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(relationship behavior) a leader provides 3 • "Readiness" level that followers exhibit on a specific task, function, activity, or objective that the leader is attempting to accomplish through the individual or group
The managerial grid model (1964), developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, is a behavioral leadership model. The model is an excellent way to map out different leadership styles, and an excellent way to evaluate the leadership performed by leaders and managers. This model identifies five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. It is important to remember that none of the concerns are right or wrong, and the concerns are ideally balanced to the respective situational context of leadership. The model is graphically illustrated at the end of the article.
Concern for People relates to the degree to which a leader considers needs of employees and team members before deciding how to accomplish a task. A high degree of concern could be coupled to a more democratic leadership style, whereas a low concern for people could be coupled to an autocratic leadership style. Concern for Production relates to the degree to which a leader emphasizes production effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how best to accomplish tasks. By charting the position in the grid it is possible to diagnose which leadership style is being performed, and to evaluate the appropriateness of the style of leadership. The five different leadership styles found in the managerial grid are presented below: Country Club Leadership - High Concern for People/Low Concern for Production A country club leader is mostly concerned about the needs and feelings of his/her employees or team members. This leader probably supposes that members of the organization will work hard if the feel happy and secure. However, production may suffer under this leadership style, and the effectiveness of the organization may suffer due to a lack of direct supervision and control. Produce or Perish Leadership - High Concern for Production/Low Concern for People
Leaders must therefore analyze which leadership style is called for. where top results may not be achieved. The team leadership style may not be best in all situations. when compromising. Middle of the Road Leadership . where each team member is highly motivated and satisfied. and production may only become moderately effective.Low Concern for Production/ Low Concern for People This leader is very ineffective. a produce or perish leadership style.g. This creates an atmosphere of team spirit. and leaders may use the knowledge from Contingency Theory or the PESTEL Framework to analyze which leadership styles are most appropriate for the viability of the organization. Impoverished Leadership . nor for creating a motivated or satisfied work environment. This analysis is therefore based on the different contingencies facing an organization. This may lead to average performance. The result of this leadership style could be a highly disorganized workplace with low satisfaction and motivation. and probably sees workers as means to achieve great results. Team Leadership . and perhaps views punishment as the best motivational force. This leader manages to engulf workers into the importance of production efficiency. leaders risk that neither the concern for people nor the concern for production is fully met. He/She might have very strict and autocratic work rules. and assess if they could improve their leadership style in some way. and economic crisis. and diagnose which leadership style they are conducting. . and afterwards analyze whether or not they conduct the most appropriate style. Thirdly.A produce or perish leader is very concerned about production effectiveness. leaders should plot their own style into the managerial grid. The leader has neither a high regard for creating efficient systems or rules to structure work processes. Use of the managerial grid Firstly. like e. might call for an entirely different style like e.Medium Concern for Production/Medium Concern for People This style tries to balance the two competing concerns. and manages to motivate employees. It tries to compromise different needs. Secondly.g. and some situations. Workers may end up moderately motivated and satisfied. This leader also sees workforce needs as secondary to the need of a productive and efficient workplace. leaders should put their leadership style into the respective situational context.High Concern for Production/High Concern for People According to the Blake Mouton model. However. and try to balance their leadership style to the needs found in the organization. and may seem as a great solution. this is the best and most effective leadership style. leaders can evaluate their leadership style. which commits the worker to work hard and increase productivity. These leaders both stress the importance of workforce needs and production needs.
techniques. TIME MANAGEMENT Time management is the act or process of exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities. and prioritizing. the extent to which the individual attempts to satisfy the other person’s concerns. Time management is the art of arranging. Time management may be aided by a range of skills. allocating. and these include planning. an individual does not immediately pursue his or her own concerns or those of the other person. setting goals. defending a position you believe is correct. scheduling. V O I D I N G Avoiding is unassertive and uncooperative. and methods. These two dimensions of behavior can be used to define five methods of dealing with conflict. a power-oriented mode. and (2) cooperativeness. especially to increase efficiency or productivity. or yielding to another’s point of view. the objective is to find an expedient. or confronting and trying to find a creative solution to an interpersonal problem. Accommodating might take the form of selfless generosity or charity. Collaborating between two persons might take the form of exploring a disagreement to learn from each other’s insights. He or she does not address the conflict. tools. or simply trying to win. Compromising might mean splitting the difference. AA T I N G Accommodating is unassertive and cooperative—the opposite of competing. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities. Time management has become crucial in recent years thanks to the 24/7. an individual pursues his or her own concerns at the other person’s expense. Usually time management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. delegation. A time management system is a designed combination of processes. and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. or seeking a quick middle-ground position. These five conflict-handling modes are shown below: Competing is assertive and uncooperative. Competing might mean standing up for your rights. When competing. exchanging concessions. When Accommodating. but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. C O M P R O M behavior along two basic dimensions*: (1) assertiveness. Compromising falls on a middle ground between competing and accommodating. the extent to which the individual attempts to satisfy his or her own I SI NG Compromising is intermediate in both assertiveness and cooperativeness. Likewise. monitoring. which teach individuals and corporations how to be more organized and more productive. Collaborating is both assertive and cooperative. there is an element of self-sacrifice in this mode. obeying another person’s order when you would prefer not to. organizing. . giving up more than competing but less than accommodating. an individual attempts to work with the other person to find a solution that fully satisfies the concerns of both. an individual neglects his or her own concerns to satisfy the concerns of the other person. scheduling. resolving some condition that would otherwise have them competing for resources. When compromising. tools. workshops. postponing an issue until a better time or simply withdrawing from a threatening situation. When collaborating. projects and goals. it addresses an issue more directly than avoiding but doesn’t explore it in as much depth as collaborating. and seminars on time management. busy world in which we live. time management referred to just business or work activities. organizing. When avoiding. we can describe a person’s concerns. using whatever power seems appropriate to win his or her position. classes. mutually acceptable solution that partially satisfies both parties. It involves digging into an issue to identify the underlying concerns of the two individuals and to find an alternative that meets both sets of concerns. conflict situations in which the concerns of two people appear to be incompatible. Avoiding might take the form of diplomatically sidestepping an issue.The Five Conflict-Handling Modes The Thom as-Kilm ann Conflict M ode Instrum ent (TKI) assesses an individual’s behavior insituations—that is. analysis of time spent. and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks. In conflict situations. day-planners. There are an abundance of books. Initially.
teachers. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority. . and home makers.. most agree that the first step in efficient time management is to organize the workspace or home. The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. While time management books and seminars often place their focus on business leaders and corporations. Even if one's schedule is well-ordered.Time management is important for everyone. The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. If one uses a complex way. It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. All while decreasing the anxiety and pressure we feel about time. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria: A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important. However. factory workers. As we practice these methods we might still feel pressured. it becomes necessary to explore less traditional avenues of time management. 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity. ABC analysis A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. Though many time management books and teachings differ in their suggestions. hurried and anxious about not having enough time. time management is also crucial for students. professionals. An important aspect of time management is planning ahead. So. Techniques for setting priorities There are several ways to set priorities. The promise is to become more productive. it will be time consuming. methods that address our psychological relationship to time. Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. Pareto analysis This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time. These groups are often marked A. one should always try to find out the alternate ways to complete each task. most time management systems don't deliver the promised results. To truly overcome the feeling of "time poverty". Time management is a systematic application of common sense strategies and techniques to help you become more effective in both your personal and professional life. B – Tasks that are important but not urgent.. B. Managing work and home responsibilities under the same roof takes a special type of time management. and C—hence the name. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. time will be wasted trying to work efficiently in a disorderly place. some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". successful time management involves putting in more time at the outset in order to reorganize one’s life. If productivity is the aim of time management. Sometimes. To further refine priority. ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups. Similarly. faster. There is always a simpler and easy way to complete the task. C – Tasks that are neither urgent nor important. Time management is perhaps most essential for the person who owns his or her own business or who runs a business out of the home. but the office and filing system are a disaster. then these tasks should be prioritized higher.
and that the nature of that motivation is variable and complex. security of employment is the intermediate need covering the basic ones. rather than a simple list of human needs driving us on. food. the need to give and receive affection. water.2: Hierarchy of Needs Now let’s look at each of these in turn. Is this not a powerful factor in the cohesion of work groups? (d) Ego needs (the need for social status. We want appreciation. is particularly associated with “needs” theory. In all except the most primitive communities.that their abilities are tested and proved adequate. these needs largely take an intermediate form of a need for money. insects.when yet another clamours. defence against natural dangers ( animals. Abraham H Maslow.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs An American psychologist.for food. a measure of acclamation. sleep. as it were. which has found wide acceptance. In a developed country. Self-actualisation Secondary needs Ego needs Social needs Primary needs Safety needs Physiological needs Figure 2. warmth. Read the following from the base upwards: 5. etc. overlapping the need for belonging and affection. except for a short time. (b) Safety or security needs These are a subdivision of the material needs mentioned above (i. 1. Complementary to this is a need for the respect of others. that they are achieving something. extending to co-operation in joint effort. to the point where the phrase “hierarchy of needs” is now commonly used without explanation. sex. to be noticed among all the . another overlapping need assumes prominence and motivates further effort until satisfied . As one need is satisfied. 3. for satisfaction. germs). esteem and self-respect) People want to feel a certain pride in themselves . (a) Physiological needs The obvious basic needs arise from a person’s instinct to stay alive and reproduce his kind . and that they are useful as individuals. Hence. Five Overlapping Needs Maslow suggested that people are in a continuous state of motivation. 4. (c) Social needs (the need to belong or affection needs) These include the need to love and be loved. and a need for company and association with other people.e. Further. clothing (for warmth or protection from the sun). we should think of a sequence or hierarchy of needs. shelter). 2.housing of some sort. Man needs protection from the physical environment . beginning with the most basic. people rarely reach a state of complete satisfaction. In 1954 he published an expansion of the threefold classification of needs.
Maslow describes this need as: “Man’s desire for self-actualisation .. self-realisation and accomplishment) This need is placed at the top of the hierarchy by Maslow. once there. some degree of prestige and status.. (e) Self-actualisation (the need for personal status.to “reach the top” and. .. We all wish to enjoy the feeling of our worth as persons among other persons. at least. to achieve complete success. to become everything that one is capable of becoming”.. The person fortunate enough to satisfy the first four needs is still driven on by an urge to accomplish the uttermost of which he feels himself to be capable ..others and.
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