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PROJECT REPORT BY B. KRANTI PANDEY SARGUNAVELU KARTHIKEYAN
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ST.PETERS ENGINEERING COLLEGE AVADI, CHENNAI – 600 054,TAMIL NADU
INTRODUCTION Travel machines are in several forms that address a variety of needs and the dev elopment in customized vehicle is in upsurge for the past few decades. The prese nt research work is one among this and the primary locus of this research in to cater the needs of commuters who also make cross-country journey. The present research wok is driven by a need-based philosophy. A report says that there are over nine hundred million traveling machines (specifically o n roads) running throughout the world, this number increases by fifty million ev ery year. This dependence of human on traveling machines gives raise to many pro blems like traffic conjunction, vehicle parking problem, trouble to travel in na rrow roads, etc. For decades two and four wheel vehicles have been the most important mea ns of people transport by road. In the last few years the increase of traffic in cities, of parking problems and pollution have changed the concept of how vehic les are used. Motorcycles and scooters are maneuverable and compact, but they have li ttle storage space and no protection against bad weather. Though cars do not hav e these problems, they are bigger, more complex and expensive. Moreover, nowaday s more than 80% of cars in cities carry only one or two people thus wasting lot of energy. In this framework the market seems to be ready for a new type of vehicle , which is useful as a car, but as small as a motorbike, which could transport o ne or two people and be safe in all kinds of traffic and other situation. In fact the car and motorbike industry has started to define new means of transp ortation especially in the field of three-wheeled vehicles.
This paper focuses on a new three-wheeled vehicle concept. A three-wheel ed automobile is a fine synthesis between the maneuverability and compactness of a motorcycle and the stability and load-bearing capacity of a four-wheeled car. This made us to go in for the development of a three wheeled portable travel ma chine named “TRIONTA – TRI wheeled One man Non Traffic Automobile”. Our project “portable travel machine – TRIONTA” is a product from the problems that exists in two wheelers and four wheelers.
OBJECTIVE The objectives of portable travel machine are listed below Way to reduce traffic conjunctions Solutions for parking problems Elucidate for air pollution Possible to travel even in narrow roads Adoptable for individual driving Suitable for short distance travel Ways to reduce pay load and to improve the efficiency Easy assembling and disassembling of various parts Easy to scroll and move, etc
PROCESS LAYOUT IDENTIFICATION OF NEED RESOLUTION OF PROBLEMS DESIGN ATTRIBUTES
DRAWING MATERIAL AND COMPONENT SELECTION FABRICATION ASSEMBLING TESTING AND INSPECTION DISPATCH
IDENTIFICATION OF NEED The two wheels are more compact than four wheelers, on the same two whee lers are uncomfortable during bad weather conditions. The power required to run the two-wheeler will be minimum when compared to that of four wheelers, and more over all the four wheelers are huge, so more floor space is required. Hence veh icles, which possess the advantage of two and four wheelers, should be introduce d, which is more compact and they’re by to overcome the difficulties of traffic co njunctions, high maintenance, pollution, parking difficulties, etc. RESOLUTION OF PROBLEM To satisfy both compactness and the efficiency we here go for the simple three Wheeler named “TRIONTA”. This is a single seated automobile. The size of the vehicle is very small approximately equal to 1m length and 0.5m width. It posses two rear wheel and a one front wheel with simple transmission system and brakin g for easy control and maintenance of the vehicle. The vehicle is powered by two -stroke petrol engine. The weight of the vehicle is greatly reduced; hence the v ehicle can be easily scrolled. This three-wheeler will be compact and hence requ ires fewer parking spaces, less power, able to travel even in narrow roads and t herefore reduces traffic.
DESIGN ATTRIBUTES The vehicle is well designed for compactness, less weight and in order t o assemble and disassemble the components easily and very quickly. This vehicle is designed for single or double seater only. The vehicle is belt driven and use s very simple transmission system and the clutch is required only for the purpos e of starting. Since we have a simple transmission system we can even have the c ontrols either in foot or hand. We have two shock absorbers on either side of re ar axial to provide proper suspension. The very simple braking system on the rea r axial. There are two bearing to support the rear axial shaft, on either side o f the rear axial. A specially designed bearing clamp is used to seat the bearing in the vehicle chases. The simple type steering system is employed. The engine posse’s peripheral fins which helps in cooling the engine. MATERIAL AND COMPONENT SELECTION The “TRIONTA” has the following components. Chassis Frame – Mild steel Single cylinder two stroke Gasoline Engine Rear wheel Belt drive mechanism Specially designed Rear Axel – Mild steel
Wheels Precise Bearings and supports Breaking system Suspension arrangement Acceleration and clutch assembly. Seating scheme FABRICATION Chassis: The Mild steel solid square rod (size - 3/4") is selected for the design of mainframe, which is shown below. The simple arc welding is done to fabricate the chassis. REAR AXEL: A Specially designed rear wheel axel is machined using conventional lath e by performing operations like turning and facing. Rear axel carries two wheels , two Bearings with supports, Break lining and a belt driven power driver. FRONT FORK SUPPORT (Fedder): It is used to support the front fork and guide it.
The bearing supports are made from a piece of wood and clamp. The wood is used t o reduce the vibration. The bearing supports are locked to the chassis frame by using lock nuts. It is used to guide the wheel. ASSEMBLING The above fabricated and selected components are assembled together by f ollowing the below procedure. REAR WHEEL ASSEMBLY: The belt drive pulley is welded to the rear axel according to engine position. The brake lining is fixed to the axel. The bearings are position on the axel. The wheel hub is rigidly fixed on either side of axel. FRONT WHEEL ASSEMBLY: The front wheel is fasten to the fork by using axel and bearing arrangement. The fork is hinged to the front support (fedder) Finally the fedder is clamped to the chassis. ULTIMATE ASSEMBLY: The rear wheel assembly is sustained to the chassis by using bearing supports. The proper suspension is fastened to the chassis body. The front wheel is rigidly clamped to the chassis. The engine is fastened to the chassis using the appropriate mounting clamps. The clutch and acceleration wiring are completed. The fuel connections are given. The brake assembly is connected. The electrical connections are closed. REAR WHEELE AXEL ASSEMBLY
IDEAS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT Every travel machine has its own advantages and disadvantages. Our role is to use these machines effectively and efficiently by trouble shooting the pro blems. Modification and redesigning can further reduce the size and pay load of TRIONTA. The future modification by using the alternate fuels will create a gre at revolution in the world. Some of these alternate systems that can be adapted for TRIONTA are listed below. By using LPG as a fuel By using acetylene as a fuel By using hydrogen fuel cell technology By using solar power By using hybrid vehicle technology etc., CONCLUSION “Necessity is the mother of Invention” as the word says it the need of the w orld to go in to the new concept of portable vehicle which is handy and be the s olution for the traffic conjunction, parking problems, air pollution and cross c ountry commuting etc, TRIONTA the solution given by our team will conquer the market in highly populated countries where the dependence on vehicle. In the fast moving world where all the equipments are being handy and co mpact, in the field of automobile industry this TRIONTA will create a new revolu tion
BIBLIOGRAPHY Kripal Singh (1989): AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING, VOL 1 AND VOL 2. La Brie E.G. (1968) - Three wheeled vehicle Irimajiri et al. (1984) - Three wheeled vehicle Peter Owsen (1993) – Tricycle Design Data (1995) – PSG college of technology.