waste is mixed with recycled process water. . During normal operation the gas will be used in a cogeneration plant to produce approximately 40. and the waste air is purified by means of a biological system (biofilter) and a chemical scrubber system. It is then treated in a postmaturation step.
Tobruk .579 (July 2008 estimate) 1. Sabha.173.000 Dirhams Tripoli (Capital).8 million km2 Arabic 1 Libyan Dinar = 1.Libya Fact File Country name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 6. Misurata. Benghazi.
shopping and office centre.-Ing. North African countries and especially Libya started to modernise their infrastructure and installed nationwide projects to develop their activities under a coordinated umbrella. All these are coordinated by the Ministry of Utilities. which was and will always remain one of the main business activities for German companies abroad. tourist resorts. investments into the infrastructure projects have been taken up again due to the high need to catch up.Projects 38 / 39 Design and Construction Papadopoulos Associates GmbH Dipl. offices. In the 70s and 80s German construction companies have already contributed to the development of Libyan infrastructure. During this period. ports and various street and traffic projects. Housing and Infrastructure Board (HIB). At the beginning of 2005. Since their removal. hospitals. the Papadopoulos Group started to develop its business activities in project design. Opportunities and Challenges Arab-German business relations over the last few years have been mainly dominated by the field of construction and project design. Libya has thus not only started infrastructure projects such as waste and real-estate projects like housing. the Organisation of Development of Administrative . industrial parks. However. project management and project operation. but is also investing in developing a nationwide railway system as well as the airport. New Infrastructure Projects in Libya Key to leading a country into the future is installing a modern infrastructure that is functioning countrywide. the liberal opening of the Libyan market around 2001 and the huge revenues from the oil export. this came to a complete halt during the severe economic sanctions. Jürgen Papadopoulos Car.
water. – Public buildings: hospitals. shopping centres. shopping and office centre. an infrastructure master plan is still one of the major tasks. like airports for example. electricity. Yet.Car. all actual infrastructure projects are organised by state-owned coordination systems such as New Challenge in Libya Since 2005. In the run-up to the 40th anniversary of the 1969 revolution. this did not last. railway. hotel. conference centre. but should adapt modern technologies to local processes. especially Tripoli: big housing projects have been realised and are still under construction. Thus. . ports and airport – Housing and living projects – Commercial real estate projects: offices. As mentioned already. etc. which focus at the moment on: – Transportation: streets. Albeit it is mandatory to target main infrastructure projects for rural areas too. The General Board for Projects was established a few months ago in order to centrally coordinate the numerous projects. As it lies in the nature of those projects to be long-term. – Waste and infrastructure: waste. these infrastructure projects amount to 100 billion Libyan dinars. Libyan authorities focus at the moment on the major cities. However. PAPADOPOULOS GROUP together with its local partner is engaged on the Libyan market as it believes that Libya has and will have a high potential to realise its infrastructure projects. In total. the challenge is to avoid past mistakes other countries already made and to consider new technologies like energy-saving concepts as well as economical and reliable techniques. numerous projects were accelerated. etc. university. etc. Centres (ODAC) and the Social Economic Fund (SEF) as well as many other national planning offices. Vital to planning infrastructure projects is to understand that a modern infrastructure system should not simply copy western design. they can only be accelerated by single mandatory projects. as after this important date projects seem to be driven by more economic principles rather than by a great logistic perspective of the infrastructure development.
such as finance control systems. Though lately private joint ventures have taken up the initiative as well. The local staff has to be trained with view to combine German expertise with local know-how to guarantee the mentioned quality. employers sponsor the qualification and the expertise development.Projects 40 / 41 ministries or funds. we found that a clear understanding of the quality and demand these long-term projects make on the invested competence in designing and managing them is essential for their successful completion. This is possibly due to the fact that the legal environment has developed favourably. naturally combined with a long-term engagement in the country itself. . cross-cultural The serious support of the projects. In Libya this is known as: ‘Without flexibility no success.’ training The instalment of a local office with local staff is the natural result of this. Also under way is the installation of a countrywide geographic system which will update important documents like maps. planning and negotiation are necessarily important factors for success. To integrate the training of staff right from the beginning is advised. A cross-cultural communication style such as a flexible time management. are highly welcome as all concerned are interested in finding the right modus operandi for these large-scale projects. foreign companies have an advantage over competitors. Business Concept Qualit y In our projects. Thus. German expertise and know-how in terms of construction standards like DIN and project management reporting tools. Due to absent practical experience of many Libyan engineers. driven not only by business but also by a necessary identification with the project and the country’s demands are from our point of view key factors for successful business in Libya.
Marrakech.Morocco Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Morocco 34. Casablanca.000 (July 2009 estimate) 710. Laâyoune . Tetouan.860. Fes. Oujda. Agadir. Meknes.850 km2 Arabic Moroccan dirham (MAD) = 100 centimes Rabat (Capital). Tangier.
financing and construction of the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant at Ain Béni Mathar in Morocco. Owner of the plant is Office National de l’Électricité .Projects 42 / 43 Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Fichtner GmbH & Co. in April 2007 under an EPC contract. Fichtner performed the initial studies. Abengoa (EPC contractor) and Fichtner as consultant to ONE. Project Description Ain Béni Mathar is the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant actually under construction in Morocco’s northern province of Jerada. At present we finalised the design review and assist ONE in assuring the quality standards during construction are met. drew up the tender documents as well as assisted ONE in selection and contract negotiations with the successful bidder. construction is scheduled for completion in summer 2010. which is being built by Office Nationale de l’Électricité Morocco (ONE). Contracts for construction and five years of initial operation and maintenance were awarded to the Abengoa Group. Introduction This article describes the technical features. KG Klaus Richardt Erection status February 2009: First mirror mounted on site. Spain.
The total construction time is scheduled at 22 months for the simple cycle gas turbines and 34 months for the entire combined cycle with the solar part. the country’s national energy supplier. one solar field with parabolic trough mirrors and heat transfer to the boilers via high temperature fluid (HTF) as well as BoP equipment. The total annual production is 3. during daytime. In a conventional combined cycle power plant. Four collectors make up a row and two adjacent rows form a loop that discharges its HTF to the central piping system connected to the HTF/steam heat exchangers. one evaporation pond. The solar field consists of parabolic-cylindrical collectors concentrating the solar radiation onto a central collector tube. drawing up the tender documents. Morocco. covering the feasibility study. two heat-recovery steam generators built by Cerrey (Mexico). The electrical rating of the plant is 472 MWe. The combined cycle plant receives its fuel via a 13 km connection pipeline to the Maghreb–Europe gas pipeline with additional thermal energy from the solar field. There are fifty rows in the north and 62 rows in the south of the central piping system. tender evaluation and. its width is 5.76 m and its reflector surface is 545 m². The 472-MW-combined cycle power plant consists of two Alstom GT13 E2 gas turbines. the hot exhaust gases of the gas turbine(s) are used in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam which can power the steam turbine. Thus. The typical length of a collector is 99 m. Each collector consists of a row of six mirrors. one 225 kV substation. one Alstom steam turbine. (ONE). design review.538 GWh/y. site supervision during construction. In an ISCC – integrated solar-combined cycle power plant – additional steam is raised in a parabolic trough solar field.The concept of the Ain Béni Mathar ISCC. workshop and offices. The power Erection status September 2008: Mirror workshop erected. The simple cycle gas turbine was commissioned in December 2009. of which 40 GWh/y come from the solar field. . with commissioning of the entire plant foreseen in May 2010. commissioning and assistance to the client during the warranty period. through which flows high temperature fluid (HTF) that transfers its heat to the steam generator of the combined cycle. The generated electricity is evacuated via two 225 kV power lines to Oujda and Bourdim. the electricity yield is increased. who awarded a contract to the Fichtner Group for consultancy services. since April 2008.
the main transformers had been mounted on their foundations. In October 2008. In summer 2009. At the same time ONE started to built its switchyard. 2 started its commissioning.6 million Construction The official inauguration of the project took place on 28 March 2008. the first one of two gas turbines arrived on site.Projects 44 / 45 plant itself is set in the middle of the northern solar field. the first of 2. aero condenser and steam turbine powerhouse main crane were under construction. the workshop for manufacture of the solar collectors was erected (see figure 3). the engineering arm of Abengoa. Cleaning and maintenance of the collectors is done from the aisles between the collectors. and in December 2008. and this was mounted on its foundation. 1 passed its performance test and gas turbine no. ONE and Abengoa: €127. aero condenser and solar field continued. In December 2009. Financing of the Project Financing of the €452-million plant is assured by following sources: 1. We are optimistic that we will get the entire plant operational by summer 2010. Electrical installations and erection of the gas turbines continued. Erection status March 2010: ISCC almost completed. In September 2008. gas turbine no. the GT bypasses and the pipe racks. First synchronisation of gas turbine no. the two gas turbines were operative. Abener. Between April and June 2009.6 million 3. the water supply and water treatment systems were finished as well as the gas turbines. so the total number of rows here is only fifty. King of Morocco. . the gas turbine foundations were under construction and a start had been made on erecting the pipe racks for the steam generators. steam turbine. which is not part of the Abengoa project. African Development Bank: €287. when His Majesty Mohammed VI. 1 took place in May 2009. Erection of the heat recovery steam generators. World Environmental Fund: €36.8 million 2. In February 2009. Since March 2010 cold commissioning of the steam turbine is underway and the solar field is complete to approximately 95% (see figure 4). In May 2008. Civil construction of all other buildings progressed. unveiled the traditional stone monument into which he inserted the tube containing the inauguration act. The two heat-recovery steam generators. together with local subsuppliers started the works by levelling the plant area and excavating the pits for the gas turbine and transformer foundations.688 mirrors was mounted on its foundation (see figure 1) and the 13 km long 14" pipe connection to the Maghreb–Europe gas pipeline was completed.
Duqm . Sur. Nizwa. with English widely spoken 1 Rial = 1000 biaza (Fixed Peg with US Dollar) Muscat (Capital).8 million (June 2009) 309.Oman Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Sultanate of Oman 2.500 km2 Arabic. Sohar. Salalah.
Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar for the Oman Methanol Company L. In future. The power supply is also largely based on it. Whether in the short or long term. while new oil fields are more difficult to exploit. Up to now practically everything in the country has revolved around oil. A large number of sources have been in operation for 30 years and no longer yield as much oil as they once did.Projects 46 / 47 Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Ferrostaal AG Dr.. However. it is hoped to maintain this prosperity through explorating and refining natural gas. it is essential for Oman to diversify its economy. Introduction The level of prosperity in Oman is mainly due to its large reserves of oil.C. .L. The production capacities are already declining. which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy. The Sultanate of Oman has changed greatly since it started exporting oil in the late sixties. which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy. Matthias Mitscherlich Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar. The reserves of over five billion barrels are expected to last just another 20 years and are relatively small when compared with those of the neighbouring United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The ‘black gold’ from the desert has transformed what was once an agrarian country into a sought-after exporter of raw materials. the ‘black gold’ from the desert is a limited resource.
part of a leading privateindustrial conglomerate in Oman.In future. and Methanol Holdings Trinidad Limited. The gas reserves are still largely undeveloped and open up new opportunities for value creation in the country: the confirmed gas deposits would be enough for more than 50 years at the current production rate. The three partners founded the project company ‘Oman Methanol . An important building block in the diversification of Oman’s economy is the methanol plant MO3000 in Sohar. it is hoped to maintain the prosperity in Oman through explorating and refining natural gas. The demand is at present higher than the supply and will continue to grow if greater added value is to be brought into the country through various gas-based projects. Natural Gas as an Alternative This state in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula possesses not only oil but also natural gas. Reduce Dependency on the Oil Price Ferrostaal signed a joint-venture agreement with Oman Methanol Holding Company. a leading global methanol producer.
for the raw methanol still contains unwanted constituents which have to be removed. Through the heating process. implement. own and operate a methanol production plant to be built in Sohar. There. The aim is. already partly split. heats up to about 880 °C and the remaining hydrocarbons are also split and synthesis gas is formed. the hot synthesis gas is cooled down to 250 °C and mixed with the remaining split gases in the synthesis loop.L. the plant was designed for an operating capacity of 3. pure methanol (M100) in engines allows sulphurfree. In 2008. which is then routed to atmospheric storage tanks. This split is a precondition for the further processing of the natural gas. The desulphurised natural gas passes through a heated pipe into . To develop and operate the industrial park as well as the associated port the government of the Sultanate of Oman and the Port of Rotterdam founded a joint venture named Sohar Industrial Port Company. the prereformer. The process is initiated and accelerated by catalysts. There. In the energy sector. Today. as natural gas contains sulphur. knowledge and expertise gained in Trinidad played a key role in the design and construction of this plant – the design and construction of the project MO3000 has been based on the same model as those on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.Projects 48 / 49 Company L. After the steam reforming process. After passing through the prereformer the actual conversion process begins as not all the hydrocarbons can be broken down in the prereformer. Methanol Methanol is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH4O. these hydrocarbons can be transformed into a balanced mixture of methane. an additional annual requirement of five million tons is expected. the natural gas. Representing an investment of more than $500 million. In the chemical industry. clean combustion and is used in fuel cells to supply hydrogen. it is first cleaned – for sulphur is aggressive and attacks some plant components. Then the raw methanol is distilled again and surplus water is removed – raw methanol contains a large amount of residual water. The location of the methanol plant is the Sohar Industrial Port Area. Ferrostaal´s partner Proman was in charge of the construction of the MO3000 plant. 250 km northwest of the capital of Muscat. which was developed into an industrial park by the Sultanate of Oman. the port is fully operational with state-of-the-art facilities. This is achieved by adding some more steam prior to introducing it into a tubular steam reformer. With current investments exceeding $14 billion it is one of the world´s largest port development projects. Now. the real refining process starts. by promoting private-industrial development in the downstream sector to reduce the previously strong dependence of the Omani economy on the oil price and to achieve a higher added value. Currently. the natural gas passes through a supply pipeline into a desulphurizer.’ with the purpose to develop. Hot water vapour is added. By means of heat. In addition. This takes place in two stages. basic chemicals such as formaldehyde and acetic acid are produced out of methanol. CO and CO2. a previously undeveloped site. light components of the raw methanol are first separated and fed back into the process in order to achieve more efficient methanol production.000 tons of methanol per day – or one million tons per year – destined for the chemical industry in Europe and Asia. methanol is used mainly in the chemical sector. What is left is 99% pure methanol. The gas heats up and it becomes possible to break down the natural gas into its individual components. The Process at MO3000 in Detail First of all. The actual conversion into methanol does not begin until after the desulphurisation. Natural gas consists mainly of a variety of hydrocarbons.C. The responsibilities of Ferrostaal included the development and the creation of a structured finance concept as well as the engineering and the procurement for the project. methanol is used as a raw material for the production of conventional fuels. What Started in Trinidad Will Be Continued in Oman The MO3000 methanol plant is the fifth of this type that was built by Ferrostaal over the last 20 years. the highest increases are expected in the fuel sector. global consumption of methanol was 45 million tons. By 2012. The result of the catalytic synthesis is raw methanol. The experience. hydrogen.
thus being the most significant cooperation between Germany and Oman in the field of higher education. Since education is a high priority in Oman. consisting of rented buildings. Moreover.Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) Prof.000 students in the future. German University of Technology in Oman Masterplan The German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) was founded in 2007 based on a Collaborative Agreement between RWTH Aachen University and the private company Oman Educational Services LLC. In autumn 2007. to which four Bachelor of Science programmes were added in the following . the government of Oman supported the establishment of the university by allocating in the Halban region near Muscat 500. Burkhard Rauhut Halban Campus masterplan.000 m2 for a campus enabling the university to enrol up to 10. Dr. The basic idea was to establish an university of technology in Oman based on German expertise in the education and training of engineers and scientists. by enrolling its first students into a pre-university programme. the university should have strong ties to the industry in order to support the industrial and economic development of Oman. GUtech took up operation on a temporary campus.
Variations in the façade details create an impression of staggered stone blocks. the rectorate of GUtech. open days. wind direction. which are almost unidirectional. Halban Campus without buildings. such as the Goethe Institute. Ventilation and cooling are thus critical not only within the buildings but also across the campus itself. dominate the area. Accordingly. Furthermore.000 m2. The next axis contains the buildings for different faculties.000 m2. The main axis is defined by the connection between the main entrance and the main building. It is a square building with a side length of around 84 m and an inner square courtyard with a side length of about 46 m which is shadowed by movable tarpaulins. architects and engineers in Oman. and many smaller seminar rooms. taking into account not only the special climatic conditions in this part of the world but also the cultural and religious traditions of Oman. Together with the increasing height of the buildings. the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce are all located on the second floor. this orientation supports cooling throughout the whole year. the Goethe Institute. covering more than 5. Northwesterly winds from the sea.Projects 50 / 51 year. the student club and the large lecture halls. The elevated ground floor accommodates the cafeteria. the inner courtyard is shaped like an amphitheatre with more than 650 seats. whereas the third one is dedicated to facilities used for social activities such as students club. showing sun-lines. It provides space for both formal and informal functions like graduation ceremonies. The campus is surrounded by service roads so that several side entrances are possible. Water for example can be saved by avoiding evaporation and leaks. faculty club. All other floors accommodate small. The masterplan thus comprises architectural as well as urban planning aspects. the campus grid has been rotated against the orientation of the layout by an angle of about 45º. The vertical axes are assigned to specific purposes: one axis is meant for industrial settlements like research departments of companies. which is spread over three floors. . Temperatures above 40 ºC and a relative humidity of up to 95% are not exceptional. The building is accessible from the main road via several parking zones and delivery ramps as well as from the plaza level. The application of low energy standards for new buildings saves energy and cuts operational as well as future maintenance costs. Mecca. The building accommodates the university administration. Pilaster and gutter are used to create further nuances. Moreover. The use of water and energy has to follow three guidelines: reduce. music presentations and sport events. At the same time the masterplan for the main campus was developed by Höhler + Partner LLC. spinoffs from GUtech or combined research activities between GUtech and industry. the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce. The main building receives a finish of natural stone. The climatic conditions in Oman make high demands on the design of the whole campus. reuse and recycle. The offices of Oman Educational Services. The building dedicates also space to external institutions which are linked to the university. All other axes are reserved for accommodating students as well as staff. Main Building of GUtech Campus The main building is the campus’ centre. it also considers economic and ecologic sustainability due to the necessity to use resources such as water and energy sparingly. The main idea in commissioning this German-Omani company was to combine German scientific education with Omani architecture. lecture halls of different sizes. and recycled water might be good for irrigation. the main library. gym or other social facilities. The layout of the campus is based on a grid with perpendicular axes.and medium-sized lecture halls and seminar rooms as well as the central library. The gross floor area (GFA) of the building is around 24. The amphitheatre connects these different elements. with both German and Omani partners. which is also aligned to the wind direction. the cafeteria. used water can be reused for different purposes depending on the initial use.
It changes its appearance from small to wide. the student club. With its variations of open and closed space.Amphitheatre. the campus will be built in a series of phases. which covers the bigger part of the whole layout. The windows are equipped with a flexible shading and ventilation system. enhancing the idea of ongoing communication. depending on the growth of GUtech. The façade towards the inner courtyard is a semipermeable membrane. The whole housing area is further separated into public. twisted to folded. This permeability supports the interaction of corridor and ramp as a communication zone. In Phase I only the main building and two housing quarters for students and staff will be erected. Therefore. the faculty buildings as well as additional housing quarters and social activity buildings will be built step by step. fly-in teachers and guests are also useful to improve the attractiveness of the university. health services. is divided into three resorts of different size: one for students. Since the administration and the library will be relatively small at that time all the departments including offices. The accommodations for female and male students are separated. Photo-voltaic elements in Islamic patterns provide shade and simultaneously make use of sun light. Two green stripes vertical to the main green axis give access to a wide range of social facilities like another cafeteria. The semipublic spaces are the central areas of each housing quarter. Following a well-defined schedule.200 or 1. thus allowing administration and library to expand in the main building. school and kindergarten as well as sport areas. It is expected that GUtech moves into the main campus at the end of 2012. At that time the number of students will not exceed 1. The balustrades of the ramp are used to create a more playful atmosphere.500. The railing runs along the ramp like a broad dancing ribbon. laboratories and research facilities will be available in the main building. Housing opportunities for staff. The main public area is a wide green axis prolonging the line from the main gate to the main building. Housing Quarters and Green Axis of GUtech Campus In order to attract students from beyond Muscat. rough and fine textures the façade alludes to the abundance of forms and shapes found in nature. Therefore the housing area. whereas . semipublic and semiprivate spaces. it is absolutely necessary to provide student accommodation. one for staff and one for guests.
Projects 52 / 53 the garden-like courtyard of each house can be seen as a semiprivate place. but actually used for the campus design. Cross-section of the main building. they also cool down the air between the densely build houses. which were used in ancient times already: the traditional Omani falaj system and the concept of wind towers. The wind towers are located at the roof of each building using the difference between high and low air pressure to channel wind into the rooms below and extract the used air from the inside. Pools in the housing quarters offer refreshment and recreation. the Omani building tradition strengthens the concept of sustainable building of the 21th century. these facilities will be an outstanding symbol of the successful cooperation between Germany and Oman. In order to create a comfortable microclimate. Floor plan. . but also two additional tools. not only the high density of buildings is copied. This century-old knowledge of sensible construction is not only reflected. After finishing the construction of the main campus of the German University of Technology in Oman. The use of water as a design element serves two purposes: it is an aesthetic element of the landscape and it helps to humidify and cool the air. In this way. The distinctive density of buildings takes into consideration traditional Omani architecture which was formed by the necessity to create a cooling microclimate. The microclimate created by the dense design supports the cooling and humidification between the buildings thus reducing the costs for artificial air conditioning.
126 (2009 estimate) 6.Palestine Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Main Cities Largest City Palestinian Territories 4.013.220 km2 Arabic Ramallah and Gaza (current location of government institutions) East Jerusalem (desired capital of a future independent Palestine) Gaza .
Projects 54 / 55 Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip Dorsch Gruppe Keith Brooke Bio-Tower PS. Deir El Balah.3 million population equivalents. Buriej. and urban quality of life in Gaza are interdependent to such a large degree that integrated water resources planning is a priority need. Recognising this context the Palestine-German Development Cooperation has launched an ambitious waste water project comprising an overall investment budget of approximately €70 million. degradation of water quality and reduced crop productivity. confinement and semiarid coastal climate. health. Evidently.e. etc. The specific objective of the Gaza central waste water project is to ensure an environmentally and hygienically safe treatment of sewage in the central Gaza Strip. comprising Gaza City and the middle area communities (i. sanitation and agriculture under increasing stress resulting in ground water depletion. The Gaza Strip suffers severe constraints in water supply and sanitation due to its location. The implementation of the project has started in 2003 and follows a double-staged approach. environmental protection. water resources.) with a total of 1. In the first stage the project . with pumps out of service. In addition to its already high population density steady population growth is putting the limited water resources.
The principal .000 m3/d and a summer peak daily flow of 135. including connection to the DN 1000 Central Communities gravity trunk main.7 km long from Wadi Gaza central pumping station to Buriej waste water treatment plant. – Gravity trunk main DN 1500: 5. The study illustrates practicable and enforceable concepts under various scenarios and discusses the impact that waste water reuse will have on the water resources as part of the overall water balance in the Gaza Strip. upgradeable to 4. irrigation conveyance and aquifer recharge to meet high technical standards and sustainable economical benefits. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial analysis as several indicators justify effluent reuse for irrigation purposes. Altogether. Waste water discharges over the western Gaza City beaches. the following components are planned to be constructed under four contracts: – El Buriej waste water treatment plant: a mechanicalbiological plant for the year 2015.Waste water treatment plant project site. with an annual average flow of 115. The feasibility study shows the specific requirements in planning and management for waste water treatment.000 m3/d.4 km long from Gaza City to the central pumping station. Provision is being made to upgrade the capacity to 200. adjacent to the Green Line in the security area otherwise restricted for development. The overall goal of the project is to use the substantial quantities of treated effluent produced by the Buriej waste water treatment plant as an efficient substitute for irrigation by ground water.000 m3/d. – Pressure main DN 1400: 3. including the construction of a new central waste water treatment plant in Buriej. Effluent that is surplus to irrigation demand is recharged to the Coastal Aquifer to reduce and ultimately reverse the decline in ground water quantity and quality. – Wadi Gaza central pumping station: peak capacity 3. a specific study for the optimisation of systems for dealing with the effluent and sludge has also been carried out: it exemplifies a serious effort to develop a plan to realise the opportunities for beneficial effluent and sludge reuse that will be opened by the Gaza central waste water project. will provide a fully functional sewerage and waste water treatment system.4 m3/s (2025). Furthermore. including nitrogen removal and tertiary treatment in future stages up to 2025.2 m3/s (2015).
. Initial planning Gaza waste water project. this waste water reuse project serving Gaza City and the central communities will be the first of its kind in Palestine and therefore its successful implementation will provide a framework on which further waste water reuse projects can be developed. design for the Buriej waste water treatment plant has been completed and tender documents have been finalised. The intent is to proceed with implementation when the security situation in Gaza is sufficiently stable to allow the project to proceed without unacceptable risk. As an integral part of the regional water strategy to provide full coverage of waste water treatment. At this point.Projects 56 / 57 economic output of the project will be an increased agricultural production that will strengthen farm profitability and ensure sustainable agricultural production while the regions dependence on fertiliser imports will gradually decline.
6 million (June 2009) 11.437 km2 Arabic with English widely used 1 Qatari Riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams Doha (Capital). Dukhan. Ras Laffan Industrial City. Mesaieed .Qatar Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities State of Qatar 1. Al Wakrah. Al Khor.
while featuring an extremely flexible interior completely free of interior supports. The 51-storey high-rise plus three basements will accommodate offices. a café and a recreation lounge. Qipco Tower has been awarded the ‘2009 Best Tall Building in the Middle East and Africa’ by the Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. The highlight will be a distinctive 200-m tower to be known as The Tornado Tower. creating a city landmark in the new quarter. several restaurants. a tower with the dynamic form of a whirlwind in the desert.Projects 58 / 59 Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha ThyssenKrupp Elevator Christian Kozma Qibco Tower elevator cabin. parking slots. Steel-reinforced concrete slabs combine the characteristic steel support structure and the inner reinforced concrete core in the ‘eye of the tornado’. The shape is based on a construction optimised for economic and energy efficiency that can withstand heavy loads despite its own light weight. in recognition for its . also at night. Project Overview The West Bay district of Qatar’s capital will become home to a new high-rise quarter shortly.
600-kg elevators ascend at a speed of 4 m/s. and one service elevator (ascending 53 stops up to 199 m at a speed of 3. etc. depth and height (machine only). six MRL passenger elevators (for the three floors of parking area). sPecial large motors for high-sPeeD lifts Motors for the 7 m/s lifts were our Gearless DAB 530 weighing 4.500 mm in width. and very demanding performance ratios for noise levels. Qibco Tower in Doha.300 x 1. elevators ascending 51 stops up to 195 m at a speed of 7 m/s).600-kg passenger elevators can ascend at a rate up to 7 m/s. with very high standards to be achieved for each and every elevator component. Eleven 1.000 kg. This is the first time a building in Qatar has won such a prestigious award. safety for its occupants and preservation of the urban quality of life. and are the fastest ever installed in Qatar.P. a top-class German elevator consultant.I. architectural form. the building comprises sixteen high-speed passenger elevators (including 2 V. sustainable design strategy. with dimensions of 1. mid-rise and low-rise). .546 x 1. 16 high-rise elevators are divided into three groups (high-rise. acceleration.5 m/s). state-of-the-art elevator technology All high-rise elevators had to follow the strict requirements of the 77-page technical specifications prepared by JAPPSEN INGENIEURE. building systems. stop lost times. In total. with the following key aspects: – High-speed transportation of people – Safety and reliability – Cutting-edge technology to compliment the building structure – Minimum waiting times – State-of-the-art aesthetics DSC screen. or about two storeys a second. each group serving a certain number of storeys of the building. Another group of five 1. structure.The ThyssenKrupp Elevator Solution high-sPeeD elevators: the fastest elevators in Qatar at 7 m/s ThyssenKrupp Elevator installed 23 elevators in the Tornado Tower. The Elevation Challenge The elevation systems in this emblematic building were logically required to be state-of-the-art.
P. the largest number of elevators operating on a single common DSC for any high-rise project in the Gulf region and the only ThyssenKrupp Elevator project in the world with 16 elevators on a single DSC – a new world record. A system of several personal passwords has been developed for this project. aDDitional sPecial features Qibco circular. lifts as per client requirements. In addition to the special architrave for the main lift lobby. – A PIN code for cleaning activities.P.I. as well as custom-built cabin interiors for passenger and V. – A handicap button which activates special handicap functions such as longer door opening times. sPecial features on the Dsc for this Project – The DSC special features include a personal identification number code access to V.I. All elevators in the project were manufactured in Germany. at 7 m/s. to ensure a highest-quality solution for this emblematic building. cabin are a Thin Filled Transistor display compatible with Internet inside the cabin.I. – The initial menu of the DSC screens counts with direct access buttons to restaurants. recreation floors. The service elevator’s doors were made of the dimension 1. with special mention to the ThyssenKrupp motors and controllers. – Safety and reliability: EN-81 standards have been complied with in this project. Within seconds the computer selects the best elevator and informs the passenger via the terminal which elevator to proceed to. users allowing them to be the exclusive users of their lifts. allowing the maintenance personnel to work easily. the door jambs are fully walled to blend with the unique circular lift lobby. The elevators provided by ThyssenKrupp Elevator are the fastest in Qatar to date. including emergency doors every two landings (every 7 m) for those parts of the shafts where no landings are available.800 mm which is more than the standard dimension. and the bank of 16 passenger elevators on a single Destination Selection Control is the highest number to date in the Gulf region and the largest ever for ThyssenKrupp Elevator. both in terms of technology as well as decorative elements. the V.I. – A special feature button which activates the password function previously described. being all components of very high reliability.I. The main lobby and all high-rise cabins have S-5 highperformance doors.400 x 2. mezzanine. lift was decorated with Kiwi-mesh walls and an exclusive and multicolour stone-engraved car floor with a company logo. Most particularly. ground floor. This results in a 30% increase in handling capacity and optimises passenger comfort and waiting times. – Elevator doors: adapting to the circular lift lobby. floors: through the DSC screens a password is introduced by the V. The project included a large number of special features.P. – High-quality aesthetics: Among the special features included in the V. – Buttons to change the display from English to Arabic. The DSC optimises traffic flows and helps passengers reach their destinations faster through touch screen terminals placed in the lobby areas where travellers enter their destination before entering the elevator. . safely and comfortably in the cabins.P. Evacuation systems under normal and emergency power have also been included. The sills for the landing and car doors are made of stainless steel.Projects 60 / 61 lower waiting times achieveD 16 high-rise passenger elevators in the Tornado Tower are integrated into a common Destination Selection Control (DSC).P. Strengths of the Project State-of-the-art elevation systems are a key component of this building. The doors have a 3-D door sensor to add to the safety and comfort feature.
Damman . Jeddah.240. but English is now widely spoken in business and public life Saudi Arabian Rial (SAR) = 100 halalah Riyadh (Capital).000 km2 Arabic is the national language.Saudi Arabia Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 28.7 million (2009) 2.
Abdulaziz R. Partner at Lufthansa Consulting. Saudi Arabian Airlines. providing support for airline start-up projects as well as upgrading the overall traffic infrastructure. and Gero von Goetz.Projects 62 / 63 Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Lufthansa Consulting GmbH Marlene Hollwurtel Ala Toukatli. Advisor to the Deputy Director General. Lufthansa Consulting has also been active in the Middle East for more than twenty years in the course of its worldwide activities. Among the most important projects it has taken on in recent years are the Performance Improvement Program at EGYPTAIR Cargo. Its consulting services focus on airline restructuring. the restructuring of the Jordanian Civil Aviation Authority and the start-up of Wataniya Airways in Kuwait. Numerous projects were successfully concluded. Saudi Arabian Airlines’ Deputy Director General and Chief of the Passenger Airline. Alhazmi. The most challenging project that Lufthansa Consulting is currently managing in the region is the strategic advising of . Saudi Arabian Airlines on the Way to Becoming an Aviation Group with the Support of Lufthansa Consulting As one of the leading management consultancies in the aviation industry. during the signing ceremony for the extension of the consultancy contract.
For the airline. one of the largest and most reputable carriers in the Middle East. Airbus A320-200.P. Saudi Arabian Airlines. have already based themselves in the region. Lufthansa Consulting conducted assessments and examined them with particular regard to best practice. – Positioning as the most important carrier for pilgrims travelling to the Muslim world. It will have to refrain from regulating prices and also initiate the sale of the Saudi Arabian Airlines’ headquarters in Jeddah. predominantly low-cost carriers. Having made comprehensive structural and functional assessments. Furthermore. One of the main measures proposed for Saudi Arabian Airlines was the concentration on five core aims: – Positioning of the company as the Middle East carrier. While competition in the domestic market is strong. especially in fleet modernisation. network carriers in the Middle East are also posting markedly higher growth figures and are achieving dominance in the region and their target markets. Lufthansa Consulting had to establish the extent to which Saudi Arabian Airlines is equipped for the new tasks facing it and for market requirements and its ability to face future challenges arising from the new strategic alignment. committed to Arab-Muslim tradition based on state-ofthe-art-methods. – Establishment of a private jet service (Royal/V. Saudi Arabian Airlines will not receive any more subsidies. – Carrying guest workers from Asian countries. The project was launched against the background of Saudi Arabia’s plans to privatise the airline sector. the airline’s position in the international market was also taken into account. Here. in a state-ofthe-art./ Private Charter). Saudi Arabian Airlines is rising to this challenge and together with Lufthansa Consulting it will tackle a range of tasks to reposition the airline. specific dynamism in the Middle East market. standard IT platform as well as in modern management expertise. Each year more than six million Muslim pilgrims from all over the world travel via the Saudi Arabian capital Jeddah to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Lufthansa Consulting made the appropriate strategic recommendations to its client and presented concrete action plans. The consultants implemented a range of established change management methods to engage the support of the entire workforce for the implementation of the new strategy.I. In this context. the company’s market potential was identified and defined. processes and organisation. Pakistan and the Philippines. mainly from India. – Future serving of the high volume of domestic traffic on a purely commercial basis.airline group to private investors. Several airlines. The carrier’s comprehensive restructuring to become an aviation concern is modeled on Lufthansa’s successful privatisation process. these plans mean the complete restructuring of the company including investments. . Lufthansa Consulting took on the complex consulting task in March 2008 after the airline commissioned the German aviation experts to help it to validate and implement its new corporate strategy. the government also intends to open the internal market to competition. in the course of its privatisation. To begin with. particularly with regard to the current. In the analyses. In all core areas and functions. Saudi Arabian Airlines placed special emphasis on the close integration and participation of the management and its staff. In addition.
Flight Training. and will thus help to develop the airline into one of the most important providers of airline services in the Middle East and further expand its role as one of the leading airlines. Private Aviation. Cargo.500 employees. The experts are currently managing 49 projects ranging from the development of a new network strategy including fleet and flight planning and the creation of a quality management system in the safety and quality area through to the restructuring of flight operations. Ground Services. of which 26 in Saudi Arabia with 10. Royal Fleet and Private Aviation REVENUE: $5 billion Since 2009. Lufthansa Consulting has been involved in the concrete implementation of strategic measures to reorganise internal structures and processes and to ensure the efficiency of operations at Saudi Arabian Airlines. Medical Services STAFF: 28.5 million passengers FLEET: 120 aircraft in the business units Passenger Airline. Maintenance.Projects 64 / 65 sauDi araBian airlines FACTS & FIGURES BUSINESS UNITS: Passenger Airline. dedicated services.5 million passengers and 55 international destinations with 7. Royal Fleet. . A team of more than twenty professionals from all areas of the Lufthansa Group is based in Jeddah and is working very successfully in close coordination with the client. Consultants working on site at Saudi Arabian Airlines’ headquarters in Jeddah are also involved in coaching top management and experts from the airline. Many of the measures and steps identified jointly with Lufthansa Consulting meet these aspirations. Saudi Arabian Airlines has an extremely sophisticated clientele and aims to offer its customers excellent. of whom 14. Catering.000 work in the Passenger Airline division DESTINATIONS/PASSENGERS: 81 destinations.
. Oberursel Rosemarie Overstreet and Manfred Tapfer Panorama view of the site.Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Outotec GmbH.
Because the client’s goals were of a superlative nature – biggest. The senior management at Ma’aden believed that the plant had to be large enough to ensure that they would instantly become one of the top players in the fertiliser market instead of taking a more traditional approach of building up a steady market share with a number of smaller plants. turnkey.Projects 66 / 67 Background Long aware of the dangers of being overly dependent on its oil wealth. in 2007 and set up a local office in the important coastal city of Al-Khobar. the project has reached its mechanical completion and will soon begin the re-commissioning phase before going ‘live’ in 2011. Today. Outotec entered into a joint venture with the Saudi-based Central Mining Company Investment Ltd. Following its success with some gold projects. The company was formed in March 1997. copper. the government set up the Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Ma’aden) to lead the sector’s development. Largest Sulfuric Acid Plant Worldwide In an effort to exploit these deposits. Ma’aden decided to expand its activities by developing fertiliser and aluminium plants. in June 2007. mid-sized power plant. Roughly 31 months later. . which is located in the middle of a desert along the Gulf coast. Upon its completion. the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed a strategy based on its vast mineral deposits. Metallic ores such as gold. zinc and iron can be found in the western half of the kingdom. Outotec has developed a state-of-the-art. it required reaching economies-of-scale for a fertiliser plant complex this size in a relatively short time frame. Thus. In addition to producing the sulfuric acid necessary for fertiliser. responsibility for coordinating the worldwide purchase of import equipment as well as all local supplies in addition to the installation of the facility. silver. with First fundaments at site. The challenges of a project of this scope and nature could be found at every turn: the site selected for construction is Ras Az Zawr. the three plants will also be able to produce energy in form of highpressure steam at a rate of about 800 tons per hour. the facility’s entire acid production will be utilised solely for the purpose of manufacturing phosphate-based fertiliser. From a technical standpoint. For the training of the plants’ operators.000 tons of sulfuric acid per day – there is no benchmark on the books of a sulfuric acid plant of this size. Outotec agreed with Ma’aden to deliver the world’s largest sulfuric acid plant facility. the country continues to pursue opportunities to broaden its industrial base and is firmly focused on making mining the third pillar of its economy. top –. The scope of Outotec’s involvement ranged from the engineering and proprietary technology to the delivery and turnkey installation of all three sulfuric acid plants. Outotec was to design and deliver a lump-sum. fastest. And it has also meant complete dedication to the task at hand especially under the turbulent conditions the global market has been faced with – the kingdom can simply no longer depend on oil to guide its future. Economic diversification has been high on the kingdom’s agenda since the 1970s. gargantuan facility with three parallel production lines capable of turning out a total maximum capacity of 15. similar to that of a traditional. To realise a project of this size and to strengthen its local presence in the kingdom. and phosphate and bauxite deposits are found in the northeast. miles from the nearest city having any kind of infrastructure. dynamic computer simulator.
Converter area. .
Projects 68 / 69 .
El-Obeid.000 (July 2008) 2. Port-Sudan.Sudan Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities The Republic of the Sudan 40.506. also in use is English and about 115 tribal languages 1 Sudanese Pound = 100 piaster Khartoum (Capital). Atbara. Juba . Omdurman.000 km2 Arabic.200. El-Fasher.
this project represents one of the most economic ‘Green Energy Generation Options’ worldwide with the lowest CO2 emissions. launched an international competitive tender for the engineering services. was signed in Khartoum. In 2001.250 MW hydropower plant. Furthermore. the executing agency. Qatar and Oman. covering the preparation of tender documents for the various works. Further international contracts for the hydromechanical works (€52 million). reducing sedimentation of the Aswan High Dam further downstream in Egypt. Kuwait. In February 2002. 2010: The Merowe Spillway in operation. which was attended by the President of the Sudan and more .4 billion in 2010) were funded by Arab funding agencies from Saudi Arabia. To understand the importance of the Nile to Northeast Africa. The Inauguration of the Biggest Hydropower and Water Resources Infrastructure Project in Africa The Merowe Dam and its hydropower plant is located on the Nile some 350 km north of Khartoum and some 550 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. amounting to €555 million. It has been designed to serve several purposes.Projects 70 / 71 The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Lahmeyer International GmbH Egon Failer The Merowe Hydropower Station in March. Thus. including construction supervision. the Merowe Dam will act as a sediment trap. the Dams Implementation Unit (DIU). the supply of water to centralised agricultural irrigation schemes (about 400. with a Chinese consortium of civil contractors. and the value of its waters to the people. which with its length of 6. Early in June 2003. this massive engineering contract was awarded to Lahmeyer International. tendering and contracting.650 km is the longest river in the world. Germany.000 ha) and the protection against the devastating high floods of the Nile. it has to be noted that slightly more than 400 million inhabitants are served by its waters currently. More than 70% of the total project costs (which reached €1. The remaining 30% of the project’s costs were financed by the government of the Sudan. construction design. the contract for the civil works. Abu Dhabi. namely: the generation of electricity from its 1. contracts and construction management. the electro-mechanical installations (€257 million) and for the power transmission system (US$397 million) were awarded in December 2003. According to studies conducted by internationally recognised organisations. Sudan. The first two of the ten generating units started commercial operation on 3 March 2009 during the inauguration ceremony of Merowe Dam. this population is expected to nearly double by 2025.
one 220/110 kV substation and three 220/23 kV substations. The powerhouse is located at the toe of the intake dam and consists of a 38 m long erection bay and five unit blocks. were installed. each 55 m long. including the power intake dam. which feed the 500 kV GIS by HV cables.700 GWh of electric energy were generated. During the flood season 2006 peak flows of close to 11. During the build-up period from March 2009 to April 2010. More than 55 executives of the various Arab funding agencies attended the inauguration. while construction of the spillway and installation of the 14 radial gates were ongoing. each with a capacity of 3.5 m.000 m³/s were diverted. the nonoverflow dam. The 500 kV power transmission lines. to the capital Khartoum and to the Northern Provinces (Dongola/Debba). This energy represents a monetary value of more than €350 million when using a crude oil price of US$70 per barrel. maintain and manage the complete facilities. A natural two-stream flow regime existed at the project site with the main channel and the secondary channel separated by a small island. the power transmission system includes three 500/220 kV substations. each with a Francis turbine with a net head of 45. the project features a dam with a total length of about 9. some 981 km of 500 kV lines and 795 km of 220 kV lines were constructed. The power station can generate about 5.3 km and a maximum height of 67 m.700 ministers and high-ranking government officials from Sudan and neighbouring countries.000 kN. The dam is made up of several sections. . Local people visiting the project. For the transmission of power to the city of Port Sudan via the city of Atbara. In addition. With the completion of the tenth and last power generating unit. two overhead travelling cranes. It accommodates the ten power generating units. directly coupled to the 140 MVA synchronous generators. the complete power station started commercial operation with full capacity on 8 April 2010. more than 2. the earth core rockfill dam and dykes on both banks. During the second stage of construction the flow was diverted through the partially completed spillway for a period of four years. Since January 2010 the Merowe hydropower plant has generated more than 75% of the electricity demand of the country and has proven to be the ‘backbone’ of the national electric grid. a rated discharge of 306 m³/s and a capacity of 125 MW. Dam Specification and Construction Due to the topographic conditions of the dam site. the spillway. powerhouse.000 people of the region. The inauguration ceremony of this historic event was held at the dam site and was attended by more than 1. Prior to the inauguration of the dam in March 2009. concrete faced rockfill dams on the left and right banks. Each two generators are connected via generator circuit breakers to single-phase step-up transformers. For the erection and maintenance of the power generating units. Lahmeyer International was awarded a further services contract to assist the owner (DIU) in the operation and maintenance of the power and dam facilities and to train his staff to operate.than 20. During the first two years the water flow was diverted through this main channel while the spillway and power intake dam were constructed up to elevation 264 m ASL in the dewatered secondary channel.800 GWh of low-cost and clean electricity annually.
To avoid seepage through the river sediments underneath the ECRD. mainly farming families.3 x 106 m³. The volume of the total storage is about 12. The zoning of both CFRD is conventional. Concrete face rockfill dams (CFRD) were selected on both the left and right banks for economic reasons.5 x 109 m³. The total volume of both CFRD is 5. which is dissipated in the 35 m deep plunge pool. more than US$500 million were spent by the DIU for mitigation measures to provide the same or better living conditions for the resettled people. is connected to the power intake dam by the nonoverflow dam. which represents less than 20% of the average annual flow of the Nile. At the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL the bottom outlets and surface spillways will have a combined capacity of about 20. Random rockfill was used for the construction of the cofferdams. Start of operation of units 1 and 2 and celebration with the local people. respectively.000 m³/s. These people were resettled in more than 6. .Projects 72 / 73 The spillway structure. The upstream and downstream slopes are inclined at 1 V:1. only about 40 km² of agricultural land has been submerged. which are up to 30 m thick. consisting of a transition zone.5 H. they received generous areas of agricultural land and cash payments as compensation.3 H and 1 V:1.000 new solid and modern houses. On top of the cut-off wall a ‘cushion’ of highly plastic material was placed to avoid stress concentrations in the wall and cracking of the core. a 1 m thick and 40 m deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was provided. Furthermore. The ECRD is founded on alluvial sediments. Due to the fact that almost 95% of the reservoir area is desert land. In total. which were constructed by DIU. The power of the water when spilled at full capacity reaches almost 10.000 MW.000 people. with very poor health and schooling facilities. fine and coarse filters and upstream and downstream rockfill shoulders. Their original living conditions were very poor and the houses were without water and electricity supply. with 12 bottom outlets and two surface spillways. Merowe Dam and the People About 70. were affected by the reservoir. The main dam of the Merowe project is a classic earth core rockfill dam (ECRD) with a central earth core. coarse filters and random rockfill. fine filters. The reservoir formed by the dam is about 180 km long and covers a surface area of around 800 km² at the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL.
Khartoum New International Airport Dorsch Gruppe Albert Mair and Frank Thimm Main passenger terminal. .
industrial. Waste water will be treated outside the airport area in a separate plant and may be used by the airport after treatment (e.Projects 74 / 75 Introduction Sudan is the largest country in Africa. It is located at the centre of the airport with a height of 58 m. infrastructural. power and water supply system as well as waste water treatment. fuel farm for aircraft fuelling and a separate presidential terminal. the capital of the Republic of the Sudan. especially as other transportation methods (rail. which will be split by the centrally located passenger apron. Since the end of 2003. a General Aviation Terminal. The aviation sector has therefore a tremendous importance for the economic development. cargo. Furthermore. the partly lax planning policy is contributing to the fact that safety distances between settlements and air routes are not in line with international practices. is enclosed by settlements of the strongly developing capital and extremely limited for extension possibilities. roads and rivers) are developed on limited standards only and are subject to interruptions during the rainy season. residential and recreational areas with their respective facilities. hotel with conference centre. which was finalised in June 2004. maintenance and general aviation apron as well as a separate apron for presidential affairs. employment and future industrial development both on a regional and national level – To guarantee the highest level of safety standards in air transportation . This potential has been translated into an overall vision and strategy for developing a well-balanced mix of business. fence and access gates. After analysing aeronautical. To ensure safe operation also during the rainy season with partly impressive sandstorms. A constantly changing silhouette against changing light conditions can be experienced. for irrigation). Phase 1 of the Khartoum New International Airport (KNIA) is designed with full aircraft code-F capability.000 m by 60 m and is supported by an efficient taxiway system that provides fast access to the apron areas which include passenger apron. Future development of the airport also incorporates a separate Hajj terminal. that was opened in the early 50s of the last century. an airport masterplan was developed. This kind of building is unprecedented in Sudan and should set a new standard for state-of-the-art construction and architectural design in both country and region. which includes the opportunity of handling up to Airbus A-380 aircraft. The new passenger terminal is an iconographic building for KNIA. The band structure of the roof is uniting the different characters of the country and contributes to establishing a harmonic relation between building and landscape. All facilities are supported by the necessary infrastructure with access roads. Another landmark building is the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC). The existing Khartoum airport. mosque. Further important elements of Khartoum New International Airport are facilities like cargo centre. The vertical concrete shaft and the 10°-inclined textile external membrane are creating a translucent volume between the tower cabin and the tower footprint. Planning Process For this location. It is furthermore a leading principle for all other buildings of the airport. The underlying objectives in designing the project were: – To provide a modern state-of-the-art international airport catering for today’s and future aviation needs – To provide opportunities for economic growth. a residential area and own solid waste treatment. The project foresees total integration to a larger scale development strategy for the entire Khartoum region. It does not even cater for a parallel taxiway for the increased traffic that is currently experienced in Sudan both for passengers and cargo. Dorsch Consult Airports is general planner for the development and implementation of a new international airport in Khartoum. prosperity. It dominates the landscape from the distance and contributes to the spatial and aesthetic identity and image of KNIA. regional and environmental factors. The ATC Tower incorporates all functions for Air Traffic Control and Apron Control and has a separate training area. Dorsch Consult Airports evaluated different locations around Khartoum for suitability. This caused a popular request for the realisation of a new international airport for more than twenty years. an ILS landing system with category II will be installed. an area approximately 40 km southwest of the city centre was selected as the most promising one. a welcome gate to Khartoum and to the Sudan. commercial. aircraft maintenance hangar. The urban development of the airport is separated in a passenger and an industrial area. shopping mall. aircraft catering facilities.g. The runway is dimensioned with 4. Site Selection During a site selection analysis.
. aircraft fuel supply. The responsible project unit is carrying out highly engaged public relation activities to ensure support by local communities and the public. The start of these works was celebrated in a public ceremony. the installation of a power supply system for the construction phase. Main access corridor. The KNIA project. when the site was handed over to local construction companies. These will on the one hand be carried out by an international contractor. the second largest infrastructure project in Sudan next to Merowe Dam. based on FIDIC Red Book planning that is currently under preparation. parts of the work like cargo facilities. incorporating residents and high-ranking officials from politics and economy. maintenance hangar and ground handling activities will be given to concessionaires. the construction of a perimeter road and fencing as well as the construction of 16 building units which will be used during construction. Dorsch Consult will act as Owner’s Engineer in the construction management and construction supervision. The preparatory works of local companies that were supervised by Dorsch Consult Airports are now nearing finalisation and ensure a quick start of the main construction works.Project Realisation An important step towards project realisation was taken in 2005. Their scope includes the construction of an access road to the airport area. the drilling of water wells and installation of a water supply system up to the airport area. On the other hand. During the construction phase. has the highest priority and is dedicated to a special Ministry of Presidential Affairs.
serving a growing air travel and freight market. Outlook After the expected construction time of 36 months for the main construction works. . The project is designed as a modern and attractive airport. Its outstanding importance for the prosperity and future development of the Sudan and the region of Khartoum and Omdurman also becomes apparent in the context of the harmonisation of conflicts between the north and the south of Sudan and the resulting opening of the country for economic activities. Khartoum New International Airport will be a new gateway to the Republic of the Sudan with hub functions to East Africa and the Middle East.Projects 76 / 77 Khartoum new international airport – aerial view.
Aleppo. Latakia.) 185. both English and French are widely used Syrian Pound = 100 piaster Damascus (Capital).170 km2 Arabic.18 million (2009 est.Syria Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Syrian Arab Republic 20. Dayr al-Zur. Idleb. al-Raqqa and Tartous . Hama. Homs. Dar’a. al-Hasakeh.
In a pilot project. Suitable thermal insulation not only optimises the indoor climate. while resources are becoming scarcer. Stefano Iannacone and Dimitrios Moussios The Merowe Dam VINNAPAS® polymer powder is added to the adhesive mortar to ensure a stable bond between the EIFS insulation materials and the wall. WACKER experts helped to fit a customised state-of-the-art exterior insulation and finish system to a building in Syria for the first time – to save energy and protect the climate. . people have started looking for ways to conserve energy. but also significantly lowers energy use. Even in regions with large oil reserves. The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through the right insulation.Projects 78 / 79 Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Wacker Chemie AG Dr. Using Polymeric Binders to Save Energy and Protect the Climate The costs for energy and raw materials are rising worldwide.
The most important thing is that they bond well to the substrate. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The reference building is the two-storey kindergarten that takes care of the NERC employees’ children. The outermost layer is a decorative plaster or a paint coat. the EIFS will protect the walls from heating up unnecessarily on even the hottest of days. its reserves are exhaustible. in finding the right VINNAPAS® polymer powder formulation to be used in polymer-modified dry-mix mortars for the regional construction industry. since modern insulating materials such as styrofoam sheets do not form a stable bond to cement.000 BC. Syrian architecture is recently undergoing a transformation in order to adapt to changing needs. the less energy is needed to create a permanently comfortable interior climate – regardless of whether the building needs to be heated or cooled. are increasingly being fitted with modern EIFS systems. Only after dispersible polymer powder has been added can a strong and stable insulation system result. people started to rethink how they use energy.Oriental bazaars. Traces of settlement date back to 5. consisting of a glass-scrim fabric embedded in a mortar modified with polymer powder. a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. Now. narrow alleys and high minarets: Damascus. And that is only possible with special dispersible polymer powders. with hot and dry summers and mild. EIFS were mostly used in regions with cold and damp winters. This is in contrast to other Arabian states. Starting from the wall. However. where exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are mainly used to keep buildings cool in the summer heat. Though Syria is an oil producer. The goal was to improve the building’s energy balance. sometimes damp winters. EIFS systems reduce temperature differences between indoor air and wall surfaces. the first EIFS layer is an adhesive mortar modified with polymer powder. EIFS are multilayered material systems.6 million. The mortar levels irregularities in the substrate. The climate in Damascus is continental. . both at WACKER’s Burghausen site and its Dubai technical centre. extensive tests had to be performed. However. Syria’s main concern has been to save heating costs in winter. they significantly improve the comfort level inside – regardless of the weather outside. The better a building is insulated. with around six million living in the surrounding metropolitan area. In close collaboration with Syria’s National Energy Research Center (NERC) and other local partners. when the government announced that it intended to double oil prices. Applied to a building’s exterior. By doing so. Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate Why insulate buildings in a land of deserts? What may seem paradoxical at first sight. And with good reason: a façade covered with an EIFS wards off heat very efficiently. So. Previously. such as VINNAPAS®. is a cultural and religious centre of the orient and redolent of tales of 1001 nights. But buildings in hot and dry areas. This bonding layer is followed by the thermal insulation board. creates a stable bond between the insulation board and the wall. Syrians are looking at ways to save energy and want to take appropriate measures and thermal insulation has become a hot topic. which is made of rigid polystyrene foam or other materials. some 500 m2 of façade at their sites were extensively renovated with state-ofthe-art EIFS systems. the systems are ideal for both purposes. too. Today. and provides the system with the necessary flexibility. and so conserve energy and reduce operating costs. with each layer fulfilling a different task. The thermal insulation board is protected from weathering and mechanical stresses by a reinforcing layer. Not surprisingly. Temperatures below freezing point are not unusual. the capital of Syria has a population of 1. For this. In addition. The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through thermal insulation. is actually quite logical as temperature differences in Syria are comparable to those of central Europe: outdoor and indoor temperatures normally differ by about 30° C. Typical Arabian architecture is best viewed in the picturesque old town. Reference building in Syria: equipping buildings with state-of-the-art EIFS results in longterm energy savings and thus helps protect the climate (photo: Wacker Chemie AG).
according to Middle East Economic Digest Magazine. all new construction projects must meet a local adaptation of the US Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard for environmentally sustainable construction. the construction boom is continuing uninterrupted. Dubai is the first city in the region to do this and one of only a few in the world to commit itself to this standard. In a pilot project. energy-saving insulation such as WACKER’s EIFS systems will rise.Projects 80 / 81 Construction workers fit an exterior insulation and finish system to a house in Syria. WACKER experts helped to develop an optimal adhesive-mortar formulation to suit the climatic conditions in Damascus . too. which wants to insulate further buildings. And as. the demand for intelligent. Although more exact figures will not be available for another year. NERC is even considering making EIFS obligatory for all new buildings. Outlook Some parts of the United Arab Emirates have already gone a step further: since January 2008. EIFS systems have been used successfully in the Emirates for over three years. the pilot project has already won over the Syrian Ministry of Energy. Construction specialists expect to lower the kindergarten’s energy costs by about 50% with EIFS. .
Tunesia Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Languages Currency Main Cities Tunisian Republic 10.9 D (2009)) Tunis (Capital).600 km2 Arabic and French for business Tunisian Dinar (€ 1 = 1. Gabes. Hammamet. Sousse.000 (July 2009 estimate) 163. Gafsa and Monastir . Tozeur. Bizerte. El Kef.490. Sfax. Kairoaun.
The goal: to permanently reduce the use of private cars and relieve the strain on the bus network.Projects 82 / 83 The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit Siemens AG Hans-Jürgen Schweer The Tunis light rail transit system. About one quarter of Tunisia’s total population was living and working in the capital. The effects of the global trends of urbanisation and concentration of population in metropolitan regions were also clearly apparent here in North Africa.000 people a day. For over 20 years. Upon completion of the review phase in 1980. Besides supplying the vehicles. Around half of all industrial enterprises were headquartered in Tunis. the Tunis light rail transit (LRT) system has been a reliable mode of transportation for more than 270. the Tunis LRT system continues to be the German rail industry’s showcase turnkey LRT system: the Métro Léger de Tunis is still the most modern LRT system not only in Africa. To this day. but in the whole Arab world. a French-Belgian-Tunisian engineering consultancy was commissioned to conduct a preliminary survey for constructing a new LRT system. Siemens was also responsible . Siemens Mobility was the general contractor responsible for the entire turnkey project. When it was built. In light of these trends. By the end of the 1970s. it had become obvious that the existing transportation system in Tunis could no longer cope with the exploding number of inhabitants. the signal was given to go ahead with the project – under the leadership of Siemens Mobility.
a fleet of 134 Siemens trains provide enough capacity to transport around 20. which stops the vehicle automatically and immediately if the driver does not keep it depressed. The supply is taken from the 10 kV system of the public utility supply and converted to 750 V DC by cast-resin transformers and natural-convection-cooled silicon rectifiers. The 2.000 people per hour per direction – or over 100 million passengers a year with fast. Lines 2 to 4 extend from the main train station to the Place de la République at the northern edge of the new town by way of the magnificent Avenue Habib Bourguiba. Safety has top priority at Métro Léger: the tracks are segregated from the other traffic by means of kerbstones. Upon completion of the project. vehicles: 78 cars (8-axle double-articulated) with two 240 kW chopperfed traction motors. All stations are arranged at surface level and equipped with high platforms and barriers that open only upon the arrival or departure of trains. the traction power supply. Line 1 connects the port (Tunis-Marine station) with the main train station (Place Barcelone) and the suburb of Ben Arous in the south of the city. The 100. only in the depot area foundation plates are requested. track suPerstructure: More than 70 km of track were required. each rated at 2 x 1. punctual and frequent service. Siemens’ computerised traffic guidance systems ensure that the trains have right of way at all intersections. which greatly speeds up the flow of passengers. The maximum span length is 60 m whereas the messenger wire (95 mm2) is fixed and the contact wire (120 mm2) is automatically tensioned. All deliveries and the installation were under the Siemens scope. or around €250 million based on the exchange rate at the time. The system is mostly suspended by approximately 1. The vehicles can reach a maximum speed of 70 km/h. For the sake of clarity. Today. making it the backbone of urban mass transit system for the capital city’s population of over 2. The northern line opened in 1989. From there. after a mere 36 months of construction.600 kW.400 H-beam steel masts. and even simultaneously at many stations. suBstations: The power supply.000 or so oak sleepers came from Germany. 2. Siemens Mobility managed the entire project including all subprojects. while Lines 3 and 4 pass north of Medina. the overall project was divided into eight subprojects: 1. which was also delivered by Siemens. 5. Normally.50 m wide and 30 m long LRT vehicles consist of three mechanical sections. The contract went far beyond the mere delivery of vehicles. however. is provided by 13 wayside rectifier substations. In October 1985. while the rest are on the side. catenary: The 750 V from the substations is supplied to the catenary suspension system and on the other hand to the direct suspension system in the Tunis-Marine depot. the first 10-km stretch of track opened for commercial operation. of which 80% are located between the tracks. due to the nature of the ground. the signaling and train protection systems as well as the civil works. 3. with a further 2 million in the Greater Tunis area. a multitude of suppliers and a considerable number of local services. followed in the next year by the northwestern and western lines. 4. the Société du Métro Léger de Tunis (SMLT) comprised some 30 km of track. In return. track construction: The track system was constructed in very narrow streets without impeding the flow of traffic along a route of over 30 km and at the Tunis-Marine depot before the entire trackworks including switches and connections were laid and welded.for the entire electrification equipment. During braking power is returned to the overhead system to save energy. The DC supply is distributed in a truck-type switch-gear unit with high-speed DC circuit-breakers which protect the track sections and is fed to the catenary system through load . This section of the contract also included the supply of two diesel-hydraulic shunting locomotives and the heavy workshop-equipment.000 live in the city itself. ending in Ibn Khaldoun and Den Den respectively.3 million people. The trains can be boarded from both sides. This means that passengers cannot access the train without passing the ticket kiosks. of which around 600. Line 2 continues on to Ariana. block foundations are used. have four trucks and can carry a maximum of 360 passengers. Total investment in the LRT system was 165 million Tunisian dinars. the African metropolis was provided with a high-capacity infrastructure and state-of-the-art technology such as the ‘deadman’ safety device.
The substations are controlled and monitored from central load dispatch station. are controlled by the urban traffic computer supplied by Siemens to Tunis in 1980. Siemens also trained Tunisian drivers using a similar system in Hanover. Thus. After a period of theoretical and practical training and prior to final commissioning. As responsible party for this total turnkey project. the high-level platforms and station equipment. general structures anD BuilDings: Such as the buildings in the Tunis-Marine depot. Germany. 8. The most important crossings. As part of section 6. quality standards and coordination of the construction works. where the transit system has only limited priority. underpasses. signaling eQuiPment: The signals at the terminals and at the stations with turning possibilities are controlled manually from the console in the station or inductively from the train. . 7. cuttings and support walls were required. the 13 substations. Siemens performed the project management at the site including technical supervision of planning documentation. a passenger information system for the stations and the safety system for the vehicle holding yard at the Tunis-Marine depot. Where the line crosses a road with the train having absolutely priority. monitoring of schedules. including the signal station controlling the signals and turnouts. The cost per kilometer of track was equivalent to a mere €6 million including the first consignment of 78 vehicles. 6.Projects 84 / 85 interrupters. At the end of the project. the signals are controlled automatically from the train. the Tunis LRT system is one of the most cost-effective passenger transport projects to date. way structures: More than 13 bridges. Siemens also supplied telephone systems for communication. the LRT network in Tunis was tested without passengers over a 2-week period. the customer and general contractor unanimously agreed that the tasks involved could not have been distributed more effectively – an essential prerequisite for managing large projects of this kind.
8 million (2009) 83.600 km2 Arabic UAE Dirham Dh (AED) = 100 fils Abu Dhabi is the administrative centre of the Federation.United Arab Emirates Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities United Arab Emirates 4. Ras Al Khaimah. Umm Al Qawain . Ajman. Al Ain. Fujairah. Sharjah. and Dubai is the main commercial centre.
Besides zones for residential units and different kinds of housing (e.Projects 86 / 87 Lotus Garden Project Background Mainland Development in conjunction with other development projects is one of the solutions to the challenging requirement of delivering sufficient facilities to cope with Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. ‘blossom leaves’. the Mainland Development encompasses an area of a mediumsized city. ‘suburban centres’. in an appropriate way. Dorsch Gruppe Rembert Wösthoff Project Data The following overview of key project figures indicates among others the total percentages between the built and unbuilt environment of Mainland Development: Project Objective and Vision With an area of 3. . links. apartments. various footpaths and traffic connections that tie the spine-centre functions to the ‘blossoms’ and the overall area. town houses) the masterplan includes a variety of common facilities integrated both within the various townships and along the central spine for the overall development. the overall development plan. ‘suburban centres’.700 ha and about 83. This decentralised concept fits well with the timetable of a development area of this size. spine centres as ‘droplets’ and landscaped parks that has a clear spatial concept with the potential of becoming a unique and lively environment. connections and interfaces. where the phasing within complete development modules is easily realised and avoids for example disruption to the inhabitants by construction works of later scheduled extensions. spine centres as ‘droplets’ and the landscaped parks is a well-balanced spatial concept which provides multifaceted relationships. Those elements are landscaped areas.g.000 inhabitants. Due to this insight the ‘Lotus’ concept was created with its township composition of ‘blossoms’. a decentralised urban development concept was considered most convincing. This successive development allows for a general flexibility and variability of the urban constellation. ‘blossom leaves’. To avoid in general a competitive position to the city of Abu Dhabi. The urban constellation of ‘blossoms’.
Mainland Development therefore has: – – – – 17 kindergartens. Mainland Development will have easy-to-reach local mosques as well as stately Friday mosques (located e. 9 primary schools. .g. Key to a successful development is a strong social infrastructure offering kindergartens. neighbourhood centres (at the suburban centres) to a large-scale mall and cinema (at the CBD spine centre) serving the needs of the total population. The introduction of new public transport systems to the city of Abu Dhabi will connect to Mainland Development as well. in the leaf apex): – 67 local mosques – 8 Friday mosques The cultural. with primary schools being integrated in the ‘Lotus blossom’ and intermediate/secondary schools being located on the edges of the ‘blossom’. social facilities located in the green spines and suburban centres in Mainland Development consist of: – 9 women development centres – 3 youth centres – 6 cultural centres Commercial activities are focused on the suburban as well as the spine centres. giving residents and visitors more choices in choosing alternative modes of transportation in the future. schools and development centres etc. for the residents. Overall Mainland Development will offer a range from small-scale local shops (integrated in the green spines or residential zones). Public infrastructure facilities are placed strategically throughout the development area: – – – – – 2 police stations 4 civil defence stations 4 post offices 4 health centres 2 small hospitals The schools are designed to be coeducational. thus reflecting the objectives of Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 to make the city one of short trips. 4 intermediate schools and 4 secondary schools.Left and right: Birds views Mainland Development (north south and west east). Transportation Mainland Development will enjoy a good connection to the regional transportation network via the Emirates Desert Highway as well as with the connective street grid of Abu Dhabi providing convenient access to the capital’s city centre and the CBD areas. personal improvement. Religious life is a foundation for each Arab community.
a nursery and roadside greenery. There are some sand dunes which are visible from a distance. . Landscaping Generally. town house. which create a pleasant although minimal contrast to the surrounding desert. Its unique and distinctive layout will promote the values. – Synergy effects with further infrastructure are projected considering common corridors and required measurements. high spots are cut to have reasonable depths of sewerage pipes. where plants are of vital importance. The Mainland Development project located in the southeast of the city of Abu Dhabi developed by the Urban Development Committee (UDC) addresses these needs by creating a low. the area is not dominated by any distinct feature. sewerage Irrigation The demand of water could be estimated at 12 l/m2 for intensive landscape. afforestation. slopes.00 m due to high ground at that location. vehicular and pedestrian respectively. not only aesthetically. – Maintenance should be minimised by for eyample locating manholes at the edge of residential roads resulting in higher investments in the beginning but avoiding the necessity of closing complete clusters in case of problems at one single location. electricit y Electrical Power System Design concept for the power network according to: – Connected load of network – Voltage drop calculations as per latest Wiring Regulations of ADWEA – Peak load demand of the network Street Lighting The lighting system accommodates the visual needs of night traffic. 10 l/m2 for roads and intensive/ extensive landscape. – Main lines are running along/underneath arterials.Projects 88 / 89 Infrastructure water suPPly A few main ideas are determining the concept developments: – The general consideration of water as a valuable resource has been influencing the overall concept. – Independent networks have been developed for each phase due to the former objective to develop the whole project stepwise (in phases). courtyard house and apartments). The area is tentatively designed to be drained by gravity. Mainland Development will offer choices with different living possibilities (villa. The landscape design is therefore based upon ecological principles taking local conditions into account. The low lying areas are filled to cause gravity flow. there is a large water reservoir and some sparsely planted areas in the form of farmland. Nevertheless. social arrangements and culture of an Arab community to flourish. these do not spatially enclose the future housing areas. The total demand of daily water for the whole project will account for approximately 140. landscaping will obviously be a desideratum to create an attractive environment. – Future topography (based on road design) has been considered by developing the water supply concept. The branch collectors are ranging in diametre from DN 200 to DN 350. Similarly. but also in terms of their contribution to improving the microclimate and thus human comfort. Urban Design – Résumé The strong population growth in Abu Dhabi (projected two million residents by 2020) has created a surge in demand for suitable residential units by Emirati as well as expatriate families. The trunk sewer line is ranging in diametre from DN 300 to DN 1000 and has a maximum depth of about 14. esp. It will therefore become an important part of the unique and truly memorable Arab capital Abu Dhabi. The focus on the needs of Emirati families and their desire to live in low-density communities will create a viable new modern community. Thus. Its illumination levels follow both the recommendation of Commission International Eclarge (CIE) and the specifications of ADDC/ADWEA.000 residents. However. 8 l/m2 for extensive landscape.000 m3.to medium-density residential and mixed-use development for up to 100. – Future growth of population and further land use has been considered although decreasing consumption due to educated usage of water and minimised losses are expected. Secondly.
A. KG Raad Hamood View of work site.German MAURER Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. Data and Contributory Project name: Sheikh Zayed Bridge Structural type: Arch Bridge Project client: UAE/Abu Dhabi Municipality Design architect: Zaha Hadid Limited (ZHL) Design checker: COWI Consult Consulting and structural design engineer: High Point Rendel (HPR) Project contractor: Archirodon Construction (Overseas) Co. Manufacturer for dynamic loaded joints: Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. KG Project status: Under construction Anticipated completion: 2010 . S.
– The bridge has two carriageways each with four 3. After months of cooperation and in teamwork between the consultant and the architect. – The overall length of the main bridge is 850 m with a central span of 150 m. – The archs above deck level are steel boxes and have large cable hangars helping to support the concrete deck. a challenge. an architecturally unique form which was considered to be buildable and structurally feasible was developed. a desert-sand-dune design for a bridge with a touch of the Arabic – that is the Sheikh Zayed Bridge in Abu Dhabi.0 m wide shoulders and a 2. and is shaped like a gigantic sculpture weaving its extreme proportions of concrete and steel between the traffic lanes. a sculpture. Bridge view at night.Projects 90 / 91 General Information A project. Behind the architectural design of this unusually challenging project is a power woman: Iraqi-born architect Zaha Hadid. The bridge links Abu Dhabi Island with the mainland. referred to as the ‘dune’ option. . Her special architectural design for the bridge in Abu Dhabi makes for a challenging assignment and certainly one of COWI’s more unusual bridge projects. The design had to be carried out according to AASHTO LRFD. – The level of the roadway at the centre will be 22.65 m wide traffic lanes. including Dubai and the International Airport. – The main bridge is a prestressed concrete cellular box with large cross beams linking the two carriageways. the second design was characterised by an asymmetric arch in the shape of dune sand hills. the capital of the United Arab Emirates. main BriDge Design anD criteria Design and Construction of Sheikh Zayed Bridge Design concePts At first the architect bridge design bureau proposed two concepts: the first design was characterised by a linear framework and was referred to as the ‘zigzag’ option. – The overall height of the main steel arch is 63 m. Google bridge position.5 m wide emergency sidewalk on the outer edge. Bridge construction. two 3.5 m high. renowned for pushing the limits of architectural design. The client approved the ‘dune’ option. Bridge location.
which are curved boxes 5 to 8 m deep. – The bridge is required to have a service life of 100 years. The following interpretations and additional requirements were adopted to suit local conditions. The reference construction sequence starts with: Bridge construction. meets the architectural requirements but this feature adds problems due to the nonsymmetry of the section.These conditions require exceptional precautions to achieve durability. the Abu Dhabi climate is hot. – The bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake. A constant section was required by the architect throughout the length of the bridge. A single permit vehicle type with total weight 1. On the outside of the carriageway. . and the bridge is in a marine environment.5%g. Regarding the corrosion protection system. with each span being unique. zone 2. – The design temperature range is 0 to +60 °C. are then cast. – The connection of the steel box to the arch is with highstrength alloy prestressed bars anchored deep in the concrete pier arms. then brought to site and erected on staging and welded in situ. – The removal of any hanger in cable-supported spans for repair works or due to accidents will be possible under service conditions. As the structure is irregular. and a 5-m depth was selected to meet all of these design conditions. The deck cross section is a multicellular prestressed box that provides the necessary torsional stiffness and strength to resist the constructional effects. A reference sequence was adopted for design. – High-containment vehicle parapets are specified for the inner edge of the deck to provide extra protection to the hangers. The deck slab is also prestressed transversely to minimise any cracking. The outer section. The corresponding peak spectral acceleration was assessed to be 22. It was also checked for a 750-year event with 27. equivalent to 45 m/s. Construction Sequence The construction sequence for this project required very careful consideration. beyond which there is a walkway with pedestrian parapets on the outside.impressed current cathodic protection system. Thus. – The design wind gust velocity is 160 km/h. all exposed concrete surfaces have silane treatment and are painted. being open with cantilevers. – The piers and the crossheads. Construction steps. – The steel arches. often humid. standard New-Jersey-type barriers are provided. In the outer layers in the splash zone stainless steel has been specified. which had to be revised at each stage as the design evolved. arches and cross-ties. in some cases several spans are cast together to provide the required continuity and locked in stress in the deck. mainly due to presence of exceptionally heavy trucks on the existing road network. The decks are cast in situ on staging. no obvious sequence presented itself. It also restricts the width available for placing bearings of support.400 KN was also considered in the design. which support the decks on half joints. The form and mode of action of the structure made it difficult to allow for construction of the deck span by span out from the abutments towards the middle. – The selected vehicular live load is twice AASHTO HL93. whereas all reinforcement is made of uncoated black steel for future connection to an – The construction of the piled foundations. are fabricated in sections weighing up to 800 tons.5%g peak acceleration.
The filling is then excavated to pile cut-off level. For these reasons. and it was considered by the designer that at this elevation it would be more practical and quicker to lift them in prefabricated steel box sections rather than to construct concrete arches in situ. Bridge view at night. the sections of arch above deck level are all designed in steel. The chosen system was approved by the bridge designer and consultant as the joints cannot only follow the main movement of the bridge in carriageway direction but also distinctive movements in two spatial directions perpendicular to the main direction.0 m and the pile cap is constructed. In addition. mechanical and plant engineering. typically –6. Marina. . there are outer pier arms which support the deck via the pier crossheads and half joints. Even rotations of the bridge on three spatial axes are easily coped with. These are initially filled above water level while the foundation piling is carried out from a working platform at around +2. Therefore. founded in Munich in 1876. and was also checked for a 750-year event with 27. Seen in elevation. they have been sculpted to maintain the architectural concept of the deck floating through or around the arches.0 m. KG.Projects 92 / 93 The arches and piers form a continuous integral structure. the antiseismic expansion joints MAURER Swivel Joist Expansion Joint. Maurer Söhne Involvement in the Sheikh Zayed Bridge Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co.5%g peak acceleration. these arms are within the overall arch profile. West Main. Its structural protection system helps to avoid damages caused by ‘forces in motion’ by seismically isolators and energy dissipaters. The Sheikh Zayed Bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake. Bridge construction. the dominant stresses in the arches are bending rather than compressing with high torsions. The four main piers. At each marine pier. is one of the leading companies in the field of structural steel engineering. zone 2. The arches rise to over 60 m above sea level. In cross section. Central and East Main are all constructed within double-walled sheet-piled cofferdams. the bridge accessory devices have been designed to absorb the resulting loads and any movement in all directions (multidirectional by full stroke) as there are bridge isolators and movement expansion joints part of this bridge.
Köln Manfred Beilstein HSE award to Outotec for 1 million construction manhours worked without lost-time incident.Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Outotec GmbH. .
President of the United Arab Emirates. Innovative technologies. These anode blocks. For the anode manufacturing plant. by Emiri Decree Number 7 of 2007. It is the flagship project of Abu Dhabi’s industrialisation and diversification strategy. doubling to 1.7 billion and will comprise 756 reduction cells arranged in two potlines. plant operation centre and production control laboratory are part of the scope. Ancillary facilities. EMAL is constructing one of the largest single-site primary aluminium smelters in the world at the new Khalifa Port and Industrial Zone at Al Taweelah. and once fully operational will produce 750. as the best available technology (BAT) for this purpose. like the calcined coke and liquid pitch unloading and storage system. also known as vibrocompactors. each rated at 50 t/h capacity. are consumed in the reduction lines for producing aluminium metal. The molded blocks are then . The EMAL green anode plant has two anode production lines. an on-site 2. The green anode plant has the purpose of producing in a fully automated process green anode blocks from calcined petroleum coke and recycled green and baked anode scrap. making it the world’s largest single-site aluminium smelter – and making EMAL the fifth largest aluminium producer in the world. after baking. The aluminium smelter will be built in two phases: phase one commenced operation on 2 December 2009. with coal tar pitch being added as binder. The joint venture was established in 2007 under the leadership of HH Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan.000 tons of aluminium per annum. proportioning and preheating.000-MW power plant. anode manufacturing plant and multiproduct casthouse. HTF heating system. such as regenerative thermal oxidisation (RTO) for pitch fume treatment are being employed. EMAL had awarded the contract to design and construct the green anode manufacturing plant and carbon scrap crushing facility on EPC basis to Outotec. along with a crushing plant for recycled carbon materials. Largest Industrial Project Outside the Gas and Oil Sector The construction of a new high-tech aluminium smelter in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is already making history: it will be the largest greenfield aluminium smelter project ever – and one of the largest industrial projects in the United Arab Emirates outside the oil and gas sector. After grading. United Arab Emirates. the carbon materials are continuously mixed with binder pitch to produce a homogenous paste before molding it into green anode blocks on vibrocompacting machines.5 million tons annually at the end of phase two.Projects 94 / 95 Background Emirates Aluminium Company (EMAL) is a strategic joint venture between aluminium producer Dubai Aluminium (DUBAL) and Abu Dhabi investment vehicle MUBADALA. cooled in a water-cooling system. Abu Dhabi. a global leader in minerals and metals technologies. Building the first phase will cost approximately US$5.
Ultimate Flight Catering i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co. KG Torsten Brendel Exterior view: Emirates flight catering facility at Dubai International Airport. .
produce up to 115. i+o was once again able to set benchmarks. Middle Eastern. in 2008 the new terminal ‘T3’ started operation. 40. warm meals to a central cooling room before they are portioned and cooled down to 2 °C in speed coolers. Moreover. despite the fact that the temperature in Dubai can rise up to 50 °C in the shade during the day.000 per day. As a solution. A traffic yard with 84 ramps simplifies transport to and from the planes parked on the airfield and shortens the process of the internal material flow. Cool Despite Desert Climate The biggest conceptual challenge was to not interrupt the cold chain. currently the most powerful washing plant in inflight catering worldwide. empties and cleans the airplane trolleys. the team – consisting of i+o representatives and the management of Emirates Flight Catering – worked hand in hand. the new Emirates Flight Catering facility is full of superlatives. which experienced strong growth last year. Hong Kong. the airport of the desert metropolis sets benchmarks: in 2009 alone. Asian subcontinental.g.800 employees. In the course of constant growth. the inbound receives. a subsidiary of Emirates. Korea and Singapore. a length of 10 to 17 m each. A hall as big as a soccer field with 20 washing facilities. to make sure that it quickly adapts to an increasing demand. The most important hub in the Middle East possesses the world’s largest inflight catering facility. The facility consists of three storeys and has a size of 160 x 130 m. The world’s largest inflight catering facility stresses the efforts for expansion at Dubai airport. it also increases the durability of the food. Emirates Flight Catering. which lasted about one and a half year. Despite the current crisis. which starts at the socalled inbound. With regard to the cleaning process. The Heidelberg-based consultancy i+o Industry Planning + Organization was responsible for the planning and realisation of the facility. Next to dishes in different ethnic varieties like Arabic. Chinese or Western there are also trolleys for non-food items like drugs or duty-free items for on-board sale. This process not only saves precious time. where 1. in Frankfurt. an increase of 9. working on three floors. Cook & chill means that conveyer belts automatically forward cooked.9 million passengers were processed. Further developing the cook & chill principle is an essential part of i+o’s cooling concept.000 m2.2% compared to the previous year. Even during difficult economic times. In addition to receiving groundside goods. Dubai International Airport is the headquarters of Emirates airline and more than another 100 international airlines.000 meals a day. A central. The dirty trolleys are sent through two washing systems that have a length of 25 m. with an utilised area of more than 1 million m2. which has a total size of 55.Projects 96 / 97 Ambitious plans for expansion and large construction projects have been the special characteristic of the Gulf region. Japanese. the frontages of the building remain free for further expansion in the future. space-saving and covered transport area on the ground floor connects incoming and outgoing goods across from each other. is provided for used dishes and cutlery only. During the conceptual phase. A main target of the new catering facility is flexibility with regard to construction. Together. authorised i+o Industry Planning + Organization to plan this large-scale project. e. each corner and each process step in the facility. . was planned down to the very last detail. One example is Dubai. the emirate is expanding its airport. The terminal is designed for wide body planes of the type A380 and belongs to the largest terminals worldwide. i+o planned a building which allows capacity expansion into all directions – without stopping production. Sophisticated Logistics Systems An electronic state-of-the-art trolley conveyor is the mode of transport of the sophisticated intralogistics and forms the backbone of the new catering facility. It automatically transports the incoming trolleys – up to 13. Thanks to decades of experience in realising inflight catering systems. which fly from Dubai to more than 150 destinations.
The first construction stage is supposed to start operating in June 2010. logistical and organisational standards.000 m². the German consultancy established its office in Dubai and acquired further largescale projects in the Persian Gulf region. wherefrom more than 6. At the same time it will be absolutely necessary to intensively develop the infrastructure in order to be able to Covering three floors and an area of 55. In this context. Located directly at the shore.000 airline-specific items – from napkins and tableware to blankets and duty-free goods – are available. especially in the logistics segment.800 pallet spaces for storing more than 1. the region will become more important in their function as a central hub for trade between Asia and Europe. the catering facilities.000 international companies do business. i+o has constantly broadened its portfolio offering many additional services and core competencies. This also leads to an increasing demand for professional consultancy know-how. i+o’s task is to create a comprehensive logistics concept which focuses on planning inhouse logistics for the terminal building.000 container movements per day. the new hub will develop at an area of 20 km2. Ambitious megaprojects such as the Al-Maktoum International Airport are already under way.Due to this reason a modern container conveyor system equipped with six automatic storage systems was designed and implemented. Just recently. the warehouses for the duty-free goods and the cargo centre. the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council. One good example is the New Doha International Airport in the neighbouring Emirate of Qatar. All processes of the new Emirates flight catering facility are operated by a central control station. keep up with this development. another inflight catering facility is being established for Qatar Airways. In early 2008. will certainly continue to develop strongly in order to prepare themselves for the times of decreasing oil reserves. Since the beginning of its activities in the Gulf region in 2005. In total. Furthermore. The system manages up to 40. Dubai’s second airport will be located close to the freeport Jebel Ali Free Zone. i+o was also authorised by the investment company Emirates Advanced Investments (EAI) to plan a new food company that produces sterilised meals according to the latest international GMP and HACCP standards Well-connected: Dubai and the Gulf Region The GCC states. the catering facility sets new technical. high bay warehouses with about 1. . Until today. the Emirates flight catering facility is a major project i+o has realised in the Middle East which still sets benchmarks in the market.
Projects 98 / 99 Emirates airline aircraft and crew. .
869 km2 Arabic. with English as the main business language 1 Yemeni riyal = 100 fils Sana’a (Capital) .Yemen Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic Of Yemen 22 million (2009) 536.
particularly girls in Yemen are very disadvantaged.Projects 100 / 101 Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen Kere Architecture Diébédo Francis Kéré Cross section. Overview Due to the inadequate education situation in Yemen the Ministry of Education of Yemen and the Reconstruction Loan Corporation (KfW) have decided to implement a school project. Planning and Education (GOPA) are the development and the construction of new schools corresponding to the educational. The lack of partition (e. The detailed adaptation to the genius loci can only be made when specific estates have been designated. each consisting of eight classrooms for about 30 boys or girls respectively. a one-storey and a two-storey construction. which is partly covered with greenery and serves as ground for the pupils and contributes to the improvement of the climate. The classrooms are strictly separated between the user groups of boys and girls. . practical and innovative variant for the construction of schools in Yemen. Targets of the project carried out by the Society for Organization. Within this context. clean drinking water and electricity. Each user group has its own courtyard.g. They have big structural defects and lack sanitary facilities. The project’s aim is to achieve schools that provide ‘a peaceful and democratic environment’. Teachers get their own building which is structured as a multipurpose room and thus meets various requirements. but sufficiently equipped to be able to teach the pupils adequately. The rooms are simple. But basically the draft is a module construction consisting of a classroom to which a porch is added. some of the children have to walk to their school up to three hours on foot. climatic and topographic as well as resulting constructional requirements. Several prototypes have been developed which can be adapted to different regions in Yemen and thus promote an economic. According to the area programme there are two variants. Task: Area Programme and Concept The preliminary draft is planned on a fictitious estate with the minimum dimensions of 31 x 40 m and is intended as a measure catalogue. The existing school buildings are predominantly in a very bad condition. Since schools do not exist at all places. Depending on the orientation and offer of space the element can be added in various ways. walls around the school buildings) and lack of latrines frequently contribute to the fact that girls do not attend school at all. social-religious.
Primarily. which is used for the ventilation of the classrooms. Two classes are allocated a building established at the outermost edge of the estate. Furthermore. It would also ensure that people can identify themselves with the project. but has to be cultivated and supported nowadays. which are available on the spot. the use of prefabricated components requires a sufficient transport infrastructure. This common courtyard can be placed in the shadow or partly be covered with greenery. it is very rich in culture and trade. minimal version B – two-storey Foundations of the Architectural Concept Though Yemen is an economically very poor and hardly developed country. and use their thus gained experience in the construction of other buildings at a later stage. By means of an intelligent form this variant attempts not only to achieve climatic but also economic advantages. A great part of the mandatory surrounding wall is used as part of the buildings. . Perspective. are placed. a great deal of construction material is saved. with a long. building components and materials should be used. which cause relatively high costs at the common way of construction. highly developed tradition of architecture. The two-storey building is the ideal solution in case of a very small estate. which would be obligatory in case of an entry installed at the side. to which four classes are connected. no floor slabs and no exterior corridors. which is achieved by a gap between them. This tradition and the treatment of local materials should not get lost. are manufactured there or at least can be repaired and maintained on the spot so that construction can be as economically as possible. In case of a one-storey construction there are no stairs. which are connected to each other. By not integrating an exterior corridor. a clearly defined courtyard is created.minimal version a – one-storey In principle the one-storey building clearly separates the two user groups by space. Floor plan. Thus people should be encouraged to deal with the local materials of their region and impart their utilisation to future generations. Due to the low height of the construction less scaffolding is needed. these should be designed in such a way that they also can be transported with a donkey. By this. however. A separation according to age groups or sex can easily be achieved this way. This includes particularly the use of clay in all conceivable areas of utilisation. There are whole towns in which all buildings were made of clay. This gap constitutes a shadowed area and guarantees the air-conditioning of the classes. There is a subdivision of the classes into two user groups. The created space constitutes a buffer zone. so that their utilisation rather seems to be inappropriate in Yemen. If it becomes obvious that certain indispensable building components have to be supplied. In their midst two further buildings.
the high variations in temperature between day and night can be compensated. In some places openings in the wall are planned. as their children could buy small things after finishing school and take them home. Together. The massive walls store the heat of the day and guarantee a constant temperature in the rooms. Each class is to receive its own latrine. materials In hot areas latrines are a source of stench. which stand in the front area of the estates. Here an installation of terraces may become necessary. as conference room for the teachers. the plantings are installed as protection of sight between the two user groups. according to the various climate regions in Yemen. combinations of fanlights and low-situated openings are preferred to optimally ventilate and light the rooms. materials like steel or concrete are used at the construction. the system of the module with its diverse possibilities of combination will facilitate the implementation. wall The wall is not only a sheer element of separation. In both drafts two units were planned. roof The roof can be formed as a massive barrel-shaped roof or as light sheet metal construction. building and wall. This is also advantageous for those families. form the courtyards. By this.g. who live in remote villages with the nearest market miles away. Apart from this. bamboo. the guard has the possibility to sell something to earn himself a small income. sand or pieces of rock are to be used. and. In the mountain region. in the coast region attention is paid to a strong ventilation of the rooms in order to avoid dampness collecting in the rooms. For example. However. Furthermore. too. They are oriented towards the openings of the rooms. Within the context of the often extremely barren Yemen landscape an oasis with a high quality of staying is created. to protect the girls against gazes from the outside. as a place of encounter between teachers and parents. which can be developed from diagonally placed stones or plantings that give the wall a structure and guarantee ventilation as well as protection against sight. Only when it is indispensable. Thus. which is structured as multipurpose room. Thus. a part of the room can also serve as school library. toilets protection against gazes the girls can freely move behind the wall. the individual building components and openings are adapted and optimised. measures A big room is planned in the entry sector. A small room is separated from the multipurpose room to the front and determined for the school’s guard. which are designed and covered with greenery. The plantings are very important to guarantee fresh. insolation/rain). This room can also serve as a small store. The buildings are part of the wall and not surrounded by it.g. which can be locked as this makes it easier to supervise the cleanness and efficiency. In order to fulfil the requirements of the climate in desert regions one will work with massive elements comparable to those used in the mountains. Further precautions will be taken in the deserts so that dust caused by sandstorms will be kept away from the rooms. They are very plain bodies. local materials such as BTC-stones/adobe. A special challenge is the topography of the terrain. teachers’ offices If possible. It is used to establish a room and correspondingly engineered. Depending on the region it is decided which construction is readily available. garDen moDule The climatic conditions on the spot are of central importance for any architectural draft as they have effects on almost all parts of a building. smaller openings and more massive walls are planned. To avoid this. cool air for the pupils not only in the classrooms but also on the school playground. With reference to the wished . additionally.Projects 102 / 103 architectural elements anD PrinciPles (version a anD B) classrooms As far as possible. e. the latrines have to be placed in a corresponding distance to the classrooms. which are formed like a snail due to the protection of sight. The wall thus will become a decisive component of the architecture. which however protect the pupils against the climate (e. The ventilation of the rooms is guaranteed by openings installed in a well-directed way.
Special Topics .
health. to built up a dynamic network of professionals to analyse. to use our experiences and common business contacts in an ever more synergetic and target-oriented way.Special Topics 104 / 105 Working Group Infrastructure and Construction The Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry is currently undergoing a transformation process driven by the President Dr. With the introduction of industry-sector-specific working groups Ghorfa is offering its members the possibility of actively building industryspecific networks. dependent on individual time frames and personal or business interests. the idea is Dorsch Gruppe Olaf Hoffmann 1. every member is invited to now take over a shaping role within the Ghorfa on a sector-specific level. As overall issues are discussed on the executive level. Thus. The Board of Directors agreed on the following working groups: education and training. based on individual interests. the Board of Directors and the members. the working group ‘infrastructure and construction’ was established. thus not only broadening one’s own horizon but Ghorfa’s as a whole. to mark and visualise the main trends and important developments in the region on the basis of our daily insights. anticipate and discuss developments in the Arab markets. legal affairs. Thomas Bach. transport and logistics. With the construction industry in the Arab world continously growing and its tremendous business opportunities the exchange of views is getting ever more important for German construction companies doing business in the Arab world. the Executive Board. and environment and water. energy. information technology and communications. thus making it possible for each member to adjust its level of activity within the Ghorfa individually. will not only build an effective and well-connected platform but will also expand and cultivate professionals’ relationship to the Arab world by gaining valuable insights and by discovering new and profitable business opportunities. We are convinced that clearly defined points of contact. Each of these will be self-organised and will be led by a CEO of a company doing business in the specific field. 3. security technologies. . the Secretary General Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi. investment and technology transfer. financial services. tourism. infrastructure and construction. In autumn 2009. 2.
Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Legal and Administrative Background of Construction Consortia Business in Syria Syria is opening its country to foreign investment and business. state customers have. However. the laws in Syria are not yet prepared to deal with this structure. one overall price could apply that value to the entire contract taxation. All procurement contracts refer to the ‘Special Book of Conditions’. The Customer Contract Syrian civil law is far more liberal after its reform. It is a recent development that international contractors may now bid on infrastructure contracts in Syria as part of construction consortia. and public procurement can now be found in Law No. the companies law and the investment law. it is in the interests of consortium members to set out in the contract the shares of the respective consortium members and. it is also recommended that the invoicing should distinguish between the contributions of various consortium members. For all high-value contracts. contracting with public entities still means more or less accepting the contract terms and conditions presented by the customer. Accordingly. The strong desire to reform the legal framework and to provide an attractive environment for foreign investors comes along with an increased number of infrastructure projects commissioned by Syrian ministries and state organisations. Although Syrian law thus far does not specifically address the consortium structure. in the meantime. For example. the law still requires a public tender. As the combination of both components into one overall price could have a negative tax impact on the project. This provides for better risk sharing among participating companies. many laws dealing with commercial and civil law as well as finance and tax issues have undergone fundamental changes during the past few years. also being taxed in its home country. many legal issues must be solved by trial and error. Amereller Rechtsanwälte Dr. to separate the price of its off-shore component (all supplies and services effected outside Syria) from its on-shore component (all supplies and services provided inside Syria). Among these are the commercial law. this could mean general or partial double taxation of the income from the contract. 51/2004. Only in urgent cases may state organisations Place of Jurisdiction and Applicable Law Contracts with public entities in Syria regularly provide for application of Syrian law and for legal disputes to be decided by Syrian courts. Hence. These laws now provide a much more reliable legal basis for foreign companies entering the Syrian market as contractors or investors. accepted consortia as contract partners in large infrastructure projects. Wolfgang Graf von Armansperg choose noncompetitive or sole-source contracting. This is clearly in favour of the customer as . which clearly shapes the contract in favour of the government customer. in addition. This paper shall set forth recent observations relating to doing business as a construction consortium in Syria and shall offer practical suggestions for overcoming obstacles such consortia may face. including all off-shore components of the project. For a foreign contract partner. Since the customer tends to consider the consortium as one contract partner and prefers to communicate only with one spokesperson for the consortium. which repealed several old laws dealing with the tender process for public entities. Thus. Even under the new law.
In practice. In contracts with the Syrian private sector no branch office or agent is required. In Syria. This is the result of Law No.Special Topics 106 / 107 there are almost no examples of a private claimant successfully being awarded a judgment against a public defendant. foreign companies operate through an agent or authorised dealer. It is important to note that only Syrian nationals may operate as agents. This requirement must be fulfilled even if the tax on the entity is not assessed based on the profits shown in its books. an undisclosed partnership that is not a legal entity. could be compared with the German . contracting with public entities under the consortium structure always involves joint and several liability of all consortium members. According to this Decree. as a withholding tax from the payments of its customers. instead. In any event. in the new Agency Law No. The agent must be registered as the exclusive agent for the company. As long as this entity does not do business with the public and does not hold itself out as a partnership. 34/2008. Consequently. does not result in liability to third parties not contractually connected with the consortium. every branch office of a consortium member must have its own set of books and records. and with a similar effect. Both must be registered with the Ministry of Commerce and Economy. that member could be made liable for all the company’s business activities. the general manager of the office must be resident in Syria. Moreover. As was previously the case with Decree 195 and Decision 1336. Law No. all foreign parties who wish to conclude contracts with the Syrian public sector require a commercial agent or a branch office in the country. the requirement for an agent or branch office registration is applied to every member of the consortium separately. even an arbitration award. but is levied. therefore. the chances of enforcing a foreign judgment in Syria are rather limited. Swiss law and the rules of the ICC in Paris are well known and well accepted in Syria. Legislative Decree No. the books and records also must include the off-shore component of contract income. 15 (effective 3 January 2002) was released. However. a foreign contractor may supply its customers in Syria without the involvement of a local entity or agent. Usually. in addition. With private contract partners. Moreover. The consortium structure. 51. Liability under the Customer Contract and towards Third Parties Under Syrian law. The company. Reciprocity under Syrian procedural law still does not exist in practice. it is not required to have a branch office or agent on its own. describing the conditions for public procurement. An association of contractors and suppliers carrying out a common goal to fulfil the obligations of a customer contract does not automatically result in a partnership relationship. this could be compared with a ‘Sharekat al-Mahassa’. Branch or Agency Requirements under Syrian Civil Law In theory. Law No. In contracts combining off-shore and on-shore components. In the case of a company agent. Agency law is partly contained in the Syrian Civil Code and. 51 states that the actions of one member of the consortium impute the same liability to all consortium members. this is considered notice to all consortium members. if the customer gives notice to one consortium member. Branches of foreign companies are required to keep their accounting books and records in Arabic. the company must be registered in Syria and its shareholders must be Syrian nationals. 56 Commercial Code) and all participating partners would have unlimited liability. How will these principles be applied to a construction consortium? As long as the consortium is not considered to be a partnership or a de-facto company. even if this is not specifically stipulated in the contract. In addition. such as Syrian consortium partners or subcontractors. 34/2008 also is the basis for regulating the establishment of a branch office of a foreign company. and it is unlikely that a Syrian civil court would affirm any foreign judgement. as such. ‘offene Handelsgesellschaft (oHG)’. The analysis would be different if the company had a fixed place of business and operated as a commercial firm with the general public. if the leader of the consortium had the authority to issue directives and was responsible for controlling the performance of the other partners. it is a purely undisclosed partnership. it is difficult to enforce any judgement. on 3 July 2001. there is a much better basis for agreeing on foreign law and on arbitration procedures. In the case of a registered branch office. against a public entity in Syria. Such a company would constitute a de-facto company (Art.
this is now seen as by-passing the law and should not be used. The withholding tax is defined as a certain percentage of all payments for supplies and services and must be withheld by the Syrian customer in settlement of the foreign contractor’s tax obligation under the Syrian income tax law. Should the contract not provide for such a clear price differentiation. a 3% income tax and 1% salaries tax will be due on the combined components of the customer contract. It is obvious. Termination of an employment contract is an especially severe obstacle for any employer. A local bank account in Syria must be opened by one of the registered members of the consortium under its own name. however. it is not allowed to open a bank account in its own name. In practice it is accepted that payments to the consortium are collected in an account of the consortium leader. all transfers must be reflected in the accounting books and records of the branch office. therefore. Contractors. the consortium leader should provide a statement allocating the overall tax deduction to the respective consortium members. Normally. selfemployment and industrial activities is levied on the profit generated from these activities. However. It is not yet common practice to accept individual letters of credit from all participating consortium members. This is normally the account that will receive customer payments and pay local debts. payments in foreign currency typically will be operated from accounts abroad. However. Syrian labour law is still regulated by Law No. and 2% for the salaries tax. Under certain circumstances it may be worth trying to seek relief in Syrian courts. In the event the account is held by a branch office of a foreign company. as amended. There are cases where foreign contractors have been successful in settling their cases and having their bonds returned. the law provides for a withholding tax approach to income generated by foreign companies or individuals. Syria’s income tax on commercial activities. 24/2003. many hire their personnel through local third-party companies. This is surprising since. the contract is fulfilled when the work is completed. with the introduction of the new Income Tax Law No. it is not known if or when this will be implemented.Taxation of Construction Consortium Activities in Syria In principal. the full scope of an employer’s legal obligations are applicable. Under a consortium structure it is advisable that every member of the consortium submit its own invoices to the customer. often request the customer to make payments in foreign currency to their overseas accounts. 640 to 664 of the Syrian Civil Code. Bank Account – Currency Issues – Transfer of Money – Letter of Credit Since the consortium is not a legal entity and has no registered place of business. There is a new law under consideration. In some . However. in contracts with public entities. the tax withheld is 5% for income tax. Due to legal restrictions on convertibility Foreign and Local Workers Employed with the Project If a foreign contractor performs any local work in Syria. If the customer contract provides for a clear price differentiation between off-shore and on-shore components of the contract. that this approach involves the risk of illiquidity for individual members in the event the money is paid to the consortium leader’s own account. 91/1959 and by Art. It not only covers the income tax obligation of the foreign contractor. In practice. it is important to structure this account as an escrow account. who in parallel transfers part of his or her payments to the other consortium members. A letter of credit also is an accepted tool to secure customer payments. and transferability. This is typically handled by the consortium leader. and not after an additional guarantee period. the request to ‘pay or extend’ is a frequent experience for foreign contractors. The practical solution of many local employers – making moderate compensation payments – is probably not easily available to foreign companies. Therefore. In addition. The local bank account normally is used only for payments in local Syrian currency. under ‘The Special Book on Conditions’ for Syrian public entities. on the amount invoiced for the domestic component of the contract. it is still a challenge to get a performance bond returned immediately after all tasks under the contract have been fulfilled. but also extends to salaries for all personnel employed under the contract. documents on consortium letterhead are used to request payment of all consortium members. However. however. Bid Bond and Performance Bond Bid bonds and performance bonds customary in international project business also are common in Syrian project business. Syrian labour law is considered employee-friendly.
may be necessary to avoid the obstacles that crop up during any project activity.Special Topics 108 / 109 cases. the obligation to contribute to the local social security system is also applicable to foreigners.1% of the gross salary. the employer must furnish the Ministry of Labour with a bank guarantee in the amount of 100. despite legal reforms. On the other hand the opening of the Syrian economy to private investment. will further improve conditions for foreign entities doing project work in Syria. Due to the withholding tax approach in project business. contracting with the government in Syria is still slow and complicated. and Syria’s interest in European imports. In addition. This contribution amounts to 24. Legal and administrative support. The practical solutions currently in use by foreign consortia may be viewed as evidence of an evolving business environment going beyond narrow legal regulations. Only in exceptional cases may an exemption be granted. Moreover. The employer must provide for the immediate filling of any gap that may arise. therefore. However. The Ministry will draw down on this guarantee in part or in full if payment obligations with respect to the employee are not fulfilled. which includes the tax on salaries. Outlook Many of the mentioned legal requirements appear complicated and impose an administrative burden on foreign contractors entering the Syrian market. there is no need to declare the salaries tax by individual employee. Syria likely will continue to develop in this area and become an interesting market for large international infrastructure projects. actually subcontracting local work may help to overcome these labour law issues. especially German technological products. a local work permit is required for foreign experts or supervising personnel. This is regardless of the duration of their stay. .000 Syrian pounds for every foreign employee. Furthermore. but not all.
Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies Apricum – The Cleantech Advisory Romy Schildhauer Business park within King Abdullah economic city at the Red Sea. .
the Saudi government has identified solar Petro Rabigh Conversion Industrial Park is located at the Red Sea. many of these graduates aim for a position in management or in the technology sector. The people of Saudi Arabia. Nearly half of the 25 million Saudis are still enrolled at school. However.Special Topics 110 / 111 Background Following a slight recession in 2009. high-tech industries. such as Petro Rabigh und Yanbu. RCIP is a nonprofit base project where power and water will be provided at cost bases. Some parks. Apricum. It produces a diverse set of petrochemical derivatives including polyethylene. The national strategy for attracting enterprises focuses on large industrial parks. such as creating a large number of highly skilled jobs. Thus. energy both as one of the future pillars of national energy supply as well as an export product. the kingdom plans to attract high-tech solar enterprises to profit from the benefits of a national solar industry. the solar industry is especially suited to generate long-term growth and to respond adequately to social challenges. Energy demand in the kingdom is therefore predicted to have doubled by 2020. The parks are located throughout the entire country. next to a large petrochemical complex approximately 120 km north of Jeddah. It is targeted to attract investors for producers of high value-added and . Saudi Arabia’s population is growing at above average rates. attention will also be paid to other modern. The park encloses 240 ha. Already today. while trying to create jobs for a young and rapidly growing population. Petro raBigh conversion inDustrial Park (rciP) Solar Energy – a Future Pillar of Saudi Arabian Economy Thanks to its geographic location. but concentrate in particular in coastal regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. As such. Others are still in the exploration phase. where mainly the petrochemical and the crude-oil industry are represented. While today’s lion’s share of GDP is produced by the petrochemical industry and related industries. blackouts are predicted to worsen. primarily the construction business has profited from oil and gas revenues.4 million tons of petrochemical products per year. a globally operating strategic management consultancy specialised in Cleantech and renewable energies particulary focussed on solar energy. Apart from the petrochemical industry. The project was put into operation in 2008. are currently actively searching for investors and are intentionally geared towards becoming sites for the solar industry. The kingdom’s energy infrastructure however is not prepared for peak demand. The Saudi government is therefore keen to diversify the national industry. The high oil prices of the past years have provided the strongest economy of the Arabian peninsula with a sound capital base. In the context of a national solar study for the Saudi Arabian government. The sudden improvement in living standards of a vast majority of people combined with the economic focus on the heavy industry sector have also led to a rapid increase in energy demand. Several parks have already reached the limits of their capacities and cannot accept any more enterprises. the associated suppliers and relevant research institutes. blackouts are a frequent occurrence during peak times. In the long run. And with rising levels of education. The utilities and power stations needed would at first be imported from Europe or Asia. In addition to the above developments. Saudi Arabia fulfils all requirements for the profitable production of solar electricity: vast spaces and one of the world’s most excellent solar irradiation. as is for example the case with Jubail 1 Park. Saudi Arabia’s economy returns to robust annual growth rates of 3 to 4% in 2010. Producing potable water through desalination processes is highly energy-intensive. has assessed the suitability of the kingdom’s industrial parks and structural characteristics for attracting solar manufacturing companies. Saudi Arabia continues to face a broad range of economic and social challenges. as both the usage of electric appliances and water consumption increase. in the future. Such positions however are short in supply in Saudi Arabia’s current economy. The petrochemical complex was created through a joint venture between oil giant Saudi Aramco and the Japanese Sumitomo Chemical Corporation. These clusters comprise various stages of a product’s value chain. which will foster the creation of industry clusters. Of those selected industries. too. It marks Aramco’s first entry into the petrochemical sector and is the first of several downstream investments designed to keep as much value as possible inside Saudi Arabia from domestic oil output. experienced a notable improvement in living standards. Saudi Arabia lists more than 30 industrial parks. polypropylene monoethylene glycol and propylene oxide mounting up to a total of 2. In the future.
Modern service centres within the industrial parks are to offer high standard support for international companies. .
The Yanbu site is a perfect example how park developers successfully managed the challenges imposed by geographical and infrastructural conditions in Saudi Arabia. roads.Special Topics 112 / 113 export-oriented products. Beyond those facilities. Yanbu is especially suited for upstream PV production. When preparations at Yanbu started. polysilicon ingot and wafer production. With the large amount of energy readily available at low cost. Yanbu is home to approximately 20 heavy hydrocarbon. KAEC planners envision a futuristic new form of living and working for the inhabitants of their city. like high-performance plastic films that for example are used in photo-voltaic modules. the site was far from the nearest metropolitan area and ready access to essential goods and services. king aBDullah economic cit y (kaec) From the outside. Outlook Saudi Arabia´s industrial parks and economic cities offer attractive manufacturing conditions for various high-tech industries. the park is accessible via several multilane main highways.000 m3 fresh water daily. Today. it is one of the largest industrial parks of Saudi Arabia. At 158 km². home automation. let alone full-blown industrial development. Also in the central utility complex. Its power needs are supplied by nine gas-turbine and three steam-turbine generators. all capable of burning either gas or fuel oil. commercial and residential zones covering a total area of 168 km². e. petrochemical and mineral facilities as well as 37 light manufacturing and support operations. directly on the Red Sea coast and in close proximity to the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). the country offers a wide range of assets that are especially advantageous for high-tech manufacturers: – Low energy costs. . schools. Unlike its neighbouring facility Jubail. Together. which are primarily relevant for energy-intensive manufacturing processes. these units can produce 900 MW of electricity. therefore. royal commission yanBu Also near the Red Sea lies Yanbu Industrial Park. a future seaport within city boundaries and the Jeddah International Airport. water. health care facilities and all other services and facilities required by a modern industrial city. efficient health care and an advanced transportation infrastructure.g. which means that communities will enjoy a suite of value-added services such as eGovernment. It therefore seems predominantly poised to become a manufacturing location for PV-module or thin-film companies. It is a major development project with six districts including industrial. the first steps of the photo-voltaic value chain – Excellent financing opportunities including practically zero tax burdens for industrial companies – Very high market potential within Saudi Arabia and neighbouring countries The King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) pursues a concept reaching beyond industrial park development to foster national industrial cluster creation. airport. The challenge. was enormous: to provide power. water from the Red Sea is fed to nine desalination units producing 95. Contrary to the industrial park approach. the site lacked everything required to support even a minimum level of human existence. the economic city concept rather focuses on establishing light industries and service providers. industrial port. KAEC is located north of the Jeddah metropolitan area. including solar. They intend the city to be built for ‘intelligent’ living. housing. telephones.
List of Contributors .
Special Topics 114 / 115
Project: Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Contact: Dr. Florian Amereller, Partner Lenbachplatz 4 D-80333 München Germany Tel: +49 89 549019-0 Fax: +49 89 549019-99 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.amereller.com
Project: Railway Network Project Contact: Ulrich Beer, Project Manager Kerstin Schneider, Head of Marketing and Public Relations Dorsch Holding GmbH Berliner Strasse 74-76 D-63065 Offenbach am Main Tel: +49 69 130257-0 Fax: +49 69 130257-32 E-mail: email@example.com www.dorsch.de Project: Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip Contact: Keith Brooke, Regional Director Dorsch Consult Wasser und Umwelt GmbH Regional Office Cairo 6 El Sad El Ali St., P.O. Box 31 11431 Maadi, Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 23802563 Fax: +20 2 23802394 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: www.dorsch.de Project: Khartoum New International Airport Contact: Albert Mair, Project Director Hansastrasse 20 D-80686 München Germany Tel: +49 89 5797-0 Fax: +49 89 5797-874 E-mail: email@example.com www.dorsch.de
Apricum – The Cleantech Advisory
Project: Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies Contact: Nikolai Dobrott, Managing Partner Neue Gruenstrasse 17 D-10179 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 308776-221 Fax +49 30 308776-225 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.apricum-group.com
ASS Planungs GmbH Freie Architekten
Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Susanne Schmid, Managing Partner Seestrasse 65 D-70174 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 220226-60 Fax: +49 711 220226-66 E-mail: email@example.com www.ass-architekten.de
Project: Lotus Garden Contact: Hany Labib Dorsch Consult Abu Dhabi Office Salam Street P.O. Box 26417 Abu Dhabi, UAE Tel: +971 26721923 Fax: +971 26720809 E-mail: Hany.Labib@dorsch.ae
German University of Technology in Oman (Gutech)
Project: Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Contact: Prof. Dr. Burkhard Rauhut, Rector P.O. Box 1816 Athaiba PC 130, Muscat Sultanate of Oman Tel: +968 98134616 Fax: +968 24495568 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.gutech.edu.om
Project: Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Contact: Adalbert Graff, Head of Petrochemical Industry Hohenzollernstrasse 24 D-45128 Essen Germany Tel: +49 201 8182099 Fax: +49 201 8182822 E-mail: email@example.com www.ferrostaal.com
gtz International Services
Project: Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Contact: Florentine Visser, Architect, Project Manager 4D, El Gezira Street 11211 Zamalek/Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 24181578/9 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.med-enec.com/en/
Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG
Project: Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Contact: Mansour Hamza, Managing Director Sarweystrasse 3 D-70191 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 8995371 Fax: +49 711 8995459 E-mail: Mansour.Hamza@fichtner.de www.fichtner.de
i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co. KG
Project: Ultimate Flight Catering Contact: Martina Dandl, Business Unit Manager Marketing/PR Roemerstrasse 245 D-69126 Heidelberg Germany Tel: +49 6221 379-0 Fax: +49 6221 379-200 E-mail: email@example.com www.io-consultants.com
Special Topics 116 / 117
Project: Pilot Project for Schools in Yemen Contact: Diébédo Francis Kéré, Architect, Owner Arndtstrasse 34 D-10965 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 789523-91 Fax: +49 30 789523-98 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kere-architecture.com
Lahmeyer International GmbH
Project: The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Contact: Egon Failer, Executive Director Friedberger Strasse 173 D-61118 Bad Vilbel Germany Tel: +49 6101 55-1745 Fax: +49-6101 55-1414 E-mail: email@example.com www.lahmeyer.de
Project: Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Contact: Mandana Bahrinipour, Project Manager Palmengartenstrasse 5-9 D-60325 Frankfurt Main Germany Tel: +49 69 7431-0 Fax: +49 69 7431-3559 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kfw.de/entwicklungsbank
Lufthansa Consulting GmbH
Project: Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Contact: Marlene Hollwurtel, Manager Public Relations Von-Gablenz-Strasse 2-6 D-50679 Köln Germany Tel: +49 221 826-8101 Fax +49 221 826-8263 E-mail: email@example.com www.lhconsulting.com
KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten GmbH
Project: The Mosque in Algiers Contact: Sebastian Tokarz, PR Hanauer Landstrasse 287-289 D-60314 Frankfurt/Main Germany Tel: +49 69 944394 0 Fax: +49 69 944394-38 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ksp-architekten.de
MAURER Söhne GmbH & Co. KG
Project: German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Contact: Raad Hamood, Sales Director Middle East Frankfurter Ring 193 D-80807 München Germany Tel: +49 89 323 94-354 Fax: +49 89 323 94-306 E-mail: email@example.com www.maurer-soehne.de
papadopoulos-group. Knut Göppert.de Papadopoulos Associates GmbH Project: Design and Construction Contact: Dipl.com www.-Ing. Oberursel Project: Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Contact: Steffen Dietzig.com Passavant-Roediger GmbH Project: Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Contact: Mazen Bachir.structural consulting engineers Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Dipl.firstname.lastname@example.org@sbp.outotec.com www.-Ing. Managing Director Arnulfstrasse 124 D-80636 München Germany Tel: +49 89 540184-0 Fax: +49 89 540184-18 E-mail: info@papadopoulos-group. PhD.outotec. Managing Director Kinzigheimer Weg 104-106 D-63450 Hanau Germany Tel: +49 6181 309-250 Fax: +49 6181 309-320 E-mail: mazen.com .passavant-roediger.com www. Managing Director Hohenzollernstrasse 1 D-70178 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 6487134 Fax: +49 711 487166 E-mail: k. Köln Project: Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Contact: Dipl.de www.sbp. Paste Plants Albin-Köbis-Strasse 8 D-51147 Köln Germany Tel: +49 2203 9921-0 Fax +49 2203 9921-333 E-mail: email@example.com www.de Outotec GmbH.com schlaich bergermann und partner. Manfred Beilstein.bachir@passavant-roediger. Jürgen Papadopoulos.Outotec GmbH. Head of Middle East Market Region Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 21 D-61440 Oberursel Germany Tel: +49 617 19693-0 E-mail: steffen. Vice President Sales and Process Aluminium Technologies.-Ing. Director Sales & Marketing.
de www.O.dubai@wacker. Country Manager 1st Floor. Branch Manager Dubai.de .siemens. Box 341071.schweer@siemens. Stefano Iannacone.tilke. Box 47405.kozma@thyssenkrupp.Special Topics 118 / 119 Siemens AG Project: The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit Contact: Hans-Juergen Schweer. Marketing & Public Relations Krefelder Strasse 147 D-52070 Aachen Germany Tel: +49 241 9134-0 Fax: +49 241 9134-400 E-mail: mailbox@tilke. Wacker Chemicals Middle East P.com Wacker AG Project: Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Contact: Dr.com www. Doha Qatar Tel: +974 434 1950/1 Fax: +974 434 1949 E-mail: Christian. Office No.com www.com www.wacker. Khalifa Bin Jassim Building.com ThyssenKrupp Elevator Project: Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha Contact: Christian Kozma.com Tilke GmbH & Co KG Project: An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit Contact: N. 104 Shk. Baxter. Al Sadd District P. Dubai Silicon Oasis 0001 Dubai United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 4 709-9999 Fax: +971 4 709-9911 E-mail: info.thyssenkrupp-elevator.O. Head of Business Development Complete Transportation Mozartstrasse 33b D-91053 Erlangen Germany Tel: +49 9131 726134 Fax: +49 9131 725170 E-mail: hans-juergen.
President Abdulaziz Al-Mihlafi. Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Kerstin Schneider.de Photos Cover picture: © Jeanet Dijkstra – Fotolia.com Other pictures: Kindly provided by the contributing companies and the Economic and Commercial Office of the Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt.reindel@t-online. Secretary General Olaf Hoffmann.de Kindly supported by Coordination Rafaela Rahmig. Chairman of the working group ‘infrastructure and construction’ Producer Marktforschung und Kommunikation GmbH Friedrichstrasse 187 D-10117 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 2061343 Fax: +49 30 2061344 E-mail: info@marktkomm.Special Topics 120 / 121 Editor Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Garnisonkirchplatz 1 D-10178 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 278907-0 Fax: +49 30 278907-49 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr.ghorfa. . Dorsch Holding GmbH © May 2010 Editorial Office Tanja Reindel Lektorat & Redaktion Nordendstrasse 19 D-60318 Frankfurt/M.de www. Germany Tel: +49 69 449140 Mobile: +49 173 3413118 E-mail: tanja. Thomas Bach.
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