Environmental Security and Peace | Course Evaluation | Evaluation

University for Peace

Universidad para la Paz

Master of Arts in Environmental Security and Peace UPEACE Programme in South Asia, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East (UPSAM)

Environmental Security and Peace Ucu Martanto

Advisor Jan Breitling July, 2009

This curriculum is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Environmental Security and Peace

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Therefore. exaggerate environmental marginalization and environmental injustice and are non-traditional threats to national security. They also realized that deforestation. Manoj Mishra. iv . NRSD students and NRP students. These curricula are my final assignments of the stressful and delightful one-year Master’s programme at UPEACE. particularly Prof. I cannot forget my Costa Rican friends. These curricula have contributed to my intellectual journey. climate change. Fortunately. at the end. My deep appreciation is also given to Prof. Gretel Monge. Helen Pent. Tom Deligiannis and Prof. Hence. Stephan Ngonian. the Indonesian government and society’s awareness of environmental degradation and sustainable development began to increase. but are not the end of my ambition to develop monumental works. these issues should be addressed in “non-traditional” policies. I want to thank all faculty members of the department of Environmental Security and Peace at the UN-mandated University for Peace. My understanding of environmental security and peace studies is just like a relationship. Gunta Aistara. Mike Brklacich. Oscar Alvarado. Keely Collette. etc. Land and Insecurity in Indonesia) are a tiny little step in a long journey to understand the complexities of the interaction between the environment and human activities in Indonesia. You are the best friends and accompanied and refined my study in Costa Rica. Prof. Alison Fishman. a couple of years back. Mahmoud Hamid. Also. Nyabol Deng. along with ever-lasting friendships between me and my greatest classmates from around the world: Rafiqul Islam. the more intimate I become with the subject matter. the better the quality of work I produce. unsustainable land use. Oscar Portillo. Madeline Patterson. Jacqueline Herrera and the Jimenez family. although it seems a bit late. to improve the environmenthuman relationship for the sake of bettering Indonesia’s future. Rolain Borel (Head of Department). bigger and more durable steps are really needed to explore the complexities and. Discussions and meaningful debates characterized my year at UPEACE. food insecurity. who introduced me to environmental security studies.Acknowledgments These two curricula (Environmental Security and Peace and Forest. who delivered a comprehensive explanation of case studies related to environmental security studies. and Prof.

Muhadi Sugiono Ph. Last but not least. to the UPSAM editing team for passionately and tirelessly correcting my curricula and other assignments. v . these two curricula will be useful for the development of environmental security studies and peace in Indonesia if they are utilized and disseminated by universities in Indonesia. Jan Breitling and Alicia Cabezudo. My special thanks and deepest appreciation are given to my supervisors. Prof.D.I also thank Victoria Fontan Ph. (Director of the Center for Peace and Security Studies at GMU) and all the UPSAM fellows.D and other colleagues of the UPSAM programme. Also.

Dedication I dedicate these works to my beloved wife. Thanks for your support. vi . Melati Dini Hari. thanks for supporting me to continue my Master’s degree in Costa Rica. passion and love. To my parents and brother and sister.

......................................................... Bibliography ..................11 A..........................................................................................52 X............................................................22 A.................................................................................................. Session Content: General .........................................................................17 B......................................................................................................................61 vii ............................................................ Course Relevance ......................12 III...................................41 Sessions 6-9 Part Three: Indonesia: A Case Study ............................................................. Course Overview ............................................22 B.......ii Declaration of Academic Honesty ................................................................................................................................ Learning Evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................... Methodology ...................................... Course Administrative ..................................... Global Context ...................14 B.. Intended Learning Outcomes .... Objectives .................................... Methods and Resources ............................................................................................................................................................................... National and Local Context ......33 Sessions 1-5 Part Two: The Concept of Environmental Security ....................................................... Teacher’s Manual ...................................................................22 C..14 IV...............25 A.......................................................................................17 A...................................... Course Evaluation........................................11 B...................................... Session Contents ...................................................................................... Student Evaluation ......TABLE OF CONTENTS Permission for Use of the Curriculum ........................................................... Introduction ....................................................................................................... Main Goal and Objectives ................................................................................................................iv Dedication ..... Course Overview .................................9 II.........................33 Part One: Global Environmental Change (GEC) ... Main Goal ..................8 A............................................................................................17 VI............................................................................................................8 B...................................................................................................................................................................................................14 A............ Grading and Assessment ................................45 Sessions 10-14 IX...............................................................................................................iii Acknowledgements .............................................................................................15 V...................................................................vi I... Student-Centered Learning ............................................................25 VIII...................18 VII......................................................................................................... Sessions Outline .... Strategies.................25 B...............................

Global Context Introduction It was roughly two decades ago when “new” movements and systems of thinking came to dominate environmental concern. by a way of life practiced and exported by industrial society. traditional society changed into our modern economic society that has rapidly increased both the human population and economic wealth. 2001: 4). In her book she mentioned. A century ago. a novel perspective on the relationship between humans and nature has risen and has been influencing policymakers and environmental scholars around the world. annual growth in the world economy was measured in billions of dollars. interactive. there is a growing awareness that every human activity has consequences on the Earth‟s system at the local through global scales in a complex. humans have the capacity to adjust within the Earth‟s system in order to escape from vulnerable circumstances that possibly threaten their needs and development. First. There are at least two important aspects that have allowed this perspective to increase human awareness over the last two decades (Steffen and Tyson.I. Barbara Adam published an interesting book called the Timescape of Modernity. Thanks to the rapid evolution of technology. essential component. Through this consciousness. there is the growing awareness among human beings that the Earth is a single system within which the biosphere is an active. In the same vein. Our global economy is outgrowing the capacity of the Earth to support it. A. 1998: 24) Her words are still relevant now if we follow recent news which is telling stories of environmental hazards. (Adam. It started with the industrial revolution and then over the past two centuries. we have been able to comprehensively understand the way the Earth system functions and affects human activity. Today it is measured in trillions. and accelerating way. One decade ago. . […] contemporary environmental hazards make it difficult to conceive of nature and culture as separate […] nature is inescapably contaminated by human activity that is. Second.

2005). for example. Geologically. migration and urbanization. usually called non-traditional security. B. and energy production. and environmental security. national and local governments. social security. such as human security. Since they were clustered amongst national security. and is frequently hit by Earthquakes and tsunami. 2008a). rather. land and marine agriculture. National and Local Context A report called the Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspot. The other new factor is the institutionalization of the concept of environmental security in the policy making process that allows nongovernmental organizations and international institutions opportunities to participate. published in 2005. Indonesia‟s territory is located on four of the major active tectonic plates in the world. As an archipelago. it is only more visible today. According to Deligiannis. there was almost no opportunity for public participation to shape and influence government policies on those issues. As one field of multidisciplinary science. For example. the practical applications of environmental and demographic concerns have been long accepted as security concerns in high-level politics (Deligiannis. economic security. Within the last two decades. We are consuming natural resources faster than they can regenerate. This means Indonesia has hundreds of volcanoes. As a result. industrial production.This change involved triggering the demand for resource consumption significantly in several sectors. environmental security is not a new issue in environmental science. international institutions. international commerce. 2008a). One difference is there is not one sole institution which has political responsibility for security. placed Indonesia as a disaster-prone country as well as the most vulnerable in the world (Center for Hazard and Risk Research. These concepts of security have different characteristics from their predecessor. food and fresh water production. we create pressures on goods and services (natural resources) provided by the environment. however counter-discourses over security that emphasize desecuritization have allowed the concept of security to expand and become more diverse. Indonesia 9 . many of them active. What is new today about environmental security is the explicit use of the term and the large body of research under the concept of environmental security that links environmental change with insecurity (Deligiannis. These alternative discourses had lead to the birth of “new” concepts of security. and civil society organizations have political responsibility for human security and environmental security.

000 islands and is surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. sea level rise caused by climate change can be a major threat for coastal populations. 2008a). Although the number of casualties has decreased compared to the years of 2006 and 2007. we saw environmental degradation from eight years of excavating ore-bodies. 1998: 24-44. 2006. Beachler. Beside marine resources and marine life richness. Moreover.has almost 17. environmental harm all caused by Newmont Minahasa Raya. Furthermore. the number of disasters is relatively static. Almost all of these studies proved this hypothesis to be true in developing countries. and technical capacity. and waste disposal into seabed‟s. the statistic from the NDMB report did not cover environmental degradation caused by natural resource exploitation or other human-induced activities. which said environmental security: 10 . Reports from the mass media and scientific research emphasized the degradation of environmental quality and the dreadful conditions of local people‟s health as well as their subsistence-based livelihood. for instance. East Java. 2006). 1998. a 2008 report from the National Disaster Management Body (NDMB or Badan Nasional Penangulangan Bencana) shows that 343 disasters occurred in Indonesia between the 2007 and 2008. the case of mud-flow at Sidoarjo and the Newmont Minahasa Raya case. Those disasters resulted in 245 deaths and forced more than 647. particularly those who lived surrounding the mining area (Martanto. the impacts of “Lusi” were not only devastating to socioeconomic infrastructures. lack of environmental regulations. Meanwhile. Since it was first observed as an eruption on May 29th. the application of environmental security is trying to address those issues. ore processing to produce gold-ore. 1999. One of them involves the obstacles or incapability embedded in developing countries to manage their own environment.281 people to become refugees (BNPB. caused environment degradation and depletion. This is in-line with the definition of environmental security outlined by the Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS). for instance. but also threatened people‟s livelihoods in large areas in Eastern Java (Martanto. 2008b). Indonesia has been steaming for more than two years. Kahl. 2008). from the case of Newmont Minahasa Raya. environmental governance. Much thematic research conducted about environmental security shows that there is a link between environmental degradation and social stress (Homer-Dixon and Blitt. The mud-flow at Sidoarjo. HomerDixon. There are many hypotheses to answer why developing countries are prone to social stress caused by environmental degradation. For these reasons.

there is no university in Indonesian that provides environmental security and peace courses in their Master‟s level programmes. (Homer-Dixon and Blitt. Course Relevance Course Overview Global environmental change affects every human being on the planet. 2009a). reducing their vulnerability to environmental crisis. through sound governance. he explains: […] although environmental scarcity or crisis does not inevitably or deterministically lead to social disruption and violent conflict. and sustainable utilization of its natural resources and environment. Data from several leading universities in Indonesia show only the incorporation or use of environmental security perspectives and theories in the banner of environmental management and environmental conflict resolutions (Indonesia University. technical and social problems” (Homer-Dixon. 2009). environmental management and natural and environmental resources management (Gadjah Mada University. and political stability and ensuring the welfare of its population. environmental policy and law (Bogor Agronomic Institute. because they succeed in producing 11 . A. 1998: 7) People living in most developed countries are able to adapt and mitigate environmental change. takes effective steps toward creating social. 2004:1) Nevertheless. and environmental politics and ecological politics (Gadjah Mada University.[…] is a condition in which a nation or region. 2009b). 1999: 109). According to Homer-Dixon. 2009). (FESS. economic. but the degree to which the inhabitants in different parts of the world are vulnerable to this crisis depends on the level of their capacity to produce an institutionalized social and technological ingenuity. The lack of environmental security discussions and experts is one weakness that Indonesia should address to comprehensively investigate environmental conflicts or other social tensions caused by environmental degradation. capable management. social and technological ingenuity might be able to adapt to resource scarcity. Furthermore. II. 2009c). analysis on environmental impact (Gadjah Mada University. ingenuity means the “idea applied to solve practical. It means that human ingenuities (social and technological) are useful to minimize the risk of environmental crisis.

the course will familiarize students with the variety of natural and human-induced environmental changes at global as well as local levels that affect human beings. Moreover. including Indonesia. 1998: 8-9). both on the global and 12 . well-trained students will have the capacity to develop social and technological ingenuity in Indonesia. scientists. Financial and human capital is essential for an adequate supply of ingenuity (HomerDixon and Blitt. people in developing countries are more vulnerable to environmental crisis because they typically do not have enough capital availability to build social and technological ingenuity. theses capitals are lacking in developing countries. researchers. The course will also provide a general understanding of the diverse theories and perspectives in the field of environmental security (Deligiannis. conflict and peace by employing environmental security theories and perspectives. engineers. Financial capital. students will understand the direct and indirect causes of environmental changes that affect human beings and will have the capacity to analyze the relationship between environmental change. As an introduction course. Generally. However. By the end of this course. for example. B. is useful to fund research for adapting amongst environmental crisis or to build infrastructures that are needed for mitigating disaster. as already mentioned. By the end of this course. On the other hand. and trained government managers) are needed to produce appropriate actions for adapting and mitigating environmental crises. the course will be developed in three parts.ingenuities. Similar to the Introduction to Environmental Security and Peace course at the UN-mandated University for Peace. The relevance of this course comes from producing well-trained students on environmental security issues and filling the gap created by the lack of human capital in Indonesia. the first part of this course will elaborate on the current and future global environmental change and it impacts on human relationships and human interactions within the natural world (Delligiannis. The elaboration of global environmental change will review its impact. human capital (experts. Indonesia. Course Overview This course is a non-compulsory course in the Peace and Conflict Resolution Master‟s Programme at Gadjah Mada University. These students are also projected to become disseminators of environmental security discourse in Indonesia. 2008b). 2008b).

and urban environmental security). biodiversity loss. as well as environmental scarcity vs. the end of the class will consist of group presentations based on decided thematic issues (water conflict based on scarcity and abundance. energy security. land degradation. climate change. based on environmental governance practices. The last session of this part will review theories of violent conflict for framing security issues of global environmental change. and peacekeeping. The last part of this course attempts to bring the concept of environmental security closer to the Indonesia context. Students will begin to analyze the interaction between environmental stress and human security in the context of Indonesia. resource abundance. food security. students will be introduced to several definitions of environmental security which scholars and policymakers use. The objective of the debates is to encourage student understanding of each basic argument. Malthusian. In this part. Students will also be encouraged to explore the origins of each definition in order to gain an insight to the implications surrounding each definition. This part also explores types of environmental conflict prevention. vulnerability to disaster. this will stimulate students‟ sensitivities to the relationship in the context of Indonesia. we will utilize the prolonged debate between Cornucopian vs. This analysis will begin with several research-based cases as examples of environmental stress linked with human security. In this part. The groups of students will decide on one of those themes to create a presentation to share with the class. This assumes students are already familiar with a wide range of violent conflict theories. As a political concept and a relatively new field of science. Finally. this approach will foster student consciousness of the relationship between global environmental change and security issues. resolution. 13 . The main purpose of drawing the relationship between global environmental changes and human activity is to emphasize the interconnection between human vulnerabilities and environment changes. we find many definitions of environmental security. The second part of this course will discuss the contentious definition of security and the relevance of environmental security within security discourse.local scale. desertification and deforestation.

Students will learn the concepts of complexity. They will also become familiar with the relationships between exploitation of natural resources and conflict. Students will become familiar and aware of global environmental change in several areas: population trends. global atmospheric change. 2. energy. chaos. which explain how the environment operates. extreme events. 6. 14 . and uncertainty. 3. The nature of the environment. land. 4.III. Students will understand the typology of environmental conflict and become familiar with different approaches and perspectives on environmental security. Students will understand the links between environmental scarcity. B. Objectives This main goal can be achieved by examining relevant aspects of environmental security. coastal and marine environments. Those aspects include: 1. Theories of violent conflict. The concepts and theories of environmental security. non-linearity. and pollution. Students will understand theories of violent conflict and gain a capability to link those theories with the impacts of environmental change. The link between conflict and environmental change and scarcity. biodiversity and forests. Students will become familiar with environmental security perspectives and theories. 5. and water. social disruption and violent conflict through an examination of case studies. Main Goal Main Goal and Objectives The main goal of the course is to produce well-trained students that have the capacity to analyze the complex relationship between environmental change and human security comprehensively and to be able to produce strong and appropriate recommendations. Debates on environmental security. Global environmental change and its impact on humanity. A.

extreme events. and Forests This session will focus on the linkage between population growth and environmental stress and the impacts of land degradation. and uncertainty are helpful to understand nature. Extreme Events. Session 6. Land. 9. how nature works. (GEC): Energy. The session will elaborate on 15 . Global Atmospheric Change. and Uncertainty This session will describe the ecosystem theory of change. Several case studies will be used to show how human insecurity and violent conflict frequently occur in many regions of the world. Environmental governance. Students will become aware and have the capacity to analyze environmental change and conflict in Indonesia and gain the ability to produce strong recommendations. and causality. environmental stress. Students will become familiar with the potential for environmental insecurity to catalyze peacebuilding and environmental cooperation. Session 4. and deforestation to human security. Theories of Violent Conflict This session will refresh students on several violent conflict theories previously studied in past courses. Livelihood insecurity. The pillar concepts of complexity. IV. Those aspects are important to forecast future impacts of climate change and formulate proper actions to address climate change. Session 5. Case study analysis. (GEC): Complexity. Students will become aware of the conditions under which environmental stress may contribute to the emergence or intensification of conflict. and how it can affect global environmental change. Session 1. (GEC): Population Trends. Biodiversity Issues. Chaos. (GEC): Fresh Water and Coastal and Marine Environments This session will describe the current conditions of water and coastal and marine environments. 8. which are triggered by water conflict and coastal and marine degradation. Non-linearity. biodiversity loss. Global Environmental Change (GEC) – An Overview This session will describe natural and anthropogenic causes of global environmental change and the impact of global environmental change on human beings. chaos. Session 3.7. and Pollution This session will comprise of the current state of global atmospheric change (a major cause of global environmental change) and energy use. non-linearity. Session Content Session 2.

and lessons learned for their selected topic. Midterm Wrapping-up student understanding of global environmental change. Session 12. greed and grievance. and Causality This session will draw linkages between livelihood insecurity. Session 9. Environmental Security: Concepts and Theories This session will explain environmental security concepts and theories and debates among scholars about the significant relationship between environmental degradation and violent conflict. Resource Abundance: A Debate This session will scrutinize a prolonged debate between two mainstream theories in environmental conflict: resource scarcity and resource abundance approaches.Session 7. specific violent conflict theories that have relation to environmental issues. Livelihood Insecurity. 16 . Mud-flow and the Newmont Minahasa Raya events are the best case studies in Indonesia to describe the linkages. Case studies in South America (Peace Park). Session 11. we will scrutinize their methodology. Session 10. Session 8. Group Presentation (1): Case of Indonesia Students will present their findings. and conclusions. Southeast Asia (Mekong River). The structural. environmental stress. Research Linking Conflict to Environmental Change and Scarcity: Case Study This session will explore several studies that link conflict with environmental change and scarcity. Environmental Governance: Peacemaking and Cooperation This session will explain the potential use of the environment for generating peacemaking and cooperation. and Africa (Riparian State) will be used as case studies. Session 13. analysis. From these case studies. Session 14. and the causalities. The presentation will be followed by a course wrap-up and evaluation. analyses. Scarcity vs. Group Presentation (2): Case of Indonesia and Course Wrap-up and Evaluation Students will present their findings. and lessons learned for their selected topic. The concept of vulnerability will help students to understand the linkages. and resource scarcity theories are some that will be focused on. Environmental Stress. theoretical framework.

2. 5. The relationship between learners is more equal. Able to understand the factors that influence the intensity and extent of environmentrelated conflicts. poverty. Have an overview of the potential for environmental insecurity to catalyze peacebuilding and environmental cooperation. this course will adopt the main principles of student-learning. The teacher becomes a facilitator and information resource. According to Burnard. the conception of student-centered learning can be interpreted as “student[s] might not only choose what to study. In general. but how and why that topic might be [an] interesting one to study” (Burnard. Aware of the conditions under which environmental stress may contribute to the emergence or intensification of conflict. 1999: 241). Involvement and participation are necessary for learning. promoting growth and development. VI. in which the learning process will be focused on the students‟ roles and participation. Able to analyze and evaluate environmental insecurity in contemporary conditions. A. The learner experiences confluence in his education (affective and cognitive domains flow together). 17 .V. Those are:      The learner has full responsibility for her/his learning. 6. This means knowledge is constructed by students and that the instructor is a facilitator of learning rather than a presenter of information (O‟Neill and McMahon. 3. Familiar with the relationships between the exploitation of natural resources and conflict. environmental degradation and conflict in the Indonesian context. students will be: 1. Intended Learning Outcomes Upon the successful completion of this course. Familiar with global environmental change and its impact on human beings. 4. Student-Centered Learning Methodology This course is designed with the student-centered learning approach. 2005: 28). 7. Able to make linkages between livelihood insecurity.

Meanwhile. These strategies will be transformed either through in-lecture or outside-lecture methods. B. These strategies are:     To make students more active for inquiring knowledge and skills. Focus on interaction. 2005: 29 During the course. The outside-lecture method means that activities will be conducted outside the lecture session. (Brandes and Ginnis. such as global environmental change and the practical relevance of the core concepts of environmental security through various case studies from cross-cutting themes and different geographical regions. The instructor will also encourage class discussion by posing questions related to the session‟s content. students will have opportunities to choose and develop the topics through their own approach or perspective. Details about inlecture and outside-lecture methods will be explained in the tables below. Strategies. the instructor will act as a facilitator by highlighting the general idea and concept in every topic. 18 . 1986) Source: O‟Neill and McMahon. Focus on transferable skills (Glasgow University. In so doing. 2004). To make the student more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. In-lecture method means that activities will be conducted during the lecture. The learner sees himself differently as a result of the learning experience. Methods. and Resources The implementation of the student-centered learning concept in this course will lead to several adjustments to teaching strategies and methods. this course will employ four strategies when delivering topics in class.

and the newest information about the topic. Details about strategies.Outside lecture methods:  Group presentation  In-class debate  Oral briefing  Peer evaluation  Reflection on learning  Written briefing note  Take home quiz  Final paper In-lecture methods:  Seminar  Class discussion  Movie discussion  Newspaper discussion  Peer discussion  Role play/simulation  Round table talk In order to deliver and support the strategies and methods of the course. Audio-visual equipment will be used for playing a movie. resources are needed. and journal reports. Reading will help students to understand concepts. Internet connection will be used only for research. The resources can be either provided by the university or the student.         19 . role play. methods. and in-class debate. Movie: an audio visual resource that gives students an illustration of the topic. seminar discussions/presentations. theories.  Readings (required and supplementary literature): a compilation of literature from book chapters. Class U-shape: chair format in the class will be designed in a “U” shape. Newspaper: an article taken from the newspaper that discusses contemporary issues or debates the topic. academic articles. Board and marker will be used for presentation and lecture. and reports that cover session objectives. debates. This design is beneficial for distributing student-instructor power relations. The movie will be selected from films. and resources can be seen in the table below. Paper will be used for presentations. Computer/laptop will be used only for presentations and research.

and the extent to which the paper is convincing. and the students‟ capacities to analyze contemporary cases. Topic selection will occur during Session 7. students will write a key point learned during that session. The briefing will allow the student to demonstrate their capacity to review and appraise specific topics. but no longer than 25 minutes. This will assess Session 7 students‟ overall understanding of the global environmental change presentations. Students can use any tools such as power point. insightful. When At the end of course Group presentation Sessions 13 and 14 In-class debate Session 9 Oral briefing Sessions 2-5 Peer evaluation Sessions 2-5 and sessions 13-14 Reflection on learning Take-home quiz Written note At the end of every session A quiz will be held as a replacement of the midterm examination. that students may desire to use. reflections. The briefing note must not exceed two pages. theoretical framework. The purpose of peer evaluation is not only to help the instructor evaluate student performance. but also to test student understanding on every topic and increase their ability to do assessment. a persuasive analysis incorporating material from the readings. Grading will be based on student understanding with regards to perspective. This is the presentation of the student briefing note. A group mark will be assigned for this component of the course and will be based on the group‟s comprehension of the topic as well as the quality of the presentation. and analysis. Presentations will be based on suggested topics. board. and manner. development and elaboration of ideas. Each briefing must focus on a select topic drawn from sessions 2 through 5. evidence. Peer evaluation is a participatory evaluation of student performance in the oral briefing note and group presentation. ideas.Outside-Lecture Methods Table Method Final essay What The final essay is an accumulation of student knowledge on the course that is based on the readings. consistency. The objective of debate is to assess student understanding and perspective of the selected topic. and well written. Each student will fill out an evaluation form to assess their colleague‟s performance while giving their briefing and group presentation. Each student should use their selected perspective to build arguments on the topics. 20 . Grades will be based on consistency of the student‟s argument. Students will be divided into four groups based on selected topics. The presentation should last for at least 20 minutes. The quiz will be distributed on the same day of midterm schedule and students can answer it at home. The essay should comprise of supported data. etc. The quiz is due in 24 hours after it is distributed and must be submitted to the instructor‟s email address. Students will form groups of about 3-4 to prepare and deliver a seminar. including tables and graphs. other sources. Student-led seminars will occur during sessions 13 and 14. The briefing notes are due the same day of the presentation. the student‟s thoughts. briefing The briefing notes allow the students to demonstrate their capacity to review and Sessions 2-5 appraise specific topics. At the end of every session.

Each member of the group has their own role. a discussion related to the movie will follow. 2.In-class debate . 3. 11. The instructor will give a lecture/presentation on a topic. - Peer evaluation Written briefing note Take-home quiz Reflection on learning Final essay Peer evaluation Group presentation Oral briefing In-class debate In-class debate Group presentation Take-home quiz Final essay Reflection on learning 21 Focus on transferable skills. reading of the whole required and supplementary readings is a must. and 11 Sessions 6 and 11 Newspaper discussion Peer discussion Role play/simulation Round table talks Seminar Sessions 1. Seminar Class discussion on reading Round table talks Role play Movie discussion Seminar Class discussion on reading Role play Movie discussion Newspaper discussion . When Sessions 6.Audio-visual equipment . During the lecture. 4. During the lecture.Newspaper . and 12 Strategies.Paper . and 12 Sessions 1. Methods. Focus on interaction. 6. 8. 8. - To make the students more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. 4.Computer/laptop .Movie . A movie will be presented during or after the lecture. and Resources Table Strategies Methods Outside lecture . Each student will have their turn to explain their opinion. 5. 11.Board and marker .Oral briefing In-lecture Seminar Class discussion on readings Peer discussions Round table talks Movie discussion Newspaper discussion Seminar Class discussion on reading Peer discussions Newspaper discussion Resources To make the students more active in acquiring knowledge and skills. 5 and 10 Sessions 2. Students should grasp the main point of the article and analyze it with concepts and theories learned in previous sessions. The instructor will divide student into several groups.Readings (required and supplementary literatures) . 3. 5. The movie will help students to understand the topic the instructor presented during the lecture session.In-Lecture Methods Table Activities Class discussion on readings Movie discussion What Students will discuss required and supplementary readings. 10. The instructor will pose a problem and students are encouraged to solve the problem in groups. 10. the instructor will pose several questions and students will discuss them with his/her colleagues.Internet connection .Projector . The instructor will distribute an article from a newspaper. 4.Class U-shape . 9. After students have watched the movie. and 12 Sessions 3. the instructor will ask for each student‟s opinion about the selected topic. 9. 9.Group presentation . and 12 Sessions 1. In order to reach quality discussion. 11.

Participatory evaluation is a collective assessment of the learning processes of the students. there will also be participatory evaluations (student peer review). The aim of a prospective evaluation is to evaluate the scenario of the course and whether it fits with course outcomes. The objectives of participatory evaluations are to evaluate students‟ expertise on the subject. The evaluation will be based on participation and attendance components. Learning Evaluation The learning evaluation objective is to help students and the instructor understand the process in which they are engaged in and identify themselves within the objective of the course. students will be graded by the instructor based on individual performance in every assignment (instructor-based grading).VII. resources. 2005: 19). However. The evaluation will comprise of course methods.  Prospective evaluation. The evaluation will be based on participation and assignments (briefing note. In this course. quiz. Learning – the increased level of student knowledge or capability.   Communication – academic presentation and communication skill. and final paper). Course Evaluation Course evaluations will be conducted twice. 22 . A. analytical capacity of the case study. in order to produce unbiased evaluations. and assignments. B. facilitate student-instructor collaboration. The first is student evaluation and the second is course evaluation. at the beginning of class (as a prospective evaluation) and at the end of class (as a summative evaluation). The evaluation will be based on oral briefings and group presentations. The instructor will distribute an evaluation form to be filled out by the students in order to assess other student‟s individual presentations (oral briefing) and group presentations. there will be two kinds of evaluation. Student Evaluation Generally. There are three levels to be measured in the student evaluation:  Engagement – student attendance in every session and student participation in every discussion. and share decision-making to increase utilization of evaluation results (Paulmer. and quality of participation.

 Summative evaluation. articulation of thoughts on the issues. C. 2. active participation in seminar discussions and activities. There will be reflection on learning at the end of every session and a course evaluation form to be filled at the end of the course.500 words) Value 10% 15% 10% 30% 15% 20% Time/Deadline Sessions 1-6 Midterm Session 10 Assessed throughout course. Grading and Assessments Student performance will be assessed according to the following exercises and assignments: Components Individual briefing note (2 pages) Quiz In-class debate Participation in seminar discussion Group presentation Final essay (max. In this evaluation. 2007: 14). contributions to 23 Letter Grade A AB+ B BC+ C CD F . and quality of participation. Quality of participation involves respect for other seminar participants. including attendance Sessions 13-14 Due one week after the end of the class Grading System Cumulative Grade 95 – 100 90 – 94 87 – 89 83 – 86 80 – 82 77 – 79 73 – 76 70 – 72 60 – 69 59 or below There will be six assignments during the course. 1. serious engagement with the views of others. students will be asked about their thoughts and opinions about the course and instructor. In-class participation: Participation will be assessed according to the following criteria: attendance in class. The aim of a summative evaluation is to determine the achievement of the anticipated outcome and assess whether the main goal was realized or not (IPDET.

reflections. that students desire to use. and mastery of the seminar readings. other sources. The briefing notes are due the same day as the presentation. The essay should comprise of supported data. and manner. Grades will be based on 24 . 2. Absences will negatively affect final course grades. including tables and graphs. Topic selection will occur during session 7. This will assess students‟ overall understanding of the global environmental change presentations. based on readings. Students will be divided into four groups based on selected topics. Each briefing note must focus on a selected topic drawn from sessions two through five. The grading will be based on peer evaluation and instructor evaluation. Group presentation: Students will form groups of 3 to 4 to prepare and deliver a seminar.500 words. consistency. a week after the last session. This presentation should last at least 20 minutes. using any tools such as power point. Student-led seminars will occur during sessions 13 and 14. board. Briefing notes must not exceed two pages. In-class debate: The objective of debate is to assess student understanding and perspective on selected topics. The written briefing will be distributed to the class and followed up with a presentation (oral briefing). Presentations will be based on suggested topics. but no longer than 25 minutes. 4. Individual Briefing Note: The briefing notes allow the students to demonstrate their capacity to review and appraise specific topics. 3. The quiz will be distributed on the same day of the scheduled midterm and students can answer it at home. Each of the students should use their selected perspective to build arguments on the topics. Final essay: The final essay is an accumulation of student knowledge of the course. The grading will be based on peer evaluation and instructor evaluation. etc. Grading will be based on student understanding of the perspective. and student thoughts. and the student‟s capacity to analyze contemporary cases. ideas. 6. The final will be a take home essay that should be submitted no later than 11:59 pm.discussions. Take home quiz: A quiz will be held as a replacement of the midterm examination. The quiz is due 24 hours after it is distributed and must be submitted to the instructor‟s email address. Attendance is mandatory. A group mark will be assigned for this component of the course and will be based on the group‟s comprehension of the topic as well as the quality of the presentation. 5. and analysis. evidence. Students are required to write at least 2.

chemical. 25 . these changes can become so widespread that they result in global change. illness) results in a late submission and the circumstances are verified in writing by a third party (e.g. Global environmental changes are also changes that occur locally. Otherwise. The second is the magnificent growth of the human population in the last two centuries. and well written. medical certificate) within two days of the due date. the extent to which the paper is convincing. insightful. such as changes in the productivity or function of rural/urban ecosystems. some people ask. “Why should we be concerned with global environmental change?” There are two main ways to answer this question. A.g. a persuasive analysis incorporating the readings. However. a new due date will be determined and no late penalty will be assessed. Since it is a natural phenomenon. VIII. If circumstances beyond a student‟s control (e. global environmental change can be defined as the changing of the physical. Session Content: General Session Outline What is global environmental change? In a general definition. The first is human-induced changes have grown to equal the scale of natural changes and further change may occur very rapidly.consistency of arguments and theoretical framework. and biological Earth system. Global environmental change is a completely natural phenomenon. late submissions will be penalized by the equivalent of a grade point per day. development and elaboration of ideas. Global environmental change can affect the ability of the Earth to sustain human life.

human‟s fingerprint is becoming more abundantly seen on the global atmosphere. scientists began questioning what the impacts of this growth to the environment and Earth system could be.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/human_pop/human_pop. Tyson. in recent times. Since the beginning of human history on Earth. compared with the Old Stone Age until the Middle Ages. These scholars say we are now in the Antropocene Era. It is not too excessive if. These trends will keep growing 26 . of global environmental change. concludes that human activities have had an influence on the natural dynamics of the Earth system. From the figure above.Figure: Human Population Growth Over Time Source: http://www. the world oceans. Following the extraordinary human growth. based on their long and sophisticated studies. demand on environmental goods and services grew in-line with human population. This amount of growth has never happened before in the history of human civilization.html Only 57 years after 1950. and the land of all continents. We have also seen that the total economic wealth has grown rapidly. 2001: 4).globalchange. scientists conclude that human activity now equals or surpasses nature in several biogeochemical cycles (Steffen. As can be predicted.6 billion (UN Secretariat. But. 2007: 7). both direct and underlying. an era of which human activities become significant drivers.umich. there have been no human activities able to force or influence the dynamics of the Earth‟s system. Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer have the perfect term to describe this current state. Scientific findings on the recent content and dynamic of biogeochemical cycles on the Earth. we see an extreme population growth over two centuries. the human population grew more than double from 2.5 billion to 6.

This kind of action will greatly impact forest services and endanger biodiversity in the forest. 2001: 13) One factor that should be taken into consideration. 2001: 84). water. and energy or recreational needs. environmental change. violent environmental/demographic insecurity reflects the impact of demographic and environmental change on traditional security. and forest cover. Demographic and environmental change. non-violent environmental/demographic security reflects a change in the environment or population that has consequences on international borders and becomes an international security issue. can produce security problems in two different ways. On the other side. 1998. Furthermore. The growing human population has also affected land and soil quality. pollution. that there will be 9. and security problems. On the other side. even if armed violence is unlikely (Goldstone. humans will maximize their land and create pressure on soil quality. in order to fulfill food needs. too much pressure on natural resources can instigate serious security problems. Goldstone‟s study draws a relationship between demographics. Edward Wilson. First.2 billion people on Earth in 2050 and increasing by about 30 million persons annually (UN Secreatriat. The rising population on Earth will increase pressure on natural resources and threaten the quality of living standard. forest conversion. air pollution. either for human basic needs such as food. these factors have created a massive demand on global natural resources to fulfill human consumption.S. since developing countries are having an increased impact on resource and environmental depletion. gave a good description on forest and biodiversity linkages when he delivered a slide show about the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest biodiversity at the U. biodiversity. in a moderate variant. is who is responsible for global environmental change. health. grain production tripled. 2007: 8). Senate on April 28. For example. (Steffen and Tyson. He said: 27 . In a vivid description. and economic activity quintupled. soil exhaustion. an American biologist. but is hard to differentiate. humans often make harmful decisions only combating short-term concerns by converting forests to agriculture areas. food scarcity. Second.in the future. the United Nations forecasts. says Goldstone. Steffen says: […] while the global population more than doubled in the second half of the last century. Water shortages. Assuming that fertility levels continue to decline. and green house effects are several major impacts of population growth on the environment. energy consumption quadrupled.

Furthermore. 2007: 2). droughts. while those of methane and nitrous oxide are primarily due to agriculture (IPCC.] Many of them are still unknown to science. and epidemics (Barnett and Adger. whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. The managerial discourse believes that climate change is a reality and cannot be avoided. The number of these species may go to tens of thousands [. Their studies have been moving forward from mono-disciplinary to interdisciplinary research. heat waves. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as any change in climate over time. devastating marine life. There are two mainstream discourses and one alternative discourse on how to deal with climate change. you are not just removing a lot of big trees and a few birds fluttering around in the canopy. The profligacy discourse shares the 28 . actions should be taken in the framework of human adaption to the changed climate and it consequences. the IPCC argued that this increase is due principally to fossil fuel use and land use change. You are drastically imperiling a vast array of species within a few square miles of you. declining precipitation and soil moisture. (Wilson. methane. and science has not yet discovered the key role undoubtedly played in the maintenance of that ecosystem. an ancient forest in particular. this concept is already proved by scientific facts. and species migration are several impacts of climate change that create risks to human security. IPCC findings in a 2007 report say there has been a significant rise of carbon dioxide. increased storm intensity. storms and cyclones. Rising sea levels. biodiversity and forests.[…] now when you cut a forest. and nitrous oxide as a result of human activities since 1750. coastal erosion. 2007: 640)... Climate change is known as a macro-driver of environmental changes. Human climate change studies have been growing rapidly since the IPCC launched their first report in 1991. Therefore. and annual precipitation) over long-time scales and through increases in the intensity and frequency of floods. Barnett argues in his article that the impacts of climate change on socialecological systems will be experienced through both changes in mean conditions (such as temperature. fires. The first two discourses are the managerial and profligacy discourses.. 1998) From this point. sea-level. there will be a global challenge on how to improve human living standards amongst the fast-growing world population without endangering land and soil.

5] GtCO2)} per year in 2000–2005 (2004 and 2005 data are interim estimates) (IPCC. 2000: 21-22).5] GtC (26. Because of their geography and topography. watersheds. show an incredible change of water (fresh water) availability. fresh water is a finite resource and distributed disproportionately in every country.8] GtC (23. providing a smaller contribution. 2007: 2). Climatic change has made the volume of Lake Chad in Central Africa decline drastically. No one can disagree that water is a vital element for human beings and ecosystems. profligacy supports that developed countries should take greater responsibilities because they produce more emissions then developing countries. et al. History tells us how water availability in all regions has shaped social. has had a substantial impact on the local populations. Relying on the IPCC report.9 to 7.0] GtCO2)} per year in the 1990s to 7. Energy use since the Industrial Revolution era is a significant contributor to the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. some countries have many sources of fresh water from. both natural and human-induced.3 to 27. other countries experience fresh water scarcity or are forced share with other countries to get fresh water. This shortage has transpired not only because of natural phenomenon. 29 . One of these considerations lies within the denial discourse. glaciers. it also incorporates moral considerations.2 {[6. But.4 [25. in recent decades many phenomena. Besides the discourse relying on scientific science. In recent decades. Carbon dioxide mainly comes from fossil fuel use and land use change.5 [22.0 to 6. some scientists.. according to satellite images. but also from unequal access and unequal distribution of water resources. for instance. of course. economic.4 {[6. climate change has become a serious human security threat in our contemporary era. However. and it is even becoming the root of modern hydrology. or aquifers. based on sophisticated research projects. Naturally. The IPCC recorded annual fossil carbon dioxide emissions increased from an average of 6. the volume is only one-twentieth of its previous size. Moreover. The shrinking lake. Now. which says that climate change is not a problem and human beings have the natural capacity to adapt to climate change and its implications (Adger. many countries are experiencing fresh water scarcity. Water is also important for maintaining socioeconomic development and political stability. However. The case of riparian states in all regions is the best to describe the disproportioned distribution of fresh water in every country.0 to 25.belief of the inevitability of climate change with the managerial discourse. and political relationships between communities.

These studies measure the impact of global environmental change. The term „human security‟ was officially used by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 1994. Based on this argument. the potential impacts of global 30 . in jobs or in communities (UNDP. second. community security. The study of global environmental change tries to create a linkage between human vulnerability and human insecurity. and atmospheric change to human insecurity. Nevertheless. and environmental security (Rothschild. 1995: 53). personal security. the question that is often raised is how climate change can affect human security or perpetuate violent conflict and how to effectively deal with climate change. this relatively new concept of human security has received incredible attention from academics and policy makers around the world. There are a few main aspects of human security. With the end of the Cold War. There are at least three aspects of measurement to connect global environmental change to human insecurity: first. 1998: 23). At that time. environmental security. Emma Rothschild proposed extending the security area. During the Cold War. human security means protection from sudden and hurtful disruptions in the patterns of daily life – whether in homes. the impacts of global environmental change within the population. water scarcity. there have been numerous suggestions from academics and policy makers on security studies. biodiversity loss. They find threats to national security today mostly from non-military threats. and political security (UNDP. disease. Second. This means that the security of a nation should cover political security. military threats to national security were dominated by military invasions of other nations. This concept has attracted this attention because human security was seen as a breakthrough. Human security comprises of seven specific elements of security: economic security. food security. security studies concentrated on the military approach of anticipating military threats and maintaining national security. because it recognizes that human beings as well as groups are severely threatened even in situations where the existence of the state was not threatened by other states or interstate war. and repression. military security. deforestation. 1998: 23). economic and social security. health security. however. First is safety from such chronic threats as hunger. such as land degradation. there should be an attempt to reinterpret or redefine the notion of security.believe climate change may increase the risk of violent conflict.

preventing conflicts directly related to the environment. Those ways include supply-induced scarcity. 3) Environmental scarcity as a cause of political instability or violent conflict. the capacity of the population to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of global environmental change. environmental security is not a new issue in environmental science. 5) Military and defense intelligence institutions. 2008a). As one field of multidisciplinary science. declining agricultural productions. demand- 31 . responding to and mitigating environmental crises and disasters. the term environmental security has been used many times to refer to six domains: 1) Environmental degradation or depletion as a threat to human health and human wellbeing stemming from disease. declining standards of living. and economic instability and decline. climate change induced impacts. gathering. and protecting national parks and reserves. and building sustainable peace through sustainable development and good environmental management (Deligiannis. third. mainly promoted by the Toronto School. From the environmental scarcity and violent conflict perspective. is more visible today. 6) Environmental peacebuilding. but rather. including building peace and dialogue through environmental cooperation. According to Deligiannis. Environmental degradation or depletion stemming from armed conflicts and the disposal of military waste. implementing environmental sustainability programmes. since the end of the Cold War. analyzing.environmental change to the population. and disseminating scientific data on the national environment. Using military and defense equipment and technology to monitor and enforce international environmental agreements. This includes international agreements in which the objective is for environmental protection like the Montreal Ozone Protocol or the Kyoto Pact. 4) Institutional infringement on the principle of sovereignty to mitigate environmental degradation. one of the leading scholars from the Toronto School and a proponent of the Neo-Malthusian perspective said that environmental scarcity can happen simultaneously in three different ways. these pressures could turn into resource scarcity that can cause social disruption and violent conflict. and the exploitation of the locally abundant resources. 2) The military‟s impact on the environment. Homer-Dixon. pollution.

Demand-induced scarcity is caused either by human population growth or a per capita increase in consumption of the resources. or if there is a resource concentrated amongst a small particular group of the population with resource shortages amongst the rest of population (Homer-Dixon and Blitt. the environmental scarcity resource abundance perspective believes that conflict over natural resources often occurs in natural resource-rich countries if there is no proper regulation and governance to control competition over natural resource. and structural-induced scarcity. Supply-induced scarcity means the capacity of the environment to produce goods and services which are threatened because of environmental degradation and depletion. A prolonged debate between these two perspectives is one of central issues in environmental security. 32 . 1998: 5-6). Meanwhile.induced scarcity. Structural-induced scarcity happens because of the inability of political and social structures to distribute resources equally.

C. B. Outcome Familiarity with global environmental change and its impact on human beings. Washington D. Eco-Systems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. The report is available on the web at: <http://www. J. R.” Chapter 9 in The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Patricia. 2005. 47-55. Homer-Dixon.F. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 60 minutes allocation Round table talk: 20 minutes Break: 15 minutes Movie discussion: 85 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Reading.356.millenniumassessment. and W. Required Readings: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. “Long-Term Environmental Change.W. 1999. J. “Environmental Scarcity. Objectives Students will become aware and familiar with global environmental change and understand the processes of the whole course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Evaluation Engagement evaluation and reflection on learning. Princeton. and Violence. McDowell. W. Clark. Washington DC: Island Press. “Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure”.” Chapter 4 in Environment. Scarcity. J. Thompson and Bartlein. 246-283.. Mathews. Thomas.org/proxy/document.C. 2003. Peter. World Resources 2002-2004.aspx>.B. Supplementary Readings World Resources Institute. 143-162. and film (An Inconvenient Truth). Meyer. 33 . IGBP Science No.L. Richards.T. International Geo-spare and Bio-spare Programme. 1990. II. edited by Turner.: World Resources Institute.Teacher’s Manual Part One: Global Environmental Changes (GEC) Session: No. 4. Webb III. F. Patrick. 2001. Kates. 01: Global Environmental Change (GEC) – An Overview Session content This session will describe natural and anthropogenic causes of global environmental change and the impacts of global environmental change on human beings. power point presentation. Will and Tyson. audio-visual equipment. Steffen. “Data Tables”.

biodiversity loss.Session: No.” Global Environmental Change.” in World Resources 2002-2004.pdf World Resources Institute. Pimentel. 4. 1 (February 2006): 119-137. and Charles Perrings. Evaluation Engagement. 11(4). Method and time Lecture seminar: 20 minutes allocation Newspaper discussion: 30 minutes Oral briefing and peer evaluation: 30 minutes Break: 10 minutes Oral briefing and peer evaluation: 90 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power point.” Ecological Applications. board. (GEC): Population Trends. Land United Nations Environment Program. Joel. Available at http://www. “Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat. participatory evaluation. “Biodiversity. Volume 8. and forests. London: Earthscan. Available at http://www. 02. Washington D. and deforestation on human security.. Land Degradation. Available at http://www. Objectives Students will become aware and familiar with global population trends. 2001: 261-269.” Environment.unep. learning.C. and the Human Scale. Biodiversity Loss.unep. et al. New York: United Nations. E. S. 2008. 6.: World Resources Institute. Required Readings: Population United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).unfpa. “Data Tables: Biodiversity and Protected Areas. “The Causes of Land-Use and Land Cover Change: Moving Beyond The Myths. David.” Chapter 3 in Global Environmental Outlook 4. E. Joel. F.org/swp/2008/presskit/docs/en-swop08-report.pdf Lambin. 2003. “Biological Diversity. 1996: 1018–1024. Holling. communication. and paper. No. 14 Nov. Volume 302. biodiversity. State of the World Population 2008: Reaching Common Ground: Culture. London: Earthscan. Biodiversity United Nations Environment Program.org/geo/geo4/report/05_Biodiversity. 2007. 254-258.” Chapter 5 in Global Environmental Outlook 4. Ecosystems. No. 81-114. “Human Population: The Next Half Century. land. Gender. C. 1995. Cohen. Development. Vol. and Forests Session content This session will focus on the linkages between population growth and environmental stress as well as the impacts of land degradation. 46-75. and reflection on learning. “Land. Eric. and Human Right.pdf Cohen.” Science. 2007. Carl Folke. newspaper.org/geo/geo4/report/03_Land.” Chapter 4 in How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York: WW Norton. 34 . 2003: 1172-1175. 157-194. “People Control the Growth of Human Populations. marker. and Sustainability. Outcome Familiarity with global environmental change and its impact on human beings.

Eric. March 2007: 75-92.” Chapter 2 in Global Environmental Outlook 3. 2006. Proceedings of the UN Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300. Mather.fao. Supplementary Readings United Nations. Global Forest “Resources Assessment 2005: Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management”. 1-26. Simon. World Population in 2300. 173(1). Also. February 2002: 143-150. “Forests. “Assessing the World‟s Forests. Available at http://www. FAO Forestry Paper 147. F.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/Long_range_report.unep. Full text available on the web: ftp://ftp.org/geo/geo3/english/pdfs/chapter2-3_forests. <http://www. “Forest Resources.” Global Environmental Change. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004. 52(2). “Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Forest Deforestation.pdf FAO. 2002. S. “Cities and Global Environmental Change: Exploring the Links. examine the tables in the Annexes. J.” in State of the World’s Forests: 2007. 15(3). David.org/docrep/fao/009/a0773e/a0773e. 35 .Forest United Nations Environment Program. Rome: FAO.pdf>. 2006. Rome: FAO.” The Geographical Journal. 1-19. FAO. 90-119. Alexander.zip Geist. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Global Biodiversity Outlook 2.” BioScience. October 2005: 267-280. 2005. Economic and Social Affairs. London: Earthscan.un. March 24. Helmut and Lambin.

” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.pdf 36 . 2003. Required Readings: Energy Vaclav Smil. “Summary for Policymakers. Cambridge.B. United Kingdom and New York. Mass. “The Interaction of Climate and Life. S.Tignor and H. 1990-2020: Three Decades of Explosive Growth. Lagerquist. Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. K. Global Atmospheric Change. and Pollution Main content This session will explore the current state of global atmospheric change. D. 2002. M. A. edited by Solomon. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. a major cause of global environmental change. learning.” 73-114 & 159-187. UNFCCC. Z. Miller. and paper.pdf>. “Energy Demand and Supply in the Developing World. 03: (GEC): Energy. IPCC. Outcome Familiarity with global environmental change and its impact on human beings. Full text also available for download from: <http://unfccc. participatory evaluation. Washington DC: Island Press. marker. Chen. edited by M. Pleskovic. A. Susan. International Energy Association. 441-62. “Global Energy Trends. “Long-term Trends and Achievements. Global Atmosphere and Pollution Alexander. Averyt. Climate Change Information Kit. S.ucar. IEA.Session: No. and energy use. 1-62. USA Cambridge University Press. and reflection on learning. edited by Gretchen C.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Print_SPM. Report can be downloaded from the web: < http://www. 1997. and pollution. and K.. Manning. Qin. 1994.” in Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics. “The World‟s Energy Security. NY. Objectives Students will become aware and familiar with global energy use and alternative energy.L. newspaper. 2007.” Chapter 1 in Energy at the Crossroads: Global Perspectives and Uncertainties.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/weo_2007.: The MIT Press. Washington. global atmospheric change. Cambridge. These aspects are important to forecast future impacts of climate change and to formulate proper actions for dealing with climate change. board. 71-92.int/resource/iuckit/infokit_02_en. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Churchill.iea. Bruno and B. Daily. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 40 minutes allocation Newspaper discussion: 50 minutes Break: 15 minutes Oral briefing and peer evaluation: 60 minutes Peer discussion: 15 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power point presentation. M.” in Chapter 5. Marquis.pdf>. Paris. M. World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insight. DC: World Bank. Evaluation Engagement.” & Chapter 4. Schneider. communication. Available at http://ipcc-wg1. 2007: Chapter 1.

O.pdf REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network. 28 Nov. Canziani. Energy Information Administration. International Energy Outlook: 2008.” Chapter 2 in Global Environmental Outlook 4.R. UK Cambridge University Press. http://www.eia. “Summary for Policymakers. United Nations Environment Program.gtp89. Adaptation and Vulnerability. United Kingdom and New York. Available at http://www. Department of Energy. Hanson. United Nations Environment Program. and I-IV. USA Cambridge University Press. Metz. “Security and Climate Change.” in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Palutikof.ren21. Parry. June 2008.A. “Summary for Policymakers.pipex. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Meyer. van der Linden and C.pdf 37 . 2007.org/UNEP2002/5unep2002ExecSumm. 2003. J. R. Available at http://www.ch/SPM040507.” in Climate Change 2007: Impacts. O. 2007. Available at http://www. Jeffrey. Available at: http://www. Dave. London: Earthscan. et.J.pdf Barnett. NY.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/highlights. Volume 302. “Atmosphere: Global Overview.dial. U.S. Cambridge. L. Bosch. 2003: 1528-1531. DC: Worldwatch Institute.IPCC. Available at http://www. (2003): 717.E. Jon. edited by M. Renewable Global Status Report: 2006 Update.” Global Environmental Change.ipcc.unep. P. edited by B.L.P.pdf Ozone Secretariat.pdf Supplementary Readings: Chow.pdf IPCC. 13(1).al. Davidson. Washington. Paris: REN21 Secretariat and Washington. P. 1-4.org/geo/geo4/report/02_Atmosphere. Cambridge.gcrio.F.R. “Energy Resources and Global Development. Issue 2: ix.net/globalstatusreport/download/RE_GSR_2006_Update. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 2002 Assessment. DC: USGPO.doe.com/spm.” Executive Summary in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2007. 39-80.” Science.

Rome: FAO.: International Food Policy Research Center. 1-12 & 197-207. Peter. learning. Available at ftp://ftp.C. United Nations Environment Program. “Water Resources and Food Production” & “Implications for the Future: Meeting the Challenge of Water Scarcity. newspaper.” Chapter 4 in Global Environmental Outlook 4. 477-511 & 513-549. no.org/docrep/fao/011/i0250e/i0250e. 04: (GEC): Fresh Water and Coastal and Marine Environments Main content This session will describe the current condition of water and coastal and marine environments. Mark. marker.Session: No. Volume 302.pdf Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Several case studies will show how human insecurity and violent conflicts frequently occur in many regions of the world and are triggered by water conflict and coastal and marine degradation. communication. participatory evaluation. Required Readings: Fresh Water Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2007. London: Earthscan.” Chapter 1 & 9 in World Water and Food to 2025: Dealing with Scarcity. 2005. 165-207 & 551-583. and paper.: Islands Press.: Islands Press. Volume 1 Washington D.pdf Rosegrant. 2002.al. “Facing Limits in Oceanic Fisheries. “Freshwater” & “Inland Water Systems”. Weber.fao. Objectives Students will become aware and familiar with water issues and coastal and marine environments. Outcome Familiarity with global environmental change and its impact on human beings.al.” Chapter 18 &19 in Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends.C. Coastal and Marine Environment Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).C. “Part 1: World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture.” Natural Resources Forum 19. Washington D. 38 . Daniel. 1 (1995): 39-46. 115-156. board. Available at http://www. 2003: 1359-1361. “The Future of Fisheries. et. 21 Nov.” in The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: 2008. Pauly. 2005. 3-81. “Freshwater. Part II: The Social Consequences. Volume 1 Washington D. “Marine Systems” & “Coastal Systems. and reflection on learning. et. Evaluation Engagement.” Science.org/geo/geo4/report/04_Water. 2009. Chapter 7 & 20 in Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends.unep. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 40 minutes allocation Newspaper discussion: 50 minutes Break: 15 minutes Oral briefing and peer evaluation: 60 minutes Peer discussion: 15 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power point.

Supplementary Readings: Falkenmark, Malin. “The Greatest Water Problem: The Inability to Link Environmental Security, Water Security and Food Security,” The International Journal of Water Resources and Development, (17)4, 2001: 539–554. Gleick, H. Peter. “Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs,” Water International, 21 (1996): 83-92. Available at http://www.pacinst.org/reports/basic_water_needs/basic_water_needs.pdf Pauly, Daniel, et.al. “Toward Sustainability in World Fisheries,” Nature, Volume 418, 8 August 2002: 689-695. Duetsch, Lisa, et al. “Feeding Aquaculture Growth Through Globalization: Exploitation of Marine Ecosystems for Fishmeal,” Global Environmental Change, 17, 2007: 238-249.

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Session: No. 05: (GEC): Complexity, Chaos, Non-linearity, Extreme Events, and Uncertainty
Main content This session will describe the ecosystem theory of change, how nature works, and how it can affect global environmental change. The pillar concepts of complexity, chaos, non-linearity, extreme events, and uncertainty are helpful to understand nature. Objectives Students will understand how nature works. Outcome Familiarity with global environmental change and its impact on human beings. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 40 minutes allocation Newspaper discussion: 50 minutes Break: 15 minutes Oral briefing and peer evaluation: 30 minutes Movie and discussion: 45 minute Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point, newspaper, board, marker, paper, audio-visual equipment, and movie: Holling Resilience Dynamic available at http://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandevent videos/buzzhollingresiliencedynamics.5.30c78e2811e644991e780006770.html Evaluation Engagement, learning, communication, participatory evaluation, and reflection on learning.

Required Readings: Ludwig, D., Hillborn, R., and Walters, C.J. “Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation, and Conservation: Lessons From History,” Science 260, no. 5104 (April 2, 1993): 17 and 36. Holling, C. S. “Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems,” Ecosystems (2001) 4: 390-405. Holling, C. S. “From Complex Regions to Complex Worlds,” Ecology and Society, 9(1), 2004: 18. Available at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art11 Supplementary Readings: Crutchfield, James. Farmer, Doyne. J. and Packard, Norman. “Chaos,” Scientific American 255, no. 6 December 1986, 46-57. Crutchfield, P.J. "What Lies Between Order and Chaos?" In Art and Complexity, edited by J. Casti. London: Oxford University Press, 2002. Available at http://cse.ucdavis.edu/~cmg/papers/wlboac.pdf Holling, C. S. “An Ecologist View of the Malthusian Conflict,” Chapter 4 in Population, Economic Development, and the Environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl Kiessling. and Hans Landberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 79-103.

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Part Two: The Concepts of Environmental Security Session: No. 06: Theories of Violent Conflict
Main content This session will refresh students on several violent conflict theories previously studied in past courses. The session will go further on specific violent conflict theories that relate to environmental issues. The structural, greed and grievance, and resource scarcity theories are some that will be focused on. Objectives Students will become familiar with the causes of violent conflict and its relation to environmental degradation. Outcome Awareness of the conditions under which environmental stress may contribute to the emergence or intensification of conflict. Methods and time Class discussion on reading: 90 minutes allocation Break: 15 minutes Round table talk: 25 minutes Role play: 50 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Board, marker, paper. Evaluation Engagement, learning, communication evaluation, and reflection on learning

Required Readings: Homer-Dixon, Thomas. “Violence,” Chapter 7 in Environment, Scarcity, and Violence, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1999, 133-168. Goodwin, Jeff. “State-Centered Approaches to Social Revolutions: Strengths and Limitations of Theoretical Tradition,” Chapter 1 in Theorizing Revolutions, edited by John Foran. New York: Routledge, 1997, 11-37. Horowitz, L. Donald. “Group Comparison and the Sources of Conflict,” Chapter 4 in Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, 141-184. Mats, R. Berdal. ed., Greed & Grievance : Economic Agendas in Civil Wars (Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000. Supplementary Readings: Goldstone, A. Jack. “Toward a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory,” Annual Review of Political Science, 2001, 4: 139-87. Collier, Paul. et.al. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington D.C.: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003. Brown, E. Michael. “Introduction,” in The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996, 3-31.

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Outcome Understanding the impacts of global environmental change on human beings. Main content Wrapping-up student understanding on global environmental change. Methods and time Take home quiz: 24 hours allocation Resources Evaluation Learning evaluation. Objectives Students will understand global environmental change. Details will be discussed in class.Session: No. 07: Mid-Term Exam (take home quiz) The quiz will be distributed in class and should be submitted in 24 hours. 42 .

no. Baldwin. Issue 6. 1998. Petter Nils. and Homer-Dixon. “The Concept of Security.” World Politics 48. “Bringing Nature Back In: Geopolitical Theory from the Greeks to the Global Era. Required Readings: Baldwin. Evaluation Engagement. Brauch. 3. Gleditsch. 2006. 1997: chapter 1. Studies of the University: Research. David. no.. Counsel. David. and reflection on learning. Objectives Students will understand concepts and theories of environmental security. Deudney. Matthew. 1 (October 1995): 117-41. Lipschutz. 1999. “Environment and Security. board.edu/file. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Outcome Ability to understand the factors that influence the intensity and extent of environmentally related conflicts. 1995. Tom.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources. et. Summer 2000.. Khagram. 31:395–41. Source Publication No. learning. 2005. “On Security. edited by Daniel H. H.ehs. 08: Environmental Security: Concepts and Theories Main content This session will explain environmental security concepts and theories and debates among scholars about the significant relationship between environmental degradation and violent conflict.” and “Negotiating the Boundaries of Difference and Security at Millenium‟s End. Vulnerabilities and Risks in Environment and Human Security. Education.unu.” Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 1-23 and 212-228.” Chapter 2 in Contested Ground: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS). Ronnie. Deligiannis. Threats. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 60 minutes allocation Round-table talk: 30 minutes Break: 15 minutes Class discussion on reading: 75 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point presentation. Lipschutz. 77-94. and marker. Available at http://www.." Journal of Peace Research 35. 381-400 Schwartz. 1. Available at http://ecsp.edu/Ecsp_pdf.” Chapter 1 and Chapter 8 in On Security edited by Ronnie D. Günter Hans. Daniel.htm Supplementary Readings: Buzan. Daniel. Saleem. New York: Columbia University Press. The Woodrow Wilson Center.” Review of International Studies. 23(1).si. (1997): 5– 26. “Security Studies and the End of the Cold War. communication evaluation. Sanjeev and Ali. London: Lynne Rienner. Challenges. 25-61. D. “The Environment and Violent Conflict: A Response to Gleditsch‟s Critique and Some Suggestions for Future Research. Deudney and Richard A. Barry. Thomas.Session: No. "Armed Conflict and the Environment: A Critique of the Literature. Albany: State University of New York Press.al.php?id=63 43 .

2001.” Political Geography. Norton & Company. Those are the resource scarcity and resource abundance approaches. Evaluation Engagement. 2003. and Tilton. 44 .” Chapter 3 in The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance edited by Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman. Boulder. Barnett. See Chapters 1-3. 09: Resource Scarcity vs. Le Billon. Available at http://www. Environmental Security.se/ohlsson/files/ESC. 1999. Drugs. and reflection on learning. University of Göteborg. Objectives Students will understand these theories.padrigu.Session: No.gu. Dalby. A.html Davis. Minneapolis.. E. Resource Abundance: A Debate Main content This session will scrutinize a prolonged debate between two mainstream theories in environmental conflict.: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Outcome Familiarity with the relationship between exploitation of natural resource abundance and conflict. John “The Resource Curse. communication evaluation. 2002. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 30 minutes allocation Round table talk: 30 minutes Class discussion on reading: 30 minutes Break: 15 minutes In-class debate: 75 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point presentation and paper. Graham. and Conflict: A Study of Malthusian Concerns. Philippe. Scarcity. “Oil.W. 20(5). Inc. 47-70. Abundance? A Debate on the Environment. Julian. Co. Supplementary Readings: Ohlsson. Simon. Environment. 29. Ross. “The Political Ecology of War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts. 2001: 561-584.” Natural Resources Forum. Required Readings: Myers. Scarcity or. and Diamonds: The Varying Roles of Natural Resources in Civil War. W. Norman and Simon. London: Zed Books. 2005: 233-242. MN: University of Minnesota Press. L. Department of Peace and Development Research. PhD Thesis. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. Leif. learning. 1994. Jon. Michael.

cfm?fuseaction=Media. 73-106 & 133-168. and Policy. and Conflict in Indonesia and India) available at http://www. Colin.” and “Violence.psis. Thomas. Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies. Environmental Degradation. we will scrutinize their methodology. Oslo: North/South Coalition & International Peace Research Institute. 2 (Fall 1998): 80-119. From the case studies. Methods and time Movie: 90 minutes allocation Break: 15 minutes Class discussion on reading: 40 minutes Round table discussion: 35 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point presentation. and reflection on learning. D. 11-21.org/ondemand/index.” Water Wars or Water Peace: Rethinking the Nexus between Water Scarcity and Armed Conflict”. Baechler.” Chapter 5 & 7 in Environment.” and “Overview. and conflict in the Indonesian context. Kahl. Dabelko. 1999. and video by the Wilson Center Environmental Change and Security Program (Demography. Pp. Thomas “Introduction. communication evaluation. Spring 1998. 3-27. no. 10: Research Linking Conflict to Environmental Change and Scarcity: Case Study Main content This session will explore several studies that link conflict with environmental change and scarcity. theoretical framework. Objectives Students will understand why and how environmental change can be turned into social stress. 53-68. Princeton. PSIS Occasional Paper I Number 3/2005. Available at: http://www. 1997. Homer-Dixon.org/pdf/PSISOccPap-2_2004-Stucki. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Environmental. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. and Violence. Required Readings: Homer-Dixon. “Interactions and Social Effects. Geoffrey.Part Three: Indonesia: A Case Study Session: No. “Population Growth.” International Security 23. board. and Violence Princeton. Günther. Scarcity.” Environmental Change and Security Project Report Issue 4. “The Environment and Conflict in the Third World: Examining Linkage. Philipp. and State-Sponsored Violence: The Case of Kenya. marker. “Why Environmental Transformation Causes Violence: A Synthesis.play &mediaid=1C1E15D9-C521-7490-4FE9BF7E2743608A (duration 1:24:04) Evaluation Engagement. 1991-93. learning. Outcome Ability to make linkages between livelihood insecurity.” in Causes of Conflict in the Third World edited by Ketil Volden and Dan Smith. H. Scarcity. Stucki. Washington DC: The Woodrow Wilson Center: 24-44.pdf 45 . and conclusions.wilsoncenter.” Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 in Environment. poverty. Context. 1999. environmental degradation.

Günther. Baechler. Violence Through Environmental Discrimination: Causes. Livelihood Conflicts: Linking poverty and Environment As causes of Conflict. “Climate Change. 2000. and Violent Conflict. edited by Miriam R. 223-245. Miriam. Barnett. H. 1998. 46 . 2000. Albany: State University of New York Press. R. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). Lowi. Miriam. Jon and Adger.” Chapter 4 in The World's Water 1998-1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources.” Chapter 9 in Environment and Security: Discourses and Practices. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 26(2007): 639-655. Shaw.” Chapter 9 in Contested Ground: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics. 1999. Neil. Lowi and Brian R. W. Peter. Rwanda arena. Sweden. Washington DC: Island Press. and Conflict Model. Environmental Policy Unit.Supplementary Readings: Gleick. 1999. London: Macmillan Press. “Conflict and Cooperation over Fresh Water. Lowi. Stockholm.” Political Geography. 105-131. R. edited by Deudney and Matthew. “Water and Conflict in the Middle East and South Asia. “Transboundry Resource Disputes and Their Resolution. Ohlsson. 149-171. Human Security. Leif.

Remittances. 2/2006. Oxford: Oxford U. Terry. “What is a cause?” Chapter 3 in Causal Models : How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives. and paper. and Disasters. Components of Risk: A Comparative Glossary. Education. London: Routledge. marker. learning.” Chapter 1 in At Risk: Natural Hazards. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.. SOURCE: „Studies of the University: Research. “The Challenge of Disasters and Our Approach. and Social Resilience.Session: No. “The Causal Role of Environmental Scarcity. 1999.” Ambio. environmental degradation. 104-6. “Vulnerabilities and risks in population and environment studies. and Causality Main content This session will draw linkages between livelihood insecurity. 2002. People´s Vulnerability.unep. Volume 1 (Washington D. Available at http://www.” Chapter 3 in Global Environmental Outlook 4. Counsel. 301-360. No. Piers. and conflict in the Indonesia context. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 30 minutes allocation Round table talk: 20 minutes Class discussion on reading: 40 minutes Break: 15 minutes Peer discussion: 20 minutes Role play: 55 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point.” Population and Environment 28(2006): 83-112. Cannon. The concept of vulnerability will help students to understand the linkages. Katharina. environmental stress.al. Ian.ehs. 2003: 3-48. and causalities. Thywissen.unu. and Violence. Environmental Stress. 2005: 21-35. June 2002: 358-366. Thomas. “Migration.pdf Blaikie.. and Wisner.” Chapter 6 in Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Scarcity. J.P. communication evaluation. 47 . 11: Livelihood Insecurity. Available at http://www. Marandola Jr. 2nd Edition. 2005): 143-164. Ben. Homer-Dixon.org/geo/geo4/report/07_Vulnerability_of_People. “Vulnerable People and Places. Mud-flow and the case of Newmont Minahasa Raya are the best case studies in Indonesia to describe these linkages. Livelihood Trajectories. Evaluation Engagement. and reflection on learning.” Chapter 5 in Environment. “Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change. board.edu/file. Steven. Sloman. Neil et. Princeton. poverty. Davis.C.‟ Publication Series of UNU-EHS... 31(4).. Required Readings: United Nations Environment Program. Objectives Students will understand the linkages between livelihood and environmental stress and causalities. Eduardo and Hogan. Outcome Ability to make the linkage between livelihood insecurity.: Islands Press. Supplementary Readings: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. London: Earthscan.php?id=118 Adger W. Daniel.

harvard. Case studies in South America (Peace Park). State Capacity. August 2001: 1-10. William. UNEP..” Chapter 22 in The Social Learning Group. and reflection on learning. “Interlinkages: Governance for Sustainability. Herman. “Ingenuity and Adaptation. MA: The MIT Press.edu/sl/docs/SL_ch01_001-020. Barber.pdf 48 . Michael. Conca. 1997. C. and Acid Rain. Young. Boston: Beacon Press.. Ozone Depletion. Charles. University of Toronto and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. learning. Supplementary Readings: van Eijndhoven. Ken. F. 107-126. Cambridge. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. “Confronting Consumption.. Outcome Develop an overview of the potential for environmental security to catalyze peacebuilding and environmental cooperation. Thomas. “Evaluating the Success of International Environmental Regimes: Where are we now?” Global Environmental Change 12(2). Princen. 1(3).” Chapter 8 in Global Environmental Outlook 4. Evaluation Engagement.ksg. Objectives Students will understand the concept of governance and the challenges of using it to solve environmental conflict. 360-394. Methods and time Lecture seminar: 20 minutes allocation Discussion on reading: 70 minutes Break: 15 minutes Newspaper discussion: 40 minutes Round table talk: 35 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point presentation. 1999. Jill. board. and marker.” Global Environmental Politics. 2001. Thomas. 12: Environmental Governance: Peacemaking and Cooperation Main content This session will explain the potential use of the environment to generate peacemaking and cooperation. Scarcity. Southeast Asia (Mekong River). and Africa (Riparian State) will be used as the best case studies. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. and Maniates.” Chapter 6 in Environment.Session: No. Oran. and Jäger. Clark. Available at http://www. The Case of Indonesia. and Violence. newspaper. (2002): 73-77. Project on Environmental Scarcities. and Civil Violence. 1997. Volume 2. Daly. communication evaluation. 181-198. “The Long-term Development of Global Environmental Risk Management: Conclusions and Implications for the Future. Josee. Learning to Manage Global Environmental Risks: A Comparative History of Social Responses to Climate Change.. Required Readings: Homer-Dixon. Victor.

John. Homer-Dixon..L. 49 . 261-296.” Chapter 5 in The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. F. “Institutions. London: Oxford U. and Dahlberg.” Chapter 13 in How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York: WW Norton. 1990. economics. Bennet. 1995. Amartya. and Entitlements. Turner II et al. “Human Choices. Cohen. “Food. and Cultural Values.” in The Political Economy of Hunger – Volume 1: Entitlement and Well-being edited by Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen. Kenneth. 2000. The Ingenuity Gap.. Social Organization. New York: Alfred A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Joel. Thomas.. P. Knopf. edited by B. 1991.Sen. 69-86.

and Deforestation. and lessons learned on their selected topic. Desertification. Analysis. articulation. Food Security. communication evaluation. Objectives Student will have the capacity to analyze environmental security issues in Indonesia. comprehensiveness of reading material. board. and quality of presentation are additional assessments. learning. Methods and time Group presentation and discussion: 80 minutes allocation Peer evaluation: 5 minutes Break: 10 minutes Group presentation and discussion: 80 minutes Peer evaluation: 5 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point. and marker. Topics: Water Conflict Based on Scarcity and Abundance. 13: Group Presentation (1): Environmental Security in Indonesia Main content Students will present their findings. and Biodiversity loss 50 . analysis. Outcome Ability to analyze and evaluate environmental insecurity in contemporary conditions in Indonesia.Session: No. and reflection on learning. Land Degradation. Evaluation Engagement.

Methods and time Group presentation and discussion: 80 minutes allocation Peer evaluation: 5 minutes Break: 10 minutes Group presentation and discussion: 80 minutes Peer evaluation: 5 minutes Reflection on learning: 3 minutes Resources Power Point presentation. learning.Session: No. comprehensiveness of reading material. articulation. and lessons learned on their selected topic. analysis. and reflection on learning. Topics: Energy Security. Climate Change. and quality of presentation are additional assessments. 14: Group Presentation (2): Environmental Security in Indonesia and Class Evaluation Main content Objectives Groups of students will present their selected topic. Students will present their findings. Evaluation Engagement. and Urban Environmental Security 51 . Vulnerability to disaster. board. Outcome Ability to analyse and evaluate issues of environmental insecurity in contemporary conditions in Indonesia. Analysis. This activity will be followed by a course wrap-up and evaluation. communication evaluation. and marker.

Tom.id/en/stprogram_view. 2009a. “Why Environmental Transformation Causes Violence: A Synthesis. Available at www. 2001.ac. CSERGE Working Paper 2000-10. Neil. Routledge. 52 . http://pasca. Homer-Dixon. and P. Burnard. Available at. Spring. Washington DC: The Woodrow Wilson Center (1998): 24-44. Princeton. Environment.” Environmental Change and Security Project Report Issue 4.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=211&Itemid=238 Brandes. September 2008a.go. Curriculum for MA program in Natural Resource Management and Environment. Neil. and Security. P. Population. Bogor Agronomic Institute. Ecoviolence: Links Among Environment. Barbara. Jon and Adger. Introduction to Environmental Security and Peace: A Syllabus. 2005. Timescapes of Modernity: The Environment and Invisible Hazard.bnpb. 2007: 639-655. 1998. Thomas. Gadjah Mada University.id/ Goldstone. FESS.org/about.id/website/index. Boulder. Ginnis (1986).uea. A.ac.id/index.uk/env/cserg/publications/wp/gec/gec2000 10.ac.id/en/stprogram_view.php?pr_id=4 Gadjah Mada University.IX. Available at http://sedac.ugm. 2009b. Curriculum for MA program in Political Science.ciesin. Environment. CO: Westview Press.ac. Gleditsch. 2009. 2000: 1-34. Department of Environmental Security and Conflict. 1999: 241–247. A Guide to Student Centred Learning. Introduction to Environmental Security and Peace. 2009c. Availabe at http://www. BNPB. Homer-Dixon. “Carl Rogers and postmodernism: Challenged in Nursing and Health Sciences”.ipb. “Advancing a Political Ecology of Global Environmental Discourses”. Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability. About Environmental Security. Curriculum for MA program in Environmental Management. Adger.ugm. Diehl and Nils P. Jessica. Gadjah Mada University. Natural Disaster Hotspot: A Global Risk Analysis. “Climate Change. Available at http://pasca.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2100 Bogor Agronomic Institute. Available at http://pasca. 2008. 1999. 1998. United Nations Mandated University for Peace. and Violence.pdf Deligiannis. and Security. Available at http://www. Available at http://s2politik. Thomas and Blitt. Human Security and Violent Conflict. Deligiannis. edited by Paul F.pdf Baechler.fess-global. Curriculum for MA program in Environmental Science.ugm. Lecture at UN Mandate University for Peace.” In Environmental Conflict. Gadjah Mada University. et al. Tom. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2008b. Oxford: Blackwell. Scarcity.php?pr_id=8 Gadjah Mada University. Bibliography Adam. 2004. “Demography.cfm Gadjah Mada University.columbia. Center for Hazard and Risk Research.edu/hazards/hotspots/synthesisreport. Nursing and Health Sciences 1. Gunther.ac. Jack. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana. “Statistik Bencana 2007-2008”. Barnett. Political Geography 26. Colombia University. Rowman and Littlefield. D.

Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. NY.ac. 2004. Moore. IGBP Science No. 2005. and B. United Kingdom and New York. Human Development Report. 4. Peter. S. Ontario.pps. edited by Solomon.ui. 2008b. Will and Tyson. Geraldine and McMahon. New York: Oxford University Press. M. “What is security?” Daedalus. „Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure‟. The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Forest Biodiversity. Miller. 2007. Glasgow University. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. 2009. 2007. 1994.P. S. O‟Neill. “Lusi Effects: Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict”. 3.B.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16&Itemid =69 IPCC. United Nations Secretariat. University of Glasgow. Martanto. Curriculum for MA program in Environmental Science. “Summary for Policymakers. Emma. International Geo-spare and Bio-spare Programme. Tim.L. McMullin. Is Buyat Contaminated: A Political Ecology Approach on State-Mining Company Relationship in Indonesia. Research Library. Martanto. Colin. M. Steffen. Research Paper at UN Mandated University for Peace. Marquis.Tignor and H.” Professional Paper presented June 30. D. 2005. Princeton: Princeton U. Cambridge University Press. Available at http://www.pdf Paulmer. 2005. United Nations Development Programme.uk/Otherdepts/TLS/Project/Reports Wilson. Student Centered Learning. IPDET.htm 53 . World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. Available at http://www.saveamericasforests. Handbook Module 1. M.. K. Research Paper at UN Mandate University.aishe. 1994. Dublin: AISHE. 2008a. Indonesia University.org/wilson/second. Qin. Presentation on US Senate on april 28 1998. University of Guelph. New York: United Nations. International Program for Development Evaluation Training.id/new/index. “Evaluation Guidelines of International Aid Agencies: A Comparative Study. Rothschild.Indonesia University. Available at http://www. Summer 1995. Kahl. Ucu. Ucu. States. Averyt. O‟Neill. Scarcity. Manning. 1995: 53-98. Edward. Hubert. 2007. 2001. Chen. Cambridge. Available at http://www. 2006.” In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. and Civil Strife in the Developing World.org/readings/2005-1/oneill-mcmahonTues_19th_Oct_SCL. edited by G.gla.ac. “Student-centered learning: What does it mean for students and lecturers?” In Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching.. E. Introduction to Development Evaluation. USA. Z. 124.

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73-106 & 133-168. Z. 3-27.” Chapter 7 in Environment. F. 3. Scarcity. 381-400 Goodwin. Princeton. “Violence. Thomas.” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.Geist. Helmut and Lambin.org/vol9/iss1/art11 Homer-Dixon. “Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Forest Deforestation. Horowitz.iea." Journal of Peace Research 35. 9(1).L. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.” Chapter 5 in Environment. Princeton.pdf>. Miller. Scarcity. D. Thomas. Averyt. Bosch.ecologyandsociety. “The World‟s Energy Security.pipex. Davidson. O. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1999.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Print_SPM. February 2002: 143-150. Scarcity.F. 1998. 1999. edited by Solomon. “Ingenuity and Adaptation.” & Chapter 4. 11-37. Parry. New York: Routledge. Thomas. Dave.R. P. Berkeley. 47-55.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/weo_2007. Thomas. “State-Centered Approaches to Social Revolutions: Strengths and Limitations of Theoretical Tradition.L. “Environmental Scarcity.R.pdf IPCC. L. Homer-Dixon. 1999. USA Cambridge University Press. and Violence. Ecological. van der Linden and C. IEA. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insight. Petter Nils. 1999. 52(2).B. 133-168. Canziani. O. Available at http://www. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at http://www. Cambridge.ucar.” Chapter 1 in Theorizing Revolutions.” 73-114 & 159-187. 1985. S. Homer-Dixon.” Chapter 5 & 7 in Environment. Metz.” Chapter 6 in Environment. M.” Chapter 4 in Ethnic Groups in Conflict. International Energy Association. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. and Violence. Manning. 1997. 1999. and Violence. and Violence. 2007. and Violence Princeton. Qin.” Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 in Environment. 104-6. Jeff. edited by John Foran. J. 2007.com/spm. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. M. Available at http://ipcc-wg1. “Group Comparison and the Sources of Conflict. L. 55 .” Chapter 4 in Environment. “The Causal Role of Environmental Scarcity. S.” in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation.” Ecology and Society. CA: University of California Press. Chen. “Understanding the Complexity of Economic. Palutikof. Holling. no. Meyer.” BioScience.P. M. 2007: Chapter 1.Tignor and H. UK Cambridge University Press. NY. “Summary for Policymakers. P. Holling. Homer-Dixon.dial. and Social Systems. Scarcity. Princeton. Scarcity. J. Gleditsch. Eric. “Interactions and Social Effects. R. Thomas “Introduction. “From Complex Regions to Complex Worlds. IPCC. edited by M. C. Paris. Thomas. 1999.pdf IPCC. Hanson.” Ecosystems (2001) 4: 390-405.E. 2004: 18. Scarcity.gtp89.. edited by B. “Global Energy Trends.” and “Violence. Cambridge. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.A.” in Climate Change 2007: Impacts. C. and Violence. United Kingdom and New York. “Summary for Policymakers. Princeton. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. K.J. S. Homer-Dixon. Donald. 141-184. Homer-Dixon. Adaptation and Vulnerability.” and “Overview. “Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Report can be downloaded from the web: < http://www. 107-126. "Armed Conflict and the Environment: A Critique of the Literature. Marquis.

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However. Intended Participants Course Evaluation Instructor 61 . Prospective. Ucu Martanto is a researcher at the Center for Security and Peace Studies at Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia. He holds an MA in Environmental Security and Peace from the United Nations-mandated University for Peace (UPEACE) in Costa Rica and his M. and participatory evaluations. his research focuses on political and social dimensions of global environmental change. Master‟s students from other programmes (Political Science. summative.X. Environmental Science or Management) at Gadjah Mada University may also be enrolled in this course. the course does assume students have a general familiarity with events of the past century. Finally. some familiarity with international relations and development studies. With his background in political and government science. International Relations. he holds his BA in Government Science from Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia. and familiarity with violent conflict and conflict resolution theories and practices.Sc in Political Science from Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia.) Non-Compulsory Course 3 credits 3 hours TBA This course does not require any specific academic background. He has been acquainted with environmental issues for four years and has become actively engaged with environmental security studies for almost two years. Course Administrative Course Title Type of Course Credits Length Time and Place Requirement Environmental Security and Peace (Code:…. especially in environmental governance. However. The course is recommended for Master‟s degree students enrolled in the Master‟s Programme in Peace and Conflict Resolution. Ucu Martanto.

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