Cotton Textiles in India

Cotton textiles are one among the oldest industries of India. The states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat top the country in cotton textiles, in a downhill order.

‡ Tanda Cotton is the most famed material in the textile industry in India and the cotton textiles are considered amongst the oldest industries in India. In the early eighteenth century, the export of cotton textiles to the European countries revolutionised the textile industry and agriculture in India. Cotton textiles can be traced back to the times of Indus Valley Civilization, when cotton fabrics of India were in great demand even in the countries of Europe and West Asia. It used to be a cottage or village industry during those times. The spinning wheel was the only machine, simple but exceedingly inventive. The modern textile industry in India first began at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in early 19th century. But it in reality made a head start in Mumbai in the year 1854 when a cotton textile mill was set up there exclusively out of Indian funds. There are several worth mentioning features of the cotton textile industry in India. It is based on indigenous raw materials. Research shows that in between 1995 and 1996, this textile industry provided employment to over 64 million persons, next only to agriculture. Thus cotton textile industry is exceedingly meaningful for a country like India, because it is a labour-intensive industry. It alone accounts for near about four percent of the gross domestic product. More prominently, it is responsible for 20 percent of the manufacturing value addition. Lately, it has been bringing home one-third of India`s total export earnings. The cotton textile industry in India provides livelihood to farmers, and workers who are engaged in singeing, spinning, weaving, bleaching, dying, scouring, designing and packaging, and also sewing and tailoring. It is India`s one of the most traditional and esteemed industry. More importantly, the industry strikes a rational balance between tradition and modernity. While the spinning occupation is rather centralised, weaving is exceedingly decentralised, providing scope for traditional skills of craftsmen in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery and so on. The hand spun and hand woven Khadi holds back the ancient tradition of providing large scale employment. Cotton textile industry in India has all along prospered on its own funds. On the other hand, the country possesses the most contemporary capital intensive and high speed mill-produced cloth with a huge market both at home as well as abroad.

India is yet to exploit its enormous potential to manufacture classic cotton fabrics. several government programmes have sustained cotton textile industries in almost all the states in the country. For example. Textile Industry The history of development in World Textile industry was started in Britain as the spinning and weaving machines were invented in that country.5 percent of the fabrics produced in the country. Interestingly. whereas Power looms and Handlooms are responsible for nearly 73 percent and 20. Power looms and Handlooms. Kolkata.The fabrics are basically produced in three sectors . yet.2 percent of the total fabrics produced in the country. the whole sari sector is earmarked for handloom and power loom sectors. They are thus bringing home prized foreign exchange. In the country. use of non-hazardous colours and dyes has come into use for manufacturing textiles. Tamil Nadu and provinces of Gujarat. it managed to generate 290 lakh bales of cotton. Nagpi. The latter also produces hosiery on a vast scale. Indore. Delhi and Hyderabad.Mills. The Mill sector accounts for only 5. the cotton textile industry had suffered unfavourable climatic conditions that hampered cultivation. and still retained the second position in world cotton production. Further. because of irrigation restrictions. Coimbatore. India also exports quality yarn to Japan and other European economic communities. which are of superior quality. the readymade cotton garments industry has been developing in tremendous momentum to cater to foreign markets. During 2008-2009. Ahmedabad. . Slowly. prohibited and banned resources have been barred from being used. but steadily old technology is being taken over by the new one. Sholapur.Kanpur. Moreover.4 billion metres of fabrics. for which there is enormous demand in the upper social classes of the industrialised countries of the globe. Lately. in 1997 and 1998 the country had produced 37. Together they account for around 98. to the world market. Now the proportion between natural and human-made fibre is almost equal. The cotton textile industry has implementing numerous techniques and measures to supply eco-friendly products. by and large for export purposes. In India.3 percent respectively. Madurai. cotton textile productions are heavily dependent on monsoon season. One of the problems faced by cotton textile industry in India was the old-fashioned technology of old mills and their industrial sickness. In India cotton textiles production is basically located in Maharashtra. The important centres of cotton textiles industry comprise Mumbai.

In a more globalize environment. the industry has faced high competition as well as opportunities. which is an important factor for the industry. Hong Kong and China became leading producers due to their cheap labour supply. China and India took part in industrializing their economies and concentrated more in that sector. eco-textiles. Japan. Though the industry was started in UK. From time to time Japan. The following tables show the largest oil companies both by production and reserves as of the year 2003. the global textile market possesses a worth of more than $400 billions presently. However the level of exports in textiles from developing countries is increasing even if in the presence of high tariffs and quantitative restrictions by economically developed countries. WTO In Textile Industry The (WTO) has taken so many steps for uplifting this sector. . Moreover the role of multifunctional textiles. e-textiles and customized textiles are considered as the future of textile industry. India. It is predicted that Global textile production will grow by 25 percent between 2002 and 2010 and Asian region will largely contribute in this regard. which states that all quotas on textile and clothing will be removed among WTO member countries. cotton and silk over the world has boosted the industry in recent years.High production of wool. still in 19th Century the textile production passed to Europe and North America after mechanization process in those areas. WTO had renewed its MFA and adopted Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). In the year 1995. Global Textile Scenario According to statistics.