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A3 Reports A3 Reports
• What Are A3 Reports? What Are A3 Reports?
A process used to document and report solutions to problems established within any area of the organization. This differs from other types of report in the way that any area of the organization This differs from other types of report in the way that all information is disclosed on an A3 sheet. A3 Thinking = Relentless Improvement / Eliminate Waste
• Wh d Why do we need them? d th ?
A3 Reports offer a simple and structured approach to reporting solutions to problems. A3 Reports are particularly effective in demonstrating to third parties the problem solving process A3 Reports reveal the actions taken, or to be taken, in preventing defects/eliminating problems. A3 Reports requires clear, concise thinking and logic, the A3 (11 x17) limitation reinforces substance over volume Essentially, A3 Reports guide the identification & elimination of waste, in order to control processes. A3 Thinking = Permanent Elimination of Problem
A3 Reports • F ll PDCA (DMAIC) Follow PDCA (DMAIC) process – – – – Plan = Define & Measure Do = Analyze Check = Improve Act = Control • C iti l l Critical element of t f continuous improvement Requires critical thinking • Requires critical thinking – Focus on critical few – Not just correct the problem bl – But…eliminate it .
A3 Reports • A3 Critical Thinking One more A3 Critical Thinking – One more tool to drive towards perfection Lean Six Sigma g & Continuous Improvement A3 thinking is continuous improvement Lean Six Sigma Alone Continuous Improvement Alone .
A3 Reports 11” 17 “ .
A3 Reports • Don’t be fooled by the simplicity of the form ’ b f l db h l f h f • The form is the byproduct of critical thinking – – – – – Focusing on the critical few drivers Ignore the noise Go beyond the superficial Go beyond the superficial Dig for the true root cause Develop corrective actions that not only fix the condition Develop corrective actions that not only fix the condition but eliminate the potential for it to occur again Goal: Eliminate the Defect For Good .
Art Smalley. three months implementing. 5).. when facing a vexing problem in which it has one year to solve. would spend eleven months planning and one month implementing (with no loose ends to clean up!). .S. facing a similar situation. Sobek II. Toyota. • Durward K. would loose ends. firm. and six months tweaking and picking up loose ends. Kindle Edition. Understanding A3 Thinking: A Critical Component of Toyota s PDCA Thinking: A Critical Component of Toyota's PDCA Management System (p. Toyota.A3 Reports • It has been said that the typical U. facing a similar situation. would spend three months planning.
A3 Reports • PDCA aims to improve long term system performance not just solve the current crisis Plan Do Check Act .
A3 Reports • Example of A3 thinking Example of A3 thinking • Plant A has a machine producing defects at a rate of 4.3% t f 4 3% • No readily apparent reason • What would you do? .
A3 Reports Example A3 thinking E l A3 thi ki Pareto defects Address largest defect Address largest defect Fishbone Potential Causes Develop Corrective Action to address each cause dd h • Trial each • Identifies breakthrough solution Identifies breakthrough solution • • • • • – “coolant” had become contaminated – Changes coolant Changes coolant – Defect drop from 4.3% to 0.3% • Did he do a good job? .
A3 Reports • Example A3 thinking • What did we miss? – – – – How did the coolant become contaminated? Are there any checks in place to monitor the coolant? Who is responsible for the coolant? How should the coolant replacement be managed? • Scheduled maintenance? Scheduled maintenance? • Based on QC check? – How do we prevent the coolant from every becoming contaminated? .
A3 Reports • Key Takeaway from our little example: Key Takeaway from our little example: The Goal: Elimination of the problem not just correction How many times do we solve the same problem? bl ? .
A3 Reports • • • • Creating the A3 Team Based Activity / Collaborative Team Based Activity / Collaborative Requires direct observation Iterative in nature – Work in pencil – Have a big eraser .
A3 Reports • Key Elements of A3 Thinking 1. Both result and the [problem solving] process 3 B th lt d th [ bl l i ] are important 4. Being able to discern the critical few 4 Being able to discern the critical few 5. Collaboration 6. Objectivity 3. Logical Problem Solving Process 2. Coherent 7. Systems View .
A3 Reports • The Process The Process Plan Do Check Act .
A3 Reports • Seek to fully understand the current situation – Where did the problem occur? Where did the problem occur? – When did the problem occur? – What were the exact conditions What were the exact conditions – If possible see the problem firsthand • Confront – Assumptions – Bias – Misconceptions – Preference to diagrams over words .
Identify the Root • Identify the Root Cause A3 Reports – The most obvious The most obvious cause is rarely the root cause – Usually multiple layers of cause and effect – 5 Whys? 5 Whys? • Post It Note Exercise e do u t you • Drive down until you run out of causes • Each Cause is also an Effect .
The SUV is g garaged. a one year old SUV. – Bob wants to know what the root cause is? • Task – – – – Use Post Its Create a 5 Why tree Brainstorm B i t What questions would you like answered? . – Lately when he get’s in his car it occasionally does not start Lately. when he get s in his car it occasionally does not start. and his car is not garaged. After that he is able to drive the 30 minutes to work and the car starts that night for the drive home. It’s January.• 5 Why Example: 5 Why xample: A3 Reports – Bob drives a 7 year old car. he lives in Wisconsin. He has to jump it with the other family car.
A3 Reports • 5 Why example: Car won’t start in the morning Battery is dead d d Battery y doesn’t hold a charge Battery y doesn’t charge Battery is y drained overnight It is cold outside at night Battery is old Alternator is going Something stays “on” .
A3 Reports • A3 Example – Is there a pattern to what days the car doesn’t start? • Day of week? f k? • Weather (temperature) that night? • Who drove the car last? – Does it ever not start on the way home from work? – Does it ever sit over the weekend? • Does it start? – Do you ever park it in the garage overnight? • Does it start then? Does it start then? Don’t stop at the obvious (many times this is not the true root cause but a symptom) .
A3 Report • Develop Corrective Actions – Think: • Simple. robust. “prevention” over “correction” – Gain organizational buy‐n g y • Look for pitfalls • Avoid over burdening • Avoid developing new systems – Use existing systems –D l Develop a clear picture of the countermeasures l i t f th t .
A3 Report • Develop and Implementation Plan – Who Who – What – Wh Why – Where – When h – How .
obtain final approvals (job done) and convert any outstanding items into standard operations – Update quality and work procedures Update quality and work procedures – Update maintenance plans – Audits and Verifications .A3 Report • Create a Follow Up Plan – This is how are you going to measure and ensure the corrective actions worked? actions worked? • • • • • What was the planned outcome? What was the actual outcome? Is there a difference? Why? What are you going to do about it? • Review the results with the group – Were the results achieved? • If so.
A3 Report • The A3 Report isn’t just a “form” • It is a methodology to: h d l – Logically address issues – Determine true root cause – Develop corrective actions – Implement corrective actions – Measure results against expectations – Standardize / Institutionalize the Improvements .
A3 Report • Completing the A3: Background – – – – Demonstrate clear understanding of the issue Make it visual Make it visual Understand your audience Provide the necessary data/facts to quantify the issue .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Background – Consider • Current state Key factors of the process • Key factors of the process • Quantitative Data / Facts Presented .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Goal statement – How will we know when the project is complete .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Root Cause Analysis – 5 Whys – 7 Quality Control Tools 7 Quality Control Tools • • • • • • • Check sheets Pareto Charts Histograms g Cause and Effect (Fishbone) Correlation Control Charts Flow Charts Fl Ch t – Separate fact from opinion – Limited space • S Summarize the main findings i th i fi di – You will do a lot of work outside the A3 .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Develop Corrective Actions (Countermeasures) – Who – What – Why – Wh Where – When – How .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Effect Confirmation – Verify the results Verify the results – How do results compare vs. Goal .
A3 Report • Creating the A3: Follow Up Actions – Do you need to take any additional actions based y y on what you have learned? – What do you to do to sustain the gains? y g – Who else should know about this (transfer of knowledge) .
A3 Report • Areas suitable for A3 – Spoilage – Quality Issues – Design Improvements/Changes Design Improvements/Changes – Maintenance – Logistics Issues g – Planning Issues – Workflow Improvement – Change‐over Reduction .
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