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Topology is one of four major areas of abstract mathematics: algebra (equations), analysis (limits), foundations (set theory and logic), and topology. The word topology comes from the Greek word for place. Broadly speaking, topology is the study of space and continuity. Since topology includes the study of continuous deformations of a space, it is often popularly called rubber sheet geometry. Vector spaces Rn are spaces, but a space can be a finite set of points or an infinite dimensional space of functions.

The surfaces of a donut

and a sphere

appear the same on a

small scale, so what properties distinguish them? To distinguish various spaces, notions from algebra or analysis are often introduced. We may associate groups, rings, modules, or other algebraic objects to a topological space in order to precisely describe information. These constructions may even give information back about algebra, e.g., group cohomology, or analysis, e.g., de Rham cohomology.

A mobius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge. Such shapes are an object of study in topology.

" To put it more simply. a structure that essentially 'characterizes' the set X as a topological spaces by taking proper care of properties such as convergence. and led to the branch . is now a famous problem in introductory mathematics. connectedness and continuity. but only on connectivity properties: which bridges are connected to which islands or riverbanks. The term Topology is also used to refer to a structure imposed upon a set X. that it was impossible to find a route through the town of Konigsberg that would cross each of its seven bridges exactly once.Topology. topology is the study of continuity and connectivity. as a branch of mathematics. the Seven Bridges of Konigsberg. can be formally defined as "the study of qualitative properties of certain objects that are invariant under certain kind of transformations. especially those properties that are invariant under a certain kind of equivalence (called homeomorphism). by Leonhard Euler. This result did not depend on the lengths of the bridges. nor on their distance from one another. upon transformation. This problem. One of the first papers in topology was the demonstration.

theorems about functions or mappings from one space onto another or about real or complex valued functions in particular. which has developed and is being actively developed at present. Contributions of fundamental concepts and results in this type of work have been made during the past 25 years by a large number of mathematicians. differential geometry and in various types of analysis. Topological analysis refers to those results of the analysis type. This has occurred in nearly all fields of mathematics. . and particularly functions of a complex variable. Thus in a word we have analysis theorems and topological proofs. It has been notable in algebra. However it is the connection with the theory of functions. Apart from the really spectacular development of the field of topology during the last 50 years. algebraic geometry. one of the most interesting and satisfying related phenomena has been the widespread interaction between topology and other branches of mathematics. which are topological or pseudo-topological in character and which are obtainable largely by Topological methods.→ → of mathematics known as graph theory.

. trapezoids. we would have to turn to mathematics to understand these shapes. In fact. but in our usage here. parallelograms. But in our usual three-dimensional world. and we disregard angle. Some of these things are four-dimensional. we neglect the differences that have to do with distance. that is. It unfortunately shares the name of an unrelated topic more commonly known as topography. and as such cannot truly exist in our everyday world. Topology is. are often fairly removed from our ordinary experience. any quadrilateral is topologically the same. topology is not at all about terrain. how it changes over time). about the shape of things. however. the study of the shape and nature of terrain (and sometimes more precisely. we examine squares. It is. giving them names and measuring their sides and angles. and so a square and a rectangle are topologically considered to be the same shape. in high-school geometry. so a rectangle and a parallelogram are considered to be the same shape. related to Geometry. an umbrella term for various areas of mathematical theory which deal with concrete shapes and structures (though often doing so using strict mathematical formalism rather than models or pictures). For instance. or higher-dimensional. rectangles. and so on.What is Topology? Topology is a branch of pure mathematics. It ignores issues like size and angle. The kinds of objects we study. it is a kind of geometry. which usually pervade our ordinary understanding of geometry. But in topology. Topology is the kind of geometry one would do if one were rather ignorant of the intricacies of the shape. If some higher-dimensional being in a higher dimensional universe existed. and in this way. however. they might be able to see these and the most difficult questions in this subject might be quite plain and commonplace to such a person. in many ways.

edu/grad/topgrp 2:http://en.org/wiki/Topology#Elementary_introduction 3:http://math. References 1:https://www. and ordinary.suite101. when discussing topology one is attempting to find simple ways to mathematically define certain shapes using a formal mathematical language. William (2006). manifolds.pepperdine.Encompassed under this umbrella are the theory of knots.math.html 5: Bessemer. the non-Euclidean geometry of general relativity.wikipedia.edu/~kiga/topology.html 4:http://isaacmmcphee. In essence.lsu. symmetry groups. every day shapes.com/introduction-to-topology-a50592.) . Topology and Its Applications (1st ed.

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